©ASHRAE. All rights reserved. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development.

May not be distributed, reproduced nor placed on the internet.

HI-85-09 No . 4

A New Simpler Method for Estimating
the Thermal Insulation of a Clothing Ensemble
B.w . ®fesen, Ph.® .
ASHRAE Member
ABSTRACT

) of a clothing ensemble
The most common method for estimating the basic thermal insulation (I
is the use of tables with basic thermal insulation values for individual garments (I l ) .
Sprague and Munson (1974) found the following relationship between the thermal insulation
of an ensemble and the summation of values for the individual garments (EI Eli ) : Icl = k ZI li
+ k,, where k was a constant less than one, and both k and k2 were dependcent on sex (lema~Ie
for
or male clothings) . This equation has since been simplified in ASHRAE Standard 55-81
0
.82
environment
:
I
C1
=
thermal
ZIcli'
This paper presents an even simpler' method . Instead of describing the thermal insulation
), it is proposed to use
of a single garment by means of the basic thermal insulation (I
of
the
preseni
study is then the following
The
result
the effective thermal insulation (Iclu) .
relationship : Icl = EIclu'
The basic thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble is simply estimated as the sum
advantage
of the effective insulation for the single garments (EIclu) . Another important
single
garment
insulation
of
a
when
expressing
the
of using the proposed method is that
difficult
measurement
of
to
perform
the
it
is
not
necedssary
effective
insulation
by the
measurements
the increased clothing area factor, f l . The proposed relationship is based on
of 70 clothing ensembles in the rangec0 .7-2 .6 clo .

INTRODUCTION

predicting
The thermal insulation of the clothing worn by people is an essential parameter when
warm
environIn
cold,
neutral,
and
on
human
beings
.
the
thermal
environment
the influence of
ments, the type of clothing worn will influence the heat exchange between the human body
and the environment . This, in turn, influences the acceptability and stress of that environment .
In warm environments, clothing is often used to provide protection against the physical
environment (dust, sparks, radition) and may, in some cases, increase stress and reduce
working time . However, clothing may also be used as protection against heat and increase
the working time . In a neutral thermal environment, clothing has a significant influence
of 'u 0 .2
on the preferred ambient temperature . For example, a chang8 in thermal insulation
person
.
In cold
by
x
.1
.5
C
for
a
seated
ambient
temperature
clo will change the preferred
environments clothing is, in most cases, the only method for making the working conditions
tolerable .

The thermal insulation of the clothing ensembles must be estimated when evaluating
moderate thermal environments according to ASHRAE 55-81 or ISO 7730 (1984) (PMV-PPD index),
when Vvaluating hot environments according to ISO/DIS 7933 (1983) (Required Sweat. Rate Index)
or ET
(Gagge et a1 .1972), and when evaluating cold environments according to the method
(IREQ, Required Clothing Insulation) suggested by Holmer (1984) . For this purpose, it is
necessary to provide the user of these or similar procedures with methods for the estimation
of the thermal insulation .

Bjarne W . Olesen,
of Denmark .

Ph .D ., Laboratory of Heating and Air Conditioning, Technical University

478

reproduced nor placed on the internet. Expressions for the Thermal Insulation of Clothing The thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble or a single garment is expressed in this paper by the °clo"2 unit introduced by Gagge et al . Recent publications by McCullough et al .0 clo-value . Olesen et al .770 Icl = 0 . The thermal insulation of.82 EIcli + EIcli + 0 . Goldman 1974 . 1983) and McCullough and Wyon (1983) usecboth total and basic insulation . m anikin (Seppanen et al . Seppanen et al . All rights reserved. IT __ t t s o 0 . (1982) .2 to 1 . Mecheels and Umbach (1976 . The insulation of clothing ensembles has been expressed in different ways in the literature . All the measurements presented in this paper were performed on a standing thermal m anikin which has been described in details by Olesen et al . 1972 . 1976) were given as effective clothing insulation. W/ 2 d m is = mean skin temperature. while Seppanen et al . including the effect of the increased surface area (fcl) and the resistance at the surface of the clothed body (I a ) .113 clo (men) Sprague and Munson 1974 (1) 0 . however. The clothing insulation reported by Goldman (1974). The most widely used methods utilize look-up tables of clothing insulation values . a whole ensemble (Icl) . 479 .727 Icl . 1982) . excluding the effect of the increased surface area of the clothed body (fcl) . The following summation equations have been suggested in literature : Icl .05 clo (women) Sprague and Munson 1974 (2) ASHRAE Eicli 1981 (3) The data for the above equations are from measurements on daily wear ensembles with a thermal insulation in the range 0 . The purpose of this study was to verify that these methods also can be used for typical work clothing and for ensembles with thermal insulation values up to 2 .0 . Based on the summation of values for individual garments it is then possible to estimate the thermal insulation of (Icli). (1941) . 1982). and the measurements have to be performed in a laboratory . oC to = operative temperature. oC Effective clothing insulation (I ) is the insulation from the skin to the clothing surface. clo Q = dry heat loss per m2 skin area.©ASHRAE. and Holmer and Elnas (1981) were expressed by the total insulation. 1972 . Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. 1983b . the measuring method and experimental facilities are described . Olesen et al . The results reported by Nishi et al . therefore simplified methods that can be used in the field are necessary . Another type of table includes values for the thermal insulation of individual garments also measured on a standing thermal mannequin .155 Q (4) where IT = total insulation. Total insulation (I ) is the insulation from the skin surface to the environment. McCullough et al . very few thermal m anikins are. (1975 . IT . I 1 . (1972) and Sprague and Munson (1974) in their comprehensive colo~hing studies used the basic clothing insulation. One kind of table includes thermal insulation values for clothing ensembles measured on a standing thermal m anikin .6 clo . 1979). Breckenridge and Goldman (1977). For practical use.0 . I 1~ .155 m K/W . available (Mecheels and Umbach 1976 . (1982 . In the following paragraphs. May not be distributed. a clothing ensemble is normally measured on a thermal. The clo is defined in SI unit as 1 clo = 0 .

