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Dynamics

MCB2043
Revision Questions

Dereje Engida Woldemichael (PhD, CEng MIMechE)


dereje.woldemichael@petronas.com.my

September 2014 Semester

EXAMPLE # 1
Ball bearings leave the horizontal trough with a velocity of magnitude u and
fall through the 70-mm-diameter holes as shown. Calculate the permissible
range of u which will enable the balls to enter the hole. Take the dotted
positions to represent the limiting conditions.
Note the origin of the coordinate system is
attached to the point leaving the trough with
y-direction positive downwards.
Horizontal motion
Vertical motion

s = ut
h =

1
gt
2

s
2h
g

u=

y
C

To fall through the hole, the centre of the ball bearing must be
within the range of points C and D with the limited trajectories
between BC and BD.

70

For trajectory BC s BC = 120 2 + 2 = 120 2 + 2 = 95 mm

95 10 3
umin = u BC =
= 0.744 m / s
2 80 10 3
9.81

For trajectory BD s BD = (120 +

DEW

D
d
) = 145 mm
2
2

20

umax = uBD =

120

d
2

D
2

sBC
sBD
D
120 +
2

145 10 3
2 80 10 3
9.81

d
2

= 1.135 m / s

EXAMPLE # 2

At the instant shown, the bicyclist at A is


traveling at 7 m/s around the curve on the race
track while increasing his speed at 0.5 m/s2.
The bicyclist at B is traveling at 8.5 m/s along
the straight-a-way and increasing his speed at
0.7 m/s2. Determine the relative velocity and
relative acceleration of A with respect to B at
the instant.

EXAMPLE # 3
A child twirls a small 50-g ball attached to the end of a 1-m string so that the ball
traces a circle in a vertical plane as shown. What is the minimum speed v that
the ball must have when in position 1? If this speed is maintained throughout
the circle, calculate the tension T in the string when the ball is in position 2.
Neglect any small motion of the childs hand.
FBD in position 1

From FBD of the ball in position 1, in order to


have the minimum speed, there should be no
string tension and only the weight of ball is
applied in the n direction. Thus, the equation of
motion yields

= mg = ma n = m

mg
t

2
vmin
r

Hence, the minimum speed at position 1

v min = gr = 9.81 1 = 3.13m / s

FBD in position 2

Using the FBD at position 2, the equation of


motion is given by

= T mg = m

2
vmin
=m
r

n
T

( gr )

Thus the tension in position 2

mg

T = 2 mg = 2 0.05 9.81 = 0.981 N

DEW

EXAMPLE # 4
The 100 kg crate is carefully placed with zero velocity on an incline as shown.
Describe what happens if (a) =15 and (b) =20. Calculate the distance x
travelled by the crate when reaching v=4 m/s with =20.
100 kg

(a) Assume no slip for the crate (=15)


With reference to the FBD of crate, the equations of motion
in x and y directions

Fx = 0

mg sin 15 f = 0

f = 100 9.81 sin 15 = 253.9 N

N mg cos 15 = 0

N = 100 9.81 cos15 = 947.6 N

=0

If no slip, f sN should hold. Since

s=0.3
k=0.25

FBD
y

f = 253 .9 s N = 0.3 947 .6 = 284 .3

N = 100 9.81 cos 20 = 921.8 N

Assumption of no slip is true (Crate is static)

(b) Assume no slip for the crate again (=20)

Using the similar approach, one can find

f = 100 9.81 sin 20 = 335.5 N

mg

f = 335 .5 > s N = 0 .3 921 .8 = 276 .5

Assumption of no slip is false (Crate starts to slip)

Thus, the equation of motion in x and y directions can be changed to

= ma x
y

=0

mg sin 20 k N = ma x
N mg cos 20 = 0
a x = g (sin 20 k cos 20 ) = 9.81 (sin 20 0.25 cos 20 ) = 1.05 m / s 2

Using kinematic equation

x=

DEW

v 2 0 = 2a x x

v2
42
= 7 .62 m
=
2 a x 2 1 .05

Exercise
A 2 kg box slides on a smooth ramp from A to B and
subsequently undergoes a projectile motion until it strikes the
ground at C as shown. The speed of the box at A is vA = 2 m/s.
a. Determine the velocity of the box at B using energy method.
b. Determine the horizontal distance from B to C.

DEW