# ME 381

Mechanical and
Aerospace Control
Systems

Dr. Robert G. Landers

State Space Representation

State Space Representation

Dr. Robert G. Landers

Definitions

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The dynamic system’s state is a set of physical quantities, the
specification of which (in the absence of external excitation)
completely determines the system’s temporal evolution.
Note that the specific physical quantities that define the system’s
state are not unique, although their number (called the system order)
is unique.
In many situations there is an obvious choice of the state variables to
define the system, but there are also many cases in which the choice
of state variables is by no means obvious.

State Space Representation

Dr. Robert G. Landers

Definitions

3

In order to obtain a solution to a system of ordinary differential
equations it is necessary to specify a set of initial conditions.
The number of initial conditions that must be specified is equal to the
system order.
Since only one initial condition is needed to specify the solution of a
first–order equation, the number of first–order differential equations in
the mathematical model is equal to the system order. The dynamic
variables that appear in the system of first–order equations are called
the state variables.

State Space Representation

Dr. Robert G. Landers

State (Matrix) Equation
The set of first–order linear differential equations may be written in
the form

x t

A t x t

B t u t

x(t) is an k x 1 column vector (state vector)
A(t) is an k x k matrix (plant matrix)
B(t) is an k x m matrix (input matrix)
u(t) is an m x 1 column vector (input vector)
The dot superscript denotes differentiation with respect to time.

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Landers Output Equation The variables of interest (or measured variables) are y t C t x t D t u t y(t) is an p x 1 column vector (output vector) C(t) is an p x k matrix (output matrix) D(t) is an p x m matrix (feedforward matrix) Typically D(t) = 0 If A(t). the notation (t) is dropped and the system is called Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Note the output equation is a static equation 5 . C(t). and D(t) are not functions of time. B(t). Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.  y t 6  y t 11y t 6y t 6u t . Landers Example 1 6 Convert the differential equation below into state–space format where y(t) is the measured variable.

State Space Representation Dr. Robert G. Landers Example 1 7 Select the state variables as follows x1 t y t x2 t y t x3 t  y t The state variable differential equations are x1 t x2 t x2 t x3 t x3 t 6 x1 t 11x2 t 6 x3 t 6u t .

State Space Representation Dr. Landers Example 1 8 The state and output equations are x1 t x2 t x3 t y t 0 0 1 0 0 1 x1 t x2 t 0 0 u t 6 11 6 x3 t 6 x1 t 1 0 0 x2 t x3 t This system has one input and one output and is known as a Single– Input Single–Output (SISO) system . Robert G.

…. kth–1 derivative with respect to time x1 t y t x2 t y t  xk t d k 1y t dt k 1 . second. Landers 1st Companion Form 9 Assume the transfer function has the following form H s Y s U s sk a1s k 1 1  ak 1s ak Transforming the transfer function into a differential equation dk y t dt k d k 1y t a1 dt k 1  ak 1 y t ak y t u t The states are the output and its first. Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

State Space Representation Dr. Landers 1st Companion Form 10 The first k–1 first order differential equations are x1 t x2 t x2 t x3 t  xk 1 t xk t The last first order differential equation is derived from the original kth order differential equation xk t a1 xk t  ak 1 x2 t ak x1 t u t . Robert G.

Robert G.State Space Representation Dr. Landers 1st Companion Form 11 The state equation is x1 t x2 t  xk t 0 0  ak 1 0  ak The output equation is 1 0 1   y t   a1 x1 t x2 t  xk t 0 0 u t  1 x1 t x2 t 1 0  0  xk t 0u t .

. Landers 1st Companion Form 12 Assume the transfer function has the following form H s b1s k 1  bk 1s bk s k a1s k 1  ak 1s ak Y s Z s where Z s U s b1s k sk 1 Y s Z s Z s U s  bk 1s bk 1 a1s k 1 1  ak 1 s a k The system Z(s)/U(s) is the same as before (i. . the A and B matrices are the same as before using Z as the output).e. Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

State Space Representation Dr. Robert G. the output is y t d k 1z t b1 dt k 1  bk 1 z t bk z t Writing the output in terms of the states y t b1xk t  bk 1x2 t bk x1 t . Landers 1st Companion Form 13 The states are defined as x1 t z t x2 t z t  xk t d k 1z t dt k 1 Transforming Y(s)/Z(s) into a differential equation.

