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Carpenter, K.J.
DOI: 10.1615/AtoZ.a.agitated_vessel_heat_transfer


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Heat transfer in agitated vessels can be carried out either through an external jacket on the vessel or by internal coils. Where a


jacket or coils cannot provide the surface area required, a recirculation loop with an external heat exchanger may be used. In


this case the heat exchanger would be designed by the normal methods and will not be covered further in this chapter. (See


Heat Exchangers.)


A jacket may be either a full conventional jacket, a dimpled jacket, or a half­pipe jacket, often called a limpet coil, as

illustrated in Figure 1a, Figure 1b and Figure 1c. The designs are compared by Markovitz (1971).


Figure 1.


A conventional jacket has the advantage that it covers the full wall and base surface and is very simple to construct. A

dimpled jacket allows construction from light gauge metals while maintaining strength. A half­pipe jacket may be cheaper


for a high pressure on the service side and has the advantage that more than one service can be supplied to different sections


of the wall. However, a limited amount of the surface will be covered by a half­pipe jacket, the large amount of weld can


cause mechanical concerns where thermal cycling occurs and the jacket welding must be spaced from the dished end main


welds to maintain mechanical integrity of the vessel wall.


Internal coils may be full helical coils, or a number of smaller, ringlet coils. Figure 2a and b.



the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient can be calculated in the usual way: AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS (5) AIR COOLERS AIR CUSHIONS AIR CYCLE HEAT PUMPS where α and αs are the process and service side heat transfer coefficients. in one particular 2 highly exothermic reaction 18 m m −3 3 has been installed in a 5 m reactor. for example. ADSORPTION OF GASES ADSORPTIVE BUBBLE TECHNIQUES ADSUBBLE TECHNIQUES A full helical coil is the more usual design. ABWR The choice between a jacket and coils is based on a number of considerations. fine chemicals and performance products. usually a greater wall thickness. T from a starting temperature Tt=0 is: AICHE (4) AIR (PROPERTIES OF) AIR CARRYUNDER AIR CONDITIONING AIR COOLED CONDENSERS For more complex situations numerical integration may be required. The use of a greater height/diameter ratio at larger scale can help to reduce this problem. a jacket has a lower heat transfer performance than a coil as there will be a lower process side coefficient. Typical overall coefficients for jacketed carbon and stainless steel vessels AIRCRAFT. a jacket minimizes AELOPILE OF HERO contamination as there are no extra surfaces to clean. but requires a two­piece vessel with a relatively expensive main flange. a jacket has the advantage that there are no extra materials of construction and no extra metal surface in contact REACTOR with the process other than the normal vessel wall. A jacket may also require a higher service side flow. However. it is important not to pack the coil so tightly as to form a false wall.thermopedia. ADVANCED BOILING WATER REACTOR. For the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. AIR CYCLE REFRIGERATION l/αf. but only to a limited extent. Typical overall coefficients for jacketed glass lined steel vessels AIR POLLUTION Duty AIR SPRAYS AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMPS −2 −1 U (W m K ) Distillation/Evaporation 350 Heating 310 AIR-TO-WATER HEAT PUMP Cooling 200 AIR-WATER SYSTEM Cooling (chilled service) 100 AIRCRAFT. respectively. For highly corrosive or highly reactive ADVANCED GAS-COOLED materials. Smaller ringlet coils can be designed to be inserted through large branches on the upper vessel dished end. There is also less risk of cooling fluid coming into contact with the AEA TECHNOLOGY reaction mass. but there are many suitable dynamic simulation languages available. Ts. unmixed regions within their circumference. AERODYNAMICS AEROGELS Agitated vessel heat transfer is commonly used in batch manufacture where it is frequently necessary to calculate the time to AEROGENERATORS heat or cool a batch or the cooling capacity required to hold an exothermic or endothermic reaction at constant temperature. As a general guide. AIR JET ENGINES AIR POLLUTANTS Table 1.AGITATED VESSEL HEAT TRANSFER Page 2 of 6 ADSORPTION Figure −1 U (W m K ) 6/15/2014 . will be available from local experience or from Kern (1950) . However. M: AGGLOMERATION OF PARTICLES (2) AGITATED VESSEL HEAT TRANSFER AGITATED VESSEL MASS TRANSFER For a constant service side temperature. for example. For exothermic reactions. AERODYNAMICS OF Table 2. a jacketed vessel has the disadvantage that the area/volume ratio AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY AERODYNAMIC FLOW SPECTRUM AERODYNAMIC RESISTANCE OF ATMOSPHERE decreases with increasing scale. allowing the maximum surface to be installed. For coils and jackets. and a smaller surface area. For materials with difficult rheology the full range of agitator designs AERATION AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS can be used with a jacket without difficulty. for example. A coil has the advantage that a large surface area can be provided. steam heating: AGITATED VESSELS (3) AGITATION CAVITATION NUMBER AGITATION DEVICES AGR The time to reach a temperature. PARABOLIC FLIGHTS −2 AIRLESS DRYING Duty AISI Heating 400 Cooling 350 http://www. AEROSOL FILTRATION It may also be necessary to define the stable operating region or acceptable reagent addition rate for an addition controlled highly exothermic semi­batch reaction. CLIMATIC EFFECTS (1) AFTERBURNING AGGLOMERATES For the simple case of the time to cool or heat a batch of mass. The service side fouling resistance. approximate overall AIR EJECTOR coefficients typical of agitated jacketed vessels are given in Tables 1 and 2. but can leave quiescent. The heat removal rate is defined by: AEROSOLS AEROSOLS.

