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**A Comparative Study of Two Permanent Magnet Motors Structures with
**

Interior and Exterior Rotor

Mohamed Chaieb 1, Naourez Ben Hadj 2, Jalila Kaouthar Kammoun 3, and Rafik Neji 4

1

**Electrical Engineering Department, University of Sfax, chaieb_med@yahoo.fr
**

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Sfax, benhadj.naourez@enis.rnu.tn

3

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Sfax, kaoutharkammoun@yahoo.fr

4

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Sfax, rafik.neji@enis.rnu.tn

2

Abstract

**Currently, the permanent magnet motors PMM represent an attractive solution in the electric traction field,
**

thanks to their higher performances than other electric motors. In this context, this work represents an analytical

study and validation by the finite element method of two configurations, the radial flux permanent magnet synchronous motors with exterior rotor PMSMER and with interior rotor PMSMIR. This paper is divided into two

sections: In the first section, we represent the analytical study based on electromagnetic law of the two structures

PMSMER and PMSMIR. In the second section, we represent a comparative study of the two structure performances.

Keywords

**permanent magnet motors design, radial flux, finite
**

element method, modelling, performance

1. INTRODUCTION

Considering the large variety of electric motors, such

as asynchronous motors, synchronous motors with

variable reluctances, permanent magnet motors with

radial or axial flux, the committed firms try to find the

best choice of the motor conceived for electric vehicle

field.

There are different criteria of selection in order to

solve this problem such as the power-to-weight ratio,

the efficiency and the price. The traction electric motor is specified by several qualities, such as the flexibility, reliability, cleanliness, facility of maintenance,

silence etc. Moreover, it must satisfy several requirements, for example the possession of a high torque

and an important efficiency [Zire et al., 2003; Gasc,

2004; Chan, 2004].

In this context, The PMM is characterized by a high

efficiency, very important torque, and power-toweight, so it becomes very interesting for electric

traction. The rotor of the PMM supports several configurations interesting for the magnets mounted on

surface.

In the intension, to ensure the most suitable and judicious choice, we start by a comparative study between

the two structures, then, we implement a methodology

of design based on an analytical modelling and on the

electromagnetism laws.

**2. MODELLING OF THE TWO PMM STRUCTURES
**

2.1 Structural data

The motors structure allowing the determination of

the studied geometry is based on three relationships.

The ratio β is the relationship between the magnet angular width La and the pole-pitch Lp. This relationship

is used to adjust the magnet angular width according

to the motor pole-pitch.

β=

La

Lp

Lp =

π

P

(1)

(2)

**The ratio Rldla is the relationship between the angular
**

width of a principal tooth and of the magnet angular

width. This ratio is responsible for the regulation of

the principal tooth size which has a strong influence

on the electromotive force form.

Rldla =

Adent

La

(3)

**The Rdid ratio is the relationship between the principal
**

tooth angular width and the inserted tooth angular

width Adenti. This relationship fixes the inserted tooth

size.

Rdid =

Adent

La

(4)

