RONJA

(Reasonable Optical Near Joint Access)
A Seminar Report
Submitted by

RAGHAVENDRA.S.RAO
in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree
of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
Guided by

Mr. B.B.WATTAMWAR
At

MAHARASHTRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
AURANGABAD
2013-14

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that, the report “RONJA (Reasonable Optical Near Joint Access)”
submitted by
Raghavendra.S.Rao
is a bonafide work completed under my supervision and guidance in partial fulfilment for
award of Bachelor Of Technology (Electronics and Telecommunication) Degree of
Maharashtra Institute Of Technology Aurangabad.

Place : Aurangabad
Date :

Mr. B.B.Wattamwar

Mrs. V. M. Kulkarni

Guide

Head of the Department

Dr. S. P. Bhosle

Principal
Maharashtra Institute Of Technology Aurangabad

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I

II

III

IV

V

TITLE

PAGE

ABSTRACT

4

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

5

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

6

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction

7

1.2 Necessity and objectives

8

1.3 Theme and Organisation

9

LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

10

2.2 Free Space Vs Radio

13

2.3 Optics

14

2.4 Signals

15

2.5 LED Vs Laser

24

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
3.1 General Scrutiny

26

3.2 Block diagram and its Description

28

3.3 Models and their specifications

39

CONCLUSION
4.1 Applications and Future Scope

45

4.2 Pros & Cons

47

REFERENCES

48

3

ABSTRACT
RONJA (Reasonable Optical Near Joint Access) – Allows one to make a free
space 10Mbps full-duplex Ethernet bridge between two points up to 1.4 km
away using visible incoherent light.
The transmitter sends a signal with a Light Emitting Diode (LED), the light rays
are collimated (paralleled) by a lens. On the other side of the bridge the receiver
uses another lens to focus light onto a photo diode. The Twister is the
electronics that cleans up the signal, adds a pulse when no data is being
communicated, and adds the link integrity pulse back to the Ethernet cable. The
pulse is used to keep the Receiver knowing what a signal is over noise.
This report covers the basic introduction to RONJA, Scrutiny of its system
functioning, advantages of RONJA along with its future improvements and
scopes.

4

S.RAO 5 . M. this assignment wouldn’t have been successful.Wattamwar for his precious and elaborate suggestions. P. without their constant support and encouragement. The inspiration behind the every aspect of life constructs a way to get success. We are indebted to our college Principal Dr.B.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my deep gratitude and appreciation for the invaluable guidance of our professors throughout the span of preparing this seminar. I am also thankful to our HOD Mrs. Kulkarni and my Seminar Guide Mr. Bhosle.S. Their excellent guidance made me to complete this task successfully within a short duration.B. which I have got from all the professors of the department. No thanks giving would be complete without mentioning my parents and family members. RAGHAVENDRA. V.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  SONET-Synchronous Optical Networking  ISP-Internet Service Provider  NBF-NetBIOS Frames protocol  DECnet-Digital Equipment Corporation Networks  IPCP-IP Control Protocol  SSl-Secure Sockets Layer  SSH-Secure Shell  L2TP-Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol  IEEE-Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  FCC-Federal Communications Commission  ASCII-American Standard Code for Information Interchange  RX-Receiver  TX-Transmitter  PCB-Printed Circuit board  HDLC-High-Level Data Link Control  ADCCP-Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures  LAN-Local Area Network  LLC-Logical Link Control  MAC-Media Access Control  CSMA/MD-Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection 6 .

4 km (0. .9 miles).INTRODUCTION RONJA is a free-space optical communication system which transmits data wirelessly using beams of light.2 mi) by doubling or tripling the transmitter pipe. having a range of 1. home or office network with other network.4 km. The range can be extended to 1. The complete system layout is shown in the block diagram above. 7 . Ronja can be used to create a 10 Mbit/s full duplex Ethernet point-to-point link. The range of the basic configuration is 1. The device consists of a receiver and transmitter pipe (optical head) mounted on a sturdy adjustable holder.9 km (1. Two coaxial cables are used to connect the rooftop installation with a protocol translator installed in the house near a computer or switch. A complete RONJA system is made up of 2 transceivers: 2 optical transmitters and 2 optical receivers. They are assembled individually or as a combination. through an optoelectronic device you can mount on your house and connect your PC.

in it. Ronja is amongst those systems which can easily cater to all these needs.NECESSITY AND OBJECTIVES The Foundation of any Project lies in its need which defines its existence. thus proving its necessity and Objectives. there is an emerging trend which appeals the use of optical energy to transfer information. Moreover. the most efficient. In Today’s Era of Wireless Communication. Energy efficient and point-to-point secure transmission can be efficiently fulfilled by RONJA. The Demands of Full Duplex. most advantageous and secure systems are preferred. 8 . high Speed.

THEME AND ORGANISATION Ronja has a Theme of Pure Optical Communication in Synergy with Networking. Czech Republic. Twilight laboratories. associated with it. It is all concerned about the transmission and reception of data within the boundaries defined by its Design and Structural capabilities obeying all the necessary Protocols. is the organization which is associated with RONJA 9 . Prague.

