I

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Architecture of
Mana sara
Translated from Original Sanskrit
Exclusively Distributed by

M,.,lurarn Manolulrlal
P•blisher• Pvt. LUI.
~

by

Prasanna Kumar Acharya

RANI jHANSl R01U>,

Nl!.W [)ELHI-U0055. INDIA.

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Manasara .Series : Vol. IV

\

ORIENTAL REPRINT

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Oriental Books Reprint Corporation
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" What the learned world demand
of us in India is to be quite
certain of our data, to place the
monumental record before them
exactly as it now exists, and to in·
terpret it faithfully and literally."

Second edition 1980
ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED TN

'1934

BY OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, LONDON

:PUBLISHED BY ORIENTAL BOOKS REPRI-NT CORPORATION,
54 RANI JHANSI ROAD, NEW DELHI 11005!) AND
PRINTED· BY GAYATRT OFFSET PRESS, A-70 DAYANAND
COLONY, LAJPAT NAGAR, NEW DELHI ll0024

CONTENTS
PrefaceHistory of publication
Preparation· of the plates
Aj::knowledgments
Method of translation
General survey ..
Relation with other workR
Age of compilation
TranslationChapter
!-The Contents
Chaptex
II-The Qualifications of Archi~Qts and the
System of M,.,asure.ment
III-The Classification of Architecture
Chapter
IV-The Selection of Site , ,
Chapter
V-The Examination of SQil
Chapter
VI-Erection of Gnomons (for Ori,mtat1on of l31lHdChapte1·
ings) and Pegs (for ]'a.1\tlat.on)
Chapter
VII-The Site Plans
Chapter VIII-The Sacrificial Qf1erings
Chapter
IX-The Villag11
Chapter
X--The Towns a.nd Fot·ta ..
Chapter
XI-The Dimensions of Bulldings
Chapter XII-The Foundation
Chapter XIII~The Pedestals of Columns
••
Chapter XIV-The Bases of Col'

Related Interests

l.'mns,,
Chapter
XV-The Colunmi
Chapter XVI-The Enta.blatures ~tnd Roofs
Chapter XVII-Joinery . . ,
Chapter XVIII-The Genet'al Fe!Lturefi! of Edi&~
Chapter XlX-The One-filtoreyed Bltildin~s
'.
Chapter
XX-The Two-eto:reyl;ld l3uUdm~~
'.
Chapter XXX~The Three-&toreyed :8uild.in~!!

..

I

,I"

"j'

xiii-xv
'KV-li;Viii
xb:-xxi
xxi-xxiv

xxiv-xlvi
xlvi-lvi

lvi-lix
1-3
5-9

11-12
UH5
17-21
2lHl2
33-57

59-62
63-92

9a,.9s
99-107
109-121
123-130
13:!; HIO
l5l~l74;

175-185
187-liH~

199--2lH
222-237
238-244
2~5-24$

X

CONTENTS

CONTENTS.

Pagea

Pgge8

Chapter
XXII-The Four-storeyed Building!! ..
Chapter
XXIII-The Five-storeyed Buildings ..
Chapter
XXIV-The Six-storeyed Buildings
Chapter
XXV-The Seven-storeyed Buildings
Chapter
XXVI-The Eight-storeyed Buildings ..
Chapter
XXVII-The Nine-storeyed Buildings ..
Chapter XXVIII-The Ten-storeyed Buildings ..
..
Chapter
XXIX-The Eleven-storeyed Buildings
Chapter
XXX-The Twelve-storeyed Buildings
Chapter
XXXI-The Courts
Chapter
XXXII-The Temples of Attendant Deities
Chapter XXXIII-The Gate-houses and the Windows
Chapter XXXIV-The Pavilions
XXXV-The Storeyed Mansions
Chapter
Chapter XXXVI-The Situation !!,nd Measurement of
Dwelling-Houses
.
Chapter XXXVII-The Opening of the Dwellin~-House
Chapter 4XXVIII-The Doorways
Chapter XXXIX-The Measurement of Doors
Chapter
XL-The Royal Palaces
Chapter
XLI-The Royal.l!:ntourage
Chapter
XLII-The Royal Orders and En~;~ignia
Chapter
XLITI-The Cars and Chariots
Chapter
XLIV-The Couches, Bedstead!;!, and Swmgs
Chapter
XLV-The Thrones
Chapter
XLVI-The Arches
Chapter
XLVII-The Central Theatre
Chapter XLVITI-The Ornamental 'l)'ee
Chapter
XLIX-The Crowns
Chapter
L-The Personal Ornament~;~ and.I{ouse Furniture
Chapter
LI-The 'J,'riad
LII_:Th~ Phalli
Chapter
Chapter
LUI-The Altars
Chapter
LIV-The Female Deitiea,

.

~

..

Chapter
LV-The Jaiu Imt>ges
LVI-The Buddhist Images
Chapte:r
Chapter
LVI!-Tbe Images of the Sages
Chapter LVIII-The Images of the Mythical Beings
Chapter
LIX-The Images of the Devotees
Chapter
LX-The Goose
Chapter
LXI-The Garuda Image
Chapter
LXI!-The Bull
Chapter LXIII-The Lion
Chapter LXIV-The Comparative :VIe.1sure3 of Images
Chapter
LXV-The Largest Ten tala Measures ..
Chapter LXVI-'rhe Intermediate Ten tala Measures
Chapter LXVII-The Measures along the Plumb Lines
Chapter LXVIII-The Casting of Idols in Wa;x
Ch:1pter LXIX-The Penalties for D<lfective Construction
LXX-The Chiselling of the Eye
Chapter
Index
Opinions and Reviews

250 254
255-257
258-260
261-263
264-267
268-270
~71-273

274-276
277-286
287-293
294-304
305-337
338-372
373-397
398-403
404-409
410-413·
414-422
423-431
432-435
436-441
442-450
451-456
457-469
.470-474
475-477
.478-482
483· 496
497-515
516 .. 522
523.-.543
544-547
54!8-557

.xi

,.

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I

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..\
.j.

558...564
56!'i-566
567....571
572--573
574-580
581-583
584-592
593-596
597-19
600-605
6013....617
618...623
624--632
633....636
637 ....640
641..-647
649-793
L<~..... llA

On xiii . the India Office.iNASA.. . religious. diagrams. and Dr. J.But the unfortunate coincidence of His Excellency's retirement and Sir John's absence from India at the time of my arrival in Madras upset the preliminary arrangement made for the publication from .. The text is based on all the eleven available manuscripts gathered together by the then Secretary of State for Indil:l. Barnett of the British Museum. military.ll. Sir Austin Chamberlain. Thomas himself. W. or residential. London. The buildings of the time. for the first time by the write~. Ph. -do not appear to exist in their entirety for a ~eady referene~. E.. Havell and under the guidance of. Thomas. diagrams or sketclies. a. with critical notes. the then Governor of Madras.nd advised Lord Pentiand. Dr. through Dr. attempted the translation of any passage. In 1838 Ram Raz based his Essay on Architecture of the Hindus on a few chapters of a smgle fragmentary manuscript. Indian or European. Vogel of Leyden . together with sketches. drawings. A few Sanskrit texts of ~rchitecture have also been printed in the recent years. Except one.Madras. when-he (Sir John Marshall) came to know. including Ram Raz. and measured drawings. L.RA is an English version of a Sanskrit text of that name edited. then Librarian at. all other manuscripts are fragmentary and none contains any commentary. B. that I had been working for some time as a Government of India State scholar on the subject in consultation with Mr. for the use of the writer. In recent years several other scholars have quoted extracts from one or other of the manuscripts. It was the great Director General of Archaeology.PREFACE History of publication ARCHITECTURE OF M. Sir John Mars:Qa. but none has been translated into English or elucidated in any other language.Dr. who conceived the idea. D. but no one. F. to get a reliable version of the standard work on lndian architecture scientifically edited and properly elucidated.

