PART II ENGLISH

PAPER-III DRAMA, ENGLISH FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS & COMPOSITION
(UEN8E31)
UNIT-I –(Drama)
1.Macbeth by Shakespeare
UNIT-II (ENGLISH FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Words
Pairs of words
Synonyms
Antonyms
Choosing the correct pair
Analogy questions
Spotting the errors
Coherence
Reading Comprehension

UNIT-III (Composition)
1.Resume Writing
2.Drafting Advertisements
3.Report Writing
4.Memorandum
5.Minutes of the Meetings

UNIT I (DRAMA)
MACBETH ESSAYS

1. Analyse the character of Macbeth.
(Or)
How do you bring out the evilness in Macbeth?
(Or)
Justify the fall of Macbeth by discussing his character.

Introduction:
The character of Macbeth is a classic example of a Shakespearean tragic hero.
At the beginning of the play Macbeth is the brave soldier and a talented general, and
the honorable Thane of Glamis. The rugged gloomy landscape of the Scottish highlands
forms a perfect background for Macbeth’s character.
Degeneration of Macbeth:
There are many factors which contribute to the degeneration of Macbeth of which the
first factor which contribute greatly to Macbeth's degeneration is the prophecy which
was told to him by the witches, As a result of the prophecy curiosity aroused in Macbeth
to become King of Scotland. As the play progresses, Macbeth slowly relies on the
witches prophecies. The next main factor for Macbeth’s degeneration is caused by his
wife and the third factor is his own ambition.
Macbeth’s ambitious nature:
Macbeth’s ambition to become the king of Scotland makes him a murderer. He
commits crime after crime. His over ambitiousness is the cause for his fall. His tendency

of ambitiousness is strengthened by his wife a lady with iron will and strong
determination.
Macbeth’s Imagination:
His conscience of imagination makes him to believe the supernatural elements.
He is very much disturbed in his mind by the words of the witches. He imagines as if he
has seen a bloody dagger before the murder of Duncan. He imagines that the ghost of
Banquo is sitting in the hall. His mind is fully occupied by his imagination so he reacts
brutally. His imagination is also a cause for his downfall. His conscience is continuously
misguided by his imagination.
Lack of will power:
Though Macbeth is ambitious he lacks will power. He just blindly listens to the
opinion of others. He has never analyzed what will be the consequence of the murder of
Duncan. He blindly follows Lady Macbeth’s words. His sense of insecurity makes him to
murder Banquo, and the wife and children of Macduff.
Conclusion:
The prophecies given to him by the witches, Lady Macbeth's influence and plan,
and his intensified ambition, all contributed greatly to his degeneration of character
which resulted to his downfall and death. Therefore Macbeth character displays strong
signs of a tragic hero, making him the ideal classic example and degenerates’ him from a
noble man to violent individual.

2)

Character analysis of Lady Macbeth
(or)
Comment on the idea that Lady Macbeth is the fourth witch in the play.
(or)
Discuss the ambition of Lady Macbeth

Introduction:
Lady Macbeth fulfills her role among the nobility is well respected like Macbeth.
King Duncan calls her "our honored hostess." In “Macbeth” Lady Macbeth plays the
vital character. She is one of the main causes for the downfall of Macbeth. She is not a
normal woman with tenderness and politeness. Unlike Macbeth she has a strong will
power.
Her Will Power:
Lady Macbeth is very strong in her ambition. The ambition of Macbeth is
commented as ‘Valuating Ambition’ but the ambition Lady Macbeth had is a rigid one.
She will do anything to achieve what she wants.
Lady Macbeth a Lady of Courage:
Lady Macbeth is a person of iron will and strong determination hence she is
referred as ‘fiend-like’. Her mind is a devils dwelling place. She is the fourth ‘witch’ who
motivates her husband to kill King Duncan. She is a lady with self control and practical
sense. For example, after committing the murder, Macbeth is horrified. He does not know
what to do next. Lady Macbeth displays admirable self-control and resourcefulness.
When the knocking at the gate is persistent, she hurries up Macbeth to go and wash his
hands and prepare himself to receive visitors. Thus she retains her balance and coolness
and helps her husband in maintaining an appearance of innocence.

Feminine Nature:
Though Lady Macbeth is appreciated for her strong will power, she has deep and
sincere love for her husband. She decides to make Macbeth the king of Scotland. When
Lady Macbeth was ready to kill King Duncan herself, she could not murder King Duncan
because he reminded her of her father.
“had he not resembled
My father as he slept, I had done it.”
These are the words of Lady Macbeth to reveal her womanly nature.

Her Lack of Imagination:

Due to lack of imagination Lady Macbeth fails to understand her husband’s real
nature. She forgets to think about the consequences of crime. She criticizes him that he
suffers from cowardice. After the murder of the king she convinces him by say ing,
“A little water clears us of this deed’’

Conclusion:

Later, though, the burden of Lady Macbeth's conscience becomes too great for
her and her mental and physical condition deteriorates. Lady Macbeth in her
sleepwalking tries to cleanse her hands of the blood of Duncan and Macduff's family.
She becomes weak and feels that the whole perfume of Arabia cannot remove the
blood smell from her hands. Towards the end she has created a sense of pity in the
readers mind.

3)

Analyse the character of Banquo
(Or)
Compare the brevity of Banquo with that of Macbeth.
(Or)
How does the prophesies play the fate of Banquo

Introduction:
Banquo is a brave soldier and a successful General. He is similar to Macbeth in his
brevity and sincerity. The people respected Banquo as they respected Macbeth. Banquo
is called the foil to Macbeth.
Banquo’s Honesty:
He is considered as the noblest character in the play. The three witches gave
prophesies for Banquo also. But he does not give any chance for his temptation t o
dominate him. He gave less importance to the words of the witches.
Banquo in contrast to Macbeth:
The witches predict a meteoric rise in Macbeth’s position in the same way they
foretell the future of Banquo. That Banquo’s descendents will become the rulers of
Scotland. But he has no interest to find out the possibility. But Macbeth fights with his
conscience to get the kingdom.
Banquo’s death:
Banquo is the only person who know about the prophesy. Banquo suspects that
Macbeth has come to power by murdering king Duncan. He also suspects that Macbeth
is waiting for a chance to murder him. So, he tries to escape with his son Fleance. But he
gets stabbed by the hirelings sent by Macbeth, but Fleance escapes to Wales.