Icl.5 to 2 . and basic (Icl). clo - fcl = clothing area factor . In the present study.IT . cFor Icl values in the rangec6 . effective (Icl ). may be approximated by : Icle = 0 . measurements were performed enabling thermal insulation to be expressed in total (IT ). Clothing area factor (fcl) fcl = is defined as : (7) Acl/Arl where Acl = surface area of the clothed body A n = surface area of the nude body The following equation provides the relationship between Icl' Icle and IT : Icl = Icle + Ia(1 .0 clo. combined with fcl provides the required data for thermally characterising clothing . The drawback of I 1 clothed body and is insufficient V. Equation 10. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. be compared without specifying whether they refer to the total. or the basic clothing insulation .1/fcl) (8) = IT . May not be distributed.o provide a complete simulation of the heat transfer process . The relationship is important when comparing data from different studies .©ASHRAE. The basic insulation.2 Icl When introducing this in Equation 8 and assuming Ia = 0 . The same clothing ensemble may therefore have a different clo-value in different is that it ignores the increased surface area of the environments . the surface of the clothed body. the effective.Ia/fc1 Icl . because the expression between parentheses always is smaller than I This means that I 7~ is less than one . reproduced nor placed on the internet.2 Icl ) Icle . All rights reserved. ASHRAE 1981) the following relationship between Icl and fcl has been suggested (9) fcl = 1 + 0 .0 . The drawback of IT is that it includes in the definition the surface resistance which is influenced by the air velocity and temperature level .16 (1 + 0 .8 clo.155 Q . t Icle .2 1 c1.Ia (5) where effective clothing insulation.IT . t n s 0 . the following relationship is found : 1 + 0 .Ia/fcl (6) where Icl = intrinsic or basic clothing insulation. thermal insulation . clo Intrinsic or basic clothing insulation (Icl) is the insulation from the skin to the clothing surface : t .t.87 Icl Under the above assumption Icle is then about 13% lower than Icl . Clo-values for clothing ensembles cannot. clo Icle = I a = resistance at.Icl (10) .Ia -.Ia/fcl In the literature (Fanger 1982 .155 Q . s o 0 . The same expressions and methods were used for t e insulation of a single garment where : 480 .

In this way. This is done by heating the m anikin to a fixed internal temperature of 36 . To simulate a human being. and knees so it can stand up.4 °C W/m2 The effective and basic thermal insulation was then estimated from Equations 5 and 6 . In all calculations of single garments and ensembles insulation. The operative temperature (t ) used varied between 130C and 260C dependi2g on the level of insulation . the accuracy of the heat loss measurement has too much influence on the results. hips. The clothing area factor (f ) was measured by a photographic technique using pictures from six directions (Qlesen et aryl 1982) . aoheat loss from the m anikin of between 40 W/m and 80 W/m was obtained . 0 The total clothing insulation was measured using the thermal manikin .05 m/s and air temperature = mean radiant temperature = operative temperature t . but values are only partly shown in Appendix 1 . The measuring procedures were the same for individual garments and ensembles . I Ti = total thermal insulation of an individual garment effective thermal insulation of an indiviual garment Iclu basic thermal insulation of an individual garment Icli = MEASUREMENT The thermal insulation of the garments and ensembles was measured on a thermal m anikin. or cycle on an ergometer . it was necessary to know the resistance at the surface between m anikin and environment (I ) and the clothing area factor (f ) .©ASHRAE. was not significantly influenced by the temperature level in the climatic chamber .348 clo QM = heat loss from the manikin manikin = 36 . The m anikin has joints in the shoulders.I S cio (11) IT 0 . walk. be seated. reproduced nor placed on the internet.70 clo was used . while at too high a heat loss. The resistance of the m anikin shell (0 . If the heat loss is too low.348 clo) and the internal temperature of the mannequin (36 . The air change was 60 h-1 . oC ti = internal temperature of the m anikin Is = resistance of the shell = 0 .. As the manikin is heated to a constant internal temperature. I . The surface resistance was estimated according. and then the basic and the effective insulation (Icli) T~Iclu) values were estimated according to Equations 5 and 6 . ti. May not be distributed. The thermal insulation of approximately 200 garments has been measured according to the method described above. each of which is supplied with its own heating and control system . a value of I = 0 . The body is divided into 16 segments. During all tests the relative humidity was 1.155 Q m where to = operative temperature. The results of the measured thermal insulation of individual garments are shown in Appendix 1 . Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development.50% . This resistance corresponds approximately to the resistance between the deep body and skin of a human being during thermal comfort . To do this.t _ 1 o . The tests reported here were performed in a climatic chamber (Kjerulf--Jensen et al . 1975) in which the whole floor is used as an air outlet . The air velocity waz <0 . 481 . the following is valid : t.40C) were constant . All rights reserved. . to Equation 9 by operating the manikin nude . RESULTS Measurement with the nude m anikin showed that the surface resistance.40C and providing a thermal resistance (electrical + shell) equal to 0 .348 clo between the inside and surface of the m anikin . The total thermal insulation (I ) was first measured according to Equation 11. small changes in the thermal insulation may not be measurable . which was developed from a display m anikin and consists of a fiberglass reinforced polyester shell . the control of the m anikin is arranged to maintain a surface temperature equal to the skin temperature of a person in thermal comfort at the actual activity .