For every network layer protocol used. and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) uses the Novell IPX Control Protocol (IPX/SPX). specialized radio links. Internet Protocol (IP) uses the IP Control Protocol (IPCP). The phases of the Point to Point Protocol according are listed below: 10 . DECnet and AppleTalk. a separate network control protocol (NCP) is provided in order to encapsulate and negotiate options for the multiple network layer protocols. are used most commonly by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to establish a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service connection with customers. Balanced (LAPB) in the X. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable. Point-toPoint Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA). and fiber optic links such as SONET. Internet service providers (ISPs) have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet. e. where it has largely superseded the older Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and telephone company mandated standards (such as Link Access Protocol. since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own. including Internet Protocol (IP). PPP is commonly used as a data link layer protocol for connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits. without some data link protocol.g. TRILL. Two derivatives of PPP. PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communication link. phone line. For example. PPP is also used over Internet access connections. PPP was designed to work with numerous network layer protocols. cellular telephone.LITERTURE SURVEY Point-to-Point Protocol: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. NCPs include fields containing standardized codes to indicate the network layer protocol type that the PPP connection encapsulates. trunk line. network address or compression options. It can provide connection authentication. after the connection has been established. NBF. The only requirement for PPP is that the circuit provided be duplex. Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). It negotiates network-layer information.25 protocol suite). transmission encryption and compression.

if the link suddenly fails. This can happen if there is an authentication failure.Link Dead: This phase occurs when the link fails. Authentication Phase: This phase is optional. or if the user decides to hang up his connection.g. Data transport for all protocols which are successfully started with their network control protocols also occurs in this phase. Link Termination Phase: This phase closes down this connection. Closing down of network protocols also occur in this phase. depending on whether authentication is desired. a user has finished his or her dialup connection. If successful. control goes either to the authentication phase or the Network-Layer Protocol phase. It allows the sides to authenticate each other before a connection is established. control goes to the network-layer protocol phase. if there are so many checksum errors that the two parties decide to tear down the link automatically. For example. If successful. IPCP is used in establishing IP service over the line. 11 .) Link Establishment Phase: This phase is where Link Control Protocol negotiation is attempted. or one side has been told to disconnect (e. Network-Layer Protocol Phase: This phase is where each desired protocols' Network Control Protocols are invoked.

for example. Some of them. SSH. PPP can assign IP addresses to these virtual interfaces. to route between the networks on both sides of the tunnel. these interfaces would be called tun0.Many protocols can be used to tunnel data over IP networks. the tunnel is a point-to-point connection and PPP is a natural choice as a data link layer protocol between the virtual networks interfaces. or L2TP create virtual network interfaces and give the impression of a direct physical connections between the tunnel endpoints. and these IP addresses can be used. like SSL. 12 . On a Linux host for example. As there are only two endpoints on a tunnel.

Eavesdropping Because of the nature of radio waves. it is harder to contain where the radio waves go. Free Space Optics have some advantages and disadvantages compared to Radio. car alarms. The signal can also be listened to behind the intended location. microwave ovens. As an example if you used the public block in the 2. Fresnel Zones The Fresnel zone of light is very small compared to radio waves. This can make your signal less dependable. 13 . and security cameras. even in directional point to point networks a signal can still be eavesdropped over a large area. Interference Radio waves can interfere with each other. this is much more difficult and can be detected. 2.4km one would still be able to receive the signal 194 meters on either side of where it is pointing. 4. but other devices are also using them. With a free space network you must intercept the light beam. If there is an obstruction in the first Fresnel zone it will produce interference. 3. For example a typical parabolic antenna has a beam width of 16⁰. Free space optic networks are free from these types of interference. wireless access points. There are blocks of spectrum free to use. Radio Radio (Such as IEEE 802.4GHz range. your signal can get interference from portable phones.Free Space vs. at 1. 1. This interference is one of the reasons the FCC licenses spectrum. Free space optics is limited to how far it can travel through the atmosphere because of absorption.11) can also be used to create a network bridge. Distance Radio waves have improved distance over free space optics.

as well as take incoming light into a point.Optics Geometric: The RONJA uses a double convex spherical lens. The Receiver will take incoming parallel light and will focus it into a point using a double Convex Lens. As shown in Figure 2. The Transmitter side takes light from a LED and it will collimate it towards the Receiver side. 14 . the RONJA uses the lens to take light from a LED and collimate it. which is typical found in magnifying glasses.