in camp at Sanchi. which has been shown one can hardly be perfectly sure of the interpretation. and the solution . while ~g rest m the e.e dwelling-houses. in failure. it may perhaps be hoped. It is. of Rajputana~ Central India. Rapson of Cambridge University correctly predicted to be a life's. in the Frontrer P. will indicate the application of the rules and regulations. as also of the future generations.ented orally in some cases. In the nature of things-it could not be otherwise. the methods and principles. eaves.:r . but possibly of some practical beUE)fit to the country and to the nation.But the reader must understand that these volumes do not claim to ·be other than provisional. If. or which having defied the effect of time and weather. in company with trained and expenenced engineers. extending over many years and made through many·.of the problems relating to its textual imperfection and historical uncertainty may be left to the care of those whose mission is the elucidation of the past culture. as well as the rules and regulations laid do~n in the standard treatise. if not in regard to public edifices also. however.task which is just beginning. money. These salats are stated to build . en D~ector Gene:al of ~chaeology. was moved by my tale which had been once elsewhe~e.sed as it has been on foreign imitation. of a new line of Indology which. ba. Sir Claude F. has not proved quite. remains to be proved. and soil. of teachers or advanced students of the few schools of arts and architecture in the Indian States and elsewhere mostly under the Government. successful in regard to temples and humbi. to sanction the publication on behalf of the United Provinces Government. and convemence. big and small. in the Orissan countries.. may be experimented with. Sir Harcourt Butler. and figures are 'likely to come to light. will be clear even to the casual reader of the book. but the beginning. Bombay. Our architectural ·policy ~f the past few hundred years. . Whether or not the extant structlires which have been restored to the nation by the activity of the Archaeological Department. to have mh.venmg.m a~cordance with an ancient tradition which. when it Wai> about to be finally decided to pubhsh this first edition without any illustrations ir F. not the end. In such conditions any approach to finality is out of the question. in the vain ho~e ?f getting some light from salats. possibly in a.ng to Miinas~j. These volumes may open up a new line of Indian achievement and may lead to a . This has emboldened me to publish as complete a record as is at present practicable. they claim. .· l . facts. in the Ind1a~ States . architects. and in the Hill States. to engage the services. meditative mood concerning anclent monuments.rovmces.XV xiv PREFACE my appointment to the Indian Educational Service in the United Provinces. The preliminary accounts of the subject published in the writer's Dictionary of Hindu Architecture and Indian Architecture accordi. through the Oxford University Press. they . involving great expenditure of time. and the first Vice-Chancellor of the reconstructed Allahabad University. are yet standing almost in their original grandeur. both OffiCial andnon-official. was made to get into conbact with the so-calledtra~tional builders in the south. and in an entirely different climate. and interpreters. after making allowance for existing conditions and requirements.ra Silpa-sastra have awakened a world-wide interest as will be seen from the extracts from reviews and opinions appended at the end of the present volume. Fresh materials. or at least the methods and principles laid down in the Manasdra.' Preparation of the plates Owing to the defective nature of the ljext.1:1--rargr the th · '' . Gujarat. J. are found to be scientifically sound and suitable for modern buildings. The work of seventeen years----:which Professor E. ended also. ta· . ' . is likely to prove not merely of cultural and historical interest.the Manasara was primarily and ultimately practical in giving general as well as special guidance to the builders of that time. the then Director of Public Instruction. agenCl~S. undertaking-:has thus reached its present destination. de la Fosse. An elabora~e effort. . That the sole object· of a work like . but mostly from some fragmentary manuscripts that they have fr~quently failed to interpret. took up the matter with scholarly interest and induced the great educationist Governor. ~other effort. against temptmg payment. ' !n th~se circumstance~.

and temples. He very definitely disagreed with my intention of bringing out such a volume without illustrations. Hargreaves. town-planning. Mukherji was able to make drafts of the more important chapters.A.gr~titude. Educational Secretary.ural drawings may ensure a faithful representation in linea of what JJJ anasara expressed in words. and other places where he had to examine and sketch ancient Hindu and Muhammadan buildings. that Mr..D. Mukherji. In any event these drawings wiJ. forts and fortresses. who took round Mr. then Commissioner of Education. Gorakh Prasad for their very valuable assistance in doing foundation work for the architectural drawings. including Sir Frank Noyce. he had been taken under proper guidance round N asik. Mr. Mukherji himself undertook the task with the greatest possible enthusiasm. B. A. Bansal's drafts on these objects have been accepted without much alteration and have been finally drawn by Mr. mutual consultation. Mazumdar. The sculptural drawings in line and in colours could not be given the same advantage of joint deliberatt"on. wherefrom Mr.I must be present while Mr. had been in charge of roads and buildings for· several years before he started to make observations. however.sc. and readily accepted my request to place at my disposal the services of Mr. obviously to get the fullest advantage of a joint effort of his whole department and my own. Bansal used to take books in connexion with the measured drawings he had been making to illustrate the preliminary chapters of the M iinasiira.. Mount Abu. Mr. Hargreaves and th!l Archaeological Department. Bansal.ira. Mr. Mr. Mr. Hargreaves') office at Simla..A. Mr. Hargreaves') personal assistant. Bansal and Dr. a very enthusiastic engineer of the Public Works Department. Mackenzie. Mukherji's studio big officials. on the astronomical calculation of the M anasd'fa in co~exion with the diall:~ng and orientation of buildings.e Engineering College. T. Words fail me to express my indebtedness to Mr. Gorakh Prasad. A. Hargreaves stipulated. and who was subsequently recommended by Mr. Bansal could no longer continue with it. Mukherji would be working at his (Mr. He had graduated with Sanskrit and ancient history and. Mukherji. where he studied and made copies and sketches of old structures in order to XVU ascertain the exact nature of the mouldings that are frequently referred to in the M anasara. As an experienced officer of his exalted position. one hundred and thirty-five in number. Mukherji's services might be available only for a limited period and that . As a result of this hard work Mr. in consultation with Dr. Mukherji has worked on ·these drawings for over two years and has earned my everlasting .l supply the much needed materials to determine whether the extant monuments of Hindu architecture were based on the methods and principles governing the details of the village scheme. B. and Jaipur. As a part of his training. and others. and . the the1. after his training. n. Thus it can be expected that all preliminary precautions that have been taken at every stage in the execution of the architect. G. Mr. in order to explain to them the revelation of the ·Manasara. H. Thus Mr. Bansal. For the first three months. including Pushkar.ARC. Bansal also accompanied me in my tour over Rajputana. military buildings.C. are appended aifillustrations but repres~nt only a fraction of those architectural objects that are actually described in detail. gorgeous palaces and humble residential dwellings of various sizes and measures described in the Manast.I. The first fruit of his labour apparently satisfied Mr. R. then a research scholar of the Archaeological Department.PREFACE PREFACE xvi before related to him at his palatial office at New Delhi. received training in the method and principle of Grreco-Roman and modern architecture. He came to know of the M anasara at the Agra branch of the Archaeological Department. Mukherji eagerly undertook the task when Mr. Mr. Madura. Mr. whose name had been mentioned to me by his (Mr.. L. the Reader in Astronomy at Allahabad University. S. without whose assistance these drawings could not have been prepared.I. The measured drawings. at Roorke. R. including the one dealing with pillars and columns. I shall ever remain grateful to Mr. L. Mukherji and myself worked together at the rate of nearly sixteen hours a day.