©ASHRAE. This is a very important result. The relationship between the thermal insulation of a garment and its weight was studied .26/clo. The increased area factor (fcl) was measured on approximately 20 ensembles using the was evaluated by means of the measured method described earlier . It is.82 values by EIcli)' Another advantage is when future garments have to be marked with a value for the thermal insulation . I l . measurement of the clothing area factor (f the basic thermal insulation for a single garment (Icli). Both regression through the origin (0 . The results of the measured insulation values of clothing ensembles arelshown in Appendix 2 . compared with the influence that a shirt tucked into a pair of trousers has on t e f 1-value for a clothing ensemble . I :~. respectively . (fcl). and type of fabrics . Here it is seen that Ic1_e is about 13% lower than I l . For the other ensembles. values or values reported by McCullough et al area factor (fcl) and the basic thermal insulation between the clothing The relationship (I l) was studied . Icl . The results of a linear regression between 1 1 and EIclu or ZIcl are shown in Table 1 . 482 . If the garments are marked with the effective thermal insulation value. and in Table 1. knowledge of individual insulation values for each garment. A Nordic standard committee is now working on a standard for measuring the thermal insulation of clothing garments and ensembles . The values for a garment. DISCUSSION The most important result of this study is the result of a linear regression between the basic thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble. The relationship between basic thermal insulation Icl of an ensemble and the summation of the individual effective insulation (EIclu) ) are shown in Figures and the summation of the individual basic insulation values (EI 4 and 5. In this equation.0) and with intercept are shown . and the summation of the effective lu) . which can explain the difference . while the present results indicate a relationship of 0 . and in some cases not very ) for each garment . possible to it insulation. The increased area factor. For the other garments. it will then be possible to see the garments labelled with the thermal properties along with the size. it is necessary to measure the and in many clothing area factor . but only some of the results are shown in Appendix 2 . A shirt by itself will hang loose on a thermal nianikin cases have an unrealistic high f E l -value. of an insulation (I lu) of each garment . First. In practice. however. The data from the present study are shown in Figure 2. From Table 1 it can be seen that thermal insulation for the individual garments. based on the effective insulation of garments thermal is also much easier to use a simple summation of insulation values for individual garments instead of an equation where it is necessary to multiply the sum of the individual (I 1. are only used for individual comparison of different garments and compare for predicting the thermal insulation of a whole ensemble . Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. f . and then the basic (Icl) insulation was estimated according to Equation 6 . (1983. T1983a . (E ensemble can be estimated by just adding together the effective the basic insulation.82 EIcli (ASHRAE 1981) and the present result Ic?~ = EIclu. is not needed . because by using this method.2/clo. this should values . then it will be easy for the user just to add the values when he/she wants to estimate Vhe thermal insulation of the whole ensemble. however. (Iclu) . airtightness) of garments and how this should be indicated on the garments . then it values are about 180 lower than Iclivalues . The thermal insulation of approximately 70 clothing ensembles was measured using the method described earlier.ZIclu) a constant (Icl= 0 . When adding Iclu for the single garments. it was assumed that the increase in f was 0 . Figure 1 shows the relationship between and weight . May not be distributed. When estimating realistic. the total thermal insulation (IT) was measured according to Equation 11. and McCullough and Jones (1983a) . This is not in agreement with seems like I 7~~ the expectedcN from Equation 10 . In the future. The aim of this standard is also to establish a procedure for describing the thermal properties (insulation. All rights reserved. was measured on approximately 50 items by photographic techniques . f 7~ was evaluated by means of the measured values or values reported by McCullough et al . I l. reproduced nor placed on the internet. it is not necessary to perform the very time-consuming. The relationship between the basic thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble and the total weight of the ensemble except shoes is shown in Figure 3. washing instructions. the results of a linear regression are shown between both Iclu I -weight and I l -weight . and the regression analysis is shown in Table 1 . 1983b) . When comparing then automatically result in a 13% Tower sum than when adding I relationships Icl = 0 . For the human heat balance equation. Thus. evaporative resistance. the t ermal insulation of garments are based on the effective value (Equation 5) . and the regression analysis is shown in Table 1 . This simple relationship could be expected when looking at Equation 10 .

and confusion with effective.5 Icl < Icl 0 .59 . addition of the basic insulation values for each garment may be a better predictor .85 0 . This is EIclu+ due to the fact tat at lower I values. This difference may be caused by the many ensembles. This only emphasizes how unreliable the total ensemble weight is as predictor of the thermal insulation . I .0) .45 and 1 . McCullough and Jones 1983b) percfarmed similar regressions for each type of fabric separately . Both are much lower than the 0 . A similar relationship has been studied by McCullouth and Jones (1983a) and Sprague and Munson (reported by McCullough and Jones 1983a) .57 clo/kg found in the present study . the question is. 1983 . May not be distributed. This may be due to the construction of the climatic chamber . a relationship of 0 .1 Icl 0 . They found that the relationship was much more significant with R = 0 .2/clo or 0 . McCullough and Jones 1983b) .©ASHRAE.05 + 0 . This may result in a stable boundary layer around the body at low air velocities ( 0 . In future it will be much easier.2 fcl 1 . it can be seen that at low I values (<1 .0 rlo) the regression line with intercept (I 1-0 . but unfortunately. fcl. which is very similar to the value 0 . that the increase in fcl per clo is greater than the 0 . the relationship for I has an inclination of 0 . which is unacceptable high . if everybody agreed upon expressing the thermal insulation of individual garments as (effective) and the thermal insulation of ensembles Iclu as Icl (basic) . Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development.00 depending on the type of fabric . However. This is shown in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 3 .14 clo . the overlapping is less and the increase in insulation is mainly due to an increase in cLe body surface area covered . data from the present study result in exactly the same regression lines. their regression line is not forced through the origin (0 . so it is important to perform this test with a nude m anikin before running tests with clothing .26 I (Table 1) based on 19 clothing ensembles in the range of 0 . has to be performed only once . For I li the slope is 0 . The 2Icli big difference in R is due to the great variety of textiles used in the present study . Researchers (McCulloug et al .7 to 2 . the standard deviation of the estimate is improved from 0 . These ensembles will have a much higher clo/weight relationship than the fabrics used in the studies of McCullough et al . The relationship hasla standard deviation of 0 . 1983 . For a garment. An easy way of predicting the thermal insulation of a clothing garment or ensemble could be the weight . The regressions in Table 1 show a 24-36% increase in fcl per clo .5 Icl > The present study resulted in a relationship f = 1 + 0 . Therefore a relationship between fcl and Icl is often used . and the slope of the relationship to varied between 0 . I the relationOut ship has a slope of 0 . together with results from other studies (McCullough et al .59 for individual garments.38. (1983) and Sprague and Munson (1974) .00 + 0 . Fanger (1982) suggested the following relationship : 1 . Icl-0 . however.14 clot which is not acceptable for individual Iclu is garments . As seen from Table 1.25) gives a beaker prediction of the Icl values . there is a slow air-flow from floor to ceiling in the same direction as the natural convection . 483 .11. From Figure 4. The measurement of the increased area factor. For a clothing ensemble. whether this more complicated procedure provides significantly more benefit compared with the single relationship given above .19. The standard deviation of prediction is 0 .1/clo suggested by Fanger (1982) . is very time consuming . All three studies show. All rights reserved. As the whole floor is used as an air outlet. included in the present study. In other climatic chambers. with high insulative materials .17 and Icl. The present study showed that I was independent of the ambient temperature . These results are shown in Table 1. In this case. In the ASHRAE Standard 55-81. of course. By using an equation with intercept. intrinsic/basic or total thermal insulation can be avoided. The standard deviation of the prediction of 0 . They estimate an inclination equal to 0 . The accuracy of prediction based on their results was better but is based on a narrower and lower range of values .73 0 . the temperature difference might influence I .82 EIcli+ EIcli (see Equation 1 and 3) . ASHRAE 1981) .0 .57.05 m/s). reproduced nor placed on the internet. This.35 clo/kg is suggested . Earlier summation formulae were based on the basic thermal insulation for each garment (I l ) (Sprague and Munson 1974 .17 clo to 0 .48 . which is not being changed by an increased At between body and chamber . which in practice may not be an acceptable prediction of the clothing area factor .4 clo .9.