ALKANES 3. AISI AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. ALPHA PARTICLES −1 6. API AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF 1. There are several correlations available for the service side coefficient. However. For a dimpled jacket with liquid service.6 ms . SURFACE HEAT FLUX ANEMOMETERS (LASER DOPPLER) (8) ANEMOMETERS (PULSED THERMAL) ANEMOMETERS (VANE) ANEROID BAROMETER ANGLED TURBULATORS where is the volumetric flow rate. VA is the rise velocity in the jacket annulus and depends on the inlet orientation: ANGULAR DISCRETIZATION METHODS http://www. ASME AMMONIA COMBUSTION AMMONIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE where: AMORPHOUS AND (7) NANOSTRUCTURED SILICON FILMS AMPLIFIED SPECTRUM ANABOLISM ANALOGY BETWEEN HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER ANALYTICAL TREATMENT OF FINS vi is the velocity at the inlet nozzle or branch and vB is the velocity component due to buoyancy. Service injection nozzle. especially for a glass­lined steel vessel (see Figure 3). INC 1. the minimum target velocity should be 1. liquid service with high flow [(Lehrer (1970)] AMERICAN SOCIETY OF (6) MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. OF EARTH ALCOHOL Service heat transfer coefficient ALDEHYDES Under normal circumstances the overall coefficient should be dominated by the process side. A conventional jacket should be fitted with baffles (see Figure 1a). A vent should be fitted and maintained to prevent gas blanketing. pressure drop may limit the velocity to 0. For a liquid service. −1 1. Conventional unbaffled jacket. HTFS has also produced a design report for members. Service injection nozzles should be used to direct the service flow.AGITATED VESSEL HEAT TRANSFER AL-SI PHASES FORMED FROM Page 3 of 6 Cooling (chilled service) 150 COMBUSTIBLE SOLID RESIDUES ALBEDO 2 −1 A typical overall coefficient for a well designed coil would be 400 to 600 Wm K . ALLOY STEELS −1 ALLOYS 5. ALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELD ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 2. depending on the jacket or coil design and the flow regime of the service fluid. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. ALLEN FLOW ALLOY SOLIDIFICATION −1 (9) 6/15/2014 . Fletcher (1987) provides some useful guidance and the research club.3 ms . For a plain jacket with liquid service the target circumferential velocity should be 1­1.5 ms . for the service side ALFVEN NUMBER the following guidelines should be observed to ensure good performance: ALFVEN WAVES For jackets: ALGEBRA.5 ms .thermopedia. AAAS AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR For an internal coil: CHEMICAL ENGINEERS. di is the diameter of the inlet. z is the wetted height of the jacket. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS ALUMINA ALUMINOSILICATE ZEOLITES ALUMINUM ALUMINUM COMBUSTION ALUMINUM OXIDE AMAGAT'S LAW Figure 3. AICHEE AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. ASHRAE. The following correlations are recommended: REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING ENGINEERS. For a half­pipe jacket with liquid service the minimum target velocity should be 2. ALBEDO. and ΔTs is the temperature rise of the service fluid. Dj is the jacket diameter WITH TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT and DT is the vessel diameter. β is the fluid thermal expansion coefficient.