In NRZ. The next subsections go over some of the encodings used in Ethernet 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX. it could easily become out of sync. 15 . There are many ways to encode the information to make it more resistant to noise or to make sure that timings are synchronized. each bit delimited by time (See Figure 6). an ASCII ’a’ is represented as 01100001.Signals Information in a computer is stored as a set of hi/lo values or binary. This can be communicated as two sets of different voltages. The RONJA currently supports 10BASE-T. If this information is sent to another system that has a slightly different clock. or like in the RONJA blink on and blink off. clock timing is important and is often used internally when everything is operating off the same clock. For example. hi for 1 and lo for 0. NRZ Encoding NRZ (Non-Return to Zero) is a simple encoding. Imagine a long stream of 1’s there would not be any indication of how to set your clock between bits.

thus a response capable of 10 MHz is needed (1 Hz/bit). The first step is to establish the data rate that is going to be used. Check if all bits have been sent.00025s or 250 μs. Now let's look at how we use this to encode a data byte of 0xC5 (11000101b). Check the next logical bit to be coded 4. We also need to set up a method to track which ½ bit period we are currently sending. 2. then go to step 7 3. The easiest method to do this is to use a timer set to expire or interrupt at the T interval. then call ManchesterOne(T) 5. Once we do this. If yes.Manchester Encoding An Ethernet 10Base-T network sends its data in a Manchester encoding. Dividing by two gives us the midbit time (which we will label “T”) of 125 μs. This provides a bit period of 1/f = 1/4000 = 0. Once this is fixed. Encoding a Data Byte: Encoding is the process of adding the correct transitions to the message signal in relation to the data that is to be sent over the communication system. Our LED and photo diode are capable of handling these response times. If the bit equals “1”. Begin with the output signal high. then the mid-bit time can be determined as ½ of the data rate period. In our example we are going to use a data rate of 4 kHz. A property of the Manchester encoding is that it needs twice the bandwidth of the data com-pared to NRZ. we can easily encode the data and output the message signal. 1. Else call ManchesterZero(T) 16 .

Set the output signal low 9. Set the output signal low 2. Return Implementation of ManchesterZero(T) 6. Wait for mid-bit time (T) 8. 17 . Set output signal high and return Implementation of ManchesterOne(T) 1.6. Wait for mid-bit time (T) 3. The accuracy of the data rate and duty cycle depends on the accuracy of the clock source and the method used to create the wait times. Return to step 2 7. Wait for mid-bit time (T) 10. Set the output signal high 4. Return These easy routines will provide an output at the microcontroller pin that exactly encodes the data into a Manchester message signal at the desired data rate. Wait for mid-bit time (T) 5. Set the output signal high 7.

The data rate clock must be either known or discovered (we will assume a known value) 2. There are several ways to approach this and each has unique benefits. Buffer or store this data for further processing. We must synchronize to the clock (distinguish a bit edge from a mid-bit transition) 3. As mentioned. 18 . Process the incoming stream and recover the data using the previous two steps. we have two different options for consideration. 4. All that remains is to implement this in software. This provides the basic outline for how we will perform Manchester decoding. 1. This section will describe how to implement two different methods.Manchester Decoding Decoding is where most people attempting to work with Manchester have questions. One is based on timing while the other utilizes sampling. To start we will look at the steps that are needed for either methodology.

Next bit = current bit iii. Return error 8. Store next bit in buffer 9. 1. precise time measurements. and allow decision processing based on the elapsed counter value. Capture next edge a.Timing Based Manchester Decode In this approach we will capture the time between each transition coming from the demodulation circuit. Next bit = opposite of current bit ii. If desired number of bits are decoded. Else set current bit to next bit and loop to step 7 19 . Return next bit d. Set up timer to interrupt on every edge (may require changing edge trigger in the ISR) 2. Compare stored count value with T b. Start timer. Capture next edge and make sure this value also = T (else error) ii. The Input Capture function on a micro-controller is very useful for this because it will generate an interrupt. Capture next edge and check if stored count value equal 2T (T = ½ data rate) 5. Repeat step 4 until count value = 2T (This is now synchronized with the data clock) 6. capture first edge and discard this. Read current logic level of the incoming pin and save as current bit value (1 or 0) 7. 4. Return next bit c. Else if value = 2T i. exit to continue further processing 10. ISR routine should flag the edge occurred and store count value 3. Else i. If value = T i.

It has 3 states: typically positive. This makes it easy to be transferred in copper cable. zero. It reduces the frequency traveling through copper cable for the 100BASE-TX to 31. A reason to use this encoding is to reduce the frequency by four (one cycle: hi-med-lo-med) compared to something like Manchester. It changes from its current state to the next every time there is a high. This is of no help in reducing the frequency when you have only two states on and off. Creating a third state with the LED alone (such as half intensity).MLT-3(multi-level transmit) MLT-3 is a encoding used in Ethernet 100BASE-TX. would reduce the range. 20 .25 MHz. and negative.

BiPhase coding says that there will be a state transition in the message signal at the end of every bit frame. In addition.BiPhase BiPhase adds a level of complexity to the coding process but in return includes a way to transfer the bit frame data clock that can be used in the decoding to increase accuracy. a logical “1” will have an additional transition at the mid-bit. 21 .

by definition. 22 . The carrier. amplitude.Modulation Modulation refers to the act of adding the message signal to some form of carrier. In this case we can see a “ripple” on the carrier. This change can be detected and recovered (demodulated) at the other end of the communication channel. frequency. There are a number of ways this can be done but for simplicity we will only look at Amplitude Modulation (AM). the amplitude of the carrier is changed to follow the message signal. Modulation is typically carried out in hardware. Amplitude Modulation In amplitude modulation. or some combination thereof. its envelope contains the message. and Frequency Modulation (FM). is a higher frequency signal whose phase. is varied proportionally to the message. On-Off Keying (a variation on AM). This can be demodulated using an extremely simple envelope detector that captures this ripple as a low frequency response.

the frequency of the carrier is not constant but varies in relation to the message. 23 . This requires a much more complicated demodulation circuit typically implemented using a Phase Lock Loop (PLL). Frequency Modulation Frequency modulation is more complicated but provides the benefit of constant output power independent of the message being sent. With this approach.On-Off Keying This form of modulation takes the amplitude modulation as described above to the extreme. we have only two states: Carrier and No Carrier. In this instance. The demodulated output is either high or low depending on the presence of the carrier. This approach lends itself nicely to the transmission of digital data because the carrier can be simply switched “on” or “off” depending on the state of the data being sent.

