TOPIC III.

MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

61

Ed 5

Gregory J. Baleja
Alma College

MARKETING RESEARCH:
QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
Each year during my lectures on Marketing Research, I spend one full
class period discussing the Questionnaire Construction Process in great
depth. I find the presentation of the concepts associated with the questionnaire construction process to be rather straightforward. In fact the
presentations go so well, that many students come to the conclusion that
creating a questionnaire, or evaluating a current one, in the real world is
relatively easy. They seem to believe that all one has to do is to understand
the basic objectives of the research, and then simply translate these
objectives into a formal questionnaire. It is this erroneous assumption that
bothers me.
After going through a detailed list of generalizations associated with
the construction of a questionnaire, I then ask the students to critically
evaluate the “Instructor Evaluation Form” that they have been exposed to
many times during their tenure at Alma College. Some of the questions
utilized on this form in the recent past, are illustrated below. Samples of
the student’s comments are shown in italics following each of these
questions. For each of these questions, the students were instructed to
assign a letter grade according to the following scale:
A
B
C
D
E
1.

=
=
=
=
=

Excellent/almost always
Good/frequently
Fair/sometimes/average
Poor/infrequently
Fail/almost never

The instructor was well prepared for class.
- How do we know if they are, or are not, well prepared for
class?
- What is meant by “well prepared?” --- Well dressed?
Awake? An outline of the lecture on the board? Etc.
- It’s hard to judge whether the instructor is well prepared for
class because the instructor can talk about numerous topics

62

GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING

ED 5

related to the subject.
2. The instructor was aware when students did not understand the
material.
- How does the instructor know when the students do not
understand?
- How would we know if the instructor was aware or not?
- Is it the instructor’s responsibility to find out when people
don’t understand, or is it the student’s responsibility to inform
the instructor?
- Instructor awareness of a student’s not understanding is
difficult to measure. Whether the instructor did anything
about it is somewhat more measurable.
3. The grading methods were made clear to students.
- This question is very ambiguous. What is clear to one person
may not be clear for another.
4. Exams reflected the important aspects of the course.
- This may not be within the respondent’s "zone of experience."
- Who is in a better position to know the important aspects of
the course, the instructor or the students?
5. The instructor was readily available for help.
- What is meant by readily available?
- Usually professors aren’t available between 9 p.m. and
midnight, when the majority of the students do their
homework, does this mean they aren’t available?
- If the student doesn’t seek outside help, they won’t be able to
answer this question.
6. The instructor showed respect for students.
- What is considered respect?
- The question is better set up for a dichotomous (yes/no) type
of answer. It would be hard for a student to rate the respect
she received from the instructor.
- The question should be reworded to "was respectful toward
students."
- Too broad: what defines "showing respect?" A score of lower
than "A" would indicate that the instructor did not "almost
always" show respect.
After the students have found a variety of faults with each of the
questions on our "Instructor Evaluation Form," I then assign them the task

etc. dull people in white smocks..g.). Geoffrey P. the good. and esoteric procedures hatched in the ivory towers of academia. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 63 Ed 5 of creating their own version of this evaluation form. case studies.. guest speakers. while they will need to think. they can have some fun and enjoyment in learning too. Once the sugar-coating message has been imparted. and ugly (e. My philosophy is to try to make this course as painless and pleasant as possible. dealing with response biases. debates on ethical issues. hustled by silver-tongued researchers on those dinner-time phone calls. archaic formulas. while research is a technical subject. . It is interesting to note that typically. as they do with the current form that they have been criticizing for many years. Too. being accosted by bright-eyed. etc. much of the course is really a study in human behavior (e. I remind them that. pass-arounds of real research proposals. . zealous young fieldworkers in shopping malls. struggle. On syllabus day I let them know that. Lantos Stonehill College THE JOY OF . and work hard. The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate to the students. as most students would just as soon be undergoing a root canal or working on a chain gang. I then allow the class to critically evaluate the best forms. Once they have turned in their rendition of the form. increasing response rates.g. the difficulty encountered when trying to operationalize the questionnaire construction process. research reports. bad. like the Consumer Behavior course which so many of them prefer. The professor has a handicap from day one. dry-asdust statistics. Many students enter this course with fear and loathing. . The idea of research spooks them because it conjures up images of laboratories. MARKETING RESEARCH? The least-loved course in our marketing curriculum is probably Marketing Research.TOPIC III. I encourage them to share their personal experiences with marketing researchers. you can use the usual suspects: interesting videos. the class finds as much fault with the forms that they created.).