A mean apparent viscosity is required to calculate Nu from Re. OR Process side heat transfer coefficient AROMATICS The process side coefficient will be determined by the agitator type and 6/15/2014 . AASE will normally be sufficient to assume an homogeneous distribution of shear rate. Half­pipe coil. Use the vessel diameter (DT) as the diameter of the region to be fluidized: ASYMPTOTIC METHODS ATMOSPHERE (16) ATMOSPHERE (PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF) http://www. there are two important considerations: VERTICAL PIPE ASH FORMATION ASH LAYER MODEL 1. (See also Agitation Devices. liquid service. The normal practice is to estimate it using the Metzner­ Otto approach.15 for upward flow. liquid service API GRAVITY (12) APPLICATION TO NONGRAY MEDIA APPLICATORS AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS WITH NONLINEAR SURFACE ENERGY This is the normal Sieder­Tate equation. Conventional unbaffled jacket. ANL ARMAND CORRELATIONS.128 for downward flow heating. liquid service with high flow [(Lehrer (1970)] (see also Free Convection) ANNULAR FIXED BEDS (10) ANNULAR FLOW ANNULAR FLOW SYSTEM ANNULAR FLOW. ASSOCIATE CATALYSIS ASSOCIATION FOR APPLIED SOLAR The viscosity correction only allows for the effect of temperature near the wall and NOT the distribution of shear rate. de: AQUIFER ARC DYNAMIC (13) ARCHIMEDES FORCE ARCHIMEDES NUMBER ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE 5. The service side coefficient for a baffled or dimpled jacket will be greater than for an unbaffled jacket with high flow. For high viscosity and Non­Newtonian ARRHENIUS EQUATION Fluids. typically 0. Baffled or dimpled jacket. K = 0. For Non­Newtonian Fluids. therefore the above can be used as a conservative estimate. ASYMPTOTE 2. IN LIQUID-METAL BOILING ANNULAR PIPES Here.) For low AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS viscosity fluids. upward flow cooling. Nu and Re are based on the hydraulic mean diameter. heating. (see Forced Convective Heat Transfer) applied to the whole jacketed area with the effectiveness factor (E) from Kneale (1969).AGITATED VESSEL HEAT TRANSFER Page 4 of 6 ANL ANNEALING ANNULAR DISPERSED FLOW 2. Calculation of a wall shear rate to ASYMMETRIC HEATING predict a local ηa is beyond the scope of this article. (1985) and Oldshue (1983) provide guidance on agitator ASCENDING SLUG FLOW IN A selection. downward flow cooling. ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSION Nienow (1988) reviews the design techniques. It is essential to ensure that a material with a significant yield stress is maintained fluidized right up to the vessel wall. Harnby et al. ARMORED VEHICLE CABIN AROMATIC CHEMICALS. A conservative estimate can be obtained from the Nusselt analysis [see Kern (1950)]: ARGON-ION LASER (14) ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY. ANNULAR POROUS MEDIUM K = 0.thermopedia. ANZAAS API 4. Condensing service.8–1. A condensing coefficient in a jacket should be extremely high compared to the process side and −1 ARGON normally αs ~ 0. ANODE ΔTm is the mean temperature difference between the service and the vessel wall ANOMALOUS DIFFRACTION (11) ANTI-FREEZE ANTI-NEUTRINO ANTIDERIVATIVE FUNCTION 3. FOR VOID FRACTION IN ANNULAR FLOW The physical properties refer to the liquid phase and ΔT = Tsat ­ Twall (see Condensation). N is the rotational speed (s ­1). where: ASHRAE (15) ASME ASPECT RATIO Kmo depends on the agitator type. Using the correlation ANTIGRAVITY for a half­pipe coil with the flow area equivalent to the baffle channel is not recommended as it may give an overestimate. larger diameter agitators will be required. It ENERGY. most turbine­type high­speed agitators can give good performance.