The present data on garment and ensemble clo-values add new information to the literature due to the many types of work clothing and the higher insulation values.A . S . E . pp . McCullough. . and Wyon. Refrigerating. 89 . Konz. A . fundamentals . 1977 "Effect of clothing on bodily resistance against meteorological stimuli. .7 to 2 . E . Geneva . R . "Physiological evaluation of the resistance to evaporative heat transfer by clothing . (Amsterdam : Sweits & Zeitlinger). Burton." Science . ISO/DIS 7933 . and Gagge.65-68 .O . A . 484 . and Gonzalez.531-544 ." Transactions of the New York Adacemy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Krieger . F .F .Tromp. and Air-Conditioning Engineers. . S . Fanger. J . based on measurement with 70 clothing ensembles in the range 0 . McCullough. insulation IREQ as an analytical index of cold stress . "A practical system of units for the description of heat exchange of man with his environment .A . Vol .O . Arpin. 1975 "A new type test chamber in Copenhagen and New Haven for common investigations of man's thermal comfort and physiological reactions . "Standard effective temperature ." ASHRAE Transactions . D . . thermal insulation of the individual garments (Iclu) (Icl) and the Icl ." International Standard Organization. CONCLUSIONS A very simple relation between the thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble has been established .D . E . "Clothing design for comfort and work performance in extreme thermal environment . 24. ASHRAE handbook--1981 Refrigerating.W . 1981 . J . "Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy . May not be distributed. ed . London. 13-15 Sep . which have been included . because measurement of the clothing area factor. and Elnas. ASHRAE Standard 55-81 . 36." Atlanta : American Society of Heating.F . and Goldman. 1981b . Holmer. I . "Required clothing ASHRAE Transactions . ISO 1984 .A .194-208 . R ." ASHRAE Transactions . ISO 1983 .F . " Proceedings of CIB . 94. REFERENCES ASHRAE . . A single temperature index of temperature sensation and thermal comfort . A .H . B .63-74 . Gagge. 1 . Jones. is avoided . 1974 .531-544 . "Heat transfer environments . Goldman.analytical determination of thermal stress . This relation is Iclu. .P . Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development." ASHRAE Journal .Z Iclu where the thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble is expressed in basic insulation arid the thermal insulation of a garment in effective insulation . Nishi.. 1981a . P . Geneva . Heating. A .R . Malabar. P . Thermal comfort . pp . . and Bazett.P . . P . "Moderate thermal environments ." in Progress in Human Biometeorology . Y . "Hot environments .6 clo . This method also facilitates the measurement of thermal insulation of individual garments.C .P . . 1982 .Determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort . Kjerulf-Jensen. and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Breckenridge. Florida : Robert E ." Ergonomics . . Part 1 . 1972 . fcl. reproduced nor placed on the internet. Atlanta : American Society of Inc . 1983 . Inc . R .R . H . Fanger. . 1984 . characteristics of clothing worn in hot industrial Part and Robles. ISO 7730 . pp . pp . ASHRAE . Jan . 1941 . Nishi. Y . pp . Holmer. "Insulation characteristics of winter and summer indoor clothing . Gagge. I .©ASHRAE. 1982 ." International Standard Organisation.P .

pp . E .A . K . "Measuring and estimating the clothing area factor . . . Part 2 . Part 2. 1976 .H . B .O .A .120-129 . "The effect of garment design on the thermal insulation values of clothing . Gonzalez. "The effect of garment design and fabric thickness and weight on the thermal insulation values of clothing .M . and Fanger. K . Nishi.1029-1030 . Munson.P . .J . July . pp . Vol . C . "Thermophysiologische Eigenschaften von Kleidungssystemen ." ASHRAE Transactions . and Jones. B .248-259 . for typical clothing Sprague.M . R .P . Institute for Environmental Research. 88.G . . P . 0 . McNall. pp .W . J . and Zbikowski.E . A . T .W . P . 1975 . 81. pp . Nishi. 78. . A .L ." Presented at the International Conference : Biophysical and Physiological Evaluation of Protective Clothing . 89 . Part 2. "Thermal insulation values ensembles . 1983a . Kansas . "Effect of body posture and activity on the thermal insulation of clothing . R . W 8820 Hohenstein . J . 1974 . D . 1983b .-H . Seppanen.A . and Umbach.L . . Jones. "A composite ensemble method for estimating thermal insulation values of clothing .R . . Kansas State University. Kansas State University." Technical Report 83--02 . Mecheels. Vol . France. E . 1976 . Madsen. and Gagge. Mecheels. and Madsen. 82. 1983 . All rights reserved. 1979 . "Direct measurement of clothing heat transfer properties during sensible and insensible heat exchange with the thermal environment . Y . McCullough.©ASHRAE. L'Institut Textile de France. Part 1.183-199 . Gonzalez. . B .W . R .W .-H . 485 80. T . Manhattan." Untersuchung 79. and Gagge. and Umbach. . Vol . . 1982 . Sliwinska. "Measurements of the thermal insulation of clothings by a movable thermal manikin . P .H . .R . 57. and Jones.W ." ASHRAE Transactions . . reproduced nor placed on the internet.120-130 . Lyon. C . Kansas . B . ." ASHRAE Transactions . May not be distributed. Manhattan. E ." ASHRAE Transactions . "Field measurement of clothing thermal insulation . Olesen. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. Part 1. 1972 . Measurements by a movable thermal manikin ." ASHRAE Transactions ." Meilliand textilberichte . Nevins. Olesen. "Bekleidungsphysiologische Untersuchungen von Overalls ." ASHRAE Transactions . McCullough. B . E. Vol . D . Y . Sprague." Final report . Vol . and Munson. Institute for Environmental Research. 1983 . pp . McCullough. Vol .

