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Chapter II

Literature Review
2.1

Introduction

This chapter is based on the critical review of the literature available on marketing, relationship
marketing, and customer relationship management. The academic researchers from credible
sources like books and academic journals are used to access relevant studies. The introduction of
the selected company Ocado and its CRM strategies review is also part of this chapter.

2.2 Definitions of Marketing, RM, and CRM

2.2.1 Marketing
According to the UK Chartered Institute of Marketing, marketing is defined as, the management
process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably
(2010). It is clear from this definition that the key consideration is the customer and their needs. A
common misconception with the concept of marketing is that it refers solely to the production of
promotional materials. However, marketing encompasses much more; marketing is a management
process whereby the resources of the organisation are utilised to satisfy the needs of selected
customer groups... first and foremost an attitude of mind rather than a series of fundamental
activities (Wilson and Gilligan, 2005, p.8)
Marketing is not just a case of taking existing products and promoting them to more customers; it is
one of the core management processes of an organisation to assist them in improving current
products, and developing new ones. It also encompasses the staff within the organisation, the brand
perception within society, and any potential method of customers receiving a message about the
company, its products, or its services (Broady-Preston, 2008).
Fig. 2.1 Marketing Process

2.2.2 CRM
Customer relationship management (CRM) is often referred to in a similar vein to relationship
marketing. Although the two concepts differ slightly, with CRM concentrating purely on customer
relationships and incorporating systems and processes... to integrate all sources of information about
a customer (Palmer, 2011, p.210), they have a similar philosophy; both CRM and RM are
concerned with building successful long term and trusting relationships with customers for mutual
benefit (Broady-Preston and Felice, 2006, p.527). A successful customer interaction for a library is
one whereby the users needs are understood and taken into account when constructing the library
offering.

2.1.3 Relationship Marketing RM


Relationship marketing can be defined as business and marketing strategy that encompasses all
activities and technological methods must be revolved around customers (Anton and Hoeck,
2002). The approach of RM has got huge attention since 1990s and afterwards new approaches
have been generated such as one to one and CRM. CRM and one to one have suggested the same
aspects and are now being offered by various organizational experts.

2.3

Relation between Marketing and CRM

2.3.1 Relationship Marketing Concept


This concept was the foundation of marketing in which consumers get products and services
from suppliers. The marketing concept was derived from commodity-based culture; in which
goods are being produced by families in order to create cooperative civilization for example
selling of cereals requires some marketing aspects. The marketing word has been arrived from

the term market which implies that the place where group of people interchange products and
services. The Berry (1983) gave the useful approach called relationship marketing (RM), which
elaborates the method that bring customers and the manufacturers at a same platform. The goal
of RM is to create customers loyalty that will bring business for the company in the upcoming
future.

As per stated by Sheth (2002) that three key incidents have attracted companies towards RM.
Energy crises and subsequent economic inflation in 1970 decreased the demands of products and
services, which affected the profitability of organizations up to great extent. Sheth et al., (1988)
stated that the worsening situation of the market led companies to realize the need of marketing
approaches that transferred the approach of transactional marketing into relationship marketing.
Second, various researches concluded that traditional marketing was failed to create demands for
the products and services and new type of marketing would be needed to attract customers. Last
but not the least, product quality were creating issues for companies, so new programs have been
launched to develop a stronger bond between suppliers and companies. It enables companies to
get desired raw materials on time that help them to improve quality of goods. Sheth (2002)
discussed the three essential factors, which derives the fundamentals of relationship marketing.
The facility of internet and IT has helped companies to get engaged in customer
relationship marketing.
The techniques of selecting a desired segment has emerged the concept of relationship
marketing rather than selling their products to mass market.

The theory presented by Sheth and Sisodia (1999) suggested that organizations should
employed customers outsourcing in order to tackle non-profitable customers.

It was recommended by Gronroos (1990) that relationship marketing should be abandoned when
it is not suitable for the particular set of customers. As stated by Coviello et al. (1997) that RM
can be described as set of integrating activities involving various functions of the company, in an
attempt to built, facilitate and maintain relationships with people over time.