The ghost of Banquo:
In reality Banquo didn’t have the guts to revolt against Macbeth. But the ghost
unnerves Macbeth so much that he draws up a plan to destroy all the suspects one by
one.As he himself says, he begins wading through blood.

4)

Discuss the Supernatural Element in ‘Macbeth’.
(or)
Discuss the role played by the witches.

Introduction:
The supernatural element figures large in many of Shakespeare’s tragedies. These
supernatural elements will be one among the main cause of the tragedy in the play.
Description about the witches:
The witches in Macbeth have an objective existence. The witches are females but
have beards. Their fingers are choppy and lips, skinny. They have absolute control over
the elements. They can raise tempests, thunder, and rain. They can make themselves
visible or invisible and fly from place to place.
The first appearance of the witches:
The witches first meet Macbeth when he is returning from the battle. The
witches make two pleasant predictions about Macbeth’s future – he will be made Thane
of Cawdor and then he will become the King of Scotland. A few minutes later a
messenger brings Macbeth the news that he has been promoted to the position of the
Thane of Cawdor. The first prophecy of the witches is fulfilled. Macbeth’s ambition is
kindled.
The witches predict that Banquo’s descendants will become the future rulers of
Scotland. As Banquo has no ambition, he doesn’t give any consideration to their words.

The second appearance of the witches:
Tempted by the witches’ prophecy, Macbeth murders suspect after suspect.
Banquo’s son Fleance and Macduff escapes from being murdered. Macbeth consults the
witches to find out how best he can safeguard himself. The witches befool him by telling
him that his position will be unsafe only when Birnam Wood moves and a son not born
of a woman attacks him. As these are impossibilities, Macbeth thinks that his position is
safe. Thus Macbeth meets his tragic death because of the witches.
The ghost of Banquo:
Unlike the witches, the ghost of Banquo has no objective existence. He is visible
only to Macbeth and not to others even to his wife. When Macbeth recovers his poise,
the ghost disappears.
Conclusion:
Thus the supernatural witches cause Macbeth’s ruin.