24 .

With the LED you are emitting a much broader set of wavelengths. There are also disadvantages. LASER diodes with less than 1ns (1Ghz) response times are available.LED vs LASER A common response to those introduced to the RONJA is that a LASER should be used instead of a LED. This effect can be especially bad depending on the terrain it travels over. This section will try to compare a LASER vs LED. such as certain ice crystals in the air that absorb certain narrow bands of wavelength. it will hit packets of air of different temperature which have a different index of refraction causing constructive and destructive interference which can ruin your signal. and possibility of photo diode saturation from outside sources. it makes it easier to add filters to the optics to only allow the light from the LASER wavelength reducing ambient noise. because of the narrow wavelengths emitted by the laser there could be conditions where that wavelength is absorbed. fountains. If some of it gets absorbed. you still have the rest to fall back on. The LASER diode is stimulated to emit instead of spontaneous like the LED. if we wanted to make a faster link. 3 Scintillation Scintillation can be far worse for a LASER than the LED because the LASER is more coherent than the LED. It is hard to find diodes with less than 20ns (50Mhz) response times. 2 Monochromatic A LASER tends to emit a beam more monochromatic (<5nm FWHM. Asphalt. all create temperature differences that will contribute to scintillation. 25 . this is where the LASER could have an advantage. As the beam travels through the air. The LED response time works fine for the RONJA(10Mhz). compared to > 24nm FWHM). ponds. 1 Response Time The LASER has an advantage of shorter response times than the LED.

Even low powered lasers should have extra safety precautions such as auto shutoff if there is a beam break.4 Safety LASERs can be dangerous. Even light reflected after it has hit a object can be enough to damage the eye depending on the power and wavelength of the LASER. Devices sold to the market place that contain lasers must go through the FDA. For lasers rated higher than IIIa/3R protective eye goggles are needed when working with them. 26 .

Things have been made much easier by putting the most complicated electronics on a PCB. drilling. and technical drawing/schematic reading.SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT General Scrutiny One Ronja device is a single long-distance optical transceiver that is capable of running against the same or compatible device on the other side of the link. for example the components for the whole Ronja 10M Metropolis cost just 1500CZK. But people without any previous experience with soldering have built a piece that worked on the first try! 27 .  The user must possess certain basic manual skills as soldering. The topology is point-topoint. Building a Ronja is rather lenghty job (this will hopefully change in future) that however pays off in a reliable and performant device that is capable of delivering steady connectivity with little maintenance and can be run freely without a need of authorities' approval. Also a possibility of interference and eavesdropping is negligible. painting. He who wants to enjoy the adrenaline sport of driving primitive retail parts into flawless cooperation to provide the uncurbed full duplex connectivity experience must withstand these nuisances:  Ronja is somewhat labor expensive. Dropouts are infrequent and determined solely by weather and are thus foreseeable. Further reduction in labor demands is planned by putting RX and TX on PCB too. The cost of parts is negligible in comparison with the labor.

Sector codes are present to make the population easy. the resulting device is rock solid in steady performance and provides outstanding electromagnetic interference immunity and electromagnetic compatibility.  The design is rugged and over dimensioned to withstand variations in the components.just print and no measurement is necessary in the workshop!  The device is based on the KISS rule (Keep It Simple. The user must not cut the corners during the building But there are also certain conveniences:  The parts are chosen to be of the widest availability possible and equivalents are provided where applicable  Innovative approach is used to speed up the work and make it convenient. Withstands -20°C as well as direct sunlight and heat with obvious margin. As a consequence. Stupid) which makes the device plug-and-play immediately after the building provided the user hasn't botched anything. the measuring points can be inspected and bad components replaced without a need to throw the whole device out. lightning strike in proximity usually doesn't generate even a single lost bit. During a lightning storm. Drilling is simplified by drilling templates . 28 .  In case of device failure (direct lightning strike).