When discussing organizational and human relations issues in marketing research (e. and marketplace issues and occasionally contains a cute (if not uproariously funny) cartoon. etc... to learn about tennis players. money.g. and have students critique it afterward. which is always reporting polls on various political.. I have students "choose sides" and role play either the manager or the researcher engaged in a heated discussion on each issue. defending their point of view.64 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 and syndicated data.g.. disagreements between marketing managers and researchers over issues such as time. and sporting goods salespeople). You (or one of your students) can lead a student through part of an in-depth interview or several students through a focus group on a subject of interest to students (e. Rather than drone on about all of the different information sources. Exploratory/qualitative research is probably the topic that generates the most opportunities for enjoyable learning. Find an example or two of specific uses of projective techniques not found in your textbook and try them out on students to see what you can learn about their "deep thoughts. a percentage distribution showing the proportion of people who favor each of the Three Stooges is more interesting than the proportion of companies in the widget industry that make high-end vs. In addition..g. Make transparencies of or scan these into your PowerPoint presentation (e. talk to professionals who have frequent or intense contact with them. social. and fashion always hit their hot buttons). sports. Coca-Cola's market share . music. have student teams go on a "scavenger hunt" in your library and/or on the Internet during a class period to see who can find the most of a list of twenty or so specific pieces of information you request (e. trainers.g. and decision making). and a semester-long project to gain their involvement and which you can continuously implore them to discuss as examples of concepts throughout the course. I try to follow up in gaining their interest (if not enthusiasm) in some of the following specific ways: I clip interesting material from the popular press. I break students into small groups and have them brainstorm ways to find "professional consumer detectives" (a sort of expert opinion approach) for various target markets (e. such as coaches." Secondary research is one of the dullest subjects to teach. low-end widgets)..g.

The subject of sampling can be spiced up by bringing a bucket of marbles to class. These can be used to discuss such issues as auspices bias (students are often kind to their professors). clear and opaque. etc.g. I pretend to keep my finger on the prongs and get electrocuted. To illustrate validity I bring a dartboard and darts. such as the overhead machine outlet. Have them come up with conceptual and operational definitions of intriguing and controversial constructs such as "alternative music" and "sexual harassment. growth rate of the personal computer industry. A form of marketing research students can all relate to is student course evaluations. and social desirability bias (some students claim they study more than twelve hours per week for this course!). I ask students to imagine I'm a Martian (not hard for many of them) and have no concept as to how to heat a cup of water using a hot pot. have several students give it their best shot. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 65 Ed 5 last year. Try to draw out areas where they might be subject to social acceptability bias (e. dating and drinking behavior). For instance. in discussing memory error ask how many can recall things like the losing vice presidential candidate in the most recent election or the loser in the last World Series. despite what they might think. I do exactly as they tell me to do. solid color and multicolor.. After telling students that.). Involve them by having them analyze actual questionnaires that you've received in the mail (many of these are more full of holes than a piece of Swiss cheese) or that your colleagues in industry pass along to you.TOPIC III. and then discuss the accuracy of their efforts in terms of validity (hitting or being near the bulls eye) and reliability (being consistent in where the darts land). Another killer topic is measurement. I haven't lost them yet. Discussing the different types of survey error can be deadly if you don't have interesting examples. For instance. I note how there are different kinds of marbles: large and small. It is easy to draw them into a discussion of questionnaire design since most mistakes result from lack of understanding of human psychology." In order to demonstrate the importance of precision in formulating an operational definition. and when I'm instructed to pour the water out of the cup (presumably into the pot) most of it ends up on the floor (bring paper towels!). A . extremity bias (they often "strongly agree" or "strongly disagree" with all Likert items). When they tell me to plug it into the wall. Scan other textbooks and the popular press for these. I put the plug in an unlikely place. if they tell me to plug in the hot pot.