uol'1.©ASHRAE. l9 LL ELL Z9 zt t0'0 SO'0 EO'0 SO'0 ZO'0 ZO'0 90'0 lt'0 BO'0 OLZ 99B OLZ SZZ OLE Z6Z 89 49 £9 E9 £9 Z9 Z9 Z9 Z9 L 4 t 00L Z00'0 900'0 S00'0 800'0 E00'0 E00'0 800'0 Ll0'0 ZW0 04'0 94'0 4E'0 LV0 ZE'0 8£'O ZLZ OLE ZL4 4E4 L£4 Ll4 £9 S ZLt Z90'0 OLO'O 690'0 LSO'O OSO'0 690'0 OZ'0 6E'0 LE'O 04'0 E4'0 6£'0 SLZL OOst St9 S9 49 E9 Z9 'ON odAj 9 9 E 9 Z 9 9 9 9 9 £ 9 L E E 9 l 4 S S S L 4 L Z £ B E E E C 4 L t 9 t L Z 4 MO'0 090'0 LSO'0 Z90'0 L90'0 090'0 E['t EO't 09'0 SZZ 09E Z6z ZZ£ t4E L9 l9 09 09 Ol OL Ol 9L 00 09th 4Zl'0 S£'0 t£'0 Z£'0 OE'0 04'0 OOOt 009 OSZ 0£8 On OZ9L OSEL 0061 008 0441 0441 099 OZ9 OB8 OZet 946 ZS4 Z46 S4L Z9 4S0'0 840'0 090. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. All rights reserved. reproduced nor placed on the internet. May not be distributed.0 140'0 Z90'0 9E'0 tE'0 Ll'0 Z4'0 EE'0 Z4'0 69'0 EE'0 ZS'0 61'0 19'0 99'0 OV0 SS'O 99'0 69'0 94'0 ez'0 61'0 I 9500 B40'0 9Z0'0 990'0 190'0 590'0 LO l'0 150'0 180'0 ZZl'0 401'0 180'0 140'0 980'0 LOl'0 LOt'0 110'0 EVO'0 6Z0'0 8 010 M/Ooiw 'ON M'1 I 14Blora I uollaInoul16WAS41 IuewwWD *Ijq oj I SlIV83AOO 3A11V9nSN1 Ham luouodwoollInw 'siesnoil lusuodwoo0lnw 'sjesnoil iueuodwooplnw 'siesnawl luauodwooillnw'siasnOJj cled_ ~aqil 'sissnoil S13NJW 3Al1VlnSNI HDIH lied-jaqg `I o A" u1011 yusuodwooplnw'peJano0 luauodwooplnw ' lle1ano0 '013 SIVH 'S3AOID 'S30HS 'SHOOS ivauodwoaplnw '3aHOef iuauodwoollinw 'yaNoef lueuodwoaplnw 'la4aef luauodwoopinw 'moer 7vauodwoollinw 'la>foef 7ueuodwoolilnw 'japer ie4 Law leper luauodwoo0lnw ysOA yl6ual-Noeq ejlxa 'luauodwoolilnw 'la)loer P91an00 peaq 'llad-Iaqll 7a8oef apislno DO lied-iaqg yaHoef lied-iaq0 'slsum ii 6uwuun "lax5ef lied-jaqll 'dly pue lsllm m uwun '1amoef deo sao4S sao4s-UOPOOM yjBual ahlue 's)joos Holyl alos jaqqnj 'saoys-apanS ylr)ual alNue 's5l3OS lied-jaqll 'qt ual aINue 'SHo0s )lolyl lied-jeqil'yl6uallleo's~oos~lol41 lladaaqrl'san016 )j0lyl S0Z 401 coil. LS t9 '0U adAl SSt OLZ L8 Sgt LZZ E6L 981 09 Z9t 99 861 LEt OL 'ON ol~qej CO'0 ZZ'0 40'0 E l'0 OCO 0L'0 80'0 4o '0 80'0 EO'0 Zt'0 90'0 _ 40'0 6 146!0m Iu3WAVO tt0'0 4E0'0 900'0 OZO'0 9t0'0 9t0'0 Zl0'0 900'0 ZW0 900'0 6'Ob 600'0 900'0 010 M/Oazw "'°I uogvfnaullewJ041 t alewal'le>loei H~oM yi6ual eauH molaq 'Aoows ~I~oM lyOual aau)l anoqe ' )toows ~I~oM laAaei Niom laHoef )j oM ' la~ svollnq ouloef - tZt OZt £LL Ztl 19t SSt 4Sl M t9 OSt aAlpalojd leofwa4o NIoM NioM io SIlVd3A00 Lot 46 E6 Z6 l6 MOOWS '1S3A '13NOVP _ asool'ly61ei1S silejan0 SIle19AO asooi 'ty6le~lS asool yy61e~1S EL tL UL SH3Sn0Hl Jelloo 1JI4s 'anaals 6uo-I Je80n 1JI4s 'anaals 6UOI Jelioo 3-04s ' anaals Duo ] SIHIHS L4 s4 Z4 L£ 9E EX L£ 6Z El 9 'ON 94 94 44 E4 oz 9Z SZ CZ ZZ OZ 0L 6 1 swie6uol'UIqs swie6uol'liI4S swig 6uol'IJI4S s-e DUO] 'UIyS lji4s-1 swje . angaaloid leaH lueuodwoopinw'spUJaAO te4 Lillm lvauodwoofilnw yeo0-eoied wouodwotilllnw 'ie0o-eaed yleual aauM molaq'le0o 1SOA-umo0 tayae(-umo(3 ylBual aauN molaq 'leoo yl6ual aau)i anoqe 'moef esool'siasnoil ql6ual aauH anoqe '1a)jDUP asool 'siasnoll SHasnoul-HMO 'S13XOVIFHBA0 'S1V00 uopdpoeap IuawAsE 4Z'0 9£'0 4B'0 LZ'0 9Z'0 9Z'0 0Kt O6B 0411 09ZL 004 SLS L4S OW Z99 049 09 6S 09 6S 09 C E £ E E L S 8 8 9 99 LEO'0 990'0 CSO'0 EEO'0 040'0 040'0 09'0 tS'0 64'0 ZS'0 L 1 Z Z 99 SS 4s 1 t Z Z E Z £ E E Z Z Z Z £60'0 610'0 910'0 180'0 BS 69 09 09 6S 09 69 OZE OL6 SSL 909 049 OZZ 09E OLE £Z'0 BZ'0 43'0 OZ'0 91'0 Bv0 Lz'0 69'0 9£0'0 E40'0 9£0'0 LEO'0 040'0 9Z0'0 EEO'0 S40'0 96L 096 Z8t £s 96L OOZ 09L 09 t l £9 OS 09 ZS OS tS sez L L'0 SZ'0 9C0 19 st'o Lt0'0 6E0'0 SZ0'0 60'0 ZCO 0L'0 SO'0 90'0 40'0 szo'o 4l0'0 610'0 910'0 600'0 600'0 900'0 9 9 L 9 9 9 Z 9 Z 9 4 E 99 SS L9 45 ES 09 09 09 ZS ZS Ls. S6t 461 £6t Z6t L6t O6L 681 881 18t 99L S8t 49l COL ZBt LBL OBl I SH3snolil 3AIlVlnsmi HDIH luau0 wo0glnw yqxaef la>toef aAlloajOJdufed siasnoil aAlioajOJduled leoo pazfwwnIV 'angoa0a! 3e2H siasnoil pazlwwnfe 'an0aa0aj lea ._ SINVd HV3mu30Nn uollduosap Iuawmo XIGN3ddV " subzsap 4uawzpb 3o sainbc3 umous SUq oq szagaa -ON adAq ayy -sauawzab TenpTAZpui Jog (nTol 'uoTqvlnsuz 9AT4oa39a) sanjen uoz4PTnsuz TQwzayy 07 .I4S U14s-1 swie ou -11I4S style Ou'1-04s slalig s6 15uol4/£ 'slued sINS S601 buol'Slued Slaps SOBIDUOI"slued SF)a l6u01Z/L'sived s6allloys's7ued s6al uol'slued sbal6uol'slued sapued pug gig s6al6uol'slued s6al 6uol "slued s6al6uol'slued S1HIHS HV3MH30Nn . 1a)loef ilal angoalold le9H luauodwoallinw'iapef siasnoq )la. LOZ 00Z StL L2 02 EEZ Z£Z LEE: OEZ 6ZZ 9ZZ LZZ 9ZZ SZZ Czz ZZZ LZZ OZZ 69Z 99Z LSZ 99Z SSZ 4SZ £SZ ZSZ LSZ 'ON 961 16t 961 .