Tho. ripe experience. . Krishna.. C. I am grateful for many linguistic and textual improve· ments of the architectural section.A.. and the few artists who agreed. M. the Deputy Director of Public Instruction. I. For his scholarly sympathy and generous appreciation my grateful acknowledg· mentis due to Mr. the present Director General of Archaeology. I believe that he has given the best of his inherited skill. PH. for his scholarly interest in the work and the friendly appreciation for the past ten years. Delhi. had the courage and patience of partly illustrating the sculptural section of the Encyclopredia of Hindu Arts. Mysore State. Mr. H.. numbering some three hundred. Dikshit. have been anxious since the first year of their publication to bring..A. R. M. c. I am grateful to another amateur archaeologist. Thomas.A.the head of the Jagadguru Nagaling·aswamy m.A. In the absence of the expected assistance and personal-supervision of Dr. PREFACE Acknowledgments The publication of these volumes has been made possible through the generosity of the Secretary of State for India. the Government of India. who. H. N. Baroda. Barat.. after an experiment lasting for nearly a year. the then Librarian of India Office. most of those of local renown and teachers of recognized schools of arts in Bombay. the penultimate proof of which he revisE-d with great interest.. Shillong. D. however. and who also very generously reviewed the earlier volumes. .. Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Ganganath Jha... M.D. D.. M. at the feet of Guru" and to have been "training for a quarter of a century a number of youths in the art of sculpture. P. To Professor F. In addition to the as. took me to several local artists and undertook to select one for me. To my esteemed colleague. my gratitude is due to Rai Bahadur Dayaram Sahni.PREFAC:El xvili final revision. M. and kindred subjects according to Sastric canons.rtment. Jaipur.f anasd?'a itself receives the practical recognition it deserves. declaring that "our old-type artists are so old-worldly in their business habits. painting. gave up the task after trials lasting from two to three months. and Bangalore refused. the elucidation of the details had to be carried out in lengthy. for comparing some proofs and. M.E. to supply twenty-two draw· ings on which another six months were spent. Harrop.sistance already acknowledged. trying correspondence. Krishna.. London. Profesaor C. for the purpose.I.A. out a second edition of my Dictionary and Indian Architecture. and hopes to execute the remaining sculptural drawings." to have ''studied Silpa." But I am thankful to him for having brought me in contact with Silpa Siddhanti Sivayogi Sri Siddalingaswamy.abad University. Cuttack. LL. remain grateful to Silpa Siddhanti ·Sivayogi Sri Siddalingaswamy who. M. Puri. Director of Archaeology. D. Jodhpur. For his very encouraging and generous review of the earlier volumes' and for affording me all facilities to undertake extensive tours year after year. etc. and the Government of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.A. Despite the fact that there is an ever-growing class of artists all over India. Madras. Lucknow.A.LITT. Lahore. Allahabad. Calcutta. Ajmer. At last Professor M. to undertake the work ." He undertook.A. I shall ever remain grateful to one of the greatest orientialists. to whom I can only express inadequately my most respectful thanks. until recently Vice-Chancellor of Allab. B.mpsdn. incidentally. if his present performance proves successful and if the JJ. after due deliberation. among all the artists I had approached. painting.D. His interest increased through his official correspondence during the past ten years concerning the publication with the Oxford University Press. who claims to be "a Silpin by heredity. at times. who used to come to my hotel and spent hours in discussing various obstinate passages whicll baffled repeated attempts at their interpretation. K.. W. and spiritual study of the subject to these sculptural drawings.LITT.onastery. the head of our Economics Dep~. and.E. I owe most of the materials and general guidance at the early stage of my undertaking : words fail me to express my indebtedness to him.. But after protracted negotiations lasting over eight months he gave up in disgust the prospect of finding a reliable person .. on: their own terms. and to Mr. I shall.s. the then Deputy Director General of Archaeology.

therefore. Dasgupta. Notwithstanding this> however. as far as can be done. Pandit K. but not least. but also for valuable suggestions and constructive criticism of the earlier volumes. though connected with Dr. M. Since ourma. there beL. Method of translation None knows more clearly than myself what imperfections are to be found in this first attempt. to the reader to indicate the general method I have closely followed. Rabindranath Tagore. B.A. I am grateful to the reviewers whose opinions are quoted at the end of this volume. as well as my eyesight. Miss Sakti Chatterjee. which could be spared from the strenuous duties of the Professor of a University (newly reconstructed into a residential institution for the first time in India). The method I have followed in such cases has been to avoid the tendency towards speculation and broad construction. even during Sundays and long vacations... comprising some three thousand pages of crown quarto size.A. which may have 'b. She suddonly devoloped an enthusia~m for the completion of these volumes and contented herself · with a PREFACE xxi sort of desertion during all these long years because I had almost wedded myself to the M anasara and had to give to this ta~k ·au the attention and time. for their scholarly interest.ural interpretation would suggest. I owe it. Like many other people. the tr.hyaya. for my own patience and temper. encouraging ar>preciatwn. received from one's own people.ther unusual to give publicity to and acknewledge with grateful recollection the indirect assistance. came to help me immensely. . I found myself obliged .A. M. for their valuable asststance in arranging and comparing the index slips.. My gratitude JS due to my colleagues of the Sanskrit Department. Not only for general encouragement. Crighton and his staff for their ever sympathetic and kind treatment towards me and for their patient and careful handling which was necessary in bringing out a volume like this. Dr. the language of the original. at translating such an imperfect text on such highly technical subjects. and to attempt a more or less free rendering . who was educated in a convent school for girls at Shillong. without taking any leave or holiday since the work was begun in 1914. B. however. no rules of grammar.A.O. of the Head of a department of classics in these days of science. M.LITT. S. following. D. indispensable as it has been. as it seemingly does. friendly sympathy. Umesh Misra.een latent in her. W. K..L. the renowned Ruler of Oundh who has done so much to revive our ancient culture and to unfold our artistic treasures. Dr. a particular passage may naturally lend itself to wide speculation and diverse conjectures.aditionallove of the Tagore family for arts. Last.. could not have been published in another ten years' time. Crighton. which I prepared myoolf. 1

Related Interests

f. D. Mukherji and N. Saksena.. But for her enthusiasm these volumes. M. taking liberties with the language m order to bring out meanings other than what the most obvious and ordinary nat.n the work and for many useful suggestions and improvements I am further indebted to Mr.rriage. and Pandit Raghubar Mithulal Shastri. He has taken a very great interest in the publication of the M anasara and intends to build a house according to the direction of this standard Silpa-sastra. and to Messrs. who readily t0ok the trouble of revising this Preface.. Under such circumstances. B."lg no stand~rd to which the language can be made to conform. R. and various assistance from time to time.in some cases to deviate from a strictly literal treatment..The reason for this was mainly the very peculiar nature of the Text and its inconsistent construction. my gratitude is due to Shrimant Bala Shahib Pant Pratinidhi. M.LITT.A.A. and the Dean of a Faculty including some thousand students and some hundred teachers of all ranks and of all temperaments.It has consistently been my aim to reproduce the bare meaning of the MtinasiJ. and to avoid.. For his personal interest i. .L. In the translation of the Text I have endeavoured to adhere as closely as possible to. I am pleased to acknowledge my grateful thanks to Mr.ra.. D.XX PREFACE suggesting certain improvements . were put to a severe trial in doing 6verything single-handed in one stretch... But for a ver3• special reason it would be ra. C. Chattopad. had acquired no artistie s}till when she became my wife in 1923.

Both Tara and Visiila are sometrmes used m the sense of Vistara or breadth. There are various words used in a strictly technical sense. Gopaha. Patta. generally speakmg.and a reference to the passages in other works such as the .4astra dealing with similar matters of better construction. Lupa.na. There were some passages. Matra. Stha!fu. Besides the grammatical confusion. Vajana-KshepaiJa. Kampa. Mattavara!fa. Drikka. and (d) the Manangula is the Angula proper. Phalaka. There were others which presented greater difficulty and it was only after a careful comparison of these. and Dhara:t.xxii PREFACE only so far as it was obviously necessary. Vaktra-hasta. with other parts of the Text.ta. and a reference to existing buildings. In a few cases of technical expressions which are now obsolete . or a fixed st::Lndard of measurement either absolute or relative. AD. and I have rendered them as a rule accordingly. (2) The words A:rht-a. and AD. Sthu!fa. between ~he words is not apparent. It is from the very nature of these an extremely difficult task to trace the exact significance of forgotten ancient technical expressions. Pada. and Angula have been used in:discriminately to signify either one of any number of equal parts mto which the length or height of a particular object is divided. Anvanta. that there is a distinction between them. It is.gula is nothing but one of the equal parts into which the length or height of the idol is divided . however.and the exact significance of which is often doubtful or conjectural I could not find suitable terms and phraseology of the science to translate them. Stambha. to have been used to signify length. Below are instanced a few of such diffi.gula themselves. · Tulada~~a-Jayanti.Jgamas. Bharaka. or ·there was at least a high degree of probability to warrant it. Purar:as.gula means the finger-breadth of the master or architect but it is also uLed as one of the equal parts into which the height of the master or a structure is divided . Antarita. The literal meanings of the words would convey no sense at all.J. I have attempted to some extent to apportion to these technical terms certain fixed meanings although there appears to be an apparent disagreement on particular occasions. etc. passages are met with in which such a distinction. Gopanaka. that I was enabled to explain their sense. Prachchhadana. Avasana. . however.ghri. Vidhana and Lupa. Prastara. But in use there appears to be no more distinction made between these different kinds of Angula than between the words A:rhsa. Occasionally. Vetra. Vistara. Mancha. or with literal meanings of them in bracket. If we have to c0in worns for these. breadth. Chandra. it would be necessary to have the assistance of the artist on the one hand. Manda. (b) the Deha Labdha AD. which in spite of the clear discrepancies in grammar did not fail to show what was meant. and a number of manuscripts on the Silpa-. Pattika. Valabhi.cultie~ : (l) The words Tara. . · But it appears very clear from the way these different words are used. Uttara. Jangha-CharaT. for example. Vit:·. etc.a. PREFACE xxiii (c) the Matra or MatraD. of the philologist on the other. Kampa. laid down in the Text that the Angula measurement is of four kinds(a) the Bera Angula is stated to be the measurement by the finger-breadth of the idol. Vidhana. Matra. Stall. Kapota. I have attempted to explain elaborately most of these in the Dictionary. there was another great difficulty I was faced with owing to the technical nat~re of the subject. this is the standard measurement equal to about three-fourths of an inch. and easier interpretation. differing entirely from their derivative literal renderings. and Visala seem. For the present I have thought it better to quote the original expressions either untranslated altogether. The Text for example gives the following sets of words as synonyms : Kapota-Prastara. Ara~i. and width. (3) The names of the different mouldings or the different parts of a structure are not clearly distinguished. Maiicha-Prati. Prativajana. and Vidhanaka.

