Natural

Ventilation: Theory
Hal Levin

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Natural Ventilation: Theory
Definitions
Purpose of ventilation
• What is ventilation?
Types of natural ventilation (Driving forces):
• Buoyancy (stack effect; thermal)
• Pressure driven (wind driven; differential pressure)
Applications
• Supply of outdoor air
• Convective cooling
• Physiological cooling
Issues
• Weather-dependence: wind, temperature, humidity
• Outdoor air quality
• Immune compromised patients
• Building configuration (plan, section)
• Management of openings
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Natural and Mixed Mode Ventilation Mechanisms
Natural Ventilation

Mixed Mode Ventilation
Cross Flow Wind

Wind Tower

Stack (Flue)

Stack (Atrium)

Mixed Mode Ventilation
heated/cooled
ceiling void

chilled pipes

Sketch of school system
Sketch of B&O Building

heated/cooled
pipes

Fan Assisted Stack

Top Down Ventilation

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Courtesy of Martin Liddament via Yuguo Li

Buried Pipes
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Climate Typology (oversimplified!)
Not in handout materials – to be completed by class
Climate type

Diurnal
swing

Hot humid
Hot dry

Temperate
seasonal -- Temp
Temperate
seasonal – RH

Seasonal
variation

No seasonal
variation

Singapore
Low desert

Temperate humid
Temperate dry

Steady daily
cycle

London

Milan, Italy

High desert
Boston

Quito, Ecuador
Lima

Montreal,
Canada

San
Francisco
Mt. Fuji

Cold humid
Cold dry

Bogotá

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What is ventilation?
Definitions covering ventilation and the flow of air into and
out of a space include:
• Purpose provided (intentional) ventilation: Ventilation
is the process by which ‘clean’ air (normally outdoor air)
is intentionally provided to a space and stale air is
removed. This may be accomplished by either natural or
mechanical means.
• Air infiltration and exfiltration: In addition to intentional
ventilation, air inevitably enters a building by the process
of ‘air infiltration’. This is the uncontrolled flow of air into
a space through adventitious or unintentional gaps and
cracks in the building envelope. The corresponding loss
of air from an enclosed space is termed ‘exfiltration’.
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Three elements of ventilation
(source: Yuguo Li, personal communication)

Element

Description

Requirements/
Guideline

Design or
Operation

Buildings

Cities

Primary

External air
flow rate

Minimum ACH
Minimum L/s

Fan, duct,
openings or
streets

ASHRAE
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?

Secondary

Overall flow
direction
between zones

Flow clean to
“dirty” spaces

Pressure
control
through
airflow
imbalance
Prevailing
winds

Positive/
negative
2.5-15 Pa
Isolation/
smoke
control

Dirty industry
downwind

Use of CFD
Smoke
visualization

Ventilation
strategies

Urban
planning

1-12 ACH

Tertiary

Air
distribution
within a space

Ventilation
effectiveness,
no shortcircuiting

Buy upwind

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Isolation room ventilation
Goal: ~12 ach or 160 l/s-p (?)

23oC

Anteroom

23oC

23oC

Cubicle

Toilet/bathroom

23oC

Corridor

Suspended ceilings

The purpose is Not to have a 2.5 Pa negative pressure, but no air leaks to the corridor!

Recommended negative pressure is – 10 Pa with wind, -2.5 Pa without wind

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Courtesy of Yuguo Li

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Stack effect 11 5 .Types of natural ventilation Stack effect (buoyancy) • Warm air is lighter (less dense) than cold air • Warm air rises. increasing the air flow rate Wind-driven (pressure) • Pressure differences result in air mass movement • “Packets” of air flow from higher to lower air pressure regimes 10 Wind driven vs. cold air falls • Intentional chimneys (stacks) can create larger differences between top and bottom.

Natural Driving Mechanisms – Pressure: Wind-driven air flow 12 Natural Driving Mechanisms – Pressure: Wind-driven air flow 13 6 .

Natural driving mechanisms -.Buoyancy Stack effect 14 Hot air = buoyancy 15 7 .

Natural driving mechanisms -.Buoyancy Stack effect 16 Applications: Supply of outdoor air • Supply of outdoor air … removal of pollutants – In air changes per hour (AER or h-1) or liters per person per second (l/s-p) – What happens if you have a very tall space? • Pollutant concentration = source strength/removal rate – Removal rate includes dilution/exhaust plus deposition on surfaces or chemical interactions/transformation – Chemicals: source strength expressed as mg of pollutant / m2-h or mg/h – Dilution/exhaust rate expressed as dilution ventilation (air changes per hour) – Deposition: gcm-1s-1 17 8 .