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116 434 1803 1.84 0.38 0. shoes 244 Underpants 23.30 0.87 0.135 1783 1.141 2573 1.26 0. APPENDIX 2 Thermal insulation values (basic insulation.206 2992 1.163 3333 1.30 0.98 0.29 0 .31 1. undershirt Shirt 73 Coverall 12U Socks 254.194 . trousers 93 Jacket 152. 87 0 . shoes 255 Underpants 23.152 1708 1. No.25 1031 1. trousers 94 Jacket 151. undershirt 31 435 423 Shirt 70.79 0.140 Underpants 23.84 0.75 0. reproduced nor placed on the internet.122 1633 1.90 0. Clothing ensemble Com- Weight tion g bina- t. trousers 92 Smock 154 Socks 254.©ASHRAE. I ) for clothing ensembles . shoes 255 Underpants 23.79 0. coverall 112 Socks 254. All rights reserved.31 1. shoes 255 Underpants 23 Shirt 70.82 0.4U 0. trousers 91 Jacket 151 Socks 254. Trousers 92. jacket 152 Socks 254 shoes 255 Underpants 23 425 426 427 424 420 428 421 422 471 470 480 481 4E31 483 43U Shirt 71 Coverall 113 Socks 254.40 1.30 0.28 U.36 0.86 U.127 1300 1. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. Jacket 151 Socks 254 Shoes 255 1105 1.33 0.30 0.130 1430 1.05 U. Trousers 91.112 1344 1.25 0. shoes 255 Underpants 23 Shirt 70.18 0.72 0. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development.94 0. skirt 61 Jacket 167 Socks 258.36 0.122 1088 1. Shirt 70 Socks 254 Shoes 255 Underpants 23 Shirt 70. coverall 113 Socks 254. CIO m2°C/W WORK CLOTHING 434 429 Underpants 23 Trousers 91. May not be distributed.81 0. underpants Coverall 120 Socks 254 shoes 255 Underpants 23. shoes 255 Underpants 23 Shirt 71. Shirt 71. undershirt Coverall 120 Socks 254 shoes 255 Undershirt 47. shoes 255 Underpants 44 Shirt 73. underpants Coverall 120 Socks 254 shoes 255 Underpants 23.183 25 ~8 1. shoes 255 Underpants 23 Shirt 71.133 1645 1. trousers 91 Coverall 112 Socks 254.126 1858 1. shoes 255 Underpants 44 Shirt 73.25 0.29 0. shoes 255 4 150 26 31 48 31 _ I 488 I 0. trousers 92 Coverall 113 Socks 254. shoes 255 Underpants 23 Coverall 255 Socks 254 shoes 255 Undershirt 33..146 976 1.24 0. trousers 101 Jacket 167 Socks 254. shoes 255 Underpants 20 Shirt 71.91 0. Trousers 93 Jacket 152 Socks 254. 'Trousers 91 Smock 150 Socks 254. 135 429 31 1939 1. The numbers after eachcl individual garment refer to Appendix 1 .40 1.130 1210 1. undershirt 31 Shirt 71.