2.3.2 Customer relationship management concept


CRM has put emphasis on the technology that will enable organizations to built close
relationship with customers and manage their data in the organization. CRM includes the ERP,
the support of customers, the help desk, and data mining facilities (Peel, 2002). The elements of
CRM were introduced in 1990s, emphasizing on arranging activities of call centre (Roya Rahimi,
2007). Systems integration, enhanced communications, internet adoption, information
technologies, improved analytics and data management systems have contributed in the
development of CRM (Greenberg, 2001). After the emergence of information technology, CRM
has been seen as integrated techniques derived from technologies such as: data mining, websites,
data warehouse, helpdesk, sales, accounting, intranet/extranet and ERP. Information technology
accumulates useful integrated data in order to assemble relevant information needed to make a
close connection with consumers (Bose, 2002).
CRM utilizes the information technology which must be employed with the strategies of
relationship marketing in to make a closer relationship with customers (Gummesson, 2008).
Nairn (2002) has further elaborated that CRM is the business strategy for the long run time
period, which emphasized on accumulating and evaluating customer information. Different
customers should receive distinct treatment from the organization and best customers of the
organization should have right to get excellent services in order to enhance loyalty of customers,
which brings profitability for the organization.
The concept was endorsed by Buttle (2003) in his studies that CRM should be considered as core
business strategy, enabling the organization to form a linkage between internal and external

networks so as to build and distribute value to selected consumers. Buttle (2003) has explained
the significance of high-quality consumer data that should be gathered by the company to
enhance value in the packages (Ngai, 2005). These days everyone is familiar with the approach
of CRM but in 90s it was not considered a useful approach. It would be accurate to say that RM
talks about broader prospectus, while one to one and CRM encompasses the concept of suppliercustomer interaction. CRM has also utilized the strategies and frameworks of relationship
marketing, but it mainly points out the practical application of customer relationship (Evert
Gummesson, 2002).

2.4

Process of CRM and its features

The process of CRM started with the data collection activities in order to evaluate characteristics
of consumers, which must be employed in specific marketing activities (Swift, 2001). The
concept of CRM is very old, but it highlighted recently due to following reasons. 1) Customers
relationship has started recognizing as the useful competitive strength of the company in the
industry 2) Facilities of data warehousing and data mining has enabled companies to acquire
piles of data regarding customers in order to ensure the effective management of customers 3)
The technology of Internet has introduced new dimensions for the marketers and organizations,
through which information can be accessed promptly. It would be accurate to say that demand of
one to one market has been increased due to the technological facilities, enabling the
organizations to evaluate customers behaviour efficiently.

Parvatiyar and Sheth (2002) and Ngai et al. (2009) have categorized CRM into four major
aspects: (1) customer recognition, (2) customer attraction and attention, (3) consumer increment
or development and (4) customer management and retention. All these dimensions are closely
related to each other and should be employed together (Au et al., 2003). The above dimensions
of CRM have been illustrated in the following points.

1. Customer acquisition: It is the basic step of CRM, which includes customer


segmentation and analysis of selected segments. (Kracklauer et al., 2004). Customer
segmentation is the process, in which the whole market is sliced into certain groups and
each group contains homogenous customers (Woo et al., 2005). After customer
segmentation marketers get involved in the process of targeting, in which the selected
segments are chosen by company on the basis of customers characteristics. Qualitative
and quantitative data approaches facilitate the selection process and enable the company
to choose a particular group for targeting.

2. Customer attraction: At this stage, companies get engaged in allocation of resources and
other efforts to attract the selected segments. Customers can be attracted through certain
drivers such as price or distinct features in the product. The approach of direct marketing
is also considered the valuable driver in order to attract customers. It is the component of
the marketing mix, which motivates and encourages consumers to buy the product (Liao
and Chen, 2004; Prinzie and Vandenpoel, 2005). Direct mail and distribution of coupons
are the segments of direct marketing. However, it requires an appropriate technique to
clearly communicate the message to buyers (Kracklauer et al., 2004).

3. Customer development: This dimension has emphasized the concept of increment in the
transactional activity and profitability of individual customer. However, the integral part
of this dimension is to analyze the lifetime value of customers and to initiate the approach
of up/cross selling. Lifetime value of customers can be defined as the expected net
income of the company, which might come from the specific customer (Rosset et al.,
2003). Up/Cross selling can be considered as promotional activities, utilizes to enhance
the customers consumption of closely related products or services in the given company
(Prinzie and Van den Poel, 2006). These activities are based on the market basket
analysis to evaluate customer purchase behaviour (Kubat et al., 2003).