The HSDL-4200 series of emitters are the first in a sequence of emitters that are aimed at high power. Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (TS AlGaAs) LED technology. A feedback loop measures voltage on this resistor and keeps it at a preset level by varying supply voltage of the 74AC04 29 . This material produces high radiant efficiency over a wide range of currents up to 500 mA peak current. an ACbypassed current sense resistor is put in series with the LED. where 10 Mbit/s Manchester-modulated systems need bandwidth of around 16 MHz . low forward voltage. It has a bandwidth of 9 MHz. the HSDL-4230 at 17° and the HSDL-4220 at 30°. Therefore a special driving technique consisting of driving the LED directly with 15-fold 74AC04 gate output in parallel without any current limitation is implemented.Block Diagram and its Description: Following is the detailed description of the diagram: Optical Transmitter . These devices are optimized for speed and efficiency at emission wavelengths of 875 nm. The HSDL-4200 series of emitters are available in a choice of viewing angles. and high speed. As the voltage to keep the nominal LED average current (100mA) varies with temperature and other component characteristic. These emitters utilize the Transparent Substrate. Operation in a usual circuit with current drive would lead to substantial signal corruption and range reduction. double heterojunction.Infrared LED driver: The heart of the Optical transmitter is the HSDL4220 infrared LED exclusively suitable for the 10Mb/s operation in this Transmitter.

Under dimensioning this bank causes the leading and trailing edges of the optical output to grow longer. The side effects of this brutal driving technique are: 1) the LED overshoots at the beginning of longer (5 MHz/1 MHz) impulses to about 2x brightness. 2) A blocking ceramic capacitor bank backing up the 74AC04 switching array is crucial for correct operation.gates. which makes the output optical signal fast enough so that the range/power ratio is the same as with the faster red HPWT-BD00-F4000 LED. This pushes the speed of the LED to maximum. Therefore the 74AC04 is operating as a structured power CMOS switch completely in analog mode. basically by short circuit discharge. because charging and discharging the LED is done by short circuit. This was measured to have no adverse effect on range. This way the LED junction is flooded and cleared of carriers as quickly as possible. 30 .

undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region. In other words. the intrinsic "i" region is flooded with charge carriers from the "p" and "n" regions. as well as current and voltage offsets change with different types of sensors. A PIN diode is a diode with a wide. each suited to a particular application. The gain. The gain of the amplifer is set by this resistor and because the amplifier is in an inverting configuration. bandwidth. Rf. This transimpedance amplifier inside a ronja system also makes use of a PIN diode.Optical Receiver . In its simplest form a transimpedance amplifier has just a large valued feedback resistor. There are several different configurations of transimpedance amplifiers. The one factor they all have in common is the requirement to convert the low-level current of a sensor to a voltage. A PIN diode operates under what is known as high-level injection. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts.Preamplifier stage: The usual approach in FSO (Free Space Optics) preamplifiers is to employ a transimpedance amplifier. A transimpedance amplifier is a very sensitive broadband high-speed device featuring a feedback loop. 31 . has a value of -Rf. requiring different configurations of transimpedance amplifiers. Following is the brief scrutiny of a transimpedance amplifier: The transimpedance amplifier as shown above presents a low impedance to the photodiode and isolates it from the output voltage of the operational amplifier.

where the number of electrons is equal to the number of holes in the intrinsic region. low-pass.Its function can be likened to filling up a water bucket with a hole on the side. or band-pass filter. When the diode is forward biased. Due to this high level injection. Similarly. differential output. and then a compensation of the 6 dB/oct slope is done by derivator element on the programming pins of an NE592 video amplifier. Ronja however uses a feedback-less design where the PIN has a high working electrical resistance (100 kilohms) which together with the total input capacitance (roughly 7 pF. The NE592 video amplifier is a monolithic. the electric field extends deeply (almost the entire length) into the region. The signal is then immediately amplified to remove the danger of contamination by signal noise. which in turn is due to the depletion process. which results in faster operation of the diode. two-stage. and wideband video amplifier. It offers fixed gains of 100 and 400 without external components and adjustable gains from 400 to 0 with one external resistor. the injected carrier concentration is typically several orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic level carrier concentration. the diode will conduct current once the flooded electrons and holes reach an equilibrium point. making it a suitable device for high frequency operations. 32 . The input stage is designed so that with the addition of a few external reactive elements between the gain select terminals. 5 pF PIN and 2 pF input MOSFET cascade) makes the device operate with a passband on a 6 dB/oct slope of low pass formed by PIN working resistance and total input capacitance. This electric field helps in speeding up of the transport of charge carriers from P to N region. the circuit can function as a high-pass. Once the water reaches the hole's level it will begin to pour out.

video recorder systems. It is available in an 8-pin version with fixed gain of 400 without external components and adjustable gain from 400 to 0 with one external resistor.This feature makes the circuit ideal for use as a video or pulse amplifier in communications. a surprisingly flat characteristic is obtained in the receiver section of the RONJA. If the PIN diode is equipped with 3 kΩ working resistor to operate in flat band mode. display. the range is reduced to about 30% due to thermal noise from the 3 kΩ resistor. magnetic memories. Due to this implementation. and floppy disk head amplifiers. 33 .

