Electronics & Communication Department

Lab Manual

Data Communication & Networking (181101)

B. E. SEMESTER-VIII

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Name of the Student: _____________________________________________
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List of Experiments
1

Introduction to LAN cabling scheme & crimping process

2

Introduction to RS 232C & UART

3

To perform byte transfer between 2 PCs using serial port (using ‘C’ code)

4

To perform simple file transfer between 2 PCs using serial port (using ‘C’ code)

5

Study and execution of Network commands

6

Study of Network planning and setup (e.g. - GEC-Rajkot)

7

Study of Networking and Internetworking devices

8

To find out details of network from IP addressing scheme (using ‘C’ code)

9

To perform encryption on data (using ‘C’ code)

10

Demonstration of Linux OS installation and network utilities

11

Study of internet packet capturing tool - Ethereal

12

Network Simulator-‘ns-2’: Installation, Programming & Simulation demonstration

EXPERIMENT 1
Introduction to LAN cabling scheme & crimping process

Pin out for EIA/TIA 568A/B cabling
Pin

Signal

EIA/TIA 568A

EIA/TIA 568B

Ethernet

1

Transmit +

White/Green

White/Orange

X

2

Transmit -

Green/White or
Green

Orange/White or
Orange

X

3

Receive +

White/Orange

White/Green

X

4

N/A

Blue/White or
Blue

Blue/White or
Blue

Not Used

5

N/A

White/Blue

White/Blue

Not Used

6

Receive -

Orange/White or
Orange

Green/White or
Green

X

7

N/A

White/Brown

White/Brown

Not Used

8

N/A

Brown/White or Brown/White or
Brown
Brown
Wiring/Color Coding for CAT5 Cable

Not Used

RJ-45 Connector "Pin-Outs" TUTORIAL Questions 1) What are hubs and repeaters? 2) How many types of LED indicators are there at back panel of a Hub? What is their significance? 3) What is the need of an uplink feature in a Hub? 4) What is an NIC card? 5) What is maximum length that category 5 up cable support? 6) What is the difference between a router and a repeater or a bridge? 7) There are how many types of connecting devices? 8) In which layer/layers does the repeater function? 9) In which layer/layers does the router function? 10) What do you mean by 10BASE5? 11) What is the meaning of ‘T’ in 10BASE-T? 12) What is a crossover cable? 13) What is power consumption for DE 816TP hub? 14) What is the function of Collision LED? .

Hardware Properties Devices which use serial cables for their communication are split into two categories. Transmit Data (TXD) and Receive Data (RXD) compared with at least 8 pins if you use an 8 bit Parallel method (You may also require a Strobe). (byte transfer).  To test RS232-C cable using Windows inbuilt utility. If your device needs to be mounted a far distance away from the computer then 3 core cable (Null Modem Configuration) is going to be cheaper that running 19 or 25 core cable. Therefore cable loss is not as much of a problem for serial cables then they are for parallel. laptops and palmtops.  To implement byte transfer using ALP. [B]  To verify serial port communication between two PCs by writing simple C code.) Data Communications Equipments are devices such as your modem. IrDA-1 (The first infra red specifications) was capable of 115. You don't need as many wires then parallel transmission.  To study RS232-C cabling scheme. Many electronic diaries and palmtop computers have infra red capabilities build in. These are DCE (Data Communications Equipment) and DTE (Data Terminal Equipment. The pulse length however was cut down to 3/16th of an RS 232 bit length to conserve power considering these devices are mainly used on diaries. Concept In most cases. Serial Communication reduces the pin count of Microcontrollers. plotter etc while Data Terminal Equipment is your Computer or Terminal .EXPERIMENT 2 Introduction to RS 232C & UART Objectives [A]  To understand RS232-C standard and UART functions. This can be done using a UART. Only two pins are commonly used. On software side. Serial transmission is used where one bit is sent at a time.2k baud and was interfaced into a UART. Therefore the serial port can have a maximum swing of 50V compared to the parallel port which has a maximum swing of 5 Volts. (SPP) What are the advantages of using serial data transfer rather than parallel?     Serial Cables can be longer than Parallel cables. TA adapter. any device you connect to the serial port will need the serial transmission converted back to parallel so that it can be used. However you must take into account the cost of the interfacing at each end. there are many more registers that you have to attend to than on a Standard Parallel Port. The serial port transmits a '1' as -3 to -25 volts and a '0' as +3 to +25 volts where as a parallel port transmits a '0' as 0v and a '1' as 5v.