insulated jacket 225 402 Insulated trousers 201. underpants 48 Insulated trousers 204..214 2631 1 . trousers 91. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. insulated jacket 228 Socks 256. overjacket 183 Socks 256. overjacket 183 Socks 256. insulated trousers 203 Socks 256.357 _ Socks 254 shoes 255 Undershirt 42.291 2641 1 .85 0. insulated trousers 203 Overtrousers 190.53 0. underpants 43 Insulated trousers 200.336 2566 1 . 42 2 .350 3697 1. trousers 91.32 1. underpants 43 Insulated trousers 200. Jacket 151. insulated jacket 225 Insulated trousers 201 Socks 256 shoes 255 Underpants 23.217 2445 1. undershirt 31 436 438 439 482 441 442 472 473 Shirt 70. insulated jacket 221 Overtrousers 182. CIO m2°C/W COLD PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 401 Undershirt 42.20 1.222 -435 225 2404 1.22 1. undershirt 31 Shirt 70 Insulated jacket 228.88 0.23 0.27 1. Combina- Clothing ensemble tion Weight 4.36 1. No.226 204 229 1970 1. overjacket 198 Socks 254 shoes 255 loves 251 hat 259 Underpants 23. underpants 43 Insulated trousers 201. thermo-j 228 Socks 256. overjacket 183 Socks 256. insulated jacket 225 Overtrousers 182.42 2. 42 2.18 0. Insulated trousers 201.18 1. reproduced nor placed on the internet.191 441 2 2726 1.186 1205 1. overjacket 188 Socks 254 shoes 255 loves 251 hat 259 489 438 203 481 . insulated jacket 225 Overtrousers 182. 42 2.22 0. Jacket 151 Insulated trousers 228. underpants 43 Insulated trousers 200.38 0.35 1. shoes 257 Undershirt 42.54 0. underpants 43 Insulated trousers 200.374 2449 1.22 1. 42 2. shoes 255 Underpants 23.40 0. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. insulated jacket 222 Socks 254 shoes 255 Undershirt 42. Underpants 43 Coverall 115 Socks 254 shoes 255 Undershirt 42.16 0. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. shoes 257 Undershirt 42.172 1363 1. trousers 91 Jacket 151. overjacket 183 Socks 256.46 0.26 0..30 1.239 3257 1. Underpants 23.40 0. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. 22 0. insulated jacket 255 Socks 256. shoes 255 Underpants 23. Underpants 43 Coverall 210 Overtrousers 182. insulated jacket 229 Coverall 120 Socks 254. May not be distributed. 9 I. shoes 257 Undershirt 42. overjacket 183 Socks 256. Underpants 43 1286 1.11 0. shoes 257 Undershirt 42. insulated trousers 225 Overtrousers 182. shoes 255 Undershirt 42. trousers 91 Jacket 151. shoes 255 Underpants 23.17 0. Underpants 43 Insulated trousers 201.45 2.335 2618 1. trousers 91.132 2564 1.344 2884 1 . insulated jacket 226 400 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 Socks 254 Shoes 255 Undershirt 42. underpants 43 Insulated trousers 201. overjacket 183 Socks 254. jacket 151 Insulated trousers 203.35 1.237 2326 1. underpants 43.183 2618 1. shoes 257 Underpants 23.330 2490 1.43 0.30 0. shoes 255 Undershirt 47. insulated jacket 222 Overtrousers 182.48 2. insulated jacket 221 Socks 254 shoes 255 Undershirt 42.13 0.36 1. insulated trousers 203 Overtrousers 190. undershirt 31 Shirt 70 Insulated jacket 228. undershirt 31 Shirt 70.©ASHRAE.41 0. All rights reserved.

Shoes 255 489 Underpants 23. insulated jacket 229 Socks 254. overjacket 189 Socks 254.50 1.45 . 15 0 . underpants 48 Coverall 120 Overjacket 188 Socks 254.45 2. insulated jacket 229 Overtrousers 190. undershirt 31 485 480 196 197 Coverall 120 Overjacket 197. shoes 255.1. shoes 255.234 1960 1.29 ~ 0 022 480 204 229 435 1 3U 198 479 259 I 0 . underpants 48 coverall 120. overtrousers 190 Socks 254.51 0. trousers 91. 49 2 .57 0. undershirt 31 Shirt 70 Insulated jacket 228. overtrouse 196 Socks 254. 290 1. 48 2 . 395 3783 COLD PROTECTIVE CLOTHING cont . insulated jacket 229 Overtrouse 196. insulated trousers 203 Overtrousers 190. jacket 151 Overjacket 198. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. reproduced nor placed on the internet. 0 .253 3720 1 . shoes 255 490 . overjacket 188 Socks 254. gloves 251.48 0. shoes 255. undershirt 31 Coverall 120 Insulated trousers 204..220 1. shoes 255 Underpants 23. overtrousers 190 Socks 254.42 0. underpants 48 Insulated trousers 204.220 1830 1. overjacket 188.©ASHRAE. shoes 255 Underpants 23. hat 259 Underpants 23. trousers 91. Overjacket 195 480 195 Socks 254. gloves 251 Undershirt 47. trousers 91.45 1. All rights reserved. Socks 254 490 Undershirt 47.63 0. shoes 255. CIO MZ°C/W 1. Undershirt 31 Coverall 120 Overtrouse 191. 55 3697 1.48 0. overtrousers 190 Socks 254. Jacket 151 Overtrousers 190. jacket 151 Overjacket 198. May not be distributed. trousers 91.42 0. trousers 91.35 203 0 . underpants 48 Coverall 120. hat 259.55 U. Shoes 255 Underpants 23.288 3965 1. 45 1780 1. gloves 251. underpants 48 Insulated trousers 204. 333 4405 1 . gloves 251 4T 251 259 . shoes 255 Undershirt 47. 1. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. 313 HEAT PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 488 Underpants 23. 48 4223 1 . overtrouse 190 Socks 254.384 4405 1 . overjacket 198 Socks 254 shoes 255 loves 251 hat 259 Underpants 23. hat 259.49 2.43 1. overjacket 193 Shoes 255.38 1.24U 421 2640 1.243 1740 1.86 0. overtrousers 190 Gloves 251. hat 259. 87 U. shoes 151 Underpants 23. hat 259 Socks 259. 491 492 493 474 475 476 477 484 479 478 Undershirt 47. Combina- Clothing ensemble Weight tion g 481 188 251 259 2920 491 190 I'. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. undershirt 31 Shirt 70.45 1. overtrouse 196 Socks 254. Undershirt 31 Coverall 255 Overtrouse 194.229 480 191 193 4630 1. hat 259 Underpants 23. gloves 251 Underpants 23. jacket 151 Overjacket 188. 34 0 . No . shoes 255 Underpants 23. coverall 121 Socks 254 shoes 255 CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING RAIN PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 487 486 Undershirt 47. Jacket 151 Overjacket 188.02 194 2710 1.~. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. 363 4390 1 .45 1.42 1. insulated jacket 229 Overjacket 197. 315 1 . shoes 151.. undershirt 31 Shirt 70. 49 2 . overjacket 197 Socks 254. undershirt 31 Insulated trousers 204.