Significantly. The means for amplifying in one embodiment is a field-effect transistor that is operably connected to the laser driver/post amplifier and configured to provide an additional bias current to the laser diode such that sufficient lasing operation of the laser is realized. thereby reducing new component production and device complexity.Ronja Twister: An optical transceiver module configured for long wave optical transmission is disclosed. the transceiver module includes a transmitter optical subassembly including a laser capable of producing an optical signal. In one embodiment. A means for amplifying the bias current provided to the laser by the first bias current source is also included as a separate component from the laser driver/post amplifier.Transceiver . A consolidated laser driver/post amplifier including a first bias current source provides a bias current to the laser for producing the optical signal. the transceiver module utilizes components formerly used only for shortwave optical transmission. 34 .

etc. this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture. mechanical. and procedural interface to the transmission medium. The implementation of this layer is often termed PHY. The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes. including electromagnetic spectrum frequency allocation and specification of signal strength. the physical layer or layer 1 is the first (lowest) layer. for example maximum cable length  Electrical specification of transmission line signal level and impedance  Radio interface. analog bandwidth. The physical layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. including  Mechanical specification of electrical connectors and cables. 35 .Physical Layer: In the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) of computer networking. The physical layer provides an electrical. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics. It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:  Bit-by-bit or symbol-by-symbol delivery  Providing a standardized interface to physical transmission media.

training sequences. pulse shaping and other signal processing of physical signals  Forward error correction for example bitwise convolutional coding  Bit-interleaving and other channel coding 36 . Specifications for IR over optical fiber or a wireless IR communication link  Modulation  Line coding  Bit synchronization in synchronous serial communication  Start-stop signaling and flow control in asynchronous serial communication  Circuit switching  Multiplexing  Establishment and termination of circuit switched connections  Carrier sense and collision detection utilized by some level 2 multiple access protocols  Equalization filtering.

this means that the IEEE 802. and some data-link protocols might not even have any form of checksum to check for transmission errors. In those cases. meaning that no part of the address can be used to identify the logical or physical group to which the address belongs. In some networks. token ring. as well as with some non-802 MAC layers such as FDDI. error checking. Data-link protocols specify how devices detect and recover from such collisions. frame collisions occur.11. Data-link frames. it endeavors to arbitrate between parties contending for access to a medium. such as IEEE 802 local area networks.hn 37 . many data-link protocols do not have acknowledgments of successful frame reception and acceptance. as these protocol data units are called. higher-level protocols must provide flow control. use HDLC's low-level framing as a MAC layer in combination with a different LLC layer. addressing. and media arbitration. allowing data-link protocols to focus on local delivery. When devices attempt to use a medium simultaneously. without concern for their ultimate destination. HDLC and ADCCP for point-to-point (dual-node) connections. Examples of data link protocols are Ethernet for local area networks (multi-node). and may provide mechanisms to reduce or prevent them.Data link layer: The data link layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment.2 LLC protocol can be used with all of the IEEE 802 MAC layers. The data link thus provides data transfer across the physical link. etc. layer-2 addresses are flat. In this way. IEEE 802. are specified to include both sub layers. the data link layer is described in more detail with media access control (MAC) and logical link control (LLC) sub layers. such as Ethernet. Delivery of frames by layer 2 devices is effected through the use of unambiguous hardware addresses. such as Cisco HDLC. the data link layer is analogous to a neighborhood traffic copy. In the ITU-T G. That transfer can be reliable or unreliable. Other data-link-layer protocols. do not cross the boundaries of a local network. A frame's header contains source and destination addresses that indicate which device originated the frame and which device is expected to receive and process it.. such as HDLC. and acknowledgments and retransmission. In contrast to the hierarchical and routable addresses of the network layer. although some other protocols. Inter-network routing and global addressing are higher layer functions. the Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP). The data link layer is concerned with local delivery of frames between devices on the same LAN. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the layer.

Within the semantics of the OSI network architecture. In that case.e. but in modems and wireless networks. ARQ). and to error-detection and packet canceling provided at all layers. to forward error correction (FEC) techniques provided on the physical layer.  Multiple access protocols for channel-access control. or the CSMA/CA protocol for collision avoidance in wireless networks. logical link control and medium access control).  Error control (automatic repeat request. the data link layer is divided into three sub-layers (application protocol convergence. but not in LAN protocols such as Ethernet. only error detection and canceling of erroneous packets are provided. for example CSMA/CD protocols for collision detection and re-transmission in Ethernet bus networks and hub networks. in addition to the one provided on the transport layer. in addition to ARQ provided by some transport-layer protocols.42 telephone network modems. Data link layer services:  Encapsulation of network layer data packets into frames  Frame synchronization  Logical link control (LLC) sublayer. Data-link-layer error control is not used in LAN protocols such as Ethernet.  Physical addressing (MAC addressing) 38 . Data-link-layer error control (i. including the network layer. the data-link-layer protocols respond to service requests from the network layer and they perform their function by issuing service requests to the physical layer. since bit errors are so uncommon in short wires.standard.  Media access control (MAC) sub layer.  Flow control. phone lines and coaxial cables). retransmission of erroneous packets) is provided in wireless networks and V. which provides a way to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network using existing home wiring (power lines.