UNIT –II
ENGLISH FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS
1, 2 & 3 WORDS, SYNONYMS & ANTONYMS

Word

Synonym

Synonym

abandon

discard

vacate

accord

agree

grant

adversity

difficulty

misfortune

affluent

plentiful

rich

aggravate

annoy

infuriate

alleviate

lighten

mit igate

amenable

agreeable

favorable

anguish

distress

sorrow

apathetic

dispirited

lifeless

arrogant

disdainful

imperious

astonish

confound

overwhelm

atrocious

appalling

detestable

augment

add

enlarge

avoid

ignore

shun

awkward

graceless

inept

baffle

confuse

deceive

banal

common

plain

barren

desolate

sterile

berate

criticize

disapprove

betray

deceive

fool

bias

inclination

predisposition

bitter

acrid

sour

blend

combine

mix

bliss

happiness

joy

bluff

boast

feign

bold

daring

fearless

bonus

award

gift

bother
brief

annoy
concise

irritate
short

brilliant

clever

intelligent

brisk

fast

swift

budget

allot

plan

candid

honest

truthful

caricature

cartoon

imitation

casual

informal

natural

category

classification

division

cease

desist

stop

chaotic

disordered

messy

cherish

esteem

love

circumvent

avoid

go around

commemorate

celebrate

honor

compensate

balance

recompense

competent

able

capable

conceive

design

plan

confirmation

acknowledgement

proof

contradict

deny

oppose

contribution

donation

grant

courteous

polite

well- mannered

craving

desire

longing

credulous
damp

confident
moist

trustful
wet

dare

challenge

defy

decay

decline

rot

decent

honorable

pure

dense

filled

packed

designate

name

select

detain

hold

keep

disclose

announce

reveal

dogma

belief

view

durable

constant

lasting

dwindle

abate

diminish

eager

earnest

keen

eccentric

abnormal

idiosyncratic

elaborate

embellish

enhance

emanate

arise

radiate

embezzle

purloin

steal

eminent

distinguished

prominent

encourage

foster

induce

endure

last

persist

essential

cultured

learned

essential

basic

necessary

estimate

guess

predict

evaluate

appraise

judge

exhaust

deplete

empty

exhilarated

cheerful

zestful

explicit

definite

specific

fastidious

exacting

particular

federation

alliance

band

feeble

helpless

infirm

fervor

intensity

passion

feud

argument

dispute

filth

dirt

squalor

flatter

compliment

praise

fleet

nimble

swift

frivolous

inconsequential

trivial

frugal

prudent

saving

furious

angry

outraged

generous

benevolent

unself ish

genuine

actual

real

glare

gleam

glisten

gloomy

cheerless

dim

goad

provoke

badger

grasp
greed

grab
avarice

hold
longing

guarantee

assure

pledge

guile

cunning

deceit

gullible

credulous

unsuspicious

habitual

accustomed

regular

handicap

disability

disadvantage

harass

annoy

disturb

harmless

innocuous

inoffensive

harsh

hard

coarse

hasty

abrupt

hurried

haughty

arrogant

pretentious

humiliate

humble

shame

hygiene

cleanliness

sanitation

hypocrisy

duplicity

falseness

ideal

goal

perfection

idle

lazy

unoccupied

ignorant

stupid

unintelligent

illogical

incongruent

rambling

illustrious

eminent

famous

imitate

copy

reflect

immense

huge

mammoth

impartial

candid

impersonal

impatient

anxious

eager

implicate

accuse

insinuate

importune

beg

solicit

inadvertent

accidental

unintentional

indifferent

apathetic

disinterested

isolate

detach

quarantine

jargon

argot

slang

jovial

genial

merry

judge

estimate

referee

justification

excuse

reason

juvenile

adolescent

immature

keen

clever

observant

label

brand

classify

labor

toil

work

lead

direct

proceed

lean

slim

thin

leave

abandon

desert

liberal

copious

unrestrained

liberal

lenient

open- minded

limitation

boundary

constraint

lucid
lucky

clear
auspicious

understandable
fortunate

mad

furious

irate

manage

administer

control

manipulate

control

shape

marginal

borderline

limited

match

agree

correspond

maze

complexity

labyrinth

meditate

ponder

think

memorial

commemoration

monument

mention

allude

refer to

merge

blend

fuse

narrow

confined

restricted

nature

aspect

character

necessary

mandatory

requisite

negate

contradict

refute

negligent

careless

remiss

negotiate

bargain

deal

nice

affable

benign

noble

aristocratic

distinguished

novice

beginner

nonprofessional

nuisance

annoyance

offense

obedient

faithful

loyal

objection

disapproval

protest

obligatory

compulsory

required

observe

notice

watch

obvious

conspicuous

definite

offend

anger

irritate

offer

bid

proposal

omen

premonition

sign

omit

exclude

remove

opportune

advantageous

auspicious

pacify

appease

placate

pain

ache

discomfort

paramount

chief

leading

partisan

biased

dogmatic

passive

inactive

lethargic

pause

break

cease

permeate

diffuse

disseminate

perpetuate

endure

preserve

perplex

astonish

baffle

persecute

afflict

harass

radiate

effuse

emanate

radical
range

basic
anger

fundamental
furor

rank

arrange

classify

realize

accomplish

fulfill

recalcitrant

obstinate

stubborn

receptacle

container

repository

reconcile

atone

conciliate

regret

deplore

grieve

reliable

dependable

trustworthy

sanction

approval

permit

scope

aim

extent

section

division

portion

settle

adjust

compromise

shallow

superf icial

trivial

shrewd

careful

calculating

significant

distinctive

important

slight

delicate

slender

spontaneous

impromptu

unplanned

spread

announce

broadcast

stabilize

balance

steady

tame

domesticate

subdue

tangle

intertwine

twist

temper

mood

nature

tendency

inclination

trend

term

cycle

duration

thrift

conservation

prudence

tough

aggressive

unyielding

transfer

convey

exchange

tumult

agitation

turbulent

disordered

violent

vain

boastful

inflated

valid

authorized

legitimate

variety

assort ment

diversify

verify

authenticate

substantiate

Exercise :
Write the Antonyms for the above Synonyms

commotion

3.Homonyms
Homonyms, or homophones, are words that are pronounced the same but have
different meanings. They are usually spelled differently.

There are two or more homonyms in each sentence. Read the sentences
carefully and then underline the homonyms. The first two sentences have been
done for you.
1.

The wind blew my blue shirt into the pool.

2.

Cheryl rode along as we rowed the boat from the island to the lakeside road.

3.

I’ve never seen such a beautiful scene.

4.

We want a site for our home that will be out of sight.

5.

The seam in the tent doesn’t seem to hold back the rain.

6.

Due to the dry weather, we do not see any dew on the grass.

7.

I knew they had a new gnu at the zoo.

8.

Some people know that you add to find the sum.

9.

They’re hanging their coats over there.

10. I ate the eight cakes that were on my plate.
11. How many ways can I tell him that he weighs too much?
12. They banned the crude band from playing at the concert.
13. She only won one ticket to the show.
14. We must raze the old building before the sun’s rays can raise the temperature.
15. We’ll find a tropical isle where I’ll walk down the aisle with my bride.
16. You’re crazy if you pierce your ankle!

4.ANALOGY
Directions:
In each of the following questions,the re is a certain relationship between two given
words on one side of : : and one word is given on another side of : :while another word is to
be found from the given alte rnatives,having the same relation with this word as the words
of the given pair bear. Choose the correct alternative.
1 . Moon : Satellite : : Earth :?
(A) Sun (B) Planet (C)Solar System (D) Asteroid
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Moon is a satellite and Earth is a Planet .
2 . Forecast : Future : : Regret :?
(A) Present (B) Atone (C)Past (D)Sins
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Forecast is for Future happenings and Regret is for past actions .
3. Influenza : Virus : : Typhoid : ?
(A) Bacillus (B)Parasite (C)Protozoa (D) Bacteria
Ans: (D)
Explanation: First is the disease caused by the second .
4. Fear : Threat : : Anger : ?
(A)Compulsion (B)Panic (C)Provocation (D)Force
Ans: (C)
Explanation: First arises from the second .
5. Melt : Liquid : : Freeze : ?
(A)Ice (B)Condense (C)Solid (D)Crystal
Ans: (C)
Explanation: First is the process of formation of the second .
6. Clock : Time : : Thermometer : ?
(A)Heat (B)Radiation (C)Energy (D)Temperature
Ans: (D)
Explanation: First is an instrument used to measure the second .
7. Muslim : Mosque : : Sikhs : ?
(A)Golden Temple (B)Medina (C)Fire Temple (D)Gurudwara
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Second is the pace of worship for the first
. 8. Paw : Cat : : Hoof : ?

(A)Horse (B)Lion (C)Lamb (D)Elephant
Ans: (A)
Explanation: First is the name given to the foot of the second .
9. Eye :Myopia : : Teeth : ?
(A)Pyorrhea (B)Cataract (C)Trachoma (D)Eczema
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Second is a disease of the first.
10. Tractor : Trailer : : Horse : ?
(A)Stable (B)Cart (C)Saddle (D)Engine
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Second is pulled by the first
. 11. Scribble : Write : : Stammer : ?
(A)Walk (B)Play (C)Speak (D)Dance
Ans: (C)
Explanation: First is an improper form of the second.
12. Flower : Bud : : Plant : ?
(A) Seed (B)Taste (C)Flower (D)Twig
Ans: (A)
Explanation: First develop from the second .
13. Errata : Books : : flaws:?
(A)Manuscripts (B)Metals (C)Speech (D)Charter
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Errata comprises from the books.Similarly, Flaws are the defects in the metals.
14. Gun : Bullet : : Chimney : ?
(A)Ground (B)House (C)Roof (D)Smoke
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Second comes out of the first .
15. Breeze : Cyclone : : Drizzle : ?
(A)earth quake (B)Storm (C)Flood (D)Down pour
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Second is more intense than the first .
16. Car : Garage : : Aeroplane : ?
(A)Port (B)Depot (C)Hanger (D)Harbour
Ans: (C)
Explanation: First is temporarily parked in the second .
17. Race : Fatigue : : Fast : ?