Of the preliminary matters. conveyances. nor of the motions. somewhat of a musician. . he should be a good writer.nd rtlco:m· mends that a :residential building should preferably face the e~M!t Qr the north-east. He must be free from disease or disability and from the seven vices. Grtima-lakshaaa (village scheme) and Nagara~vidhana (lay-out of towns). the next forty-two deal with architectural matters. and the last twenty-one are devoted to sculpture. Townrpla:n. mechanics. town. the painter ( Vardhaki). laws. T i XXV They consist of the chief architect (Sthapati). and 1lllde:r thr"'e categories. Chapter VI deals with the orientation of buildings a. of which there are none. It is treated uncte:r two heads. and Visht. and couches. which are divided into four classes. A1igula (finger's breadth). the ground. namely. temple.vided into eight classes called dar:-4'ik«J ~arvatof/lwitra~ Mndya. of an image. expert at figures. bold temper&· ment and self-control. Villa~es a:re ill. inclusive of head. from Siva. and relations to each other.' He must possess a wide outlook.nd fo:rt. The next chapter (III) called Vt!stu-prakara~~a defines the different branches of architecture. not ignorant of the sciences of law and physic. an architect. odour. however.hhita. inscriptions. is the unit of architectural measures. informed on the principles of natural and moral philosophy.-xxiv PREFACE PREFACE I have thus endeavoured to follow the general lines adopted by Dr. colour. village..m subject described in gre(l. following the usual custom. Agamas. and growth thereon of certain plant~. as that has once been separately published from Leiden (1917) and has also been included in the writer's Indian Architecture (1927). this preliminary section concludes with a chapter (VIII) on offerings to the presiding deities of the site. each an expert in his own department but possess· ing a general knowledge of the science of architecture as a whole. palace. and other general literature which have been gathered together in my Dictionary. But in place of Buhler's citation of different commentaries on the Manu-sainhita I have referred to the numerous illustrative passages. acquainted with history. vursed in geometry and optics.rting is the n. supreme managing director. addiction to women. and concludes the introduction with a list of the chapters. a skilful drafts· man. Incidentally the p:rinciplea. not possible to quote all these numerous references in the footnotes. each o£ which is divided into squares of various numbers. Brahma. elevation of the ground. liown. It was. namely. and never the south-east. equivalent to threefourths of an inch._ etc.from other Silpa-sastra. not from commentaries on the M anascira. and the carpenter or joiner (Sutradhara).tu. and be endowed with all qualifications of a.t det&il in two chapters (IX. and apt in the acquisition of knowledge. features~ taste and touch. are dealt with next (Chapter II). Brihaspati. the gist of which may be expressed in the words of the Roman architect Vitruvius : 'an architect should be ingenious. General survey So far as the contents of the M anasara are concerned it will be a mere repetition to give a detailed summary. like gambling. Buhler in translating the Manu-sa. with a prayer to the Creator Brahma and touches upon the origin and development of the science of Architecture. buildings. The tata (span between the tips of fully stretched thumb and middle finger) is the unit of sculptural measure.Following the usual custom. trees7 grasses. X). the system of measurement and the qualifications of. It will be noticed that of the seventy chapters the first eight are introductory. and details of dialling are exhaustively described. two distinct subjects. V) on examination of soil and selection of site deal with the contour. through Indra. and Narada. It will be enough to refer to the main points. a. fort. the designer or drafts· man (Sutragrahin). to the class of seers (tishi) called Manasara. which is regulated by the length of the face.:~as. . Architects are divided into four classes.varta. Different· sets of qualifications are prescribed for each class. Together they form the guild of architects. padmaka. ThE~ site-plans are next described (Chapter VII): thirty-two schemes are distinguished. The two following chapters (IV. or dwelling hous~ is to be built. It opens. Purc"Z.~. but . of the heavenly bodies. whereupon a village. This latter system of measure is dealt with in several chapters of the sculptural section.

and the sub-struction be built up as solid as possible. and pattana."ini. khe~a. Residences of one to three storeys are assigned to the heir-apparent and the chief feudatories. sg_uare. and should be built thereon of such thickness as may be necessary fQl' the . kubjaka.:dous processes and measures are specified in great detail. kdrmuka and chaturmukha : each of these.aka samviddha or vardhaka. dro1. The mountain fort is further subdivided into three classes as it is built on the top of a mountain. round. They should ba of the soundest workmanship and materials. military. or oak piles. Nor must the mouldings of the bases of the columns project beyond the solid. and so on. if such can be found. in the valley and on the slope. jr:tti.:l xxvii proper support of that part of the wall whid1 stcmds above the na. Chapter XII deals with the foundations whereupon buildings. the irfoundations should b~ carried down to a solid bottom. Their massiveness offers a striking contrast to the lightness of the Grecian entablatures. nigama. and residential buildings. frieze and cornice. may be stronger than the upper part . highest in rank among the nine classes of kings. clay fort. length. Five forms. nagar£. kharvata. According to their situation they are further classified into the mountain fort. and their various mouldings and ornaments. prastara. The gist o£ the directions on foundations may be best expressed mutatis mutcindis in the words of Vitruvius : ' When we are satisfied with thEl spot fixed on for the site of the city .t. vikalpa. the pedestal.tural level of the ground. and skandavara. assigned to persons of different rank:s. and height of buildings of one to twelve storeys. olive. octagonal. the wall should be one-half thicker than the column it is to receive so that the lower parts which carry the greatest weight. namely. the place must be excavatAd. represents a particular design and lay-out of which detailed measures and other particulars are given. the base. it will be noticed. previously charred. .. If solid ground can be come to. and oval. also.1. The next chapter (XI) describes in detail the proportions o£ breadth.. . While in Gneco-Roman orders the forms and dimensions of both the base and the pedestal are fixed by invariable rules with respefJt to the orders in which they are employed. the shaft. as close to each other as possible. . the beauty of proportion. and the richness of ornaments are remarkable. The intervals between the foundations brought up under the columns. chariot fort. according to the magnitude of the work. villages. These forms are equally applicable to religious. and the inter-vals between the piles filled with charcoal. should be either rammed down hard or arched. The heaviest foundations may be laid on such a base. and comprising the architrave. Towns are also divided into eight classes : R(ljadhr. and the entablature. . namely.' The next four chapters (XIII-XVI) deal with the column and its different component parts. including the capital. and either elder. The entablatures. Thus. the choice is left to the option of the architects. divine fort. The different materials to fill up the pit and v. Above the ground of the foundation. and tanks are built. sthaniya. and mixed fort. The foundation is excavated up to the depth of man's height with uplifted arms in the rocky or sandy ground as may be available and }::>est suited to the structure to be erected. must be driven with a machine. . . The same remark is true with regard to the bases also which are described in detail under sixty-four varieties. chhanda. pura. as the names indicate. in the Indian orders. nagara. the foundations should go down to it and into it. The variety. It is laid down that the bottom of the pit should be rocky or watery. rootangular. are prescribed for buildings of :four different classes. and the ground be loose or marshy. are described in detail under eight varieties.xxvi PREFACE PREFACE svastika. and of greater thickness than the walls above. water fort. A palace of five to twelve storeys is stated to suit the emperor or universal monarch. should be regulated the thickness of gll walls above ground. vahinimukha. cleared. kolaka. Forts are first divided into eight classes according to the size and the object and are called sibira. and abh(tsu. so as to prevent the foundation piers from swerving. Twelve kinds of pedestals are described with detailed measurements of the various mouldings of each pedestal. If solid ground cannot be come to.