39 .

invisible infrared light. This is handy for evaluating new types of LEDs. two devices are necessary.4km. Ronja Inferno: Ronja Inferno is a device for optical communication with 10Mbps full duplex speed over 1. The device terminates an optical path.25 km (0.4 km (0.87 mi). You can then use this value to calculate precise range of the device.78 mi).  Ronja Bench-press: A measurement device for developers for physical measurement of lens/LED combination gain and calculation of range from that Ronja Tetrapolis: Ronja Tetrapolis is a device for optical communication with 10Mbps full duplex speed over 1.  Ronja Inferno: Range of 1. Connects to Attachment Unit Interface. but varying in its technical specifications. The device terminates an optical path. red visible light. You insert a combination of LED and lens into the bench and measure exact transmitter gain of the lens+LED combination in decibels. two devices are necessary 40 . To operate a complete link. Connect with 8P8C connector into a network card or switch.  Ronja 10M Metropolis: Range of 1.MODELS  Ronja Tetrapolis: Range of 1.4 km (0.87 mi). new types of lenses or if you have doubts if your lens is of adequate quality for the device (for example due to greenish haze). red visible light.25 km using infrared light. Ronja Benchpress: This is a Ronja model that is not a communication device. To operate a complete link. Ronja 10M Metropolis: This is another variant of Ronja similar to Ronja Tetropolis. but a bench for measuring lens properties.

The switch or cad has to have well implemented PLL.2 g) .3 UTP interface.but IEEE 802.25 km with 130mm RX loupe lenses and 90mm TX loupe lenses.3 which could cause a problem when Ronja is connected into a cascade of pure hubs.3 regarding not transmitting when link integrity is not yet established. 37nm spectral width 30mW 41 . PC or a switch) using the integral 1m cable.02W) from wall cube. However Data interface hubs almost don't exist today anymore so it is not a problem.3 compliant devices must work with it. 2W from external heating power supply (switchable off).  Connects with RJ45 jack into IEEE 802. not transparent for auto negotiation signals. This violates page 303 14.Technical specifications: Ronja Inferno: Gross data rate Transmission mode Nominal range 10 Mbps Full duplex (half duplex also supported) 1. Complying to it would make Ronja Tetrapolis more complicated 335mA @12VDC (4.  The preamble is chopped off more than specified by IEEE 802. Minimum 1/4 of nominal range.  Doesn't comply to IEEE 802. Auto negotiation not supported. Must be plugged directly into data terminal equipment (DTE. 875nm wavelength. Further manual reduction possible by change of two passive operating distance components in receiver. Typical Maximum Power consumption Idle 225mA 285mA Full data load (both directions) 275mA 335mA Operating wavelength Optical output Infrared.

100nm spectral width (618nm perceived wavelength. Auto negotiation not supported. 625nm. Typical Maximum Power consumption Idle 185mA 245mA Full data load (both directions) 225mA 285mA Operating wavelength Optical output Divergence cone half angle Estimated Optical EIRP visible.3 UTP interface.42W) from wall cube. 2W from external heating power supply (switchable off). Must be plugged directly into data terminal equipment (DTE. Further manual reduction possible by change of two passive operating distance components in receiver.2mW 1.3 regarding not transmitting when link integrity is not yet established.Ronja Tetrapolis: Gross data rate Transmission mode 10 Mbps Full duplex (half duplex also supported) Nominal range 1. not transparent for auto negotiation signals. PC or a switch) using the integral 1m cable. Complying to it would make Ronja Tetrapolis more complicated 285mA @12VDC (3.3 which could cause a problem when Ronja is connected into a cascade of pure hubs.2 g) . red-orange) 17.4km with 130mm lenses. Minimum 1/4 of nominal range.9mrad (130mm aperture transmitter lens) 20kW (130mm aperture transmitter lens.  Doesn't comply with IEEE 802.but IEEE 802. This violates page 303 14.3 compliant devices must work with it.  The preamble is chopped off more than specified by IEEE 802. However hubs Data interface almost don't exist today anymore so it is not a problem. HPWT-BD00-F4000) 42 .  Connects with RJ45 jack into IEEE 802. The switch or cad has to have well implemented PLL.

 Cable distance between RJ45 connector and optical head mounting points is max. retro reflector for transmitter and DC voltage signal strength monitor port for receiver.optical heads. Ceiling  Yes Yes Max.Twister2) Operating Up to 100% (condensing) with lens heating on (outdoor part). Power. on a welded parallel console) Required visibility 4km at maximum range. 1m from RJ45 connector is a grounded metal box with dimensions 180x123x62 mm.. Transmit Packet Visual. Weight 15. TX).+70degC (outdoor part .Operating temperature -30.. up to 95% with lens heating humidity off (and indoor electronics).. Optical modulation Indicators LEDs Aiming system BPSK (as on AUI aka Manchester) plus 1MHz asynchronous 50% duty cycle square wave between packets. Receive Packet.+55degC (indoor part . The transmitter appears to shine permanently and steadily no matter if data pass or not. foil etc.5kg (one side of a link.  Possible mount places: Is drilling Place Mechanical Installation Constraints necessary? Railing. 100m 43 . round or rectangular No Wall Yes Corner of wall Yes Chimney No Horizontal or tilted surface of masonry or masonry covered with tin. RX.. 0.