I write out the verbatims. I share some of the editing problems I encounter with my student evaluations (circling two response categories. and illustrate concepts such as sampling units and population elements. have them get involved in the classroom. say. Rather than regurgitating material in the textbook. and don't take it oh-too-seriously. ten questions on the topic.66 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 la "Sesame Street" I pretend that they are people to be sampled. random error. They interview each other for ten or fifteen minutes each. The different ways various groups postcode is a good illustration of the subjectivity of research. makes it amusing for students.g. Pick a topic. and the various sampling methods (convenience. and have each group come up with a postcoding scheme. questions answered in the wrong place. and involved.) and how I deal with them. Data analysis is probably the most difficult topic to make palatable. and might even improve a tad your own marketing research (student evaluations). put them on a transparency. stay interested and enthused yourself (fake it if you have to!). break them into groups. My best advice here is to collect lots of interesting and amusing examples. quota. it might make students a little more at ease. interested. While implementing these ideas probably won't elevate Marketing Research to the status of favored marketing course on your campus. Hamming it up a bit.). etc. talking to the marbles and such.. then summarize each other’s answers for the class and critique each other’s interviewing style. After class. etc. likes and dislikes regarding cafeteria food) and have them write their openended responses to a few questions. I tell students that editing. and ask students to pair off for conducting interviews. have the class brainstorm a list of. Interviewing and fieldwork is a pretty Mickey Mouse topic. coding and keyboarding data is about as much fun as peeling potatoes and onions -.it might even make you want to cry. I also give them a postcoding exercise in which I pick a topic they can all relate to (e. . improve their wording and sequence according to the guidelines for good questionnaire design.

MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 67 Ed 5 Mark A. As such.  The student’s need for experiential learning as a means to differentiate students during their job search activities. Taylor. experiential. These organizations provide an excellent opportunity for experiential learning and professional service to be combined effectively. It is not uncommon for national studies to be commissioned for larger not-for-profit service organizations that seek to document their positive contributions to society.or application-based learning exercises are being incorporated into university course offerings. recruiting. some funding sources such as the United Way or private foundations may wish to see results of local research to validate the social contributions of these organizations. For example. Mitchell.TOPIC III. Integrating a replication of a national study. the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) commissioned Louis Harris & Associates to conduct a study evaluating the influence of Scouting on the values and achievement of men and boys in the United States of America. into your course will simultaneously satisfy the following needs:  The local BSA council’s need for local research results for funding. and promotional efforts. local branches of the BSA typically raise resources in their local communities. Many not-for-profit service organizations within your local marketplace are seemingly in constant need for assistance without the ability to pay for such work.  The instructor’s need for an experiential learning project integrated into a class. Further. the stage is set for a win-win partnership by replicating the national study at the local level. such as the Louis Harris study. University of South Carolina Spartanburg Stephen J. Increasingly. However. Palmetto Council of the Boy Scouts of America REPLICATION OF A NATIONAL STUDY FOR LOCAL USE: THE CASE OF THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA Introduction A university is (and should be) an integral part of the surrounding community.  The University’s need for community service. .

5 = Strongly Agree). and future participants. For our replication. Data Collection In order to identify the influence of Scouting on participants.  Adults with/without Scouting experience. For our replication. church group). four separate samples are needed:  Boys with/without Scouting experience. present. we found .68 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 Organizing for Success The Boy Scouts of America commissioned Louis Harris & Associates to study the influence of Scouting on its past. Due to all-too-common time and money constraints.personal characteristics such as age. developing two separate self-administered questionnaires allows a comparison of boys with/without Scouting experience and adult males with/without Scouting experience.a series of attitudinal statements (created from summary results of the Louis Harris study) to which the respondents reported their relative level of agreement or disagreement using a Likert Scale (1 = Strongly Disagree. 2 = Disagree. 4 = Agree. The data can be collected at a pre-arranged Scouting function. the study focuses on the influence of Scouting on the values and achievement of two groups: boys (age 12-17) and adult males (over age 21). Working with these summary results. In particular. 3 = Indifferent/Neutral. soccer. divide data collection as follows:  Deliver self-administered questionnaires to your local BSA council for data collection of boys and adults with Scouting experience. youth baseball.. and an inventory of youth activities to identify other group involvement (e. Part Two .  Use students for data collection of boys and adults without Scouting experience. These results have been disseminated in summary form to local councils of the BSA. each self-administered questionnaire consisted of two parts: Part One . As such. level of education (adults only). The data can be collected using random or convenience sampling techniques.g. you can create self-administered questionnaires to be used to replicate the Louis Harris study.