4. Customer retention: It is the most essential dimension of the CRM. As per stated by
Kracklauer et al. (2004), customer satisfaction is required to achieve customers retention.
Customer satisfaction is described as the expectations of customers (evaluated through
company image, personal standard, knowledge about alternatives, etc) with the actual
performance (evaluated through actual experience, the significant intuition regarding
products performance, product and service appropriateness with the requirement etc).
The value provided by the company to customer will be reflected in their perceptions
which generate customer retention. Utilization of high quality products generates the
affirmative and surprising feeling for customers, which leads the company to gain loyalty
of customers. CRM dimension have three components including bonus and loyalty
programs, complaints management and 1to1 marketing. One-to-one marketing requires
personalized and customized marketing schemes designed to support, analyze, detect and
forecast changes in customer behaviour (Chen et al., 2005a; Jiang and Tuzhilin, 2006).
Bonus and loyalty programs include certain supporting activities required to establish a
long term customer relationship. Loyalty programs involve service quality, credit scoring
and churn analysis to analyze competitive position as compared to competitors (Ngai et
al., 2009).

2.5

Relation between CRM and development of customer service

Evaluating customer attraction, the scholar Baesens et al. (2002) has applied the model of
purchase incidence on the direct mail organization of the Europe. The model was analyzed the
repurchase behaviour of customers. Buckinx et al. (2004) has designed a model, which predicts
the behaviour and for this purpose coupons were circulated by a FMCG retailer. The model
utilized the past behaviour of consumer and its demographics in order to predict about
repurchase. Ahn et al. (2006) gave an algorithm, which is used to classify the types of customers
and divides into non-purchasing and purchasing groups.
Brijs et al. (2004) have sorted out the issues regarding goods assortment analysis, and introduced
a microeconomic integer-programming model for product selection, utilizing all goods that are
bought in a set. Data has been gathered from the purchase department of automated convenience
store. Chen et al. (2005b) proposed a technique to elaborate and identify patterns of customer
purchasing behaviours and for this purpose data was utilized by database of stores. In their study
Prinzie and Van den Poel (2006) evaluated the purchase sequences of buyers to recognize crossbuying patterns required to analyze the chance of cross-selling. Later, Larivire and Van den Poel
(2005) have evaluated descriptive variables and their influence on the churn probability.
Variables, which includes in the research were historical customer behaviour, buyers
heterogeneity and some other traditional variables linked to intermediaries. These three variables
determined the three outcome measures: customers profitability evolution, partial-defection,
next buy.
Hung et al. (2006) predicted the churn prediction in mobile telecommunication, using service
register, call records, customer demographics, data regarding billing and contract data. A method
was established by Chen et al. (2005a), by integrating demographic variables, transactional
database and consumer behavioural variables to recognize and identify changes in the behaviour
of consumers. Ha et al. (2006) have described recommender system which suggests web content,
which enables the company to identify users preferences, while visiting a site. Cho et al. (2005)
gave a new framework about product recommendation and suggestion in order to predict
customer purchase behaviour. The empirical study of Chang et al. (2006) utilized consumers
online navigation to identify users search products and in this case digital cameras products
were considered in E-store.

2.6

Benefits of e-CRM

E-CRM or electronic CRM has been designed to cater the needs of the customer efficiently and
provide compensatory advantages to the customer. It enables the organization to achieve its
essential goals such as reducing costs and increasing profits. Advantages E-CRM
implementation has been explained by Web associates (2000).

2.6.1 Improved Customer Satisfaction


Due to E- commerce or electronic business, consumers are able to collect a huge amount of
information about products and competitors products. Online facilities provided to companies
have enabled them to create environment filled with information, which utilized by companies to
bring innovation in the product design. Those companies, which identify the desires of
consumers and serve their needs swiftly, are able to generate values and attain loyalty of
customers (Singh, 2001). Services should be provided to customers in accordance with their
needs and convenience
However, as compared to the conventional method of sales, services provided through ecommerce is more difficult as compared to the traditional methods as the relationship between
merchants and customers is week because of having less chances of meeting. Customers can

switch to competitors products, by browsing a new website. It has been seen that online
customers would like to serve promptly, together with high quality service. Various features,
convenience and reactive services are the demands of online customers (Zhao and Gutierrez,
2001). The e electronic commerce has provided solutions to advertisers and marketers, by
generating significant information about customers. Moreover, the efficient value chain and
various retail channels have enabled the companies to create maximum and customized
satisfaction (Adam et al., 1999).