1363

3 Analytical sizing of the two motors structures The analytical study of motor sizing is based on the schedules conditions parameters. The type of winding is concentric.1 The schedules data conditions • Electric vehicle mass M = 1000 kg • Angle of starting ad = 3 ° • • • • • • • • Time of starting td = 4 s Outside temperature tex = 40 °C Maximum motor power Pmmax = 21.100 • Density of copper Mvc = 8950 kg 2.002 20 40 60 -0.. This Sizing motor approach is represented as follows: 2.6 T [Hadj et al.3.006 -0..M. each winding of phase is made up of two diametrically opposite coils [Magnussen et al. an inserted tooth is added to improve the form of wave and to reduce the leakage flux [Hadj et al. Libert and Soulard. 2007].3 Expert data The expert data are practically represented by three sizes which are.004 0.635 kW Winding temperature tb = 95 °C Base speed of the vehicle Vb = 30 km/h Maximum Speed of the vehicle Vmax = 100 km/h Load factor of the slots kr = 0.2 Constants specific to materials The motor is composed by a diversity of materials specified as follows: • Remanent magnetic induction of the magnets Bm = 1. Figure 1 represents the PMSMER and the PMSMIR with the number of pole pairs is 4 and a number of principal teeth is 6. 44 Acceptable density of current in the slots δ = 7 A/ mm2 2.2 Geometrical structures of the PMSMIR and the PMSMER This part is devoted to an analytical sizing allowing calculation of geometrical sizes of the two PMM configurations which are the PMSMER and the PMSMIR.383 T • Magnetic induction in teeth data base = 0.2 to 1.006 Full load flux 3 Flux (Wb) 0..004 -0. 2003.008 Full load flux 2 0. 2007]. the expert data and the configuration of the two motors.008 Rotor position (°) Data identified by the finite element method Fig. the constant characterizing materials.: A Comparative Study of Two Permanent Magnet Motors Structures with Interior and Exterior Rotor 2.2 10-9 Ωm • Coefficient of variation of the copper resistivity α = 0.. Magnets Slots Stator yoke Rotor yoke Principal Teeth Inserted Teeth Fig. the magnetic induction in the air gap Be.9 T • Relative permeability of the magnets μa = 1.3.05 H/m • Coefficient of mechanical losses km = 1 % • Resistivity of copper with 95 °C Rcu = 17. It should be noted that the zone of variation of these three parameters varies between 0. 2004]. 1 Radial flux permanent magnet motors with exterior rotor and interior rotor 2.002 0 -0. 2 Sizing motor approach 1364 80 100 . The slots are right and open in order to facilitate the insertion of coils and to reduce the production cost. between two principal teeth.3. Bianchi et al.004 • Density of the electrical sheets Mvt = 7850 kg • Density of magnets Mva = 7400 kg • Density of copper Mvc = 8950 kg • Coefficient of quality of the sheets Q = 1. Schedule data conditions Analytical model Geometrical parameters Specific constants to materials Expert data Finite element method Structural data Electromagnetic parameters Full load flux 1 0. Chaieb et al.175 T • Induction of demagnetization Bc = 0. 2005. the magnetic induction in the stator yoke Bcs and the magnetic induction in the rotor yoke Bcr.

In D +e D +e + m − m Nd δ KrAenc 2 2 Hd = (13) Hd specific to the PMSMER is expressed: 2 1 : The magnet height. 4 Application of the theorem of the flux conservation The inserted tooth section: Sdi Sdi = Dm + e Adenti Lm 2 (7) The slot section: Se Se = Aenc Dm + e 1 2 D e Lm = Adent Adenti m Lm (8) 2 2 Nd 2 Lenc 2 Aenc 2. hcr 4 : The stator yoke height. June 2010 2. Hd specific to the PMSMIR is expressed: 2 4 2 5 1 3 Nsph . ha 2 : The slots height and the tooth height.4. Volume 8. 2.4.2 Stator geometrical sizes of the PMSMER The slot average width: Lenc Dm e Hd Rotor yoke Hd l = Σni Haha + ehe = 0 (16) contour (9) The remanent induction of the magnet M(Ta) at Ta °C is defined by: The principal tooth section: Sd 1365 .5 Data identified by the finite element method Kfu is the flux leakage coefficient of the PMSMIR which is fixed to 0. 2. Kfu is equal to 0. Hcs 2.667 and Rldla equal to 1.2.4. Number 1. With a relationship β equal to 0.1 Stator geometrical sizes of the PMSMIR The slot average width: Lenc Nsph .4 Structural data For the two configurations.e m m Nd δ KrAenc 2 2 Bd Sd 2LmBcs (15) Stator yoke D + e + Hd Lenc = m Aenc 2 (5) The principal tooth section: Sd Sd = Dm + e Adent Lm 2 (6) Fig.4 Geometrical sizes Geometrical parameters of the two structures motors are defined in Figure 3. with an air gap thickness equivalent to 2mm. hd 3 : The rotor yoke height. we adopted the same number of pole pairs P = 4. hcs 5 : The air gap thickness. e Hd Fig.98.3 The rotor geometrical sizes of the two structures The expression of the magnet height Ha is the same one in the two structures. it is obtained by the application of the Ampere theorem: 2.3.2. Between the principal tooth angular width Adent and the inserted tooth angular width Adenti.3.In D -e D . The teeth height Hd of the PMSMIR is expressed by equation 13 with Nsph is the number of turns per phase and In is the rated current. 3 15 2 4 Sd Dm e Aenc Lm 2 (10) The inserted tooth section: Sdi S di Dm e Adenti Lm 2 (11) The slot section: Se Se Aenc Dm e 1 2 D e Lm Adent Adenti m Lm (12) 2 2 Nd 2 with Lm is the motor length. he.Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles. we define a ratio Rdid equal to 0.95 whereas for the PMSMER. 3 PMSMER and PMSMIR parameters (14) The stator yoke thickness Hcs is obtained by application of the flux conservation theorem.