Finally. or Marketing Management course. Your grade will depend on how well you relate this to the book’s discussion of segmentation.TOPIC III. Complete ONE of the following activities and bring to class next time: 1. thus satisfying the university’s service mission. Rosa T. A critical success to such a replication is the students’ accountability to the client. 2. it is important for the students to present their research results to the client in person to allow for the open exchange of information. Note how this major manufacturer offers a variety of brands to appeal to different target markets. Marketing Research. students are encouraged to include their participation in the project on their resumes as an example of experiential learning throughout their degree programs. social. Bring 5 cigarette ads from the same manufacturer. Further. Student Applications and Accountability This project can be administered in a Principles of Marketing. As such. Same instructions as in #1 above. it is imperative that students meet with local council leaders throughout the replication. . use this assignment. Write up your analysis of the segment being targeted in a short paragraph. Cherry Williamsburg Technical College SEGMENTATION ASSIGNMENT To illustrate the principle of market segmentation. This brings closure to the project and fully illustrates the marketing research process to all participants. The project is developed over the life of the term with the final output delivered to local BSA leaders at the end of the term. or family network. Consumer Behavior. Bring 5 car ads from the same manufacturer. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 69 Ed 5 the convenience sampling technique to be very time-efficient by allowing each student to collect a predetermined number of usable instruments from within their work.

Presenting these students with "real world" problems is often a challenge for faculty members. private or public.. post-tenure review) coupled with the dominating "publish-or-perish" philosophy. increasing legislative input into the faculty evaluation and performance system (e. Many universities hire "consultants" to help them serve customers better.g. Write up your analysis in a short paragraph. One solution to providing senior undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to solve real world problems is by conducting institutional research. to secure promotion and tenure. drive.70 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 3. Students often become tired of studying abstract topics without seeing how the knowledge can be applied. Visit your local supermarket. AND ADMINISTRATORS INVOLVED IN CONDUCTING INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH Today's competitive educational environment demands an everincreasing responsiveness from universities to be marketing oriented. One possible alternative for faculty members is to be actively involved in institutional research. Note what markets are being targeted for each. has compelled faculty members to look for alternatives. Make a list of all the brands of cereal offered by a single company. Sanjay S. No institution. Visit your local supermarket. large or small. The labor. besides teaching and service. Involving students in the collection and . Also. curiosity. Mehta Sam Houston State University USING MARKETING RESEARCH CLASS TO GET STUDENTS. Your grade will depend on how well you relate this to the book’s discussion of segmentation. Same instructions as #3 above. can afford to neglect customer needs and wants. Make a list of all the brands of toothpaste offered by a single company. FACULTY. This is especially true among senior undergraduate and graduate students who wish reassurance that what they are learning is in fact valid and useful outside the classroom. 4. and knowledge of students and faculty are excellent assets to universities.

may present the findings to the administrator through a formal presentation.. The students are instructed to collect data using one of many probability sampling techniques (e. The students are then taught to edit. code. frequency. spread-sheet). The students. While the term institutional research has disparate interpretations. regression analysis). ttest.g. or personally interviewing potential respondents. The faculty member. write a report summarizing the findings of the study.e.g. Analysis of Variance. here it means "research done for the betterment of the institution. The institutional research project begins with an administrator (e.. dean of the college. students' union.. public relations officer. The administrator is requested to evaluate the instrument to ensure that it answers all of the research questions and/or objectives. The administrator provides the managerial questions that the professor finetunes before sharing it with his/her students.TOPIC III.g. using standard questionnaire development procedures and word processors. The professor shows the students how to check the data and perform some of the requisite tests (e. These studies have led to several publications in conference proceedings and academic journals." In the past. Conducting institutional research provides faculty members another tool to bring real life problems into the classroom. cross-tabulations. telephone.. a pretest is conducted using a small representative sample from the population. along with student(s). This may involve distributing the instruments through mail.. After completing the institute's human subject approval requirements. and input the data into the computer (e. and computer services. All of these studies were conducted in conjunction with students of marketing research classes. Reliability and validity should be checked before the instrument is distributed on a larger scale. director of computer services) approaching the faculty member for some assistance in data collection and statistical analysis in an area the university can improve upon. I have conducted studies for the university public relations office.g. The students collectively develop the instruments for the study. the university library. the College of Business Administration. It does so at a level where the student is somewhat experienced in the arena (i. the univer- . stratified sampling). in teams or alone. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 71 Ed 5 analysis of primary data coupled with solutions to real world problems give faculty members an excellent opportunity to publish and disseminate research.