Landers 1st Companion Form 14 The state equation is the same as before x1 t x2 t  xk t 0 0  ak 1 0  ak The output equation is 1 0 1   y t   a1 bk x1 t x2 t  xk t bk 1 0 0 u t  1  b1 x1 t x2 t  xk t 0 u t .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

Landers 2nd Companion Form 15 Multiplying the transfer function by the characteristic polynomial sk a1s k 1  ak Y s b0 s k b1s k 1  bk U s Grouping terms in like powers of s sk Y s b0U s sk 1 a1Y s  bU s 1 akY s bkU s Dividing by sk and implicitly solving for Y(s) Y s b0U s 1 1 bU s a1Y s  k bkU s akY s 1 s s    Xk s 0 .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

Landers 2nd Companion Form 16 Multiplying by s sX k s s Y s b0U s a1Y s bU s 1 1 1 b2U s a2Y s  k 1 bkU s akY s s s    Xk 1 s Multiplying by s again sX k 1 s s2 Y s b0U s s Y s a2Y s b2U s 1 1 b3U s a3Y s  k 2 bkU s akY s s s    bU s 1 Xk Continuing sX1 s sk Y s akY s b0U s bkU s 2 s  s Y s ak X k s bk 1U s b0U s bkU s . Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

State Space Representation Dr. Landers 2nd Companion Form 17 The first order state equations are x1 t x2 t ak xk t x1 t ak 1 b0u t xk t bk u t b0u t bk 1u t  xk t xk xk t xk 1 2 1 t a2 xk t t a1 xk t The output equation is y t b0u t b0u t b0u t b2u t b1u t xk t . Robert G.

Robert G.State Space Representation Dr. Landers 2nd Companion Form 18 The state equation is x1 t x2 t  xk 1 t xk t 0 0  0 1 0  0 ak ak 1 0 1 0 ak      0 0  1 The output equation is y t a1 2 x1 t x2 t bk bk 1 ak b0 ak 1b0   xk 1 t xk t b2 a2b0 b1 a1b0 x1 t x2 t 0 0  1  xk t u t b0 u t .

State Space Representation Dr. Landers Example 2 19 For the system given below. Robert G. determine the first companion and second companion forms. d5y t dt 5 12 y t 6 u t 66 y t 66 u t 206  y t 320u t 345 y t 802u t 234 y t 792u t .

Landers Example 2 20 The state equation for the first companion form is x1 t x2 t x3 t 0 1 0 0 0 x1 t 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 x2 t 0 0 u t x4 t x5 t 0 0 0 0 1 234 345 206 66 12 x4 t x5 t x3 t 0 1 x1 t The output equation for the first companion form is x2 t y t 792 802 320 66 6 x3 t x4 t x5 t 0 u t .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

Landers Example 2 21 The state equation for the second companion form is x1 t x2 t x3 t x4 t x5 t 0 0 0 0 234 x1 t 792 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 345 206 x2 t 802 320 u t 0 0 1 0 66 0 0 0 1 12 x4 t x5 t x3 t 66 6 x1 t The output equation for the second companion form is x2 t y t 0 0 0 0 1 x3 t x4 t x5 t 0 u t .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

k–1) are known as the zeros and the quantities pi (i = 1. Robert G.…. . Landers Partial Fraction Expansion 22 Partial Fraction Expansion (PFE) is a technique to represent complex transfer functions by simpler transfer functions.….State Space Representation Dr. A general transfer function can be written as H s b1s k 1  bk 1s bk s k a1s k 1  ak 1s ak s zk 1 s zk 2  s z2 s z1 K s pk s pk 1  s p2 s p1 The quantities zi (i = 1.k) are known as the poles.

the transfer function can be written as H s b1s k 1  bk 1s bk s k a1s k 1  ak 1s ak c1 s p1 ck 1 c2  s p2 s pk 1 ck s pk To determine the coefficients ci (i = 1.State Space Representation Dr. Landers Partial Fraction Expansion 23 Assuming the poles are real and distinct. .k). multiple both transfer functions by the denominator of the original transfer function.…. Robert G. compare this equation with the original transfer function. and equate like coefficients in s.

State Space Representation Dr. Robert G. Landers Example 3 Determine the Partial Fraction Expansion of the following transfer function H s s b s s a 24 .

the transfer function is H s s b s s a c1 s c2 s a Multiplying both sides by s(s+a) s b c1 s a c2 s Equating like coefficients H s b/a 1 b/a s s a . Landers Example 3 25 Applying Partial Fraction Expansion. Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

every pair of complex conjugate poles will be represented by H s s2 c1s c2 2 2 s 2 . the transfer function can be written as H s s as b j s j s2 as b 2 2 s 2 In the partial fraction expansion. square root of –1)..e. Robert G. Landers Partial Fraction Expansion 26 For a system having a pair of complex conjugate poles located at j where j is the imaginary number (i.State Space Representation Dr.

Robert G. Landers Example 4 27 Determine the Partial Fraction Expansion of the following transfer function H s a s s2 2 s 2 2 .State Space Representation Dr.

the transfer function is H s c1 s a s s2 2 s Multiplying by the denominator of H(s) Equating like coefficients in s 2 2 s2 a c1s 2 c1 2 s c1 2 a c1 2 0 2 H s a 2 s 2 2 c1 2 a The transfer function is c2 s c3 2 2 s 2 2 s2 2 s 2 c2 s 2 c3s c3 0 c1 c2 2 a s 2 2 2 2 . Landers Example 4 28 Applying Partial Fraction Expansion.State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

where a(s) is a general polynomial in s with order k–1. can be written as H s a s s b c1 k s b c2 s b 2  ck ck 1 s b k 1 s b k .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G. Landers Partial Fraction Expansion 29 The transfer function of a system with real repeated roots.