We note the appearance of leakages flux in the motor. we make a refined mesh in the air gap to obtain a precised result [Ohyama et al. 8 Flux density in the PMSMIR Fig. Chaieb et al.: A Comparative Study of Two Permanent Magnet Motors Structures with Interior and Exterior Rotor µ aBee Ha = B M (Ta) − e Kfu (17) M (Ta) = M1 + αm(Ta − 20) (18) The rotor yoke thickness Hcr is defined: BS Be Sd Φ (19) = BcsHcrLmKf u = e d Hcr = 2 2 2Kfu LmBcr 2.4 T that proves no saturation in magnetic motor circuit. ii ( t ) Ω i=1 (22) with EMFi and ii respectively represent the electromotive force and the current of the i phase. Rcu(Tb) = Rcu1 + α(Tb − 20) (25) D + e + hd Lsp = 2 (Aenc + Adent). COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE TWO STRUCTURES In this study... m + Lm 2 (26) 3. Figure 7 and figure 8 show respectively the flux density in the PMSMER and in the PMSMIR.4. 7 Flux density in the PMSMER where Rcu(Tb) is the Resistivity of copper at the temperature of winding Tb and Lsp is the spire average length defined as follow [Hadj et al.4 Electrical sizing The electromotive force in the two structures is expressed by: 8 π π EMF1( t ) = NsphLmDmBe sin β sin β Rldla 2 2 π (20) Ω m sin (P Ω mt) The motor electric constant: Ke Ke 12 NsphLmDmBesin sin Rldla 2 2 (21) The electromagnetic torque: Tem Tem ( t ) = 1 3 EMFi ( t ). 9 Flux lines in the PMSMER .M. 5 Mesh in the PMSMIR Fig. 6 Mesh in the PMSMER two studied structures is given by figures 5 and 6. We note that the maximal induction for the motor yokes is equal to 1. this requires the determination of the leakages flux co- (23) The phase résistance of the motor: Rph Rph = Rcu (Tb) Nsphδ Lsp In / 2 (24) Fig. 2007]. The motor rated current I n is the ratio between the electromagnetic torque and the motor electric constant In = Tem Ke Fig. 2005]. the validation and comparation between the two structures is based on the finite elements method using the software FEMM. The mesh in the 1366 Fig.

10 Flux lines in the PMSMIR efficient to validate the analytical model. 13 Flux of the three phases at no-load for the PMSMIR Flux (Wb) 1 0. 14 Flux of the three phases at full-load for the PMSMIR 0 10 20 30 40 50 Airgap length (mm) 60 70 1 Be (T) 0.008 No load flux 1 No load flux 2 No load flux 3 20 40 80 100 Rotor position (°) Fig.006 0.Flux (Wb) Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles.004 0.006 0.002 0 -0.008 0.004 0.006 -0. 60 0.1 Air gap flux density Figures 11 and 12 show the airgap induction in the PMSMER and in the PMSMIR.004 -0.004 0.002 0 -0.008 Full load flux 1 Full load flux 2 Full load flux 3 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) Fig.006 -0.008 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) Fig. Number 1.5 0 -0.002 0 -0.008 0. 15 Flux of the three phases at no-load for the PMSMER Full load flux 1 Full load flux 2 Full load flux 3 Flux (Wb) Fig. Be (T) 0.1 Electromagnetic parameters 3.004 -0. June 2010 Fig. we can conclude that the variation of the flux at no-load and at full-load according to the rotor position is very weak.5 -1 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) 0. 3.004 0.006 -0.002 0 -0.002 0 -0.002 0 -0. 12 Airgap induction in the PMSMIR 3. Volume 8. that originates the magnetic reaction. 14.008 0.5 Flux (Wb) Fig.008 0. the maximal value is about 1 T [Pakdel.1.002 0 -0. According to the Figure 17.002 0 -0.2 Flux Figures 13. 11 Airgap induction in the PMSMER 0 -0.006 -0. 2009].008 No load flux 1 No load flux 2 No load flux 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 Airgap length (mm) 60 70 0.5 -1 20 Fig.1. 16 Flux of the three phases at full-load for the PMSMER 1367 .006 0.004 -0. 15 and 16 illustrate the three phases flux at no-load and at full load according to the mechanical angle for the PMSMIR and PMSMER.004 -0.006 0.