Goes active when modem detects a ringing signal from the PSTN. There are the D-Type 25 pin connector and the D-Type 9 pin connector both of which are male on the back of the PC. An open circuit voltage should never exceed 25 volts. thus you will require a female connector on your device. Serial Ports come in two "sizes". It states many parameters such as – 1. D-Type-9 Pin No. Below is a table of pin connections for the 9 pin and 25 pin D-Type connectors. . A short circuit current should not exceed 500mA. A "Space" (logic 0) will be between +3 and +25 Volts. This is the opposite of DSR. When the modem detects a "Carrier" from the modem at the other end of the phone line. 2. (In Reference to GND) 5. This tells the Modem that the UART is ready to link. this Line becomes active. Serial Pin outs (D25 and D9 Connectors) D-Type-25 Pin No. 4. (Take note of this one!) The RS 232 C standard specifies a maximum baud rate of 20. This tells the UART that the modem is ready to establish a link. The driver should be able to handle this without damage. A "Mark" (Logic 1) will be between -3 and -25 Volts The region between +3 and -3 volts is undefined. 3.000 BPS. This line informs the Modem that the UART is ready to exchange data. Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 3 Pin 2 Pin 4 Pin 7 Pin 5 Pin 8 Pin 6 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 5 Pin 8 Pin 1 Pin 20 Pin 4 Pin 22 Pin 9 Abbreviation TD RD RTS CTS DSR SG CD DTR RI Full Name Transmit Data Receive Data Request To Send Clear To Send Data Set Ready Signal Ground Carrier Detect Data Terminal Ready Ring Indicator Pin Functions Abbreviation TD RD CTS Full Name Transmit Data Receive Data Clear to Send DCD Data Carrier Detect DSR Data Set Ready DTR Data Terminal Ready RTS Request To Send RI Ring Indicator Function Serial Data Output (TXD) Serial Data Input (RXD) This line indicates that the Modem is ready to exchange data.The electrical specifications of the serial port are contained in the RS232C standard.

Loopback Plug Wiring Diagram Please note that this is not intended for use with Diagnostic Programs and thus will probably not work. . This can be used with the examples later in this tutorial. For these programs you require a differently wired Loop Back plug which may vary from program to program. It has the receive and transmit lines connected together. so that anything transmitted out of the Serial Port is immediately received by the same port. If you connect this to a Serial Port a load a Terminal Program.. anything you type will be immediately displayed on the screen. 9D to 25D Conversion This Loopback plug can come in extremely handy when writing Serial / RS232 Communications Programs.Null Modems A Null Modem is used to connect two DTE's together without using intermediate DCEs.

Just like the LPT ports. Serial Port's Registers (PC's) Port Addresses & Iraq’s Name COM 1 COM 2 COM 3 COM 4 Address 3F8 2F8 3E8 2E8 IRQ 4 3 4 3 Above is the standard port addresses. The above table shows the address at which we can find the Communications (COM) ports addresses in the BIOS Data Area. UART 8250 is the device that controls the serial port. Therefore RS 232 Level Converters are used. games port. RD. These should work for most PC's. For this an external connection mast be made from pin 15 (Baud Out) to pin 9 (Receiver clock in. The UART requires a Clock to run. That includes TD. This clock will be used for the Programmable Baud Rate Generator which directly interfaces into the transmit timing circuits but not directly into the receiver timing circuits. The 8250 series. CTS.8432 MHZ or an 18. which includes the 16450. floppy or hard disk drives and are typically surface mount devices. RI. DTR and RTS which all interface into your serial plug.432 MHZ Crystal. & 16750 UARTS are the most commonly found type in your PC. typically a D-type connector. Start Address Function 0000:0400 COM1's Base Address 0000:0402 COM2's Base Address 0000:0404 COM3's Base Address 0000:0406 COM4's Base Address COM Port Addresses in the BIOS Data Area. then expect a different set of addresses and IRQ's. DCD. the base addresses for the COM ports can be read from the BIOS Data Area. 16550. Each address will take up 2 bytes. If you just happen to be lucky enough to own a IBM P/S2 which has a micro-channel bus.) Note that the clock signal will be at Baud rate * 16. If you look at your serial card a common crystal found is either a 1. DSR. 16650. Most cards will have the UART's integrated into other chips which may also control your parallel port. . All the UARTs pins are TTL compatible.The UART (8250 and Compatibles) UART stands for Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter.