2.6.2 Increase in Customer Loyalty


As per recommended by Turban et al. (2000) customer loyalty is based on customer satisfaction.
Jarvenpaa et al. (2001) have proposed the suggestion of Doney and Cannon (1997) that purchase
decisions are highly depended on the trust. The facility of self service in e-commerce must be
relevant, immediate, private and easily accessible: E-services provided by company should
include relevant factors such as desired goods and services can be searched as quickly as
possible, product features must be elaborated, safe electronic system, up to date information
about product should be available and feedback to customer queries should be given quickly.
These factors will earn loyalty of online customers and increase the likelihood of repeat
purchasing (Turban et al., 2000). As per suggested by Ruyter (2001, p. 186) that online service is
an interactive medium for buyers through which companies provide technology driven customer
service. It has strengthened the bond between customers and companies as companies are
providing value added packages and services through E-commerce. The new facilities have been
utilized by companies to generate personalized, customized and appropriate information about
customer. Customers appreciate companys efforts if details of facilities are available such as
delivery and payment details on B2C e-commerce.

2.6.3 Technology Advancement Support


Other features of E-services such as interactive and personalized customer communications,
accuracy and speed have improved the tracking facilities and also kept the records of
transactions. Moreover, 24x7 services are provided to consumers, which have enhanced loyalty
of consumers. Companies can provide quick feedbacks to customers and encouraged them that
their queries will be solved in accordance with their needs. Email, fax and e-mail have been
utilized to answer queries of customers regarding E-commerce.

Initially, the phone medium was used for interaction, handled by the staff of call centres, which
was later furnished by electronic commerce and technology driven products, which have
extended the productivity of traditional call centres and these days email, games and web
interactions that have been utilized to serve customers. The new e-front office integrates various
web channels for example computerized e-mail response, self service portals, call centre
negotiators or and advisors, web knowledge portal, etc. These centres are usually called
telewebs.

2.6.4 Enhancement of Service Design


The study of Ho and Wus (1999) concluded that following services launched by companies in ecommerce department have been liked by customers up to a great extent: product characteristics,
homepage presentation, information characteristics, technological characteristics and logistical
support. In order to provide logistical support, companies need to provide instant response to
consumers through fax or e-mail and should deliver goods as quickly as possible. Company
should also offer after sales service, which enables it to accumulate the response about products.
For this purpose companies need to install latest technological gadgets such as structured
information systems, modems, etc. The information factors enable the company to process and
generate authentic output information and transactions to be conducted in the secured
environment.

2.7

The Online Retail Environment

The progress of Internet medium and e-commerce has attained new hikes in last two decades
(Constantine & Lockwood, 1999). Nevertheless, the Internet medium is the best platform for the
deliverance of products at cheaper rate, but it has also raised some questions regarding customer
satisfaction and loyalty. As the medium has also permitted consumers to shift to competitors
products promptly, so it would be accurate to say that e-businesses have increased competition
between companies. Heskett (1994) has put an emphasis on the satisfaction and loyalty which is

needed to achieve extraordinary financial performance. Certain risks have also associated with
the e-business as there is a high chance that company might lose potential customers, when the
customers are unable to approach due to some technical issues or other reasons.

E commerce usually forces to design aesthetic websites, which might have an appealing look but
will create frustration as customers are unable to utilize it appropriately. As per suggested by
Ody (2000), speed and convenience are the two primary factors that forces customers to get
engaged in the online transactions. Ziff-Davies (2000) points out that the concept of the Internet
has raised customers' sensitivity regarding efficient service. So if the company designs websites
that is easily approachable and accessible to customers, it will enhance the satisfaction of
customers. As suggested by Donlan (1999) that delivery is one of the significant components in
meeting the needs, expectations and perceptions of customers. So the company should keep in
mind these factors, while designing the website of the company, which will be utilized to attract
customers. The decision of adding any particular feature in the website must be based on the
needs and segments of customers, as these features will add value in the companys package
(Cox & Dale, 2002).

2.8

Ocado- Company profile

Ocado was formed by three ex-Goldman Sachs directors (Jonathan Faiman, Jason Gissing and Tim
Steiner) in early 2000 and was originally named Last Mile Solutions. Financed by a 46 million
investment and 40% ownership stake by Waitrose, Ocado has taken a deliberate and carefully
planned approach to developing its business, under co-Managing Directors Nigel Robertson and
Roger Whiteside and Logistics Director Robert Gorrie. Although Ocado is closely associated with

Waitrose, it is a separate business that also delivers own-brand goods. In 2011, Waitrose relaunched its own website to compete with Ocado within the M25 area, raising tensions between
the two companies. Waitroses existing deal to supply Ocado with products is due to expire in
2020.The company is separated from Waitrose only domain after developing new opportunities in
own brands and other labels. After this separation, company has defined new ways in online grocery
purchasing with a customer oriented and fast delivery model.