Form teams of three or four students. including about 20 minutes for each team to make plans on the day the project is assigned and about 45 minutes on the due date for written student responses and a class-wide debriefing/discussion. the collection of quality institutional research can help universities pass regional and national accreditation inspections. The results of the study may be presented at conferences and/or published in proceedings and journals. which benefits the faculty member toward promotion and tenure. The institutional research project helps bind students more closely to the university because they feel they have played a part in improving the university. Teams meet and choose a product category (cookies. The institution benefits from identifying the needs and wants of its "target market" and validating its very existence. chips. Amy Risch Rodie University of Nebraska at Omaha DISCOVERING THE INFLUENCE OF CONSUMERS’ BRAND SCHEMAS ON PREFERENCE AND PURCHASE INTENT The purpose of this team project is to investigate the affect of brand associations on consumers' product preference and purchase intent. (II) compiling the results. Collect Data 1. the product category's prototype brand. Finally. the better). and (III) discussing the findings. These issues are explored by conducting a series of taste tests using a product category's most prominent or "prototype" brand along with another "off" brand from the same product category. It is a true "win-win" situation for all parties involved. cereal. Teams do most of their work outside the classroom but some class time is needed. I. There are three main components to this project: (I) collecting the data. crackers. The project is as follows. and an off brand (the more "off". Plan to purchase enough of both brands for .72 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 sity) she or he is asked to perform. etc).

TOPIC III. e. Condition PO: "prototype/off-brand": the prototype-brand is presented to the participant in the off-brand's package and vice versa. However. Make sure all team members use the same brands! 2. Make sure the price is not visible on the package. the off-brand is presented to the participant in its own. prevent them from talking. The participant samples the brand right from their packages. Likewise. Each team member is responsible for collecting data from 12 participants. A. original package. Make sure the price is not visible on the package. The participant samples the brand right from the package. Collect the data. (label bags in order to distinguish the brands. Make sure it provides (1) a way to identify the "condition" and (2) a place and space for each element of data. The participant samples the brand right from the package. It is very important that the participants in this condition do NOT suspect the switch. Ideally. or otherwise communicating with each other during the taste test. Make sure ALL team members collect data from the same number of participants.) Condition PP: "prototype/prototype": the prototype brand is presented to the participant in its own. IF you collect data from participants in groups. NOTE: The data from all participants (36 for a three-member team and 48 for a four-member team) will be compiled and recorded together. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 73 Ed 5 each participant to sample. a student who has the opportunity to collect data from a group of participants (who would therefore all be in the same condition) may do so. 3. Develop a feedback sheet for participants' responses so that all team members use the same form to collect data. Conditions: Condition B: "blind": each brand is presented to the participant in a zip-lock baggie. Make sure the price is not visible on the package. original package. making comments or "faces".g. each student will collect data from four participants in each of the three conditions described below. Verify that the same number of participants are in each of the three conditions. “M”and “N”.. (Difficult task!) The data you collect should reflect each participant's own .

Participants should record all observations about each brand detected by their five senses and/or the most noticeable differences between the two brands. Condition B only: AFTER they record their brand preference. Ask participants to indicate which brand they prefer. E. tell participants the prices both brands. but explain about the importance of brand associations and cues and that you are investigating how strong is the influence packaging. the price for the brand participants believe they are sampling. price.) H. in ONE condition. Try to get at least four observations/differences. J. Compile Results (this section must be typewritten): A. In both PP and PO. Based on the data for the B Condition (only). which brand would s/he would buy the next time the product is purchased? I. Be very careful not to make the person feel foolish. tell participants the brand names and prices of both brands. G. This step is especially important for the PO condition. Conditions PP and PO: AFTER they record their brand preference. the three conditions. Important: Debriefing: Once the participant has completed the entire experience (and ONLY then--NOT before) tell him/her about the project. quote the appropriate price for the package (that is.) D.74 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 response. Talk about this issue as a team and agree on what you will say to participants. Allow each participant to participate only once. Ask participants to identify the one factor that was most influential on the purchase decision. Ask participants examine the two brands very carefully and thoroughly. B Condition: 1. Ask each participant to initial their feedback sheet (no names please. and which condition s/he was in. Ask participants to assume their purchase decision is limited to just these two brands. but is important for all participants. Do not skip this step! II. C. Between these two. B. and other cues on consumers' choices. what are the four or five most commonly stated observations about either brand and/or differences between brands? . F.