LCR. or the oldest unread byte with Fife’s. one stop bit. Each register is eight bits wide. Bit 5 in the line status register can be used to check if new information must be written to the transmitter holding register. Otherwise the amount of characters depends on the type of UART. until no more bytes are present. This bit will change to zero if no more bytes are present. FCR. RBR: Receiver buffer register (RO) The receiver buffer register contains the byte received if no FIFO is used. THR.Registers RBR. each new read action of the register will yield the next byte. DLM The communication between the processor and the UART is completely controlled by twelve registers. IER. The transmitter holding register is not used to transfer the data directly. one stop bit. These registers can be read or written to check and change the behavior of the communication device. The register also controls the accessibility of the DLL and DLM registers. more than one character can be written to the transmitter holding register when the bit signals an empty state. There is no indication of the amount of bytes currently present in the transmitter FIFO. LSR. If no FIFO buffering is used. The value 1 indicates that the register is empty. If FIFO buffering is used. no parity 7 data bits. On a PC compatible. MSR. SCR. DLL. Common settings are: 8 data bits. The byte is first transferred to a shift register where the information is broken in single bits which are sent one by one. even parity . If FIFO buffering is used. IIR. only one character can be stored. LCR: Line control registers (R/W) The line control register is used at initialization to set the communication parameters. Bit 0 in the line status register can be used to check if all received bytes have been read. Parity and number of data bits can be changed for example. the registers are accessible in the I/O port map. MCR. Because they are only accessed at initialization when no communication occurs this register swapping has no influence on performance. THR: Transmitter holding register (WO) The transmitter holding register is used to buffer outgoing characters.

THR and IER accessible 1 DLAB : DLL and DLM accessible .5 Detail Bit 5 1 stop bit 1.7 or 8 bit word) Bit 4 Bit 3 X X 0 No parity 0 0 1 Odd Parity 0 1 1 Even Parity 1 0 1 High Parity(stick) 1 1 1 Low Parity(stick) 0 Break signal disabled 1 Break signal enabled 0 DLAB : RBR.5 stop bits(5 bits word) 2 stop bits (6.1 2 Value 6 7 Data Word Length Bit 1 Bit 0 0 0 5 Bits 0 1 6 Bits 1 0 7 Bits 1 1 8 Bits 0 1 3.LCR: Line Control Register Bit 0.4.

Therefore.8432 MHz) is divided by 16 to generate the time base for communication. the DLL and DLM which contain the least. this value can go beyond 255. The state of the receiver and transmitter buffers is also available. Modern UARTS like the 16550 are capable of handling higher input frequencies up to 24 MHz which makes it possible to communicate with a maximum speed of 1. Bit 5 and 6 both show the state of the transmitting cycle. The difference is. It is necessary that both the transmitting and receiving UART use the same time base.5 Mbps. Errors are reflected in this register. To change the communication speed. the divisor is stored in two separate bytes. that bit 5 turns high as soon as the transmitter holding register is empty whereas bit 6 indicates that also the shift register which outputs the bits on the line is empty LSR: Line status register Bit Comment 0 Data available 1 Overrun error 2 Parity error 3 Framing error 4 Break signal received 5 THR is empty 6 THR is empty. . The table shows the most common values with the appropriate settings of the divisor latch bytes. the maximum allowed communication speed is 115200 bps. This 115200 bps communication speed is not suitable for all applications. Default values have been defined which are commonly used.LSR: Line Status Register (RO) The line status register shows the current state of communication. and line is idle 7 Erroneous data in FIFO DLL and DLM: Divisor latch registers (R/W) The frequency (1. the frequency can be further decreased by dividing it by a programmable value. and most significant byte. For very slow communications. Because of this division.