.002 0 -0.3 Electromotive forces EMF The form of EMF represents a very significant parameter. Yee-pien et al.002 0 20 40 60 80 EMF (V) Flux(Wb) 0. 18 EMF at no-load of the PMSMIR 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 -250 Full load EMF1 Full load EMF2 Full load EMF3 100 Full load EMF1 Full load EMF2 Full load EMF3 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 No-load torque with exterior rotor Full-load torque with exterior rotor 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor positopn(°) Fig. 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 -250 20 Fig.008 Rotor position (°) Fig.006 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 -250 0.2. 20 and 21 give an idea on the form of the EMF at no-load and at full load according to the rotor position.004 100 -0. 21 EMF at full-load of the PMSMER Torque (Nm) EMF (V) Figures 18. Figure 22 and 23 represent the torque at full-load 1368 80 Rotor position (°) 100 Torque (Nm) 40 60 and at no load of the two structures obtained by the finite element method [Zhu et al. 17 Flux at Full-load and at no-load of the PMSMIR 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 -250 FEM (V) dΦ dt (27) 60 80 Rotor position (°) EMF (V) Fig. This EMF is generated by the flux evolution through a coil of the stator.M.1 Calculation of the torque The instantaneous torque is expressed by equation 22. 22 Torque at no-load and at full-load for the PMSMER 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) Fig.2 Torque and Power-to-weight ratio 3. 19.1. 2006.004 -0.: A Comparative Study of Two Permanent Magnet Motors Structures with Interior and Exterior Rotor Flux at no-load Flux at full-load 0. Chaieb et al. It is expressed by: EMF = − Nsph No load EMF1 No load EMF2 No load EMF3 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 No-load torque with interior rotor Full-load torque with interior rotor 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) Fig. No load EMF1 No load EMF2 No load EMF3 20 40 Fig. The obtained results validate the analytical model because the torque oscillates around the average value found analytically which is 112 Nm. 2009]. 19 EMF at full-load of the PMSMIR 3. 23 Torque at no-load and at full-load for the PMSMIR .. 20 EMF at no-load of the PMSMER 3.006 -0.

6 Efficiency Power-to-wight ratio (Kw/Kg) 3.95 efficiency of the interior rotor efficiency of the exterior rotor 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Motor power (kW) Fig. we conclude that the torque ripple in the PMSMER is 6.089 Iron losses 59. June 2010 Figures 24 and 25 illustrate the torque ripple in the two structures. 27 Losses according to the power We conclude that the losses magnitude is the same orders for low powers in the two structures.025 0. Table 1 Losses and the efficiency of the two structures 110 108 106 104 102 100 0 20 40 60 80 PMSMIR PMSMER Joule losses 557. 25 Torque ripple in the PMSMIR 0 10 20 30 Motor power (kW) Fig.8 0.662 32. 24 Torque ripple in the PMSMER 1500 1000 500 0 Fig. 2009].3 Losses and efficiency Table 1 represents the efficiency and the losses for the PMSMIR and the PMSMER.2 Power-to-weight ratio The power-to-weight ratio is defined by the relationship between the power and the mass of the motor active part. the configuration of the PMSMER is most suitable since it offers efficiency higher than that Power-to-wight ratio with interior rotor Power-to-wight ratio with exterior rotor 1 0. Figure 28 represents the efficiency obtained for the two structures.954 0.755 216.43 % [Wang et al.958 0. Torque ripple (Nm) 112 3.956 0. Figure 27 illustrates the total losses of the two structures. Volume 8.Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles.964 0. 26 Power-to-weight ratio 25 30 0.962 0. However. the losses in PMSMER are lower than those produced by the PMSMIR.966 0. 118 116 114 Losses for interior rotor Losses for exterior motor 112 110 108 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor position (°) Losses (W) Torque ripple (Nm) Fig.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 Power-to-wight ratio (Kw) Fig.96 0.962 0. we note that the PMSMER offers efficiency better than that developed by the PMSMIR..14 % and in the PMSMIR is 9. 0. As a conclusion. for the powers higher than 15kW. Figure 26 represents the power-to-weight ratio specific to the two structures according to the power. Moreover. the efficiency of the PMSMER is more interesting than the other structure.653 Mechanical losses 215. According to this figure.952 0.180 547. we notice that the power-toweight ratio of the PMSMER is slightly lower than the PMSMIR.2.964 Efficiency 100 Rotor position (°) We can deduce that the Joules losses and the iron losses for the PMSMER are lower than those of the PMSMIR. Number 1. while the great motor power it is the reverse. 28 Efficiency according to the power 1369 .