” air movement predominantly in an upward direction. giving rise to an air flow known as the “thermal plume. • Or. • Air flow person can be caused by the higher temperature of the person’s skin relative to the air around it. Temperature variation in an object cooled by a flowing liquid 19 9 . as from a fan or wind. it may be caused by forced air movement.Pollutant concentration as a function of outdoor air exchange rate 8 C o n c e n tra tio n (µ g /m 3 ) 7 6 5 EF = 1 µg/m •hr 4 EF = 5 µg/m2•hr 3 EF = 10 µg/m2•hr 2 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Ventilation air changes per hour (ach) 18 Applications: Convective cooling • convection /con·vec·tion/ (kon-vek´shun) the act of conveying or transmission. specifically transmission of heat in a liquid or gas by bulk movement of heated particles to a cooler area.

Convective cooling 20 Physiological cooling 21 10 .

• Radiation: – Find shade. • Convection: – Entering a cold water or air current. 22 Convective + Physiological cooling 23 11 . – Expose skin surfaces. lake or sea. – Covering in cool mud. lake or sea. – Expand folds of skin.Applications: Physiological cooling “Ectothermic cooling” • Vaporization: – Getting wet in a river. • Conduction: – Lie on cold ground. – Staying wet in a river. – Enter a cave or hole in the ground shaped for radiating heat (Black box effect). – Building a structure that allows natural or generated air flow for cooling.

Physiological cooling 24 Impact of wind and temperature difference on natural ventilation 25 12 .

Concept of the neutral level External pressure gradient T0 Ti Neutral plane Internal pressure gradient h2 h1 26 Single-sided ventilation 27 13 .

2009) 29 14 .Influence of wind and temperature (stack effect) on ventilation and air flow pattern (source: AIVC. 2009) 28 Cross flow ventilation (source: AIVC.

Stack ventilation (dwellings) (source: AIVC 2009) 30 Stack ventilation (atrium) (source: AIVC 2009) 31 15 .

Meiji University.Stack driving flows in a building _ _ + + _ _ + _ + Indoor air temperature is greater than outdoor Neutral pressure plane _ + _ + _ _ + + (A) + Indoor air temperature is less than outdoor Neutral pressure plane + _ (B) Indoor air warmer than outdoor Indoor air cooler than outdoor 32 Stack effect 119. Tokyo Roof Garden Entrance Hall Library Car Parking Rain Water Tank Heat Storage Tank 33 16 .5m Memorial Hall Graduate School Wind floor 18F Canteen Lecture Rooms Roof Garden Offices Stack effect in a high rise building Liberty Tower.

Keio University) Wind Floor for Hybrid Ventilation Gross Floor Area: 59000 m2 completed in 1998 34 Natural ventilation in buildings Francis Allard.Meiji University Liberty Tower. Mat Santamouris. Directorate-General for Energy. European Commission. Tokyo. Japan (source: Professor Toshihara Ikaga. ALTENER Program 35 17 . Servando Alvarez.

Servando Alvarez. Servando Alvarez.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1tdQMyhPA2gC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Na tural+ventilation+theory&ots=mFzmfd4mct&sig=XA3zksH_OBkkS8tILbxmwJqbWyo 36 Natural ventilation in buildings Francis Allard.Natural ventilation in buildings By Francis Allard.google. Mat Santamouris. European Commission. Directorate-General for Energy. Directorate-General for Energy. Mat Santamouris. ALTENER Program 37 18 . ALTENER Program http://books. European Commission.

Indoor air velocities for naturally ventilated spaces under different wind directions and different number of apertures and locations 38 Effects of inlet / outlet sizes in cross-ventilated spaces with openings on opposite walls 39 19 .

Velocity as percent of wind velocity: openings on opposite walls. wind perpendicular to inlet 40 Effect of oblique wind direction with openings on opposite walls 41 20 .

openings on adjacent walls Wind perpendicular Wind oblique 43 21 .Velocity as percent of wind velocity: Openings on opposite walls. wind oblique to inlet 42 Effects of inlet / outlet sizes in cross-ventilated spaces.

openings on adjacent walls. wind perpendicular to inlet 44 Simple formulation for Vent Calculation 45 22 .Effect of inlet and outlet sizes.

46 Single-sided ventilation 47 23 .

Single-sided ventilation 48 Natural and Mixed Mode Ventilation Mechanisms Natural Ventilation Mixed Mode Ventilation Cross Flow Wind Wind Tower Stack (Flue) Stack (Atrium) Mixed Mode Ventilation heated/cooled ceiling void chilled pipes Sketch of school system Sketch of B&O Building heated/cooled pipes Fan Assisted Stack Top Down Ventilation 49 Courtesy of Martin Liddament via Yuguo Li Buried Pipes 49 24 .

natural ventilation must be considered not only as a means for reducing concentrations from indoor sources (infectious airborne agents as well as chemicals emitted indoors). section) • Management of openings • Measurement of ventilation rate(s) 50 Outdoor air quality becomes indoor air quality at high ventilation rates • The higher the outdoor air ventilation rate. • With highly susceptible health care facility occupant populations. humidity • Outdoor air quality • Immune compromised patients • Building configuration (plan. but also as a means of delivering un-cleaned outdoor air.Natural Ventilation Issues • Weather-dependence: wind. temperature. consideration must be given to the effects of outdoor pollutants on the occupants’ health. 51 25 . the higher the indoor/outdoor pollutant concentration • The effect of the building on reducing outdoor pollutants varies by pollutant and by building ventilation pathways • Where outdoor air pollution is high.

Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update Chapter 2. Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update) 53 26 . 2005.who.WHO. 2005. Global ambient air pollution concentrations and trends Bjarne Sivertsen http://www.int/phe/health_topic s/outdoorair_aqg/en/ 52 Ranges of annual average concentrations of outdoor air pollutants by continent based on selected urban data Region Africa Asia Australia/New Zealand Canada/United States Europe Latin America PM10 Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide Ozone (1-hour maximum concentration) 40–150 35–220 28–127 20–60 20–70 30–129 35–65 20–75 11–28 35–70 18–57 30–82 10–100 6–65 3–17 9–35 8–36 40–70 120–300 100–250 120–310 150–380 150–350 200–600 (source: World Health Organization.

Where are the people who will arrive in naturally ventilated health care facilities? 54 Pollutant concentrations by national level of development 55 27 .

U.S.html 56 Average annual PM10 concentrations in selected cities world wide (part 1) 57 28 . EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) http://www.gov/air/criteria.epa.

Average annual PM10 concentrations in selected cities world wide (part 2) 58 Average annual PM10 concentrations in selected cities world wide (part 3) 59 29 .

Average annual PM10 concentrations in selected cities world wide (part 4) 60 Average annual PM10 concentrations in selected cities world wide (part 5) NORTH AMERICA 61 30 .

Average annual PM10 concentrations in selected cities world wide (part 6) Europe 62 EUROPE 63 31 .

Ultrafine particle number concentrations measured in urban and roadside environments 64 Mean afternoon (13:00 to 16:00) surface ozone concentrations calculated for the month of July (comment: where are people living?) 65 32 .

Highest (1-hour average) ground-level ozone concentrations measured in selected cities 66 Modeled surface ozone concentrations (ppb) over Europe during July for the years 2000– 2009 67 33 .

• Relying on wind alone can result in both under and overventilation relative to a design objective. 69 34 . but daily variations are still the rule rather than the exception • Even with many predictable situations. wind direction will change over the diurnal cycle – California coast is an example.Indoor O3 concentration as a function of outdoor concentration and ventilation rate Outdoor Air Ozone Concentration (parts per billion) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 2 7 15 22 30 37 45 52 60 67 75 4 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 6 13 26 40 53 66 79 92 106 119 132 12 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160 20 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 AER (h-1) 68 Wind: direction and velocity are neither stable nor consistent • Selected data from almost any city will show daily cycles and variations in wind direction and velocity • Seasonal variations are more reliable.

Peru: May 1. 2008 71 35 . Peru: September 1. 2008 70 Lima.Lima.

Peru: March 1. Peru: January 1. 2009 72 Lima.Lima. 2009 73 36 .

MA: March 1. 2009 74 Boston. MA: July 24. 2009 75 37 .Boston.

MA: October 1.Boston. 2009 76 Boston. MA: January 1. 2008 77 38 .

temperature. section) • Management of openings 79 39 . differential pressure) Applications • Supply of outdoor air • Convective cooling • Physiological cooling Issues • Weather-dependence: wind.2005 Aug 28.0 m/s Nov 09. Hong Kong Yuguo Li 0 (A) 90 Temperature Wind speed Wind direction Test 17: Wind speed =4.2005 Test 4: Wind speed = 3. thermal) • Pressure driven (wind driven.2006 300 25 250 20 200 15 150 10 100 5 50 Speed (m/s) o Temperature( C) o 180 Nov 07.Review Purpose of ventilation • What is ventilation? Types of natural ventilation (Driving forces): • Buoyancy (stack effect.5m/s 350 35 Nov 06.Grantham Hospital Study.2005 30 Wind direction( ) 270 0 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 0 20 Time (hours) 78 Natural Ventilation: Theory Summary .2005 Nov 10. humidity • Outdoor air quality • Immune compromised patients • Building configuration (plan.

2005.” European Commission. http://www. P. Francis Allard. Geneva: World Health Organization. Ed. 2005 Update. Principles of Hybrid Ventilation. Yuguo Li 2000. Downloadable from http://hybvent. Servando Alvarez.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1tdQMyhPA2gC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq= Natural+ventilation+theory&ots=mFzmfd4mct&sig=XA3zksH_OBkkS8tILbxmwJqbWyo WHO. 2003. Can be read on-line at http://books..who. “Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a thermally stratifed one-zone building. “Theory for natural ventilation by thermal buoyancy in one zone with uniform temperature” Building and Environment 38: 1281–1289.civil. 2002.dk/ 80 40 .Natural Ventilation: Theory References Karl Terpager Andersen. ALTENER Program. Air Quality Guidelines.auc.. Mat Santamouris.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair_aqg/en/ Heiselberg. Directorate-General for Energy. IEA-ECBS Annex 35 report.” Building and Environment 35: 207-214. “Natural ventilation in buildings.