DLL and DLM: Divisor latch registers Speed(bps) Divisor DLL DLM 50 2304 0x00 0x09 300 384 0x80 0x01 1200 96 0x60 0x00 2400 48 0x30 0x00 4800 24 0x18 0x00 9600 12 0x0C 0x00 19200 6 0x06 0x00 38400 3 0x03 0x00 57600 2 0x02 0x00 115200 1 0x01 0x00 Table of Registers Base Address DLAB Read/Write Abr. Register Name =0 Write - Transmitter Holding Buffer =0 Read - Receiver Buffer =1 Read/Write - =0 Read/Write IER Interrupt Enable Register =1 Read/Write - Divisor Latch High Byte - Read IIR Interrupt Identification Register - Write FCR FIFO Control Register +3 - Read/Write LCR Line Control Register +4 - Read/Write MCR Modem Control Register +5 - Read LSR Line Status Register +6 - Read MSR Modem Status Register +7 - Read/Write - +0 +1 +2 Divisor Latch Low Byte Scratch Register .

3. 4. (Using ‘C’ program) . Check functioning of prepared cable using Direct Cable Communication under windows. Prepare 9 – 9 pin serial cables with null modem configuration. Perform simple byte transfer between 2 PCs through serial ports connected via serial cable tested in previous exercise.Exercise 1. After configuration restore transmission mode. 2. Load divisors in DLM & DLL to support communication at 9600 bps.

EXPERIMENT 3 To perform byte transfer between 2 PCs using serial port (using ‘C’ code) EXPERIMENT 4 To perform simple file transfer between 2 PCs using serial port (using ‘C’ code) .

Packet directly reach to destination system or it pass through one or more routers. How can we detect that the destination system is reachable or not? PING command is useful for checking the reach ability of the system. Procedure: First go to command prompt For help and information about this command type tracert /? Type tracert IP address or name of the destination.EXPERIMENT 5 Study and execution of Network commands Objectives To test different network utilities like ping. ipconfig. arp. First of all we have to check for destination system is reachable or not. TRACERT command is useful to trace the route through which packet passes. . tracert. Due to hardware failure or any other reason it is possible the system may on network but not reachable. Procedure: First go to command prompt For help and information about this command type ping /? Type ping IP address of system Example: (2) TRACERT: When one system (host or router) send the packet of data to another system then there be two possibilities. ftp To study and use different options for these utilities Concepts (1) PING (Packet Internet Groper Command) If any system (host or router) want to communicate with the other system (host or route) then it is necessary to check the communication is possible or not? For this.

so it is sometimes necessary to resolve Physical address from IP address or vice-versa.Example: (3) IPCONFIG: When System is in network at that time it is necessary to know the IP address of that system. Example: (4) ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): Any system on the network is identified by Physical address and IP address. We can also get the dynamic ARP table. Procedure: First go to command prompt For help and information about this command type ipconfig /? Type ipconfig. Procedure:  First go to command prompt  For help and information about this command type arp:?  Type arp-a . ARP is used to resolve Physical address from the IP address. subnet mask and gateway address IPCONFIG command is used.