8 DT) 40 AUGMENTATION OF HEAT TRANSFER.54 AUTO-IGNITION AUTOMATIC SAMPLING Wall resistance AUTOMOTIVE GAS TURBINES The conductivity of the wall material can be found in standard texts [Kern.5 ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT. W. 47. R. E. Eng. E. (1969) Design of Vessels with Half Coils. J. OPTICAL ATTRACTORS angled turbine 13 anchor 25* helical ribbon 30 EKATO Intermig (0. April..33 Intermig 0. 6/15/2014 . Chem.AGITATED VESSEL HEAT TRANSFER ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW Page 5 of 6 Po is the impeller Power number [Harnby et al.46 1. Chem. Edwards.4 disc turbine 0. Lehrer. AVERAGE PHASE VELOCITY AVERAGE VOID FRACTION References MEASUREMENT AVIATION FUEL-AIR REACTION 1. and: DISCHARGE ATOM (17) ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY ATOMIC HYDROGEN BEAM ATOMIC MEDIA For the vessel wall surface. (1988) Aspects of Mixing in Rheologically Complex Fluids. AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR 4. PDD. E. Trans. 15th. AUGMENTATION OF HEAT Table 4. glass lined steel. Nienow. the process side coefficient can be calculated from: ATOMIC NUMBER (18) ATOMIC PORES ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY ATOMIC SURFACE DIFFUSION (19) ATOMIC WEIGHT ATOMISTIC DEFORMATION ATOMISTIC-CONTINUUM For transfer to an internal coil: ADAPTIVITY (20) ATOMISTIC-TO-CONTINUUM COUPLING ATOMIZATION ATOMIZATION TURBULENT Table 3. Chem. 9:4. M. (1985) Mixing in the Process Industries.. W. AXIAL FLOW FANS 5. Heat transfer constants for impellers TRANSFER. Trans. Res. Y. M.. Markovitz. 8. (1985)]. (1950) Experimental Determination of Film Heat Transfer Coefficients. New York: McGraw­Hill. P. AZEOTROPES D'ALEMBERT PARADOX Number of views: 27427 Article added: 2 February 2011 Article last modified: 25 February 2011 © Copyright 2010­2014 Back to top B C D E http://www. V. AXIAL TURBINE 6. Metzner­Otto constants for impellers ATOMIZERS ATOMIZING LIQUIDS Impeller type ATOMIZING SPRAY propeller Kmo 10 disc or flat blade turbine 11.87 AUTO CORRELATION anchor 0. Chemical Engineering. ANZAAS retreat curve0. There will also be MEASUREMENT some limitations on the ability of glass lining to withstand thermal shock. (1971) Picking the Best Vessel Jacket. SINGLE PHASE *The value for an anchor depends on the rheology of the material. F. 66:1. and Nienow A. Fletcher.87 1. Kern. New York: McGraw­Hill. Harnby.thermopedia. I. (1950) Process Heat Transfer. E. AXISYMMETRIC NARROWING 9. (1970) Jacket­side Nusselt Number. Kneale. E. TWO-PHASE AUSTENITE-MARTENSITE Impeller TRANSFORMATION propeller AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND 45° turbine 0. for example. (1987) Heat Transfer Coefficients for Stirred Batch Reactor Design. Ind. AXISYMMETRIC JET 7. PHOTON TRANSMISSION ATTENUATION. Butterworths. and Williams. I. Barton. Des. AVOGADRO NUMBER AVOGADRO'S LAW 2.330.4 ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.61 1. The resistance may be significant for AVERAGE FILM FLOW RATE some vessels linings. (1983) Fluid Mixing Technology. Q. The Chemical Engineer. I.4 ASSOCIATION FOR THE A B 0. (1950)]. Oldshue. A. N. 17:3. Chem. D. for more detail see Nienow (1988). H. Nov. where the manufacturerʹs data should be consulted. Eng.

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