(A)Food (B)Appetite (C)Hunger (D)Weakness
Ans: (C)
Explanation: First causes the second .
18. Candle : Wax : : Paper :?
(A)Wood (B)Tree (C)Bamboo (D)Pulp
Ans: (D)
Explanation: First is made from the second
. 19. Acting : Theater : : Gambling : ?
(A)Casino (B)Club (C)Bar (D)Gymn
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Second is the place for performing the first .
20. Venerate : Worship : : Extol : ?
(A)Glorify (B)Homage (C)Compliment (D)Recommend
Ans: (A)
Explanation: The words in each pair are synonyms .
21. Water : Convection : : Space : ?
(A)Conduction (B)Transference (C)Vacuum (D)Radiation
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Second is the mode of transference of heat by the first .
22. Growth : Death : : Increase : ?
(A)Ease (B)decrease (C)Tease (D)Cease
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Second puts an end to the activity denoted by the first .
23. Oxygen : Burn : : Carbon dioxide : ?
(A)Isolate (B)Foam (C)Extinguish (D)Explode
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Oxygen helps in burnings while carbon dioxide extinguished fires .
24. Dog : Bark : : Goat : ?
(A)Bleat (B)Howl (C)Grunt (D)Bray
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Second is noise produced by the first .
25. Grain : Stock : : Stick : ?
(A)Heap (B)Bundle (C)Collection (D)String
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Second is collection of the first .
26. Nurture : Neglect : : Denigrate : ?

(A)Reveal (B)Extol(C)Recognize (D)Calumniate
Ans: (B)
Explanation: The words in each pair are antonyms .
27. Planet : Orbit : : Projectile : ?
(A)Trajectory (B)Track (C)Milky way (D)Path
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Second is the path traced by the first .
28. Genuine : Authentic : : Mirage : ?
(A)Image (B)Transpiration (C)Reflection (D)Illusion
Ans: (D)
Explanation: The words in each pair are synonyms .
29. Cobbler : Leather : : Carpenter : ?
(A)Furniture (B)Wood (C)Hammer (D)Chair
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Second is the raw material used by the first .
30. Rupee : Indian : : Yen : ?
(A)Turkey (B)Bangladesh (C)Pakistan (D)Japan
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Rupee is the currency of India . Similarly , Yen is the currency of Japan .
31. Ocean : Deserts : : Waves : ?
(A)Sea (B)Dust (C)Sand dunes (D)Ripples
Ans: (C)
Explanation: If oceans were deserts, waves would be sand dunes .
32. Pork : Pig : : Beef : ?
(A)Farmer (B)Herd (C)Cow(D)Lamb
Ans: (C)
Explanation: First is the name given to the meat of the second .
33. Illiteracy : Education : : Flood : ?
(A)Rain (B)Bridge (C)Dam (D)River
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Second helps ot get rid of the first
(A)Refuge (B)Mercy (C)Truancy (D)Remorse
Ans: (A)
Explanation: A prisoner is confined within the dungeon ,and an unsheltered person takes refuge
within the asylum .
35. Appraiser : Building : : Critic : ?

(A)Book (B)Masterpiece (C)Judge (D)Gold
Ans: (A)
Explanation: First comments on the second .
(A)Doe (B)Stag (C)Leopard (D)Stallion
Ans: (D)
Explanation: First is a young one of the second .
(A)Thresh (B)Sift (C)Pry (D)Rinse
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Second denotes the function performed by the first .
38. Fruit : Banana : : mammal : ?
(A)Cow (B)Snake (C)Fish (D)Sparrow
Ans: (A)
Explanation: First denotes the class to which the second belongs .
39. Tile : Mosaic : : Knot : ?
(A)Embroidery (B)Abacus (C)Macrame (D)Easle
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Just as tiles in mosaic make a pattern , so also the knots in a piece of macrame
make a pattern .
40. Import : Export : : Expenditure : ?
(A)Deficit (B)Revenue (C)Debt (D)Tax
Ans: (B)
Explanation: The words in each pair are antonyms .
41. Hill : Mountain : : Stream : ?
(A)River (B)Canal (C)Glacier (D)Avalanche
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Second is bigger form of first .
42. Country : President : : State : ?
(A)Governor (B)Minister (C)Chief minister (D)Citizen
Ans: (A)
Explanation: President and Governor are the nominal heads of country and state respectively .
43. Bread : Yeast : : Curd : ?
(A)Fungi (B)Bacteria (C)Germs(D)Virus
Ans: (B)
Explanation: First is produced by the action of the second .
44. Court : Justice : : School : ?
(A)Teacher (B)Student (C)Ignorance (D)Education
Ans: (D)

Explanation: First is the place where the second is imparted .
45. Quartz : Radio : : Gypsum : ?
(A)Glass (B)Porcelain (C)Cement (D)Powder
Explanation: First is used to make the second .
46. Chromite : Chromium : : Ilmenite :?
(A)Limestone (B)Cobalt (C)Manganese (D)Titanium
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Chromite is a mineral of chromium and ilmenite is a mineral of titanium.
47. Command : Order : : Confusion : ?
(A)Discipline (B)Clarity (C)Choas (D)Problem
Ans: (C)
Explanation: The words in each pair are synonyms.
48. Ruby : Red : : Sapphire : ?
(A)Blue (B)White (C)Green (D)Silver
Ans: (A)
red precious stone and sapphire is a blue precious stone .
49. House : Garbage : : Ore : ?
(A)Rubbish (B)Gangue (C)Sand (D)Dregs
Ans: (B)
Explanation: The waste of the house is called garbage .Similarly ,the impurities in the
ore are called gangue .
50. HongKong : China : : Vatican : ?
(A)Rome (B)Mexico (C)Canada (D)Christianity
Ans: (A)
Explanation: HongKong is a city in China .Similarly ,Vatican is a city in Rome .
51. Stee : Rails : : Alnico : ?
(A)Aircraft (B)Machinery (C)Silver ware (D)Magnets
Ans: (D)
Explanation: First is used to makes the second .
52. Poodle : Dog : : Moose : ?
(A)Duck (B)Donkey (C)Fowl (D)Deer
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Poodle is a bread of dog and moose is a bread of deer .
53. Push : Pull : : Throw : ? (A)Jump (B)Collect (C)Pick (D)Game Ans: (C)
Explanation: The words in each pair are antonyms .