r. (6) the cavetto. and the front porches. potik<i.xxviii PREFACE Columns are divided into five orders in regard to general shttpes and are called Brahmakanta. phalah~. (2) the talon. voj!Jilldh murdhika. The chapter concludes with a description o£ the building materials.tik<J. asana. Then the subjects are divided under several headings. feminine..ents columns are classified under Ohitrakar. based on the equiangular. (5) the scotia or ·trochilos. and recumbent postures of the idols when the buildings happen to be temples. ttnd on the erect.(h. svastika. and Subhahkari. sitting.riou~ kh1d~. the mouldings are eight in number ~t~d be11r the same names: Vt"ihana. t(l. ghafa. Then are described in order the domes. A detailed account of the water-channels. wood.ihatsa1h hitd. lea tha.. Priyadarsana. echinus or quarter-round. PREFACE The next chapter (XVIII) deals with certain general features of buildings which are specified in the following twelve chapters (XIXXXX). and abhiiBa based on the length of the cubit. The chapter on' Single-storey buildings' (XIX) opens with further classifications of buildings under jati. and the Kirar.warta. the pavilion. The eeneludin~ chavter (XVli) on the preliminary subjects deals with joinery. and apasarhchita based both on the standard of measure. is added. base. vikalpa. · (4) the torus. Padmakanta.tJa. of each of which the classification.. Vesara. and K umbha-stambha.. the pentroofs.. breadth and length. Ohitraskambha. ln the Matsya-puraiJa. dome and pinnacle.ana. as also on the sex of the main deity to be installed when the building is used as a temple. and circular forms.andy. jayan~i a1J. Ohandrakanta. and Skandakanta. Vishr. namely stone. entablature. etc. and neuter. The three styles. which is composite of Saumukhya and Priyadar.lti. luira. one set referring to the column of the main building and the ·other set to that of the pavilion. sarV. The whole height of the building is divided into a certain number of equal parts :which are distributed in a happy proportion amongst the component members. and upatula. A brief reference is made in the beginning to the foundations. The Suprabhedtiglllma describes two sets of seven mouldings. and the K ira ~w-tantra. pillar.stragal. a:nd such oth~ shape~. and uttara.. and sayana. tula. cyma-recta. Steps and staircases arc. Similarly. and their distinguishing features based on the shapes of the top po:rtions (sikhara. which may be respectively height..~ and forms. (3) the cyma. The total number of mouldings or the co:rnponent parts of the column. the pinnacle staffs. the B. ma~tdi. In the Suprabhedagama the names of the five orders are Snkara. Saumukhya. under sthcinaka. such as the shrine. tv.hita. the anterooms. and the classifications of buildings thereunder. bal~ulya.dha. and the propor· tionate dimensions thereof are described very elaborately and various alternatives are given. are also five in number and are called Doric. Vajrat Dvi-vajra. chhanda.d tala. and (8) the fillet. phalaka 1 v~raka.> . or cymatium. Palikii·stambha. mouth or hollow. Rudrakanta. rectangular. otherwise called samch#a. including those of the pedestal.atantra columns are also divided into five classes and are called Ruchaka. listel or annulet. Pralinaka. (7) the a.y as to make the figures of 'fl.I. neck. and are Galled respectively. In the Matsya-pur{t. Nt"igara. which is taken as the unit of measure . With respect to dimensions and o:rnarn. dimensions and other particulars are given in detail. namely the base. and Composite. the Brihat-sam. Tuscan. Ionic. brick.. and entablature are forty~ seven in the M anasara. After a brief reference to the dimensions of the storey the comparative measurement and plans are described at great length. and metal (lit. lastly. as is well known. dancla. iron). ogee or reversed cyma.f-a. and Vritta.. The component mouldings of the GriecoRoman orders are also eight in number and are known as (1) the ovolo.qtobhadra.uhinta.a and bodhikci. mushti·bap. the length of the entire temple is divided into a certain number of equal parts which are also distributed amongst various rooms and halls. The mouldings of the shaft alone number five and are called bodhikc1. Some kin~ of wood are strictly fo:rbidflen to be joined with some other!!-. like those of the M ahenjodaro. spherical roof) are next described. Sivakanta. padma.r€l joined in &uch tl! wa. uttaroshtha. and Draviqa. kv.. and ghaJa.'he wood-joining is of va. asat1tchita. under masculine. Corinthian. First the classification of buildings of one to twelve storeys.mbha. Pieces of wood a. 'l'he Grreco-Roman orders.

(in Chapt~r XX~II) to be built round the prakc""ira (court). They are decorated with floral and foliated ornaments. IS divided into five courts (Chapter XXXI). have been described in g.'lg designations : nuga-bandha (snake-band). Detached buildings situated both within the compound and outside. of eleven storeys into six types. Windows admit of various patterns represented by the followi.nd residential. The dimensions are mostly left to the discretion of architects with a general direction in regard to the windows for gate-houses. are also fully described. • • The compound of a big house. chhan~a. The Buddhist and the Jain ..ils in the writer's Indian Architecture.tu are described in detail. Chapter XXXIII deals with gate houses of various kinds which are assigned to both temples and palaces. the buildings of two storeys are divid~d int~ eight types. bearing ten different technical names. Druvida (Deccan). Under each of these fifteen varieties the gate-houses are elaborately described. val. PREFACE xxxi of . pinnacles. that m those temples the images of Buddhist and Jain de~tie. entablatures.vilions are single-s'torey buiidings. The chapter closes with an interesting description of windows.XXX PREFACE described at the end o£ Chapter XXX. The concluding portions o:£ Chapter XIX and the next eleven chapters are devoted to an enumeration of the various deities with whose images the doors and walls of buildings are decorated. but also for other kinds of buildings. . walls. The fourth court.the innermost or the first court. At the eight cardmal pomts . and Sphurjaka (? Gurjara. and the gate-houses both for temples and pala?es are very briefly described in conclusion. pariviira (attendant deities). The temples of the attendant deities are stated . They are first divided into five classes as they belong to the five courts and bear very significant names : dvara-sobh{i (beauty of the gate). and sankirl'}a (of mixed materials). roofs. doors. and of twelve storeys into ten ~ypes. as well as with decorative devices in imitation of jewels. Magadhahinta (South Bihar). floors. of six storeys int~ thirt.ksha (cow's eye).li (creeper). neck-peaks. ~nd rakshan a (defence). The shrines of the attendant de1t1es m connexwn with a· big temple.. not only for gate-houses. dva. in~tal~ed. PP·} 73-175. cl~sses.~ply ten__pro_v· inces into which whole India was architecturally div1ded-Panch:1la (the Punjab). of three storeys into eight types. generally .temples are stated to be similarly built.. They are made one to sixteen storeys high. 'rhe last ten types are given geographical names and seem to . Vir!ifa (Jaipur). the attendant deities of Vish:t. vika·l~a. temple. After an elaborate description of the situation of the shrine for each of the de1ties of the three groups. (b. is divided into jati.' Pc~. svastika (cross-shape). abhtzsa and kamya classes. of four storeys mto e1ght types. dvara-sulcZ (gate-house). Between the third and the fifth court is said to be a special pavilion.)1 • . dviira-pnlsada (gate-palace).ific-ltion of t4ese places sea det. after which the chapter is named Prakara. and pushpa-bandha (flower-band). kunjaruksha (elephant's eye). Each of these five classes is sub-divided into three sizes : small.. thirty-two deities are located in the second and the third court respectively.eauty).reat detail in the chapter (XXXIV) on ' Pavilions.s are. sobh:7.een types. or palace. Groups of sixteen anC:. Vamsa~unta (Kausamb'i).harmya (gate-mansion) and mah(tgopura (great cow-house).m . intermediate and large. sarvatobhadra (st special design). of ten storeys into six types. Kali~~akc~nta (Coromandal Coast). Madhyakunta (:Qoab ). of seven storeys into eight types. nandyuvarta (another special design).a. gava. For ident. and vesti· bules. They are further divided into ten classes.irely devoted to a special treatment of these two subJects. etc. . Keral. with this difference. At the _outse~ a reference is made to five kinds of pr(ikMa bmldings m connexwn With bali (offerings). as also into suddha (of one material). Janakahinta (North B1har). the shrines of a group of eight deities are built. m%ra (of two materiaJs). Pillars. the next two cha~ters bemg ent. The dimensions and ornaments of each storey are described in detail. Similarly. of five storeys into eight types. of eight storeys mto eight types. with regard to the number of domes. There are eight types of single-storey bmldmgs mdicatmg differ· ent designs and bearing technical and mostly significant names. of nine storeys into seven types. both religious a.a (Malabar).