(15) If one router on the path to reach the final destination How can we find the IP address of the two interfaces of the router? . class C and class D addresses. (8) Which protocol is used in TRACERT command? (9) If more than one router in the route than first reply comes from which router while using TRACERT? (10) If final destination is not reachable than how many reply comes while using TRACERT command? (11) Explain briefly about each field in an ARP table. (13) Which information we get from subnet mask? (14) Write subnet mask for class A.Example: TUTORIAL Questions (1) Which protocol is used in PING command? (2) Explain briefly about each field received in reply while using PING command. class B. (12) Explain briefly about each field displayed while running ipconfig command. (3) Is it possible to find IP address of the system on which you are working using PING command? (4) Which kind of ICMP messages used in PING command? (5) What is maximum size of a packet practically? Prove it using PING command? (6) State the minimum number of hop count is requiring for checking reach ability of host? (7) Which message will display while hop count is less than the number of routers on the path.

EXPERIMENT 6 Study of Network planning and setup (e. .GEC-Rajkot) .g.

EXPERIMENT 7 Study of Networking and Internetworking devices Objectives    To study network devices and the specifications of each for existing network plan To study existing network plan To draw a new network plan as per the new constraints Concepts Local area networks generally called LANs are privately owned networks within a single building or campus or up to few kilometers in size. A repeater can extend the physical length of a network. A large organization may need several connected LANs. A repeater receives a signal before it becomes too weak or corrupted and regenerates the original signal. A repeater connects segments of LAN together. single building. LANs are distinguished from other kinds of networks by three characteristics. It has no filtering capability. Implementations The IEEE standard defined several implementations for Internet Implementation 10BASET 10BASE2 10BASE5 10BASE-FL Maximum Supported 100 m 200 m 500 m 2000 m Distance Connecting Devices Repeaters A repeater is a device that operates only in the physical layer. . They are widely used to connect personal computers and workstations in company offices and factories to share resources and exchange information. or campus. 1) Transmission media 2) Transmission mechanism 3) Topology 4) Protocol A Local area network is a data communication system that allows a number of independent devices to communicate directly with each other in a limited geographic area such as single department.

A bridge like a repeater has no physical address. it operates in physical. Switches A two layer switch is a bridge with many interfaces and a design that allows better performance. each segment is an independent collision domain. . As a physical layer device it regenerates the signal it receives. If the segments are the same. if the segments are different. then the packet is "forwarded" to the proper segment. it regenerates the signal it receives.. the packet is dropped ("filtered"). It only acts as a filter. Regeneration of packets allows for greater distances and more nodes to be used in the total network design. As a data link layer device the bridge can check the physical address contained in the packet. As a physical layer device. It is used to create connections in physical star topology. Hub ……Nodes …. Filtering of packets and the regeneration of forwarded packets enables switching technology to split a network into separate collision domains. Switches can connect different networks types (such as Ethernet and Fast Ethernet) or networks of the same type. the switch examines the destination and source hardware addresses and compares them to a table of network segments and addresses. As a data link layer device the router checks the physical addresses (source and destination) contained in the packet. a router can connect WAN’s together and it can also connect LAN’s and WAN’s together. When a packet is received by the switch. not an original sender to a final destination. Hub Hub …Nodes…. A router is an internetworking device. and dramatically lowers the overall collision rates. Filtering means that it can check the destination address of a packet and decide if the packet should be forwarded or dropped. data link and network layers. A three layer switch is router with an improved design to allow better performance. Routers Router is a three layer device. a router checks the network layer addresses. Bridges A bridge operates in both physical layer and data link layers. A Router can connect LAN’s together. In switched networks.Hubs A hub is a multiport repeater. As a network layer device.