This approach is in stark contrast with the shoot for the stars approach taken by many of the failed
Internet grocers such as Webvan and Home Grocer. Ocado, renamed from Last Mile Solutions in late
2001, spent the better part of 2 years developing and planning all aspects of its business with a core
group of 15 20 employees. This planning phase was followed by a phased rollout of service,
starting north of London and working down toward central London between March and July of 2002.
This approach is based on recognition that the idea of mass-market home delivery requires new
techniques on the part of both companies and customers. Equally important to the long-term success
is the understanding that customers need to be nurtured and guided to learn a new (and hopefully
easier) way of shopping for groceries About 20 miles north of central London, in the town of
Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England a 300,000 square foot distribution centre is in its 13th year of
operation. This distribution centre is the centre of Ocados operations built to handle orders placed
over the Internet for home delivery to customers in the London metropolitan area. The ultimate
capacity of the distribution centre is equivalent to the sales volume of approximately 20 stores.

Ocado was listed on London Stock Exchange on July 2010 and is member of FTSE 250 Index.
The company is operating on a warehouse model, deprived of physical stores and operating as an
online business. Ocado operates in Englands South East, South Coast, Midlands, North West
and most of the Yorkshire. (History, Ocadogroup.com)

2.8.1 Ocado Customer Oriented Operations


Ocado is an online business; it has also launched iPhone, iPod touch, iPad and Android device
applications which are most convenient way to shop for groceries. People do not require desktop
PCs or laptops to shop online; they can use their phones to shop for groceries. Ocado allows its
customers to price match with other main grocery stores in the UK. Ocado has launched online
price match with its competitor store Tesco. Ocado is one of the rapidly growing online
businesses in the UK with delivery area expanded to cover over 10 million households.

In addition to its current area of strategic focus, the company intends to investigate growth
opportunities by improving the customer offering continually through maintaining and
improving the customer experience; increasing its core product range; and continuing to offer
value to customers (Annual Report 2013, Ocado limited). Ocado sells more than 20,000 different
products, vast majority of these products are sourced through Waitrose, a leading high quality
UK supermarket. Approximately 4,300 of the products sold by Ocado are Waitrose-branded
products. Ocados product range includes a small but expanding range of Ocado branded
products (ocadogroup.com).
Choices of the different range of products enable the customers to buy the products that match
their lifestyles and are within their budget. Also the availability of every type of product on one
channel increases the chances of sale because customer did not want to go elsewhere if he/she
finds everything at one place. It helped consumers to spend less without compromising on choice
or quality.

2.9

Process of CRM in Ocado

2.9.1 CRM Challenges


When building a business from scratch and seeking to achieve rapid growth it is critical to get a
marketing campaign that rapidly builds brand awareness. Management of Ocado realizes that there is

great pressure on her to launch the business and attract customers to both a new name and a new way
of buying groceries. The marketing effort faces two key, yet conflicting challenges. First, it is
essential to grow the market very quickly in order to fill up the Hatfield distribution centre. Similarly,
Ocado is under substantial pressure to fill its Hatfield facility (designed to handle the equivalent
business of 20 supermarkets) with orders since the break-even point for such a facility is at least 70%
utilization.
The second key marketing challenge is in many ways in conflict with filling the distribution centre.
While it is important to generate orders, it is also critical to generate orders that fit together in some
type of densely concentrated pattern in order to facilitate delivery In short, the ideal goal is to attract
customers in closely packed areas. In theory this is possible, but in practice there are numerous
complicating factors including variations in daily ordering patterns, travel times and order sizes.

2.9.2 Home Delivery Market of Ocado


Home delivery of groceries is both an attractive concept for harried, busy consumers who dislike
their weekly shopping duties and an amazingly complex challenge for businesses to achieve at a
reasonable cost. The ideal target customer for this service is a person who leads an extremely busy
and hectic life, dreads visiting busy grocery stores (where they often are jostling with fellow busy
people who also cant get to the store any other time) and has a fairly high income. While the group
of customers that fit this profile will never be a majority of the market, it has been estimated that
there is a market of between 3 billion and 9 billion (5 15% of the total market) in the U.K. and
between $5 billion and $25 billion (1% - 5% of the total market) in the U.S. Grocery stores are
increasingly looking at home delivery as an alternative channel to grow their business and capture or
divert business from other grocers in a cutthroat industry.