temples. pp. etc.· the elephant. Chapters XXXVIII and XXXIX are devoted to a desci·iption of doors. ThE> jati shape is given to the pavilions of the temples and the residences of the Brahmans. pillars. Oli. roofs. or lake.re divided according to the number a£ pilla. trading centre.s.n (see tha writer's Dictionary. Maulika. 1 .aturmukha. Again. on the bank of a. on sea. The Maulika mansion is shaped like a winnowing basket and consists of three rows of buildings. The Dan<f. They are classified under six main groups called Da!f(/. 471-472). > In the Matsya-pura'Tja (chap. windows proper.. Their lay-out. the artists and the courtesans. monasteries. music. They may be built in a village.. reading rooms. study. the Kshatriyas. which vary from two to six. constructional details. Each o£ these is again sub-divided into several types : the arrangement of the Daf}rj. and V ardhamana. horses.. and for pilgrimage.l-16) pavilions a. as described in case of towns' ((. kitchens and dining halls. doors. on the banks of a river. Excepting the extreme boundary wall these houses are generally built in order on one side of the (partition) wall. on the side of a hill. to the nine classes of whom they are assigned in accordance with the importance of the mansions and the rank of the king. is called the water-door or drain. and the abhiisa shape to those ofthe Sudras. and the V ardhamana of ten rows of buildings. law-courts.1 Chapter XXXV deals with the ' Storeyed Mansions ' which consist of rows of buildings varying from one to ten. The chapter closes with a description of the formR and shapes of pavilions.river. The length of a house may be one-and-a-quarter to four times the breadth.aka mansion. sheds for cows. 8vastika. residences. verandahs. P. v. The next cha. for storing water. etc. etc. On the central plot of the innermost court is generally built a temple or public hall. The blocks of buildings varying in number of storeys up to twelve are artistically joined up.pter (XXXVII) describes the ceremonies in con· nexion with the opening of and first entry into a house. In the former of these two chapters mainly the situations of doors are elucidated. Thus are stated to be built ' in accordance with the rules of the science of architecture. for kitchen.aka is an isolated mansion and consists of a single row of buildings and would look like a stick (datf¢aka). treasuries. elephants. etc. etc . ~tnd so forth. the Vaisyas. halls for daily sacrifice. etc. poultry. the Brahmans. the Buddhists~ the warriors fighting with the help of the horse. for instance..xxxii xxxiii PREFAOEI PREFACE self-contained. the ascetics. including what. dancing girls and for all other domestic purposes. ornaments. and other details are fully described. Seven pavilions bearing the names of the s~ven well-known mountains are stated to be built in front of the main edifice and to be used as a bath-room. the hermits. the vikalpa shape to those of the Vai~yas.round this are constructed dwelling-houses for the master· of the family. but sometimes they imply the special rooms in a house. are referred to in the latter chapter. while dimensions. This chapter corresponds in a way to Chapter XXXII where the situations of shrines for attendant deities are described. and the chariot.sheds.hapters IX.shatriyas. city. X). But they are also stated to be used by the Gods. The Svastika mansion is plough-shaped and consists of two rows of buildings. ornaments.aka. floors. is described under eight varieties. These huge buildings are naturally meant for kings. 270. stables.. tank. etc. The Ohaturmukha mansion is four-faced and consists of four rows of buildings. They are also built on the roadside and on the sea-shore . library.. the chhanda shape to those of the K. architectural members with dimensions. and dormerwindows. the priests.having been treated at tho end of Chapter XXXIII. Sarvatobhadra. horses. Chapter XXXVI deals with the situation and dimensions of houses fit for the residence of the twice-born and all other castes. guest houses. his wife and children. Pavilions bearing other names and descriptions are mentioned for wedding and other ceremonies. servants. the Si:1dra. The Sarvatobhadra mansion consists of seven rows of buildings. Various component members of pavilions such as walls. windows.. the pavilions are clal:lsified under technical names in accordance with the number of their faces. for guests. are described in detail. . court-yards.

nivata-bhadraka. etc. The next chapter (XLV) is devoted to a description of thrones. a stage of coronation). use : the nityarchana throne is for daily worship. the nityotsava throne for ordinary (daily) festival. Dr avida (octagonal). the royal orders. chaniiraka-bhadraka and ani~ bhadraka. as well as for) the upper portions of all kinds of thrones. Patfabhaj. etc. and the shapes. sri-mukha. An elaborat. round) and Kalinga (hexagonal). qualifications and entourage. are assigned their proper places. arsenals. pinnacles. for (ordinary residential buildings. vira (heroic.. Prisons are built in an out-of-the-way place. namely the Ohakravartin.· Various forms of the arch are described in this chapter. as also the army and entourage of each class. called prathama (first coronation). the visesharchana throne for special worship. Narendra. ornaments. ornaments and other architectural details of both the royal and the divine thrones is -given under ten types. family priests. prishada-bhadraka. Other buildings which are necessary adjuncts to the palace of an Indian King include the coronation pavilion. and.ilca. Their wheels. 3ri-bhadra.he four main styles.-bkadraka. dimensions. dimensions. Mary. insignia.s also to the Kings of nine orders. They admit of two sizes. audience halls. Very minute details of the palaces of each of these nine classes of kings are described in full in Chapter XL. circular. are mentioned in two chapters (XLI-XLII). Chapte-r XLVI deals with arches. etc. Srl-bandha. PcirshrJ. a. arena for ram fights. Brahmans and Kings.ja. as well as for war and other purposes. are given in Chapter XLI. The divine thrones are also divided into four classes according to the occasion o£.e. and the mahotsava throne for the great festival. The tentative tranaltation would run thus: ''Arches are madl:l for (the decoration of) the (temples of) gods and the (palaces of) kings. are treated with all architectural details. namely theN agara (square}. The general and individual qualifications of these kings.rjalesa. wherefrom it may be clear that the principles and use of the arch in buildings were sufficiently known to the old architects. Stables are generally situated near the main gate.xxxiv PREFACE Chapters XL-XLII deal primarily with the palaces of kings o£ various ranks. The royal thrones are divided into four classes. porticos (bhadra} and other features they are classified as nabhasv}. storeys. and are described with all constructional details. r. crescent-shaped. They are once classified under 1. prabhanjana-bhadraka. These thrones are specifically padma-bandha. mangala (auspicious..'i-vis(~la. assigned to the greef~ Gods.n-bhadraka. in addition to the gorgeous inner apartments and residences for private use of queens and others. PREFAOE XXXV 'flUJlJ'ltna. including the strength of the army and revenue. a stage of coronation) and vijaya (victory. and the members of the other castes. padnuisana. tanks. The royalty is divided into nine classes. groves. Palaces are naturally the most gorgeous buildings and the large ones are furnished with as many as seven courts in place of the five courts referred to in Chapter XXXI. store rooms. Maharaja also called Adhir(i. treasury. padma-kesara. V esara (circular. Then with regard to the number of. large and small. i. and Astragraha. ministers and others. Incidentally. the twice-born. the Buddhist and the· Jain deities.?. Paftadhara. and mouldings are described in detail.. bha. In the outer part are situated the offices and the residences for the Crown Prince. It may be triangular.e account of the general plans.. piida-bandha. namely. Pniharaka. The first three lines where the objects of arches are specified are not well preserved. Chapter XLIV" deals with couches and swings which are meant for the use of deities.drasana. Other features and the rules for their construction . a stage of coronation). Pleasure gardens. Their characteristics are described in detail (in Chapter XLII). which are meant for large temples and edifices. bow-shaped." In the writer's Dictionary numerous references to the arch have been gathered together from other chapters of this text and also from various literature and inscriptions. In Chapter XLIII cars and chariots for the ceremonial and ordinary use of Gods. or of any other suitable form. paclmabhadra.