CAT Cabling Ethernet networks use unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Category 5 cable. People connected to one network often want to communicate with people attached to a different one. CAT5 cable runs should not exceed 100 meters. After detecting a collision. Crossover cables are used to connect switches to other switches. If the wiring is identical at both ends. Standard Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD. The chart below shows the RJ-45 connector "pin-outs" for CAT5 crossover and straight-through cables.8 bit. both in terms of hardware and software. This standard enables devices to detect a collision. By this we mean that the medium is shared between the stations and only one station at a time can use it. CAT5 cables are typically terminated with RJ-45 connectors.3 standard defines carrier sense multiple access with collision detection as the access method for Ethernet. There are two different types of RJ-45 connectors. Stopping point can be either a gateway node. This is done by using machines called gateways to make the connection and provide the necessary translation.Gateways Many networks exist in the world. Stations on an Ethernet can be connected together using a physical star topology with a logical bus topology. often with different hardware & software. This desire requires connecting together different and frequently incompatible networks. It also implies that all stations receive a frame sent by a station. if it is different. CSMA-CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection. and then there is the "aligned type" connector for use with stranded CAT5 cable. a set of rules determining how network devices respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel simultaneously (called a collision). The difference between the two has to do with how the conductors terminate to the RJ-45 connector at each end of the cable. The larger the number of bits faster the NIC. There is the "bent type" connector intended for use with solid core CAT5. NIC comes in 3 basic varieties. you most likely have a crossover cable. A straight-through cable is used to connect a DTE to a switch. Access Technique for LAN CSMA-CD The IEEE 802. NIC provides a physical connection between the networking cable and the computer’s internal bus. a device waits a random delay time and then attempts to re-transmit the message. It can also be referred as entrance point. The real destination keeps the frame while the rest drop it. . you are holding a straight-through cable. . 16 bits and 32 bits. Network Interface Cards A network interface card (NIC) is used to connect a PC to a network. Two types of CAT5 cables are typically used in a network: the straight-through cable and the crossover cable. RJ-45 Connector "Pin-Outs".

7A 250V. VCCI II.250 V.Specification of a network device Model DE-816TP Ethernet Hub Data transfer rate: Protocol: Topologies: EMI Certification: 10 Mbps CSMA/CD Star. CSA VDE .90 % non-condensing Power cord: Type 1 (US) or Type 2 (Europe) Per purchase order Type 1 Type 2 Plug Rating 125V. 50 . VCCI I. Bus DE-812TP+ and DE-824TP: FCC Class A.55° C Humidity: 10 . 7A 250V. CE A DE-816TP: FCC Class B. mm (including mounting brackets): DE-812TP+: 483 x 44 x 125 DE-816TP: 483 x 44 x 125 DE-824TP 483 x 44 x 211 Weight: DE-812TP+: 2.60 Hz Power consumption: DE-812TP+: 18 W DE-816TP: 18 W DE-824TP: 20W Dimensions: W x H x L. 10A Cord Rating 125V. 10A Length 1830mm (6ft) 1830mm (6ft) Safety Standard UL. CE B AC power: 100 .0 kg DE-824TP: 3.03 kg Operating temperature: 0° .0 kg DE-816TP: 2.

true or false. (2) What is the use of Loopback address? (3) IP addresses are unique. justify your answer. What are the source and destination addresses used in this packet? (8) A host with IP address 185.5. (4) Which version of IP addressing scheme is currently in use and what could be the future expansion in the IP addressing scheme? (5) What is meant by Net ID and Host ID? (6) An address space has a total 1024 addresses.EXPERIMENT 8 To find out details of network from IP addressing scheme (using ‘C’ code) TUTORIAL Questions (1) A device can have more than one IP addresses-true or false. how many bits are needed to represent an address? (7) A router has an IP address 108. it sends a direct broadcast packet to all hosts in this network.56.88 wants to use Loopback testing what are the source and destination addresses? EXPERIMENT 9 To perform encryption on data (using ‘C’ code) EXPERIMENT 10 Demonstration of Linux OS installation and network utilities .22. justify your answer.42.18.

Some intended purposes: Here are some examples people uses Ethereal for: • network administrators use it to troubleshoot network problems • network security engineers use it to examine security problems • developers use it to debug protocol implementations • people use it to learn network protocol internals Features: The following are some of the many features Ethereal provides: • Available for UNIX and Windows. A network packet analyzer will try to capture network packet and tries to display that packet data as detailed as possible. just like a voltmeter is used by an electrician to examine what's going on inside an electric cable (but at a higher level. However. with the advent of Ethereal. • Open and Save packet data captured. • Display packets with very detailed protocol information. • Filter packets on many criteria. • Import and Export packet data from and to a lot of other capture programs. Ethereal is perhaps one of the best open source packet analyzers available today. One could think of a network packet analyzer as a measuring device used to examine what's going on inside a network cable. • Capture live packet data from a network interface. all that has changed. of course). .Ethereal WHAT IS ETHEREAL? Ethereal is a network packet analyzer.EXPERIMENT 11 Study of internet packet capturing tool . proprietary or both. such tools were either very expensive. In the past.