Ocado seeks to rollout its service by focusing tightly on fairly dense geographic areas and by
developing a high route density within each area. Simultaneously, Ocado has tightly profiled its
sweet spot customers: according to Katie these customers are primarily female, with both spouses
working and with one or more children under 15 at home. A big selling point to these customers is to
avoid trolley rage from having to shop in crowded stores at late hours. Ocado is selling more than
just groceries; it is selling a personal relationship that saves time for its time-starved customers.

Rather than employing mass media techniques such as television, radio and newspaper/magazine
advertising, Ocado concentrates on direct marketing to a focused area. In order to build initial
customer awareness, Ocado developed a four step-marketing plan:
1. Every customer in the phased roll-out areas was sent an introductory letter. This letter
described the Ocado business model, emphasized the partnership with Waitrose and provided
an initial introduction to the website for ordering.
2. Potential customers were sent an introductory packet including an Ocado branded coffee
packet along with an invitation to sit and have a cup of coffee with Ocado. The idea was
to introduce Ocado as a relaxed, value-added business that would help free up customers
time.
3. The third mail out was a follow-on packet with an offer of 10 off each of a customers first
five orders. This packet also contained an Ocado apron.

nd

4. The 2 Follow-on packet was sent several weeks after the apron packet. This packet served as
a reminder to customers and included an Ocado oven mitt.

Another important component of the marketing campaign is backfilling, which involves targeting
specific areas that have already been direct marketed and seeking to increase route density. This is
done through follow-up direct mailings, passing out fliers and advertising at train stations and by
using available customer service team members (CSTMs that deliver customer orders). In the early
stages of rollout, the CSTMs are likely to have routes that include a lot of downtime in which no
deliveries are scheduled (this is necessary to ensure that deliveries during peak periods are met).
Rather than having CSTMs return to the central DC or simply wait around for the next delivery,
Ocado uses the CSTMs to approach potential customers on a door-to-door basis in areas where there
are a high proportion of sweet spot customers. The CSTMs are trained to introduce themselves and
the Ocado service, leave a brochure and generally provide a personalization of the service.

2.10

Current trend/present situation with connection to CRM

Ocados focus on customer experience quality is causing its competitors to rethink how they
manage logistics. The major supermarkets are now investing heavily in "dark stores" and more
accurate forms of stock selection as they seek to combine efficiency with customer satisfaction.
Ocado knows customers are willing to pay a small but significant premium for excellent
experiences. Since the depths of the double-dip recession, a significant retail trend has emerged
which has helped to sort the winners from the losers; brands with a crystal clear target consumer
and proposition have tended to do well, while those which have tried to deliver customer
experience to suit multiple segments have largely failed.
For many shoppers the online grocery marketplace is ideal because all operators are equally
convenient; they all deliver to your door and can be accessed from any device, wherever you
may be. As a result, brands operating in this space live or die by range, pricing and the customer
experience they deliver. Ocado knows its customer well. It knows they are willing to pay a small
but significant premium for excellent experiences. Most importantly - once you have the hygiene

factor of range in place - it understands what really matters is minimising substitutions,


maximising flexibility and offering person to person service.
Ocado's model is optimised to deliver a perfect customer experience. Its warehouse-based model
means the picking process is rapid and easier to manage. Item locations can also be designed for
picking efficiency, rather than worry about shopper preferences. Ocado's target customers have
well understood expectations and its infrastructure allows it to stay ahead of the pack. Asda and
Tesco have "dark stores" established, but the likelihood is that most customers, most of the time,
are still serviced from standard store-pick models.

2.11

Conclusion

This chapter reviewed the available literature in customer centric relationship marketing
approaches that are used to develop the customer relationship management programs. The CRM
approaches designed for the company are based on four pillars of customer identification,
retention, satisfaction, and long term commitment. ON the basis of CRM models, the review on
the benefits and disadvantages of electronic CRM is performed as the company selected for
study possessed a state of art e-CRM system. The latter part of the chapter is comprised on the
history, achievements, CRM approaches, and challenges faced in competitive retail market for
the selected company Ocado. This chapter provides a comprehensive discussion and theoretical
framework to design the conceptual framework and research design as presented in the next
chapter of research methodology.

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