_idala (kuntala). namely gold. ga and abhasii 1i ga are said to be the three kinds of images. namely. The chapter is. stone. The universal monarch.. jata. ku. The tree is also decorated with creepers. mauli.t of which half the limbs are visible is called the ardha-chitra (middle relief). kesabandha.de vis)ble is called the chitra (high relief). kiri(a.e. and patfa. howE-ver. alaka. monkeys.deals with the open shedyard (mukta-prapanga). . LXVII. ardha-cl~itra . and the (closed) central theatre (madhya-ranga) which is generally erected to serve as a stage in the courtyard of big temples and palaces and is furnished with raised platforms. etc. . ratna-torana (jewelled arch) and chitra-tora(la (ornamental arch). The misrakalpa is prescribed for all other kings. stone and wood) are kn ')wn to be for the immovable images. grit (also sugar or gravel). In addition to these general divisions. together with various dimensions and ornaments. of the snake is given in detail. Their architectural details.. and IQ. sirastraka. pavilions and arches. The height of the crowns varies in accordance with the importance of the divine or royal bearers. fans. kings and queens of various orders. number of jewels set in every one of these crowns. demigods. thn. Its trunk is stated to have a serpent coiling round it with 'an expanded five-fold hood. The. and terra-cotta are stated to be the materials for the movable images . and that of which one-quarter limbs are visible is called the c"'ibhasa (low or bas-relief).a (floral arch).e. Jewels and garlands of pearls are inserted in suitable situation. The articles of furniture are divided into seven general groups consisting of lamp-po.. mukufa. the measurement of the-tail. wood. brick. The chitrakalpa consists of floral and foliated designs and precious stones. wardrobes (baskets and chests). goddesses. silver. The primary object of the next chapter (XLIX) is to describe really the crowns of gods. The ratnakalpa is made of flowers and jewels and the misrakalpa consitlts of a mixture of all the others. ornaments. The ornaments of the ·body and articles of house furniture ar-e described in the next chapter (L) which is the last chapter on architectural subjects. as also other architectural details and the names of users and the occasion of the use are elaborately described. kara~ula.<Jts. The next chapter (XLVIII) is devoted to the description of a decorative device called 'the ornamental (all productive mythic) tree' (kalpa-vr1:ksha) which is used over the thrones. All these are suited to the deities. gold. Chapter LIon' Triad' is the first chapter of the sculptural section. This~ section opens wi"th a detailed account of the materials of which image\S are made. named' Coronation' instead of 'Crowns.etal (lit. balances. The chapter closes with a recapitulation of the four forms of corenation and the direction as to the conduct of the ceremoniaJ regal procession. glass and terra-cotta. leaves and flowers of various colours and forms. and royal seats. etc.' The chitr(pi ga. That of which all the limbs are ma. The architectural details including measurement of some fifteen cages are given in full. mirrors. dhammilla. are described in full. Arches are also stated to be supported by leographs which are placed on both sides of the pillars. a list of some thirty personal ornaments is given with details. stone. can put on all these excepting the patrakalpa. stucco. and the rest (i. grit. open shedyards. Incidentally.p~uer L1) into nine classes. the specially sculptural measurement being treaterl in chapters LV. hood. the first of the nine orders of kings. silver and copper) as well as stucco. are placed in the intervals between the branches. 'Both thB movable and the stationary images should be made with these nine materials. dimensions. galleries. chiiija. palanquins.' The crowns are divided into twelve types. With regard to the ornamentation.. patrakalpa is so called because it shows foliated decoration.and cagefl. etc.The personal ornaments are divided into four groups. (of these) the metallic substances (i. iron). The materials of which they 11re built are stated to be wood. glass. The minute description aud detailed measurement of the various !?arts of the tree are given. The materiaJs are divided (in Cha..xxxvi PREFACE PREFACE a. copper. Figures of deities.re fully described. Chapter XLVII . pushpa-torar. The ceremonies in connection with the coronation of kings are incidentally described. But the xxxvii . The design. arches are divided into four types : patra-tora"'!a (foliated arch).

The popularity of its worship throughout the country is indicat-ed by the fact that there are more than thirty million such emblems including Visvanatha at Benares.fa. xxxix Two of his hands are in the attitude of granting a boon and of conferring security. Among numerous ornaments he is adorned with a garland of wild flowers which hangs down to his legs. Vish:Q. such as Sawa. a strip of bark.h the symbol called Snvatsa. Vish~tu and ~iva are given in full. He wears a yellow . Vama.garment. <'Omplexion is red.ges whwh are described elsewhere. the mace. recumbent and dancLng postures. His limbs are measured in the large type of ten tala measures of which details are given in a separate chapter (LXV). The next chapter (LII) deals with the so-called Phallus which is ordinarily understood to be an emblem of Siva. those for personal and public worship· th?se made singly and.d there is an ornamental nimbus. Hi. Dravirj. Trichinopoly. P. He is accompanied by his two goddesses. He is aJs£• attended by two goddesses. Two of his hands are curved in the boon-giving and refuge-offering attitudes. The c~apter closes with a brief reference to the pedestals for Ima. the third member of the Triad. Kalamukha.isa images may be otherwise ma-de (painted) on a tablet or a wall with five colours. At the back of his hea. The poses. . But in fact it is a symbol for all the three members of· the Triad. and with . and the famous ones at Tanjore. Daivika.a. (elsewhere stated to be white). the middle portion is called the Vishnub~{iga and is octagonal in shape. Nagara.:zsupata. sitting. ~tc: Architecturally they are classified under several types. Gu. the four self-revealed ones. His dress consists of a tiger-skin reaching down to the knees and a waist cloth.ft-bestowing and refugegranting attitudes. while the colour of his body is dark blue.. The consort is measured in the middle ten tala. or the large and small sacrificial ladles. who ·are measured in the middle ten tala.~cava and Arsha. On the left side of his neck there is the mark of the deadly poisonkalakiZ[a. Idols a-re made in the erect. After this preliminary account the sculptural details of the images of Brahma. Sarasvati and Siivitri. is furnished with four arms and four faces.ost point may be like a bud. and the top portion is called the Siva-bhi-'ga and is round in shape. His limbs are also measured in the large te~ tala_ system. Mahavrata. and the topm. n·amely.U is also four-armed. Ramesvara. Like Brahmii. Manusha.a direction that the particulars not mentioned here with regard to the carving o£ the e s idols should be supplied from tradition (Sastra). He is accompanied by the goddess Parvati (mountam-maid) who keeps standing or seated on his left side.a. flexion. namely. Ohhanda. All thesfl are described at great length.x:xviii abht. and those named as V ajr~ (diamond). and excessive flexions are referred to in a later chapter (LVII). in some cases as many as thirty-six alternative heights are suggested. is four-armed and is distinguished by a third eye in the middle of his forehead. His head-gear is the diadem called kiri.PREFACE PREFACE x. His chest is adorned wit. Vikalpa. he wears the matted hair of the ascetic. who are measured in the middle ten tala. In the remaining two hands he holds an antelope and a tabor or hand-drum. . His limbs are also measured in the large ten tala system. ' ' Abha. Various alternative measures are prescribed for each of them . He wears a diadem and the matted hair. It also consists of another essential portion called Pifha or pedestal upon which it stands. Juti. The attributes held in his hands are the water-pot and the rosary. Somanatha inGujarat. Siva.' Svastika. The figures of Gaizgt£ (the river Ganges) and the crescent moon are inserted in his head-dress. etc... and the conch-shell.m. Bhairava Samakarna · vardham·~na. Its bottom portion is called here the Brahmabhaga ~nd is generally square in shape. Two of his hands are in the g. an upper garment. in a group . the third member of the Triad. Sivanka. according to the material of which they are made. the equipoise. three flexions.. and various ornaments. Brahmu. Lakshmi (goddess of prosperity) and Bhudevi (earth goddess). Vesara. His attributes are the lotus-±1ower. Suvarrya (golden). the· discus. standing to his right and left respectively. Mahakala ~ Ujjayini. leaf or umbrella. but has one head. His whole body is of golden colour. These shapes are interchangeable .