54. Naphthalene : Coal tar : : Dyes : ?
(A)Petroleum (B)Oils (C)Chemicals (D)Carbon
Ans: (A)
Explanation: First is Obtained from the second .
55. Darwin : Evolution : : Archimedes : ?
(A)Friction (B)Lubrication (C)Buoyancy (D)Liquid
Explanation: Darwin gave the theory if evolution ,Like wise Archimedes gave the theory of
buoyancy .
56. Hot : Oven : : Cold : ?
(A)Ice cream (B)Air conditioner (C)Show (D)Refrigerator
Ans: (D)
Explanation: An oven is an appliance to keep the food- items hot ,similarly a refrigerator keeps
food- items cold.
57. Conference : Chairman : : Newspaper : ?
(A)Reporter (B)Distributer (C)Painter (D)Editor
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Chairman is the highest authority in a conference .Similarly editor is the highest
authority in a news paper agency.
58. Drama : Stage : : Tennis : ?
(A)Tournament (B)Net (C)Court (D)Racket
Ans: (C)
Explanation: A drama ia performed on a stage .Similarly tennis is payed on the court.
59. Tree : Forest : Grass : ?
(A)Lawn (B)Field (C)Garden (D)Farm
Ans: (A)
Explanation: A forest consists of trees and a lawn is made up of grass .
60. Giant : Dwarf : : Genius : ?
(A)Wicked (B)Gentle (C)Idiot (D)Tiny
Explanation: The words in each pair are opppsite of each other.
61. Bank : River : : Coast : ?
(A)Flood (B)Waves (C)Sea (D)Beach
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Bank is the land beside the river .Similary coast is the land beside the sea .
62. Flower : Butterfly : : Dirt : ?
(A)Rats (B)Fly (C)Bugs (D)Sweeper
Ans: (B)

Explanation: First attracts the second .
63. Malaria : Disease : : Spear : ?
(A)Wound (B)Sword (C)Weapon (D)Death
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Second denotes the class to which the first belongs to.
64. Matricide : Mother : : Homicide : ?
(A)Human (B)Children (C)Father (D)Apes
Ans: (A)
Explanation: First implices killing the second .
65. Food : Stomach : : Fuel : ?
(A)Plane (B)truck (C)Engine (D)Automobile
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Food is processed by the stomach to provide energy for functioning the body
.Similarly Fuel is processed by the engine to provide energy for the functioning of automobiles .
66. Quail : Partridges : : Yak : ?
(A)Cows (B)Deer (C)Oxen (D)Antelope
Ans : (C)
Explanation: First belongs to the family of second .
67. Engineer : Map : : Bricklayer : ?
(A)Design (B)Template (C)Mould (D)Cement
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Second gives pattern to be followed by the first .
68. Fire : Ashes : : Explosion : ?
(A)Flame (B)Death (C)Sound (D)Debris
Ans: (D)
Explanation: Second is the name given to the remains lef after the first
. 69. Pesticide : Crop : :Antiseptic : ?
(A)Wound (B)Clothing (C)Bandage (D)Bleeding
Ans: (A)
Explanation: Pesicide protects crops from insects and antiseptic protects wound from germs .
70. King : Throne : : Rider : ?
(A)Seat (B)Horse (C)Saddle (D)Chair
Ans: (C)
Explanation: A king sits on throne and a rider on a saddle .
71. Ocean : Water : : Glacier : ?
(A)Refrigerator (B)Ice (C)Mountain (D)Cave

Explanation: First consists of the second .
72. Reluctant : Keen : : Remarkable : ?
(A)Usual (B)Restrained (C)Striking (D)Evolution
Ans: (A)
Explanation: the words in each pair are antonyms. 73. Sculptor : Statue : : Poet : ?
(A)Canvas (B)Pen (C)Verse (D)Chisel
Ans: (C)
Explanation: Second is prepared by the first .
74. Fossils : Creatures : : Mummies : ?
(A)Egypt (B)Human beings (C)Animals (D)Martyrs
Ans: (B)
Explanation: Fossils are the remains of the creatures .Similarly mummies are the remains of
human beings

UNIT-IV
COMPOSITION
1.Resume writing
1.Job application(Modal)

i) bio - data / curriculum vitae / resume.
ii) Covering letter / letter of invite.

The resume gives a brief account of the applicant’s education, occupation
(with experience) and a few personal d etails and references. The following is an
exhaust, you can if you do not have any previous work experience, you can compensate
for the deficiency by mentioning your ability to discuss technical / general topics, or
your ability to lead a team in your cap acity as president of an association or
representative of your class. You can mention your in - plant training or your having
published technical papers.

Sample 1:
Application from an applicant with previous work experience.

B.Murugesan,M.E.,
13, 3rd Lane,
S.S. Colony,
Madurai - 1.

The Personnel Manager,

Sona & Chander Pvt. Limited,
7/1138, II Street,
Anna Nagar,
Chennai-19.

Sir / Madam,

With reference to your advertisement in the Indian Express, dated 26 Novem ber
2009, I would like to apply for the position of software Engineer in your esteemed
company. I have a post-graduate degree in Electronics and Communication from
Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai. Please find enclosed my resume for your
perusal and favorable action. If selected for the post, I assure you that I shall discharge
my duties with utmost sincerity and honesty.

Looking forward to hearing from you,

Yours faithfully,

B. Murugesan

RESUME

NAME

:

B. Murugesan

Date of Birth

:

11-3-1984

Age

:

25

Native Place

:

Madurai

Father’s Name

:

Balamurugan

Father’s vocation

:

Professor of Chemistry

Address

:

13, 3rd Lane, S.S.Colony,
Madurai - 1.

Address for Communication

:

-do-

Phone Number

:

98638 71658

Education:

Schooling
Total Marks scored in +2 Exam.

Name of the

School & course Marks Scored

T.V.S. Higher Secondary

Year of Passing

1171

School

--------

(Computer Science)

1200

1996

Grade Secured in U.G. course :

Name of the College & course Marks Scored

Thiagarajar College ofEngineering B.E.

A+

Year of Passing

2001

Grade Secured in U.G. Course:

Name of the College & Course Marks Scored

Thiagarajar College of Engineering M.E. A+

Rank secured

:

year of Passing

2003

Fourth rank in the University
Exam in the P.G. Course

Computer language known

:

C, C++, Java, Visual Basic,
Etc.