C. Thoughtfully discuss whether or not your findings support one or both of the following hypotheses. . Discuss Findings (this section must be typewritten): Review the results in sections II. On the due-date. Your observations about participants reactions / comments about the project. 1-4 based on the data from the PO Condition (only). What percentage would buy the prototype? What percentage would buy the off brand? 4. 2. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 75 Ed 5 2. Turn in one paragraph about each. III. Your observations about the process of collecting data. Your observations about the similarities / differences in the findings among the three conditions. What percentage of participants preferred the prototype? What percentage of participants preferred the off brand? 3. H1: Brand schemas influence consumers' brand preference. Explain. what factors most strongly influence purchase? B. prompting students to discuss their findings as well as the challenges of data collection. 1-4 based on the data for the PP Condition (only). Other observations and thoughts regarding the project. 4.TOPIC III. give teams time to provide written responses to the following: As a team. H2: Brand schemas influence consumers' purchase intent. briefly discuss and summarize all of your observations about the following topics. PO Condition: Answer questions II. 1. A.C. A. Based on the data. Facilitate a discussion. A . 3. This process (1) advances students' understanding of the research process and (2) allows teams who found that brand schemas influence brand preference and/or purchase intent to share their findings (and enthusiasm) with teams whose data did not support the hypotheses. PP Condition: Answer questions II.

The Kiersey Temperment Sorter is located at http://www.cgi." For example one under- . career recommendations. Each student accesses the URL and completes the personality test in approximately 20 minutes. kiersey. this is what you do with it---you might find the use of Print Ad Projects very helpful. One of the main benefits for the student in using this project is simple---"A picture's worth a thousand words. The web site includes information about each personality type including leadership styles. like personalities are grouped together. to requiring a portfolio of ads that illustrates each of the topic areas we cover. This assignment enables students to learn about their own personality type. Each group presents their results to the class.com/cgi-bin/Keiresy/newkts. The 70-item personality test is based on Carl Jung's psychological types. The class is held in the computer lab. Pj Forrest Mississippi College PRINT AD PROJECTS FOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOR If you use a managerial approach to teaching Consumer Behavior--this is the concept. This project has evolved over the years from me asking the students to bring in a single magazine ad that related to the topics we were discussing in class that day. Lassk Western Kentucky University UTILIZING AN INTERNET PERSONALITY TEST IN THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR COURSE An interactive assignment that integrates personality testing and the WWW is the use of the Kiersey Temperment Sorter in a class presentation on personality.76 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 Felicia G. These students then discuss the appropriate marketing strategies that would be successfully utilized in marketing a product to someone with their personality type. After the students print out the information. and celebrities that are categorized under each personality type.

the students are forced to look at dozens of ads in a critical thinking manner. each is followed by an “explanation” and key concepts are shown in bold. which showed a young woman and the phrase "This is not my boyfriends truck. Five activities are described below. and as a result I now have a thick folder of ads for every chapter in the text. Generation X or the Echo Boom. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 77 Ed 5 graduate would not be convinced that the automobile market specifically targeted women. Depending on the size of the class I sometimes use this as an individual project or a group project. I whip out a bundle of ads which illustrate the concept and show them how it is used. I handed her a Chevy ad. manifest motives. This project has been a major contribution to the learning process in my consumer behavior classes and has made them more interesting---for the students and for me. or a series of ads that are directed at each of the VALS 2 lifestyle segments. After I lecture on a topic. Make two booklets following . They must analyze both the ads they chose to use and the one’s that are unsuitable for the topic they are trying to illustrate." In gathering ads that are examples for the various consumer behavior concepts. Smith Southwest Texas State University ILLUSTRATING EFFECTS OF SCHEMAS ON CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING Schema theory deals with knowledge that people have about concepts and how that knowledge affects their information processing (thinking). It is much easier to create understanding when you can show them the differences in ads which use latent motives vs. Over the years I have kept the "best of" ads from the student projects. And you would be amazed at the true depth and breadth of the "Where's your mustache" milk campaign-I must have 50 different print ads. Karen H.TOPIC III. and sometimes I have them turn in a portfolio of ads. Sometimes I require a presentation. Generational marketing is also a very interesting one which illustrate the changes which must be made when advertising to Boomers.