2007. Bolognani. Fujii. 793-800. H.. 2003. accepted May 3. Q. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles. 1. This type of configuration is adapted more to be exploited as a motor-wheel. Soulard. 1. Frare. CONCLUSION We choose the synchronous permanent magnet motor with radial flux. Sellami. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications. F. Wang. 2.. Uehara. and L. Lendenmann. L. 2. IEEE Transactionss on Magnet. Investigation on pole-slot combinations for permanent magnet machines with concentrated windings. Shih-chin. 2005.. sizing approach given by Figure 2. and D. 21. A. (Received February 5.. Polytechnic National Institute of Toulouse. Hadj. Chaieb et al. B. 2004. S. 2004. We compare efficiency. 4.. Magnussen. Z. Parasitic effects in PM machines with concentrated windings. Vol. Vol. J. O. Maged. and H.. Neji. Howe.. the magnetic force and the torque in a 3D brushless DC motor. an analytical modelling of two structures which are the PMSMER and the PMSMIR is carried out. 153-158. 2009. Finally. No. Optimal design and control of a torque motor for machine tools. 2010. H. Kazuhiro. 2009. 843-850. N. Performance comparison of two magnet synchronous motors structures with interior rotor and exterior rotor. 2. PhD Thesis. C. the PMSMER is the most interesting since it is more profitable and lighter than the PMSMIR.. Gasc. F.. No. The sate of the art of electric vehicles. 396-404. 530-535. Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics. Vol. 1. Zire. N. 1045-1049. Vol. F. References Bianchi. Kenichi. 220-228. No.. Design using finite element analysis of switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle. No. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles. 1. electromagnetic laws. No. Shi. Miraoui. the realization of a prototype is necessary to confirm our study. Yee-pien. 51. mass. Z. Reduction of cogging torque in permanent magnet flux-switching 1370 machines. Analysis of the magnetic flux density. C. and H. Real coded Genetic algorithm for permanent magnet motor mass minimization for electric vehicle application. 2009. 2006. M. EF. 2005. No. Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Machines. and A. 2010) . Fang. Vol. Espanet. Zhu. S. 2006. Vol. Vol. IAS2005 40th Annual Meeting Hong Kong. 2.: A Comparative Study of Two Permanent Magnet Motors Structures with Interior and Exterior Rotor reached by the first structure. Pakdel. Y. and P. and F. Shen.M. 1-5. Vo. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications. N. In conclusion. Libert. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles.. 11-14. 4. 1. F. 2004. Basing on the schedule data conditions. and J. Permanent magnet motor design with low torque ripple for automotive electric power steering: Structure and control approaches. Fei. Proceedings of Electrotechnique du Futur. 4. No. B. C.. R. 3. 2. Y. Vol. Design Criteria for High-efficiency SPM Synchronous Motors. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications. Chan. and W. Y. torques and losses in the two structures of the PMM. Jieng-jang. Y. Nashed. Comparison of torque-speed characteristics of interior-magnet machines in brushless AC and DC modes for EV/HEV applications. 1. Tounsi. 579-600.

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