Extra - curricular activities:

Captained the college cricket team ; was Secretary of the Electronics Association
and conducted an All - India tour ; presented a paper on ‘ Nano Technology ’ at the inter
- collegiate seminar held at MIT, Chennai, and got published a paper on the same topic
in the Anna University Electronics Journal. Under went in - plant training at L&T,
Chennai.

Previous Work Experience:

Name of the Company

:

K.P.K. Company, Salem.

Name of the Post held

:

Administrative Manager.

No. of Years served

:

Four Years.

Salary drawn

:

Rs. 25,000 per month.

Reason for leaving that job

:

No scope for developing my skills.

Reason for applying for the
Present job

:

Your Company has better
work environments. There are greater
chances of international exposure in
your company.

Salary expected

:

Rs. 40,000 per month.

:

Yes.

:

Yes.

Bond

:

Yes.

Reference

:

Principal,

Preparedness to serve
Anywhere in India

Preparedness to go abroad,
If necessary

Preparedness to execute a

Thiagarajar College of
Engineering,
Madurai.

Languages known

:

Tamil, English and Hindi.

Marital Status

:

Unmarried.

I declare that the details furnished above are true to the best of my knowledge.

Date

:

22.12.2009

Place :

Madurai

B. Murugesan,

(Signature)

Sample 2 :

Application from an applicant without previous work experience.

B.Murugesan,M.E.,
13, 3rd Lane,
S.S. Colony,
Madurai - 1.

The Personnel Manager,
Sona & Chander Pvt. Limited,
7/1138, II Street,
Anna Nagar,
Chennai-19.

Sir / Madam,

With reference to your advertisement in the Indian Express, dated 26 November
2009, I would like to apply for the position of software Engineer in your esteemed
company. I have a post-graduate degree in Electronics and Communication from
Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai. Please find enclosed my resume for your
perusal and favorable action. If selected for the post, I assure you that I shall discharge
my duties with utmost sincerity and honesty.

Looking forward to hearing from you,

Yours faithfully,

B. Murugesan

RESUME

NAME

:

B. Murugesan

Date of Birth

:

11-3-1984

Age

Native Place

:

:

25

Madurai

Father’s Name

:

Balamurugan

Father’s vocation

:

Professor of Chemistry

Address

:

13, 3rd Lane, S.S.Colony,

Madurai - 1.

Address for Communication

:

-do-

Phone Number

:

98638 71658

Education:
Schooling
Total Marks scored in +2 Exams.

Name of the School & course Marks Scored

Mahatma

Year of Passing

1185

Matriculation School

-------1200

1996

Grade Secured in U.G. course:

Name of the College & course Marks Scored

Thiagarajar College of

Engineering B.E.

Grade Secured in U.G. Course:

Year of Passing

A+

2001

Name of the College & Course Marks Scored

Thiagarajar College of

Rank secured

year of Passing

Engineering M.E. A+

:

2003

Fourth rank in the University
Exam in the P.G. Course

Computer language known

:

C, C++, Java, Visual Basic,
Etc.

Extra - curricular activities

:

Captained the college \

cricket team, was Secretary of the
Electronics Association and conducted
an All - India tour ; presented a paper on
‘Nano Technology ’ at the inter Collegiate seminar held at MIT, Chennai,
and got published a Paper on the same
topic in the Anna University Electronics
Journal. Under went in-plant training at
L&T Chennai.

Salary expected

:

Rs. 30,000 per month.

Preparedness to serve
anywhere in India

:

Yes.

:

Yes.

Preparedness to go abroad,
if necessary

Reference

:

Principal,
Thiagarajar College of
Engineering,
Madurai.

Languages known

:

Marital Status

Tamil, English and Hindi.

:

Unmarried.

I declare that the details furnished above are true to the best of my knowledge.

Date

:

22.12.2009

Place :

Madurai

B. Murugesan,

(Signature)

Sample 3 :

Application from an applicant with previous work experience.

1.

Name

:

2.

Address

S.M. Sundari

:

Plot No. 66
II Street, P & T Nagar,
Madurai - 17.
(Phone No. 538372)

3.

Age

:

32 Years

4.

Mother Tongue

:

Tamil

5.

Marital Status

:

Unmarried

6.

Qualifications

:

i)

S.S.L.C

ii)

Higher Sec

iii)

B.Sc Computer Science

:

80% - 1993
:

:

85% - 1995

85% - 1998

iv)

M.B.A.
Indian Institute of
Management, Mumbai

7.

Experience

:

I Class - 2000

:

Worked as a Sales
Manager for Applied Electronics
Ltd., Mumbai - 400 018 from
August
2007 to September
2008.

8.

Finance Manager

:

Now working as a
Finance Manager for Computer
Soft
(P) Ltd., Mumbai.

9.

Hobbies

:

Was a chess player
During my college days.

10.

Languages Known

:

Speak Read
Write

Tamil
English
Hindi

11.

Reference

:

1) Prof Santhosh
Kumar, Professor of Commerce,
G.S. College of Commerce,
Madurai 625 001

2) M.K. Mohan,
Managing Director,
Applied Electronics
Limited,Chennai 600 018.

2. Covering Letter

What is a Covering Letter?

A covering letter is a letter which one writes along with one’s CV while applying
for a job. It should attract the attention of the employer. It should make the employer
curious to read. It should make the employer consider one’s CV. It is the first and
sometimes one’s only opportunity to grab employer’s attention.

Why is a covering letter important?

A covering letter is important because it explains why one is sending a resume. It
tells the employer specifically how one learned about the position or the organization.
It calls the employer’s attention to the elements of one’s background. It reflects the
applicant’s attitude and personality. It contains all necessary information about the
application.

The different types of covering letters :

There are three types of covering letters. They are -- 1) the letter of application,
ii) the letter of inquiry and iii) follow - up letter.

The letter of application is written in response to an advertised position. It is
accompanied by a detailed CV. The letter of inquiry is about the possibility of
employment in a particular firm. In follow -up letters candidates thank the potential
employer for the time given for interview.

The format of a covering letter:
First, the covering letter has the sender’s address on the left corner. It is
followed by the date. Then, the receiver’s official address is written. Next comes the
salutation. Then comes the body of the letter. It contains three paragraphs. After the
proper closing, the signature comes. And then details of attachments are listed.