you retrieved and wrote down knowledge about each concept. smart" for accountant and "nerd. In addition to the prime from the word itself. For example. Booklet #2: river. In Activity #1. Explanation: Students may list things such as "wear glasses. smart. activating knowledge from memory. . Each word acted as a cue or prime (as priming a pump gets the water going). where we make generalizations about individuals (i. boring. Please consider one word at a time. this knowledge influences the processing of incoming information.e. bishop.. Distribute booklet 1 to half of your students (referred to as B1 students) and booklet #2 to the other half (B2 students). Activity #2 (10 seconds) Describe the typical accountant (B1) or computer expert (B2).78 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 the details below. write down the first thing that comes to mind when you see that word. bishop.. chess. Once retrieved (remembered). delta. Repeat this for bishop. a name or a picture) activate selected pieces of knowledge that are needed for processing. rich" for computer expert. B1 students tend to list words related to Catholicism and B2 students to chess. Explanation: A schema is knowledge in memory that is structured around a focal concept (such as airlines). priest. the "accountant schema" will affect interpretation of what the individual says and/or does. specific examples of the schema) based on prior knowledge in the schema. Write each descriptor on a separate line. . delta. Activity #1 (give students 10 seconds) For each concept listed. Cues from a stimulus (e. Ask students what they listed for delta. previous words can act as a prime to get you thinking along a certain line (context effects). upon meeting an individual who is an accountant. A stereotype is a specific type of schema. Booklet #1: airlines.g. B1 students tend to list words related to airlines and B2 students to land/rivers.

but might guess such things as "organizing. Instances vary in typicality (dachsund versus labrador) and liking. carbonated and high preservative (B1) or all natural (B2) from Stayman. many students may switch schemas." Explanation: Instantiation is the interaction of prior knowledge (schema) and a new instance. The combination of carbonation and high preservative (B1) is extremely incongruent with the schema. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 79 Ed 5 Activity #3 (1 minute) Reproduce the "washing clothes passage" from Bransford and Johnson (1972).. typical dogs are the most-liked). Without the schema. Alden. Explanation: Ask B2 students what the passage was talking about." Females are more likely to know the passage is about laundry than males. rather than a fruit juice)." with choices of fruit juice. the passage is difficult to comprehend. Rank (from 1 to 10) each dog on how typical it is and how much you like the breed among dogs listed. best served cold. how a new instance fits in with previous instances. . and sports drink. Give students 30 seconds to answer: "Check the product category YOU think best fits the product based on the description you read. The first three attributes are congruent with a fruit juice schema. Repeat for fast-food restaurants. that is. but carbonation is incongruent. Activity #5 (90 seconds) Give students 1 minute to read the new product description (new fruit juice with attributes nonalcoholic. Activity #4 (2 minutes) List ten breeds of dog and ten fast-food restaurants. perceiving the product to be more similar to a soft drink. typicality tends to be positively correlated with liking (i.e. Explanation: An instance is an example of the schema (labrador or McDonald's). soft drink. B1 students will be wondering why the other students don't know what the passage is about. however. and Smith (1992).TOPIC III. but omit the title in B2. Type "The Washing Clothes Passage" above the passage in B1. slightly sweet. bottled water. most will have no idea.

and Smith. students form groups of 5-8 persons. 11(Dec). etc. pp.. Vol. Some effects of schematic processing on consumer expectations and disconfirmation judgments. Light Users) If students wish to use VALS. I recommend the following categories to them as items they might be familiar with:  Automobiles (cars. 240-255.L. K.)  Athletic Shoes . M. D. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior. SUVs.80 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 References Bransford. On the day when we do this exercise. Alden. (1972). and Johnson. The group is instructed to pick a product category. Vol 19(Sep). Kim McKeage University of Maine STUDENTS PRACTICE MAKING MARKET/PRODUCT GRIDS ON THEMSELVES This in-class project has students use a segmentation scheme that they have already studied. D.. J.M. Journal of Consumer Research.H.D. This could include:  VALS  Lifestyle  Price Sensitivity  Quality Sensitivity  Attributes/Features Desired  Involvement  Demographics  Geographic region  Product Usage (Heavy vs. I instruct them ahead of time to get on the internet and access the VALS survey online so that they can determine their type.K. Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of comprehension and recall. 717-726. (1992). Stayman. trucks.

