ACI 311.

1R-99

ACI Manual of Concrete Inspection
Ninth Edition
Reported by ACI Committee 311

Claude E. Jaycox
Chairman

Gordon A. Anderson

Michael T. Russell
Secretary

Kingsley Drake

Oswin Keifer, Jr.*

Joseph F. Artuso

John V. Gruber

Lionel W. Vincent

Jorge Garcia Bernardini

Robert L. Henry

Woodward L. Vogt

John F. Cook

Charles J. Hookham

George R. Wargo

Mario R. Diaz

Robert S. Jenkins

Bertold Weinberg

Donald E. Dixon

Thomas A. Johnson

Roger E. Wilson

*

Deceased

This manual is for the guidance, assistance, and instruction of concrete inspectors and others engaged in concrete construction, such as field engineers, construction superintendents, supervisors, laboratory and field technicians and inspectors,
and workers. Journeymen may find it valuable as a reference for improving their work, and apprentices can use it as an effective instruction manual. Although designers’ duties are primarily confined to office work they may find the manual a valuable
tool that provides a ready description of the various details of concrete construction. Such information may enable designers
to better adapt their designs to the realities of field construction.
Because of the diverse possible uses of the manual, and the varied backgrounds of the readers, it includes the reasons
behind the technical instructions.
Except for the seventh edition, each previous edition included a series of minor revisions over the previous edition. The
seventh edition was completely rewritten. This ninth edition was revised where deemed necessary or required due to changes
in reference documents. Much of the older material has been retained because experience has shown it to be useful and technically correct. The field of concrete construction is ever-changing, however, and some of the biggest advances in modernday construction have taken place in the concrete field. A list of only a few of the recent developments in materials, equipment,
and processes includes shrinkage-compensating cement, sophisticated admixtures, fibrous concrete, epoxy resins, high capacity and automated concrete production equipment, high-strength concrete, and systems building. Although there has seldom
been reason to change the fundamentals developed earlier, added material is necessary to recognize new technology. The field
of inspection has been expanded drastically, and the approach and emphasis modified in recent years, without change to the
basic technology of the past. The need to cover all items that affect inspection has been the reason for continuing to revise this
ACI Manual of Concrete Inspection.
In preparing this edition of the manual, as with previous editions, the task of ACI Committee 311 was not to make policy
on construction practices, but rather to interpret the policies set forth by other authorized bodies. As before, the main emphasis
of the manual is on the technical aspects of inspection and construction. Administrative factors of inspection are generally limited to the first chapter. The manual covers brief summaries of many subjects in concrete technology. The reader is encouraged
to read ACI Manual of Concrete Practice for further information.
Because this manual is general and broad in nature, no part of the manual should be included by reference in contract documents. Applicable inspection requirements for each project must be determined and specified as necessary.