The do’s and don’ts of a covering letter :

The applicant should not send his resume without a covering letter. The covering
letter should be addressed to a named individual. And original letter should be sent to
each employer. Bombastic words and ornamental phrases should not be used. One
should request and not demand anything. One should only make a request. The
covering letter should be free from wrong spellings, grammatical errors and
typographical mistakes. One must use uncomplicated sentences. Negative and
pessimistic thinking should be avoided. The covering letter should be personally signed.

A Model covering letter:
23-2-2010
Madurai.
From
R.Ravi
15, Second Street,
Post and Telegraph Company,
Madurai - 17.
To
M/S. Vetrivel & Company,
Exporters,
Quilon - 5.
Sir,
Sub : Application for the post of an Accountant.
----With reference to your advertisement in The Hindu of 15th Jan. 2010, I would like
to offer my candidature for the post of an Accountant.
I passed my B.com. Examination from Madurai Kamaraj University in First Class
in the year 2006. I also passed the Account Test conducted by the Government of Tamil
Nadu in February, 2008.
I worked as an Accountant for a year for M/S. Thomas & Co. Coimbatore and I
had to leave the post because of retrenchment in the company. I have a good
knowledge of accounts and I can prepare balance sheets easily.
My age is 35 and I enjoy sound health.

I am enclosing copies of my documents for your ready reference. The originals
will be made available as and when required.
I am willing to accept any reasonable salary, subject to a minimum of Rs. 20,000
per month.
I assure you of my earnest and enthusiastic work. If I am appointed, I promise to
give the utmost satisfaction to my superiors.

Thanking You,

Yours faithfully,
R.Ravi

2.Drafting Advertisements

Our age has become highly competitive. In such and atmosphere advertisement
is absolutely necessary to buy or sell products and services. To attract the readers
attention, advertisement must be brief and catchy. We can use pictures and slangs also
to hook the reader.
Activities :
1. Write and advertisement for a college cultural Programme.
2.
Scintillating College Cultural

3 - Day Programme from Today.

Day-1 Dance, Drama, Quiz
Day-2 Technical Seminar
Day-3

Beauty Contest

U R Welcome.

S.M.K. College

2.

Prepare and advertisement for ‘motor bike’

FASTRACK MOTOR BIKE
LOW PETROL CONSUMPTION
ALL COLOURS AVAILABLE
CAN BE HAD ON CREDIT
10% OFF TILL JAN.1

SANTA VECHICLE MART
NEAR CENTRAL MARKET

3.

Prepare and advertisement for ‘tooth paste’.

TOOTH SHINE TOOTH PASTE.
KEEPS MOUTH FRESH 24 HRS.
LOW PRICE MORE BENEFIT.

Contact : Gupta Stores, Madurai - 1.

4.

Prepare and advertisement for ‘Cell Phone’

SPEAK EVER CELL PHONE
CAN RECORD SPEECH

LOW PRICE
2 YEAR GUARANTEE
CONTACT:

Contact : REFF, Cell : 92980 02425.

5. Prepare and advertisement for selling a plot near your residence.

PLOT FOR SALE
10 Coconut Trees
5 Mango Trees
15 Cents Area
Near Alagar Kovil
Moderate Price
Clear Document
Contact :

D.R.P. Associates,
39, North Chitrai Street,
Madurai - 1.
Mobile No. 94426 77788

6.

Prepare and advertisement for Lipstick.

Lippe Lipstick
For All Complexions
No Harmful Side - Effects
Beautify Yourself At Low Cost
Contact :

B.M. Stores,
30, South Street,
Madurai - 1.
Mobile No. 94435 66778

7.

Prepare an advertisement for dress material during festival season.

SARESS that SCINITILLATE
DESIGNS that DAZZLE
DRESSES FOR MAN AND CHILDREN
UNBELIEVABLE REDUCTION SALES
TILL JAN. 1 ONLY.
Medusa Fabric Paradise
Near Periar Bus Stand
Madurai

3.Report Writing

Reports are an important part of modern business communication. Reports may
be short and informal. An oral report is simple and informal. It usually contains one or
two sentences only. For example. ‘The book you gave me makes most interesting
reading’, ‘The equipment reached me intact’, Two hundred people can be
accommodated in the dining hall’. These are simple oral reports.

A newspaper report, say, about the weather, a cricket match or a bomb blast
must be written in a formal manner, using jargon.

The following is the structure of a good report :

Elements of a good report:

A report contains the following four essential parts:

1.

Optional Parts:

Frontispiece
Letter of Transmittal
Copyright notice
Preface

2.

Prefatory Parts:

Cover
Title Page
Certificate
Acknowledgements
Contents
List of Illustrations
Abstract

3.

Main Text

Introduction
Discussion (with chapter headings)
Conclusions
Recommendations

4.

Supplementary Parts:

Appendix / Appendices
References / Bibliography
Glossary

Progress Report :

If you are in charge of a project, you will have to submit periodical reports, giving
the following details.

Introduction:

Nature of the Project, amount allotted, time schedule, etc.

Present Status:

What has been achieved so far? What is yet to be done?

Problems:

Mention if any problems were faced during the period. If there i s any delay in
the execution of the project, state the reason for it and the steps that can be taken to
overcome the problem and finish the project within the stipulated period.

Activities :

a)

Write a report on a fire accident in your college chemistry laboratory.

Answer:

Fire broke out all on a sudden in the chemistry laboratory of P.S.K. College
around 11a.m. on 1-12-2009. The causes of the accident are not known. Before the fire
extinguishers came, all the wooden furniture was burnt down. Thanks to the Himalayan
efforts taken by the staff and students, the fire was prevented from spreading on to the
nearby library building. It is esteemed that property worth Rs. 2 lakhs has been
damaged beyond repair.

b)
Imagine that you are a leader of a team that is working on a science / arts
project. Write a report to your teacher on the progress of the project.

Report on An Arts Project

From

N. Kesavan,
II B.A., (English Literature)
Organizer,
Inter-Collegiate Seminar
on 20th Century Literature,
S.R.S. Ccollege,
Coimbatore.

To
The Head,
Department of English,
S.R.S. College,
Coimbatore.

Sir,
Sub : Progress of the project - a Report - Reg.
----

I am taking efforts to hold the proposed seminar on 3 January, 2010 as scheduled
in the previous meeting of the office - bearers.