16 0 .26 f c1 = Weight-range clo f c1 = 1 McCullough et al .0 kg GARMENT Weight of garment versus effective thermal insulation.00-1 .4541 .046 1 .7 -2 .727 EI 1 cli 0 .26 0 .41 0 .6 1 .039 1 .14 0 .06 Sprague & Munson 1974 f c1 = 1 + 0 .0 0.2 99 0 .7 -2 .113 (Men) I c1 = 0 .6 1 .1 0 .34 I c1 21 45 0 .82 EIcli + 0 . 1983 Present study (kg) I c1 19 90 0 .01 Ei clu I c1 = 0 .47-0 .25 I c1 = 0 .8 -4 .7 -2 .05 (Women cl cli Present study ASHRAE 55-81* Sprague & Munson 1974 *Based on the data from Sprague & Munson 0 . Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development.49 0 .06 69 o 14 U k4 -0 .05 0 .3 0 .5 0 .63 + 0 .8 W O (s. and between basic thermal insulation and summation of insulation for garments .48-1 .2 2 0 H 0 0.96 69 0 .15-1 .©ASHRAE. 491 -1 .8 2 .14 0 .4 1 .02-2 .2 5' 2 fW~ 1 .37 0 .6 0 .6 -3 .32 0 . TABLE 1 . 1983 I c1 = 0 . (kg) 192 81 0 .6 E+ 0 .85 EI clu I c1 = 0 .02-2 .29 Present study I c1 = 0 . Data Source Number R2 % Stand .28 21 24 Present study i cl = 1 .4 fX4 El W a 0.6 69 93 0 .19 Weight (kg) + 0 . All rights reserved. Results of a linear regression between clothing area .2 0 .1 Regression Equation Present study 0 .2 1 .2 04 0. Dev .48-weight Iclu - 1.4 + 0 . reproduced nor placed on the internet.21-1 .38 H 1 .06 0 .82 EI cli + 0 .6 0 .96 I c1 31 0 . between thermal insulation and weight.73 EI cli + 0 .01-1 .21-0 .17 0 .7 -2 .00 0 .04 0 .57 Weight (kg) 70 94 McCullough et al .05-1 .0 H FC 0. 1983 Present study I c l-range 80 1 Present study f cl -range rclu .17 Icl= 0 .2 0 .6 69 92 0 .16 0 .8 WEIGHT OF Figure 1 .7 -2 .factor and thermal insulation.19-1 . 1.7 -2 .00 Weight cli- McCullough et al .97 1974 0 e 0 s o o 0. May not be distributed.15 0 .47-0 .48 Weight I clu Present study I cli= I 0 .11 1 .770 EI + 0 .21-1 . H 99 0 .59 Weight (kg) 192 83 0 .

I c1 --. versus clothing area factor c1 IC . EIcii Figure 1.5 20 25 de SUM OF EFFECTIVE THERMAL INSULATION OF GARMENT.2 z INSULATION OF ENSEMBLE. 1 .73 0.0 kg 25 H do Weight of ensembles except shoes versus basic thermal insulation.0 2 .4 1. versus thermal insulation V' ensembles.57 "weight 2.0 U) O H F ttI F rF.25 15 1 .8 H Figure 2 .0 05 O 0 O. Summation of basic thermal insulation of garments.82 EIC 0 .Cl a D V) z H 0 n n5 to 15 2n 4. r 0.5 SUM OF BASIC THERMAL INSULATION OF GARMENT. .5 3. . U W V H oz 0 H w W z x W ~ H H U)o (A H U D x O a CIO is U 0 . 0 1 .©ASHRAE. . -`- Icl = 0 . ' 1.Icl .73 0 N paq EIC11+0. icl . w N E G" 0 CIO U H 25 Ii c ° WEIGHT OF ENSEMBLE EXCEPT SHOES ao w ' 0.5 4.. All rights reserved.0 1.0 W BASIC THERMAL ---- 2.17 EI0 .I C1 = 0 . Icli. May not be distributed. Icl 492 5. Courtesy copy for SSPC 55 Committee to exclusively use for standards development. Icl .17 li+ y E k.85 20 £Iclu IIC1U*0 .0 . reproduced nor placed on the internet. I C7 .5 2 .1 .0 3. versus the basic thermal insulation of ensembles.0 .4 I C1 Basic thermal insulation of ensembles.00 W ww H QS Figure 3 . Summation of effective . EIclu thermal Figure insulation of garments.