State Space Representation Example 5 30 Determine the PFE of the following transfer function H s Dr. Robert G. Landers a s s b 2 .

Landers Example 5 31 Applying Partial Fraction Expansion. the transfer function is a H s s s b 2 Multiplying by the denominator of H(s) Equating like coefficients in s The transfer function is c1 s c3 c2 s b s b a c1 s b a H s c1b 2 0 a / b2 s 2 2 c2 s s b c1 2b c2b c3 a / b2 s b 0 a/b s b c3 s 2 c1 c2 .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

assuming the system has real distinct roots.State Space Representation Dr. Robert G. Landers Jordan Form – Real Distinct Roots 32 A general transfer function is H s Y s U s b1s k 1  bk 1s bk s k a1s k 1  ak 1s ak Applying Partial Fraction Expansion. the transfer function can be rewritten as H s r1 r2 s s1 s s2  rk s sk The individual first order state equations are x1 t s1 x1 t u t The output equation is  xk t y t sk xk t r1x1 t u t  rk xk t .

State Space Representation Dr. . Robert G. Landers Jordan Form – Real Distinct Roots 33 The state equation is x1 t  xk t s1    0  x1 t  1  u t 0  sk xk t 1 The output equation is y t r1  rk x1 t  0 u t xk t The system eigenvalues are the diagonal elements of the matrix A.

Robert G. Landers Jordan Form – Complex Conjugate Roots 34 The transfer function of a general second order system with complex conjugate poles is H s Y s U s j s 2 s 2 j j s j s2 2 s The conceptual state space representation is x1 t x2 t y t j 0 j x1 t 0 j j x1 t x2 t x2 t 0 u t 1 u t 1 2 2 .State Space Representation Dr.

Landers Jordan Form – Complex Conjugate Roots The practical state space representation is 0 x1 t x2 t y t 2 2 1 2 2 2 x1 t x2 t x1 t x2 t 0 u t 1 0u t 35 . Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

Landers Jordan Form – Real Repeated Roots 36 The transfer function of a system with a real repeated pole is H s Y s U s r1 r2 s a s a Writing the first term as a first order system Y1 s U s The state and output equation are x1 t Writing the second term as a first order system The state and output equation are 2  s a Y1 s X1 s X1 s U s ax1 t Y2 s X 2 s X2 s U s x2 t r x1 t r1 u t r2 ax2 t 1 s a y1 t 1 s a r1 x1 t X1 s r2 s aU s 1 2 y2 t r2 x2 t . Robert G.State Space Representation Dr.

State Space Representation Dr. Landers Jordan Form – Real Repeated Roots The set of first order state equations are x1 t x2 t y t y1 t ax1 t u t x1 t ax2 t  x t The output equation is 37  y t x 1 t r1 x1 t ax t  rx t . Robert G.

Robert G. Landers Jordan Form – Real Repeated Roots The state equation is x1 t x2 t  x 1 t x t a 0  0 0 x1 t 1 1 a  0 0 0 1 0 0 x2 t 0  u t  x 1 t x t     0 0  1 a  The output equation is y t r1 r2  r x1 t x2 t  x t 0 u t 0 0 38 .State Space Representation Dr.

B. For q systems.e. real. the A.State Space Representation Dr. complex conjugates. Robert G.. and real repeated). and C matrices in the state space representation are A A1 0  0 B1 0  A2    0  B2  0 0  Aq B Bq C C1 C2  Cq . the Jordan form is the concatenation of the different Jordan blocks. Landers Jordan Form – General System 39 If the system contains mixed types (i.

H s Y s U s 4 2 s 2 s 3 3 s 3 5 2 s 2 2 9 . B. Landers Example 6 40 Determine the A.State Space Representation Dr. and D matrices for the following transfer function. C. Robert G.

C. and D matrices are A 0 1 13 4 B 0 1 C 5 0 D 0 . the A. and D matrices are A 3 1 0 3 B 1 C 0 2 3 D 0 For the complex conjugate roots. C. B. the A.State Space Representation Dr. B. C. the A. Robert G. and D matrices are A 2 B 1 C 4 D 0 For the real repeated root. B. Landers Example 6 41 For the distinct real root.

Landers Example 6 42 The state space representation for the entire system is A 2 0 0 0 0 C 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 4 2 3 5 0 0 0 0 1 4 B 1 1 0 0 1 D 0 .State Space Representation Dr. Robert G.

To set up the system in transfer function form. [A. In state space form.C.[1 6 11 6]). To transform the system from state space to transfer function.B.DEN] = ss2tf(A.[1 6 11 6]).C.1) where 1 refers to the first input. In Matlab. Landers Matlab 43 A system is given below in both transfer function and state space forms.B.C. Robert G.B. sys = ss(A. sys = tf(6. commands operate on systems. Y s U s A 6 s3 6s 2 11s 6 0 1 0 0 0 1 6 11 6 0 B 0 6 C 1 0 0 D 0 .D). To transform the system from transfer function to state space.State Space Representation Dr. NUM = 6 and DEN = [1 6 11 6].D] = tf2ss(6.D. [NUM.