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Help in PhD
Enhance teaching
Update Knowledge
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Love Algorithms


Knowing Each Other 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 6 .

com Writing a research paper Resource sharing Problem solving Blog and group mailing To present a new idea To make groups of similar interests To discuss your problem Mentorship Your Contribution 7 .6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

com 8 .Prerequisites Interest in Algorithms One Programming Language Commitment to Persevere 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

active decision making All Problems are equal. Conceptual understanding. Deep understanding of rules. Applies in context Big picture. ignores irrelevant.com 9 . Critical thinking. theories and alternatives solve new problems. systems thinking Addresses important aspects. continuous learning and selfimprovement. No big picture Decision for standard situations Copyright @ gdeepak.Level of Expertise as a algorithmist Innovator Expert Proficient Competent Beginner 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Intuition.

com 10 .Motivation for the Fundamental and core courses for any research in computer science Future of computing lies in algorithms Very important to be a computer engineer and required throughout your studies and career Must for getting any placement 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

com 11 . algorithm analysis and algorithm design To apply appropriate algorithmic techniques and improving it for efficiency based on problem at hand To inculcate research mindset to produce good research 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.Objectives Knowledge of data structures.

Skills to be acquired To use various operations concerning each data structure for various applications To have a good tool set for algorithm design for a given problem To analyze the given algorithm in terms of complexity To develop intuition and see the beauty of algorithm structures How to teach and How to do research on algorithms and data structures 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 12 .

Course Coverage Data Structure Algorithm Analysis and Design Advance Data Structures Advanced Algorithms Part of Discrete Math. Graph Theory. Programming Language Structures and many others 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 13 .

Ullman 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. Rivest and Stein Third Edition Algorithm Design from Wiley by Goodrich and Tamassia The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms from Addison Wesley-Alfred Aho. Hopcroft. Leiserson.com 14 .References and Resources Algorithm Design from Addison Wesley by Jon Klienberg and Eva Tardos Introduction to Algorithms from PHI by Cormen.

.com algorithmguru. Vol3 and Vol4 from Addison WesleyDE Knuth Fundamental of Computer Algorithms: Silicon Press E.Baase Art of Computer Programming : Vol1. Vol 2.com gdeepak.References and Resources contd. Horowitz and S Sahni 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. Computer Algorithms: Introduction to Design and Analysis from Addison WesleyS.com 15 .

Springer-Verlag Approximation Algorithms by Springer from Vijay v Vazirani Randomized Algorithms from Cambridge by R Motwani and P Raghvan 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak..com 16 .References and Resources contd. Computational Geometry: An Introduction. Algorithms from Pearson by Johnsonbaugh and Schaefer F P Preparata and M I Shamos.

II by CRC Press by Atallah and Blenton Programming Pearls from Addison Wesley by Bentley Algorithms for Interviews by Aziz and Parkash 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.References and Resources contd. Algorithms from McGrawHill by Dasgupta.com 17 .. Papadimitriou & Vazirani Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook Volume I.

Copyright @ gdeepak. 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Questions are encouraged please raise hand if you have any.com Prizes for the Questions at the end of the session 18 .Administration Kindly be on time so as not to skip important concepts.

com 19 .Unit Coverage Memory hierarchy Evolution of computers Definition of data structure Definition of algorithms Desirable characteristics of an algorithm Number system 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

Memory Hierarchy 32 or 64 bit Registers 512 bytes 1 Cycle s i z e L1 Cache (Internal cache)-SRAM 64-512 KB 4-8 Cycles L2/L3 Cache (External cache)-SRAM 1-4 MB 8-80 cycles DRAM-Main memory 4-32 GB 100-1000 cycles Hard Disk-Secondary storage (Mechanical Part) 1TB 106Cycles s p e e d c o s t / b y t e External storage – Floppy. CD.com 20 . Flash drive 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. DVD.

global applications for reservations.Exponential growth. search engines systems catering to 109 (1 billion) transactions emerged 2005-2012.MAN at most 100000(105 ) users for few applications 1990s. 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. WAN.Standalone systems. (107) scale of transactions 2000-2005.Evolution-Application users 1980s. LAN. share markets etc.Rapid growth of Internet.start of www. Systems with 1011 transactions and projects with traffic (1013 ) of 10 trillion scale (social networking sites) Devices reach trillion unit mark.com 21 .