The switch or cad has to have well implemented PLL.6W) from AUI. 1/4 of nominal range.Ronja Benchpress: Operating ambient temperature 0…+55°C Usage environment Indoor Operating humidity 0-95% noncondensing Ronja 10M Metropolis: Gross data rate Transmission mode Nominal range Minimum operating distance 10 Mbps Full duplex only 1. AUI cable not supported . However hubs almost don't exist today anymore so it is not a problem. red-orange) 17.3 which could cause a problem when Ronja is connected into a cascade of pure hubs. 2W from external heating power supply (switchable off) visible. HPWT-BD00-F4000) 44 . Connector male DB-15 with screws instead of AUI mechanical latch. Further manual reduction possible by change of two passive components in receiver.4km with HPWT-BD00-F4000 and 130mm lenses.3 Attachment Unit Interface (AUI).integrated cable length 1m. IEEE 802. 625nm.9mrad (130mm aperture transmitter lens) 20kW (130mm aperture transmitter lens. The preamble is Data interface chopped off more than specified by IEEE 802. Power consumption Operating wavelength Optical output Divergence cone half angle Estimated Optical EIRP 300mA @12VDC (3.2mW 1. 100nm spectral width (618nm perceived wavelength.

or provide a link layer for fast neighbourhood mesh networks. on a welded parallel console) 4km for uninterrupted operation at full range. can network neighbouring houses with cross-street ethernet access. up to 95% with lens heating off. 15. Transmit Packet CONCLUSION The Twibright Ronja datalink thus. modulation The transmitter appears to shine permanently and steadily no matter if data pass or not. 45 .5kg (one side of a link. solve the last mile problem for ISP’s. Receive Packet. Indicators LEDs Power.Operating temperature Operating humidity Weight Required visibility -30…+70°C (outdoor part . TX).AUI interface) Up to 100% (condensing) with lens heating on. RX. 0…+55°C (indoor part . Optical BPSK (as on AUI) plus 1MHz asynchronous 50% duty cycle square wave between packets.optical heads.

008◦. aiming is difficult. 4 Faster Data Transfer 46 . It may be possible to use a large Fresnel lens to get a better signal from the transmitter. or to make the optical tube shorter (smaller focal length).4km is only an angle change of θ = 0. When shortening the focal length extra ambient light may get to the photo diode and that would need to be considered in the design. At large distances. An end point displacement of 20cm when d = 1. If a link of smaller than 90m is needed a few of the electronics (a capacitor and resistor) need to be changed in the receiver. To get a longer signal you can also use two or more transmitters pointed to one receiver. If mounted on tall buildings.APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE SCOPES 1. 2 Fresnel Lenses Fresnel lenses give you large apertures and shorter focal lengths. the end point will be displaced s = d tan θ. while still being light weight. the swaying of the building can also be a problem as the current design does not compensate for that. Mount Considerations The distances involved requires that the mounts be very stable. Improvements to the RONJA design might be a finder scope and auto aiming mounts. 3 Shorter and Longer Distances There may be instances were one needs to create a shorter or longer network bridge. The original RONJA design has a mechanism to make fine adjustments. The use of smaller lenses at short distance maybe also be beneficial at times. where d is the distance between points and θ is the angle change caused by the vibration. If the wind causes an angle change.

Using multiple transmitters/receivers brings up several issues: noise from other transmitters. PROS AND CONS Pros: 47 . So we would run into a problem if we wanted to increase the speed to 100Mbits/s by transmitting in a similar manner with the LED. 4B5B would not guarantee a hi-lo transition for each detector. For example if we had three transmitters/receivers then each transmitter could handle a maximum frequency of 21Mhz. mounting space issues. One thing is certain making a 100Mbit/s network would be easy. We can also communicate in parallel instead of serial. with the receiver converting NRZ back to MLT-3. we would require several transmitters and receivers. We could use a LASER which has much faster response rates than LEDs and read in the MLT-3 and transmit NRZ at max frequency of 62.Our LED has a max response of 20ns (50 MHz). There are a few solutions.5 MHz.

painting. 2) The user must possess certain basic manual skills as soldering. 2) Innovative approach is used to speed up the work and make it convenient. the measuring points can be inspected and bad components replaced without a need to throw the whole device out.1) The parts were chosen to be of the widest availability possible and equivalents are provided where applicable. During a lightning storm. Further reduction in labor demands is planned by putting RX and TX on PCB too. REFERENCES 48 . drilling. The cost of parts is negligible in comparison with the labor. But people without any previous experience with soldering have built a piece that worked on the first try! 3) The user must not cut the corners during the building. Things have been made much easier by putting the most complicated electronics on a PCB. lightning strike in proximity usually doesn't generate even a single lost bit. 4) In case of device failure (direct lightning strike). Drilling is simplified by drilling templates . Sector codes are present to make the population easy. for example the components for the whole Ronja 10M Metropolis cost just 1500CZK. Cons: 1) Ronja is somewhat labor expensive. and technical drawing/schematic reading.just print and no measurement is necessary in the workshop! 3) Withstands -20°C as well as direct sunlight and heat with obvious margin.

<http://ronja.twibright.php>. Modern Physics Second Edition.org>.wikipedia.  Kenneth Krane. Making Ronja on short tracks.org  Twibright Labs. Ronja. Twibright Labs. 49 . John Wiley & Sons.com/faq/short. <http://ronja.twibrightlabs. Inc.  www.