This often brings some surprising stories and offers numerous .TOPIC III. and really clarifies the process of segmentation and positioning for them. etc. Some of the groups present their solution to the class. CDs. This exercise quickly shows students the limitations of using only demographics to describe their customers. To get credit on the exercise.)  Food (packaged. Explain the decision-making process for each purchase and the reasons for each purchase. Choose two goods or services that you or your family has purchased recently--one costing less than $25 and one costing more than $125. Bring to class and be prepared to discuss the findings. they might show advertisements with sports professionals using the shoe under demanding circumstances. The product positions can be for existing products or imagined products (especially if no existing product fits a position they want). Your grade will depend on how well you relate your descriptions to the information in our text. Write this information in good form. Students must discuss the general.)  Entertainment Products (Movies. hiking gear. For example. Cherry Williamsburg Technical College CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT To illustrate and emphasize the decision process. if they want to position an athletic shoe as a “performance” (overall position) shoe. use this assignment. etc. overall “position” of the product and. how they would accomplish that positioning. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 81 Ed 5  Recreational Products (Sports equipment. or restaurants)  Computer Software/Hardware  Clothing Students then have to describe which market segments are represented in their group according to the segmentation scheme(s) they choose to use. They must also develop a market/product grid to describe how to target different products (within their chosen category) toward the different market segments represented within their group. grocery. Rosa T. for fantasy products. students must write up a complete market/product grid with their accompanying notes.

personality traits (e. people. and ideal self). Project: Personality. inner/outer directed.e. interests. and values. It is a two-part assignment. lifestyle and values. and values.g. Compile these images in a personal collage. LIFESTYLE.. lifestyles. and opinions. Williams San Diego State University A PERSONALITY. consult a variety of sources (e. activities. ad copy) which you believe best represent your personality. and Values Collage and Profile Assignment Instructions: Create a personality. materialism. The guidelines for the collage assignment include the following:  The collage should fill an 8. and personal values. Write an explanation of why the images that you selected represent your personality. No larger or smaller. To do so. actual self..g. whereby students are asked to first create a collage and then to analyze the images in the collage and explain how these images represent their personality. lifestyle.. The collages are then used during class discussion to illustrate a number of topics. or any printed medium) and identify multiple images (e. direct mail.82 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 teaching opportunities! Laura A. magazine ads. places.5 X 11 sheet of paper..). The Assignment Students are given a handout with the following information and instructions. and values profile of yourself in the form of a collage.g. social self. including dimensions of self (i. photographs. brand image/personality characteristics. lifestyle. products. . Lifestyle. lifestyle and values. AND VALUES PROFILE Exercise Overview This exercise is designed to supplement class discussion on consumer personality. etc.

It is further enlightening for students to examine the proportion of verbal versus visual images on their collages. Benefits to the Student The greatest benefit of this exercise is that students get the opportunity to apply consumer behavior principles to their lives. and values. Past examples of exemplary creativity have been collages with multiple layers or 3-D. Many students may discover that they are dominant visualizers or verbalizers. and hidden flaps to depict aspects of their personality that are not easily or readily known to others. students are required to define themselves using consumer behavior concepts. ideal self. or materialistic goods and will define their ideal self in terms of possessions. Students are given the opportunity to explore how and why they identify with these marketing images. students discuss the brands. Students should also be encouraged to analyze what words or images represent their per- . It is also interesting to encourage students to compare their collages. To illustrate the technique. lifestyle and values.TOPIC III. and social self. It should include a description of why the images portrayed in your collage represent your personality. I bring examples of extraordinary collages from past semesters. designed to represent various dimensions of self. Students are encouraged to be very creative with this exercise and to feel free to express themselves by selecting whatever format best captures their personality. retail outlets. By examining the images selected to depict their personality. For example. In addition. Fixated student consumers will dedicate their entire collages to a specific product category or interest. during class discussion. media outlets. each student is asked to identify an item on their collage that depicts their actual self. lifestyle. the more materialistic student will have compiled a number of products. The outer-directed student will have several pictures of friends and family and will depict social relationships as integral to their definition of self. MARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Ed 5 83  Your interpretation of the collage should typed. and values. Students are often surprised to see how much their collage differs from fellow classmates. and other marketing-oriented images that are included on their collages. lifestyle. For example. brands.

84 GREAT IDEAS FOR TEACHING MARKETING ED 5 sonal values. and values collage enables students to exert their creativity and to have the opportunity to develop a portrait of themselves that can be analyzed using consumer behavior principles. An interesting variation of the assignment is to ask students to construct collages of a product or service and discuss the managerial implications of the information. the personality. Finally. . it is also beneficial to explain to the students how this technique could be used by marketing managers to study brand images. lifestyle. In summary.