Evolution-Processing devices • • • • • • • • • Vacuum Tubes Transistors ICs (few) SSI (scale of 10) MSI(scale of 100) LSICs (scale of 10000) VLSICs (scale of 105) ULSICs (scale of 107 -109) WSIs ( Future) 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 22 .

10 QIPS Quintillion instructions per second Exa. Japan .1018 (Future) 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.Evolution-Processor Speed Thousand instructions per second (Kilo) 103 Million instructions per second Mega-106 Billion instructions per second Giga-109 Trillion instructions per second Tera-1012 Quadrillion instructions per sec Peta-1015 K Computer .com 23 .

com 24 .Evolution-Memory Byte 23 Kilo 210 Mega 220 Giga 230 Tera 240 (4 TB available) Peta 250 (Achieved by Integration) Exa bits of memory 260 (Future) Zetta 270 Yotta 280 (Amount of data on the web) 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

com 25 .Evolution-Processors 8bit processors 16 bit processors 32bit processors 64 bit processors 128 bit processors 256 bit processors (Future) 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

Programming Languages HLLs 4GLs Assembly Language Machine Code 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 26 .Evolution.

Evolution-Programming Structured Object oriented languages Auto generation of code Procedural 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 27 .

Evolution-Data Numbers Audio 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Chars Text Video Copyright @ gdeepak.com Graphics Interactive multimedia 28 .


com 30 . 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. then we can utilize the best one available for a given project/application. If the strengths and limitations of a structure will be known.Data Structure-Definition Data structure is a way to store and organize data in order to facilitate access and modifications.

where correct algorithms are not available with limitation of current resources.Algorithm-Definition Algorithm is a sequence of finite and unambiguous computational steps that transform the input into correct output effectively. 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. In some cases incorrect solutions are acceptable within the range of allowed error. but for an algorithm to be effective finite amount has to be within reasonable limits of computing resources.com 31 . Finite theoretically means having finite number of steps.

com 32 . analyse and implement the algorithm. they cast a brilliant new light on aspects of computingFrancis Sullivan 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. The set of universes and all the species may be under a state of execution of The best and beautiful algorithm developed by Supreme Personality . Just like verse.About Algorithms Algorithms form the language to cleanly express the underlying questions with the solutions to the extent possible Should give enough detail for a person to understand. dense. and even mysterious.Unknown Great algorithms are the poetry of computation. they can be terse. allusive. But once unlocked.

make better systems and save world 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. Even if there are cars and airplanes. do we still need to study algorithms? Yes! It is an art… It is fun… Why people run in a race. Devising best algorithm for a given problem under given resources will always be a challenge To keep brain in shape.Algorithms-Why Assume we have infinite speed processors with infinite memory.com 33 .

you cannot light up all match-sticks But in many cases mathematic rigor is required e.com 34 .g. It is not possible to prove today’s algorithms . So testing is only way out. predicate logic and mathematics. correctness of guided missile or A communication Satellite 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. All basic algorithms has been proved correct using assertions.Proving correctness of algorithms Proving algorithms correct is a difficult area. It is not a correct way but a practical way. To test a match-box.

com 35 .Examples of complex applications Online Banking Shopping Reservation Network routing Biotechnology Modelling and simulations Space Exploration Network Analysis Social crowds 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

Can I do better.Constituents of studying algorithms Given A Problem What Should be the algorithm for this problem Is it correct How long Will it take to run.com 36 . Implementing this algorithm 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.