and words of encouragement started arriving. 1998.2. Not long after that Gilbert Ramirez saw its potential and contributed a low-level dissector to it. after several pauses in development. Gerald Combs needed a tool for tracking down networking problems and wanted to learn more about networking. • Colorize packet display based on filters. Unix: • Apple Mac OS X • BeOS • FreeBSD • HP-UX • IBM AIX • NetBSD • OpenBSD • SCO UnixWare/OpenUnix • SGI Irix • Sun Solaris/Intel • Sun Solaris/Sparc • Tru64 UNIX (formerly Digital UNIX) Linux: • Debian GNU/Linux • Gentoo Linux • IBM S/390 Linux (Red Hat) • Mandrake Linux • PLD Linux • Red Hat Linux • Rock Linux • Slackware Linux • Suse Linux Microsoft Windows: • Windows Me / 98 / 95 • Windows Server 2003 / XP / 2000 / NT 4.Within days.0 A brief history of Ethereal: In late 1997. in July 1998 as version 0. so Ethereal was on its way to success.0. Platforms Ethereal runs on: Ethereal currently runs on most UNIX platforms and various Windows platforms. Ethereal was initially released. Guy Harris of Network . so he started writing Ethereal as a way to solve both problems.• Search for packets on many criteria. In October. patches. bug reports.

Install the binaries into their final destinations Figure 4. you must: • Obtain a binary package for your operating system. or • Obtain the source and build Ethereal for your operating system. and so it is with Ethereal. 2. To use Ethereal. if you have downloaded the source. Installing Ethereal: As with all things. 3. This may involve building and/or installing other necessary packages. .Appliance was looking for something better than tcpview. Build the source into a binary. e. The following are the general steps you would use: 1. source or binary distribution. Download the relevant package for your needs. From the command line using the following: ethereal -i eth0 –k This will start Ethereal capturing on interface eth0. there must be a beginning.g. so he started applying patches and contributing dissectors to Ethereal.1: First Look of Ethereal HOW ETHEREAL CAPTURE THE PACKETS? Start Capturing: There are two methods you can use to start capturing packets with Ethereal: 1.

this brings up the Capture Options dialog box.2 : The "Capture Options" dialog box Running Capture: While the capture is running.2. The "Capture Options" dialog box When you select Start. Figure 4. from the Capture menu (or use the corresponding item in the "Main" toolbar).. By starting Ethereal and then selecting Start. the following dialog box is shown: This dialog box will inform you about the number of captured packets and the time since the capture ... Ethereal pops up the "Capture Options" dialog box as shown in figure below.. from the Capture menu.

You can then expand any part of the tree view by clicking on the plus sign (the symbol itself may vary) to the left of that part of the payload. and you can select individual fields by clicking on them in the tree view pane. . Viewing packets you have captured: Once you have captured some packets.3: Capture dialog box This dialog box will inform you about the number of captured packets and the time since the capture was started. which will bring up the selected packet in the tree view and byte view panes. you can view the packets that are displayed in the packet list pane by simply clicking on that packet in the packet list pane. or you have opened a previously saved capture file. The selection which protocols are counted cannot be changed.Figure 4.

while Ethereal is capturing. .Figure 4. if you selected "Update list of packets in real time" in the Ethereal Capture Preferences dialog box.4 Ethereal with a TCP packet selected for viewing You can also select and view packets the same way.

