Remanufacturing – A Production Systems Approach.

Customer requirements, strict environmental laws and volatile market shares, have forced
manufacturing giants to use sustainable manufacturing. Remanufacturing is an important part of
sustainable manufacturing and can be defined as an industrial process in which, worn out products are
restored to ‘like new’ condition.
Although remanufacturing is being practiced in manufacturing world, there are issues that are
not similar to that of the regular manufacturing processas the product has reached its end of life and
needs a complete revamp. One of the concerns of remanufacturing is the uncertainty of the quality and
the quantity of the products available for remanufacturing. Hence we will be looking at important
factors of remanufacturing systems like design for remanufacturing, quality and quantity of used
products, remanufacturing production strategies and effect of product lifecycle that have made
remanufacturing feasible and economical.

Para 1: Sustainability
Para 2: Remanufacturing in USA and products and components suitable for remanufacturing
Para 3: Process concerns related to remanufacturing
Design for remanufacturing.- Designing the component with a motive of having high remanufacturing

Quality and quantity - Lifecycle of the product or component, condition of the product post usage
(remanufacturable or not) , factors that may decide the future availability of the used product desired for
remanufacturing, effective post usage product recall strategy, optimum quantity, Inventory.
Past and future scope of remanufacturing

Remanufacturing production strategies- study and describe manufacturing and resource planning
strategies, Inventory and stuff, reverse supply chain.

Design for Remanufacturing:
Remanufacturing has a low profile in world economics and is inadequately understood because of
its relative freshness in research terms. However, environmental and competitive pressures are shifting
the global and business environment and this is attracting interest in the practice. Balancing economic and
social development with environmental protection is a key challenge in securing long-standing
sustainability. Emerging sustainable approaches to manufacture is a critical global apprehension. Key
measures towards this include active design for environment, for example by improving remanufacturing
efficiency and effectiveness. Companies must design products for durability and ease of recovery of their
materials at end of life, and must consider the business prospective of processing used products to harness
the enduring value in their components.
The main features which must be considered while designing a product or component for remanufacturing
 Non-durable material that may lead to rupture during remanufacturing or to deterioration during
use to the extent that product is beyond ‘‘refurbishment’’.
 Use of the technologies because of which it is not possible to disassemble the components
properly leading to the damage of component during separation.
 Characteristics of the product which hinders the improvement as some banned substance or
processing methods cannot be used.
With the remanufacturing of the used product, it can offer a range of sustainable manufacturing benefits
including profitability and reduction in the level of material and energy used by providing a product with
a quality equivalent to that of newly manufactured equipment. It has been found that almost 85 percent
the weight of a remanufacturing product may be obtained from used component which has comparable
quality with that of a new product but require almost 50% to 80% less energy to produce and hence
providing 20% to 80% production cost saving.
Design of a product or a component plays an very important role in remanufacturing of it. Following
aspects of Design of the product must be considered in order to aim for design for remanufacturing:

Disassembly- In order to remanufacture a product or a component, disassembly of a product plays
a crucial role. If a product cannot be disassembled than it not possible to remanufacture it. If a
product cannot be disassembled properly than it is not possible to test each and every component
properly and moreover it won't be possible to clean the components or product parts internally.
Hence it will adversely affecting the quality and the quantity of the returned product.

Use of less durable product- IT may be possible that the product may me designed only for a
single life use in order to reduce manufacturing cost, or demand of the that particular product may
be good but only for a small period of time. In that case company can make use of less durable
product. Ex: use of plastic instead of metal as it helps to reduce the production cost but also
affects it durability and hence its remanufacturing too. In such scenario, remanufacturing is not
considered as feasible.

Remanufacturing can be enhanced using remanufacturability specific design guidelines combining with
the design for X practice with aiming for remanufacturing. ‘Design-for-X’ is an umbrella term for the
many design philosophies and methodologies developed to address designers’ lack of knowledge in
important product life-cycle areas. The ‘X’ in ‘DFX’ may stand for one of the aims of the methodology
for example, assemblability or manufacturability DFX practices aiming to integrate environmental

considerations into product and process design, design for- environment (DFE), can be particularly
applicable to remanufacturing as seen through developments including the End-of-Life Adviser. Thus,
application of design for disassembly to remanufacturing ensure that the parts does not get damaged at the
time of separation so that they can be reuse.
There are various ways in which Design for Remanufacturing can be achieved and one of the most
prominent feature is through integrated product development. There has been lots of opportunity where
new parameters can be introduced during the product development phase referring to the design for
Remanufacturing like considering product life cycle based tools, policies and assessment tools as key to
sustainable manufacturing.
Now days, environmental impact and cost are also triggering OEM to aim for remanufacturing because of
lots of severe penalties on the product and process environmental impacts. Though there may be different
types and levels of impact and penalties at different stages of their cycle. Thus proper guidelines must be
considered in order for the overall life cycle to alleviate the penalties and impacts.

The future for remanufacturing looks promising as it is highly competent in reducing material and
production cost. Moreover it has also addressed the environmental issues to. Though remanufacturing is
not a new term in the industry but still there is a lots of scope for improvement due to less academic
research so far. There are many issues regarding proper quality and the quantity of the used product.
OEMs are not sure about what will be the quality of the returned product as the original product may have
reached its life cycle and might not be practically or economically feasible to remanufacture them.
Further statistical and technological advancements will help screening of used products. In regard with
the supply chain and production planning there is a lot of scope for the enhancement in order to have
well-organized reverse inventory flow of the used products and thus will result in attracting the economic
benefits. It could also be seen that a significant amount of the improvement could be seen in the
remanufacturing technologies along with new discoveries or improvement in the technology of material
In this paper we have address the remanufacturing in the perspective of the OEMs looking to adopt it. We
have identified the areas of concerns in remanufacturing and highlight some possible solution for the

Product lifecycle
Conclusion: Impact of remanufacturing on companies implementing it in terms of cost, energy,
material etc

Ashishshadija (fj9668)
Satyam Quamara (fk0785)
Muhash Sanjofy (fk 0181)