com 38 .Algorithm characteristics Modularity Scalability Graceful Degradation for size and number of inputs Maintainability Simple User friendly 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

com 39 ..Algorithm characteristics contd. Concurrency Distributed Secure Power Efficient Hardware/OS compliant 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

kernels. APIs.com 40 . command-line utilities 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.Modularity Composed of smaller chunks of code that can be isolated from other code. open source offerings. frameworks. Less development time because different teams can make different modules Manageable for the purpose of implementation Module having specific functionality may be reused in other applications Libraries.

functional scalability or load scalability Horizontal scaling : increasing server capacity by adding more Vertical Scaling: Adding more processors or memory in existing server If routing table grows as function of logn where n is no of nodes in network then that routing protocol is scalable.Scalability Capability of a system to handle increasing load or growth. or up to what input your algorithm is scalable It can be geographic scalability.com 41 . 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

If older versions of software. languages and web browsers. these are called forward compatible 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 42 . web browsers are able to run files of new versions. The degradation should be in proportion to the severity of failure. When files of older versions are run on them they still run them. It also applies to new versions of software. these are called backward compatible.Graceful degradation Another term for fault tolerance System does not breaks down but continues to work in a degraded manner in case of failure or more than expected load.

Corrective or adaptive maintainability It should be understandable and documented from the perspective of different stakeholders It should be readable and traceable Complex systems resist any change 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 43 .Maintainability Which is flexible to patchwork with least disturbance to the system.

Simple Easy to understand names of variables.com 44 . methods Easy and straightforward logic Avoid unnecessary nesting of loops Good comments Consistent coding and mnemonics 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. classes.

User Friendly Load Speed Exit option Easy to navigate Pleasant GUI Easy to install. update and uninstall Portable Does not depends upon third party tools 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 45 .

even best hashing strategies may fail due to specific input It takes care of the specific input to slow down or stall the system It is protected against the currently known attacks Critical and vulnerable areas of code are encapsulated 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.g.Secure It does not contains any malicious code Design keeping in mind the adversary input e.com 46 .

com 47 .Concurrency Ensuring correct sequencing of interactions between different computational executions Users accessing the shared resources in way unknown to each other Implementing each request as a separate thread or a process depending upon availability of parallel processors or distributed processing systems 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.

g. using power efficient UI. Flash is less user friendly as compared to HTML because of lot of wakeup calls Some video formats use hardware accelerated codecs instead of processor which saves power Minimize data movements to save disk spins Using proper instructions and binary formats 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 48 .Power Efficiency Battery Life has become one of the important considerations for all devices and power cost for data centers is one of the major concerns. E.

6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. Dependence on multiple power sources. Distribution can be logical. multiple network providers etc.Distributed Processor. If any node. multiple storage systems. Data. component or location fails to respond there is always an alternative mechanism. Physical.com 49 . memory and network resources are distributed having multiple channels of access.

features and user-friendliness 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. such as security.com 50 . Algorithms give language for talking about program behavior.Performance is the key Performance draws line between feasible and impossible. Performance can be used to "pay" for other things.

Algorithm Engineering 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 51 .

Number System Binary Number 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Octal Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Copyright @ gdeepak.com Hexadecimal Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 52 .

Suggestions and Comments 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.com 53 .Questions.

m n. d) to (b. So we use three assignments. using replacement notation by t m. c. The new value of a is to be the original value of b & so on. How many assignments are required? 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak. n t. If we want to rearrange (a. c. b. a) by a sequence of replacements.Question 1 We interchange values of variables m and n.com 54 . d.

8765 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.FCBD C)60.28)10 = ( _______)16 A)60.Question 2 (96.4E7 D)60.47AE14 B)A.com 55 .

char *s2 = "AB". while(*s1 == *s2) { if (* s1 =='###BOT_TEXT###' || *s2 == '###BOT_TEXT###') break. else printf("XYZ"). s1++ . } if(*s2 == '###BOT_TEXT###') printf("ABC") .com 56 .Question 3 What will be the output of the following program main() { char *s1 = "ABCDE". s2++. } 6/5/2012 7:11 PM Copyright @ gdeepak.