which is an advantage. Programming & Simulation demonstration o To study various features of Network Simulator & Network Emulator o To test a given script on Network Simulator platform and observe the behavior of the network with the help of the key parameters o To measure the performance of a network for a given topology o To understand the network setup with a network emulator o To implement different types of link characteristics and measure the performance by changing various parameters using NIST Net Concepts Network Simulator is a very powerful tool for studying the working of layers and related protocols. So we can see graphically how the packets are forwarded and traffic is handled in the network. so this can give the more realistic implementation and observation. Network Simulator includes The Network Animator. Syntax of this script can be understood by referring the NS_DOC. Its simulated output is considered to be valid for most of real protocol implementations. Though it is giving protocol stack independent performance. Network Simulator uses tcl script for simulation. but it is highly recommended by researchers around the world.nam file and then according to that it will create a topology identical to the script. The Network Animator uses the parameters from the script and writes it into . which is helping Network Simulator to support a graphical environment.PDF We can understand Network Simulator’s simulation process and tcl script format and The Network Animator graphical representation with the help of the following scripts: UDP #Create a simulator object set ns [new Simulator] #Define different colors for data flows $ns color 1 Blue $ns color 2 Red #Open the nam trace file set nf [open out.EXPERIMENT 12 Network Simulator-‘ns-2’: Installation.nam w] $ns namtrace-all $nf #Define a 'finish' procedure proc finish {} { global ns nf $ns flush-trace #Close the trace file close $nf #Execute nam on the trace file .

005 $cbr0 attach-agent $udp0 #Create a UDP agent and attach it to node n1 set udp1 [new Agent/UDP] $udp1 set class_ 2 $ns attach-agent $n1 $udp1 # Create a CBR traffic source and attach it to udp1 set cbr1 [new Application/Traffic/CBR] $cbr1 set packetSize_ 500 $cbr1 set interval_ 0.exec nam out.nam & exit 0 } #Create four nodes set n0 [$ns node] set n1 [$ns node] set n2 [$ns node] set n3 [$ns node] #Create links between the nodes $ns duplex-link $n0 $n2 1Mb 10ms DropTail $ns duplex-link $n1 $n2 1Mb 10ms DropTail $ns duplex-link $n3 $n2 1Mb 10ms SFQ $ns duplex-link-op $n0 $n2 orient right-down $ns duplex-link-op $n1 $n2 orient right-up $ns duplex-link-op $n2 $n3 orient right #Monitor the queue for the link between node 2 and node 3 $ns duplex-link-op $n2 $n3 queuePos 0.005 $cbr1 attach-agent $udp1 #Create a Null agent (a traffic sink) and attach it to node n3 set null0 [new Agent/Null] $ns attach-agent $n3 $null0 #Connect the traffic sources with the traffic sink $ns connect $udp0 $null0 $ns connect $udp1 $null0 #Schedule events for the CBR agents .5 #Create a UDP agent and attach it to node n0 set udp0 [new Agent/UDP] $udp0 set class_ 1 $ns attach-agent $n0 $udp0 # Create a CBR traffic source and attach it to udp0 set cbr0 [new Application/Traffic/CBR] $cbr0 set packetSize_ 500 $cbr0 set interval_ 0.

27 will be created After entering in this directory.0 "$cbr1 start" $ns at 4.tar.$ns at 0.bash_profile file in /root (6) After the completion of the installation goto ns-2.27 directory which is in the nsallinone-2.0 "finish" #Run the simulation $ns run OUTPUT:- Installation Procedure (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Copy ns-allinone-2. type .gz and press enter Directory of the name ns-allinone-2.gz file to /root Type tar xvzf ns-allinone-2.tcl (11) To modify the source code press INSERT and make changes and at last press ESC and give :wq for save and quit.0 "$cbr1 stop" $ns at 4.27.27 directory (7) In this directory goto ns-tutorial directory (8) In this directory goto examples directory (9) . (10) To run . .tcl files will be available there.tar./install and press enter After the completion of the installation set the library paths in .5 "$cbr0 stop" #Call the finish procedure after 5 seconds of simulation time $ns at 5.5 "$cbr0 start" $ns at 1.tcl files type ns filename.tcl To view source code type vi filename.27.