So far I have received twelve papers from eminent English professors. I have to
arrange boarding and lodging for them for the two - day seminar. Some thirty colleges
from different parts of Tamil Nadu are sending
participants. I have to arrange
accommodation for them also. The Education Minister of Tamilnadu has kindly agreed
to inaugurate the seminar. I have invited Prof. P. Narendran of Kerala University to
deliver the valedictory address. Two Ladies’ colleges, one in Madurai and the other in
Trichi, have come forward to stage select scenes from Shakespeare.

I request you to arrange to hold another meeting of the office-bearers to discuss
these problems.

Thanking You,

Yours obediently,
N. Kesavan.

c)

Write a report on a social problem in vogue to a newspaper.
11-2-2010

From
Mrs. Kalyani Sudhakaran, M.A.,
President,
Star Women’s Welfare Association,
Coimbatore - 4.
To
The Editor,
The Indian Express,
Coimbatore - 2.
Sir,
This is with reference to the running of liquor shops in places adjacent to
educational institutions all over Coimbatore. This tempts teenagers to step into these
shops with their friends for booze. What starts as a jolly outlet for their exuberant
energy soon develops into a deeply entrenched habit and these youngsters become
incorrigible addicts, to the shock of their near and dear ones.
Through your esteemed column, I appeal to the authorities concerned to arrange
for the immediate closure of these shops, failing which the members of our Association
will have to mobilize women and stage massive dharnas in front of these shops to make
the sluggish authorities act quickly.
Thanking You,

Yours faithfully,
Kalyani.S.

4.Memorandum

What is a memorandum ?

A memorandum is a brief note, conveying information or requesting action to be
taken. It is written in a simple, straightforward language.

The following is the format of a memorandum. It gives the following details :

a)

The name and designation of the sender

b)

The name and designation of the receiver

c)

date

d)

subject

e)

content

No complementary close or signature is necessary.

Example :

Manager
James & Co.
To

:

All Employees.

Sub : Tomorrow a holiday

As busmen are striking tomorrow, our office will remain closed tomorrow.

Activities :

a.
Assume yourself to be the President of the Students’ Association of your college.
Write a memorandum to your Sports Secretary to submit a proposal for a second
football ground.

From
President, Student’s Association.
To
The Sports Secretary.
Sub : Need for a second football ground.

Our college is growing steadily. Please submit a proposal for a second football
ground for use by junior students. The proposal may be sent by the end of this month.

b.
As a Sales Manager, you are assigned the task of promoting this month’s sales of
your firm’s product by 10%. Write a memo to your representatives in this connection :

From

Sales Manager

To

The Representatives

Sub:

Increasing sales of Vasans Guides by 10%

Competition is increasing. Please, push sales of ou r guides by 10% Suggest how
this can be done.

5.Minutes of the Meetings

Write a note on the importance of writing minutes and on the different types of
minutes.

Minutes are a record of what took place at a meeting. These minutes are failed
as otherwise they may be forgotten.

There are two types of minutes, narrative minutes and decision minutes.
Narrative minutes are very circumstantial. They record even the names of the members
who spoke and the topics on which they spoke, the differences of opinion that arose,
etc. The narrative minutes are needlessly detailed and make very tedious reading.
Decision minutes, on the otherhand, are very crisp. They omit references to persons
and concentrate only on the issues discussed and the decisions taken. The decision
minutes are far more relevant and to the point than the narrative ones.

Example :

1.
The 98th meeting of the Board of Governors of Madurai Sugar Mill took place in
the Conference Hall at 10a.m. on 16th August, 2009.

The following members were present :

1.

Mr. Prasanna Kumar

-

Managing Director

2.

Ms. Santhakumari

-

Secretary

3.

Mrs. Kannki Amarnath

-

Treasurer

4.

Mr. Murti

-

Member

5.

Mr. Packia Raj

-

Member

6.

Mr. Vasanthan

-

Member

2.

The minutes of the previous meeting were discussed and accepted.

3.

Two new Governors, Mrs. Sambasivam and Mr. Ekambaram, were
elected.

4.

There was a heated debate on the issue of hiking of the bonus of
workers. A 20% hike was finally agreed upon.

5.

It was decided to hold the next meeting of the board on 11 December,
2009.

6.

A vote of thanks was proposed by Ms. Santhakumari and the meeting
was declared by the Chairman.

Activities :

a)
As an office bearer of your college Student’s Association you are assigned the job
of writing the minutes of your Association meeting where the Sports Secretary has
presented a proposal for a second football ground. Imagine a discussion along this line
and write the minutes.

The second meeting of the Student’s Association took place at 1 0a.m. on
Monday, 9th November, 2009. The following were present :

1.

Vignesh

-

2.

Miss. Aruna -

Vice-President

3.

Karthick

-

4.

Miss Brinda -

Joint Secretary

5.

Vishal

Treasurer

-

President

Secretary

The meeting began with a heated discussion of the Sports Secretary’s proposal
for a second football ground. Some members considered it expensive and unnecessary.
But the president’s powerful argument that the growing strength of the students
necessitated another football ground was accepted by all. It was unanimously decided
to approach the Management for funds. The meeting wound up with the Joint
Secretary, Miss Brinda, proposing a vote of thanks.

b.

Write a Minutes of Meeting where your firm’s Sales Manager insisted
on increasing this month’s sales of your firm’s product by 10%.

An extraordinary meeting was conducted at 4.p.m on 11.11.2009 to discuss the
Sales Manager’s compulsion that the sales of the company’s product, Lippie Lipstick, be
increased by 10%. The following members were present :

1.

Mr. Murugesan

-

Sales Manager

2.

Mrs. Kavitha Pandian

-

Assistant Sales Manager

3.

Mr. Surendran

-

4.

Miss Nayagi

5.

Miss Nivya

-

Sales Executive (Chennai Branch)

6.

Mr. Loganathan

-

Sales Executive (Madurai Branch)

-

Senior Sales Executive

Sales Executive

The meeting began with the Sales Manager stressing the need to step up sales of
Lippie by at least 10% to meet the growing expenditure. He suggested making
glamorous advertisements in dailies and T.V. channels, roping in current actresses. Still,
the executives resisted the Sales Manager’s Compulsion. At last they agreed when the
Sales Manager offered to hike the salaries of all sales staff by 20%. The meeting ended
with Miss Nivya proposing a vote of thanks.

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