n~s.(consort ~f Br~h~~)..· . . . a. April. The Buddha image is measured in the large ten tala and is thu& of the superior type.. 1u. 1mes give a detailed account of the various kinds of sculptur 1 . N<1gendras. The wellkno~n fifty-one Pitha-sthr'ina are the sacred spots spread over the who>e countr~.ges. Ma.tip ll:lal.r~nlle of tbe skull. R . ""'-' 1·s th e n.1e opemng ·-. n~easurement. Par·im. which admits of four varieties.mythic . The f~llowing female deities or goddesses are next described (in Chapte~ LIV) : Sarasvati (goddess of learning).o the top of the head. Berc"li<gula is the measurement taken by the finger-bread. and Upap"i{ha.' The chapter closes with a brief reference to the plumblines which are more fully trea1·ed in a later chap er.ti (the chaste). with the height of the temple-door. of every one of these are described 1~ detail. complexions.d b~en cut to pleces by the discus of Vishr.:)of auxiliary deities). and his arms long.t~li.. Lokapalas. et~. etc.th of the main idol. Lakshmi (goddess of pros~e~rt!).'l'~e following chapter (LIII) deals with the Altar (Pztha) which symoohcaUy repreBnts Sa.s a full face~ a long nost'l~ ~. And Upamana is the measurement of interspace such as that betw6en the two feet of an image. pp.""a . Maniiitgula refers to the ordinary absolute measurement which is equivalent to eight ya.ble.. Kaumar1. pp. '. The linear measurement is divided into six ki'nd".. (LV) describes the Jain 1mages . Sribhadra. A short account of the Buddhist images is given in Chapter LVI. 1. Unm(ma is the measurement of thickness or 1 In l'etsian architecture simiiar altars are the only relics tQ represent the templ h" h in " th e w 1c was llot vo. March.t$h~('l.1 ic features. PREFACE diameter. crowns.ti.Jain images which are n1easured in the large ten tdla have a purely human shape. Then the iidirnana (primary measurement) refers to the comparative measurement and is divided into nine kmds.'\noth@:r ~uddl'lis.' xl PREFACE .llow garment.nalmmadinl (enchantress of mind • the goddess of love) .easure·s ment of guth or . or sitting posture. Vidyadharas. the consort of Siva. and may be stationary or mova. o.~tem.l The sculptural details of altars are given under the following types : Bhadrapitha. with the height of the cella or sanctum. 373-379. Chamur.a 1 which? along with the 'ktJ~p(J. . 22-35).. Vaishmwi and Brahm~J. Mahendri.-" · h ana H: t e ~ea~urement of an image from the foot t. They are furnished with no robes or ornaments. as the height of an image is determined by comparing it with the breadth of the temple. poses. He is furnished with the 1. Mutrdngula refers to the measurement determined by the length of the digit and the width of the middle finger in the right hand of the master (worshipper). On the chest the srZvat. Pramaf}a IS. garments. which is a peculiar mark of Buddha. s-a v1't 1'1. He wears. Siddhas. and in cubit. next chapter . The .sa symbol is . · • A reference to the Inde:s: may supply a brief summary of the details. Durg~ (~onsort of Siva) and the seven mo'Ghers comprismg Varah1. The . His body is fieshy 1 his chest broad. where the parts of the body of Sati fell 8Jter she lu•. and also under Nagara.. the measurement of breadth. ~rname. He ha. Bhairavi. a yt:. with the base. but are placed on a throne decorated with the rnrJtkwra arch and the kalpa tree. The cubit measure is sub-divided into smaller units such as the ai1. or p:rotubE. . And Deha-labdhiPigula or dehu1igula refers to one of the equal parts (as in the tula system) into which the whole length of an image is divided..i-butes. The twenty-four Torthai<karas are also measured in thE) tE)n tdla sy~. at1 . with the height of the riding animal (or with the prmcipal idol in cas'ti. as well as by Yakshas. Tl. the Calcutta <v. in tala system.tu as a result of her quarrel With the gods at a great sacrifice (festival) at her father's house wherefrom her husband was excluded in order to humiliate him.'~ is the asvattha or ficus religios..l. The charact~ri~:.~millng eyes ~nd elongated ears. 19'ln 'F h I c I ecture.marked in gold.vas (barley corns) or three-fourths of an inch. They are atteuded by N~~rada and other s(. pr._~rZvisala. his lJeUy roynd. pp. 163-179.$h(J. with the height of the worshipper.gula. circumference · Lambam''na tl e m 1 1 '" easurement along the plumb-lines. . The former are superior goddeose" and are me~sur~d in t~e nnddle ten tala.ew. Mahi (the earth-goddess or mother country). His c'omplexion is white. V esara and Driivirf-a.ue ere (for d eta1"Is see the writer's article • The Indo-Persan Ar h"t . carved in an erect. and the latter are inferior and measured in the nme tala. ruary.

is described in very great detail. Bhrigu dark or black.a crown. Of Agastya it is stated that he is corpulent and hump-backed. those of the Sr7ri"tpya class in the middle type of ten t. on the other hand.· PEEFACE wonder-tree. and are distingui~h­ ed by the matted hair of the ascetics.ding the kara . Chapter LXI opens with a lengthy discussion on the application of the rules for verification (sha :lvarga) of various alternative measures suggested in connection with the riding animals. who is the conveyance of Brahma. Bh~irgava. The sculptural details of the goose. and a be2. He a. Yakshas act as attendants to the gods. and are adorned with a diadem and a red lotus. They are divided into four classes according to the four stages of spiritual advancement known as Salokya (dwelling in the same world as the deity).8 are measured in the nine tiila.tla. being two-armed and two-eyed. Agastya is bright blue in complexion. Yakshas are placed on a seat with plough-shaped ltigs st~·etched backward and forward. Sc7mi. and Bharadvaja yellow. . the face is like that of Garucla. The chapter closes with a statement that rows of geese should be beautifully carved or painted in the temples of gods and mansions of Brahm3. Garu~a. Vidy. Vasishtha. They comprise the seven well-known patriarchs. of the Triad in particular. Rn. . etc. Garu~a is figured partly as a. They hold a lute.. The images of the Salokya class of devotees are measured in the large type of nine Vila system. Their legs are like those of an animal. architrave. Kasyapa yellow. recess (nest). Kinnaras are hybrid beings.: and that of the Vidyadharas dark red and yellow. Chapter LVIII deals with the semi-divine beings and demons. and the rest in the nine kila.ldharas are chowrybearers of the gods and are a kind of fairy possessed of magical powers.. is a characteristic feature of the thrones on which Buddhist figures are piaced in an erect or sitting posture.ltching towards the gate-house. In their two hands they hold a staff and a book.ns and kings .beautiful hue of a flower. and neck of those buildings. They wear yellow garments and the sacred thread.u with joined palms. The colour of the Yakshas is dark blue and yellow. the conveyance of Vish1). Vidyadharas. His limb~!~:~fl measured in the nine tala system. gnd hair. Agastya is measured in the seven tula.pya (dwelling in the vicinity of the deity). human creature and partly as a bird.kshas arc crossshaped (svastika) and the left bent. those of the &tmipya class in the small type of ten tilla. and the hands are kept resting on the knees MJ.right logs of Y a. The images of the sages are described in the next chapter (LVII).a diadem and is gorgeously painted in a great variety of colours. Yakshas and Vidya· dhara. but. called V ahana (conveyance) are described in the next four chapters. He is figured in an erect or sitting. are given in Chapter LX. who is the primary object of the chapter. Visvamitra.postt1re and as meditating on VishJ. Bhargava brownish.ssumes a terrific appearance.d str!.' Gandharvas. Kasya-pa. All these have two arms and two xllii eyes and are adorned with the kararp:J. the description refers to his arms.uJ. Kasyapa and Bhrigu in the eight tala.th wings. Gandharvas are carved in a sitting or erect posture and are. namely Yakshas. He wears various ornaments incly. He is a mythical being. and Kinnaras. It is white all over with red legs and a golden beak. They are classified u:nder four main gronps. Visvamitra red. It is measured in the two tt"ila system. In one hand they hold the chowries and the other is kept touching the ground. Bhrigu. and Bharadvuja. Gandharvas are celestial choirs and are celebrated as musicians.kshasas are evil spirits. The . finial. the upper body is like that of a man. wings painted in five colours. and those of the &iyujya class in the large type of ten tala. while Nigrahas are supernatural beings of a benevolent or inoffensive disposition.. possess the . The riding animals of gods.furnished with lutes. Sarupya (being in close fellowship with t.J.k .'. namely Agastya. ears.he deity) and Sayujya (being united with the deity).u. they are figured on the entablature. Vasishtha red. and the arms are provided vd. with Rukshasas and Nigrahas as two sub-classes of Yakshas. He is provided with feathers. The next chapter (LIX) describes the devotees who are furnished with human features but possess superhuman measures. They are represented in a purely human shape.

etc. of architects. in comparison wi. The evil consequences of a defective construction threat~u ~he J. His tail is generally equal to his height.easure::... .'als with the casting of images in wax. Chapters LXV and J_. He is made in an erect. the door.ng Sl!perior gods and ~he latter for ~oddesses. namely. fish. Chapter LXVI supplies a general clue to the exact features of the various important limbs. ·. of metals. altfi!rn?.tive meaf)ures. and foot-rings or anklets..:-'·~:. But it actually supplies a general resume of all kinds of architectural and sculptural measures and of the rules ccncerning the verification of. His four legs are like those of the tiger. hoofs and ears are red. The metallic port:ion is washed in water... the breadth of the main temple. stationary or movable. Its image. .w- xliv PREF.tu imA. The subject has become all the more complicated as tHe three postures.·.:.:.ities of the Vishl)n temple.\. sitting. and the other half is covered with earth. ' . Thus in casting images in metals wax is mdted and poured out of the mould . the equipoise. illustrations of their application. The chapter opens with an enumemtion of the names of phalli and. the rafter (va~J. stone.and defects are removed with cloth. the nostrilR like a bean.we been rl'peatedly referred to both in the architectural and sculpt11ral Sctions. or in a pavilion in front of the temple.. The bull is made. Under the former the measure of one hundred and fifty-four part1:1 of the body is given.brows should be shaped like a bow.CE The next chapter (LXII) describes the bull Nandin who is the animal of Siva. The former is employed in me!'l!:?u'!'i.: .'scribed in detail. For images made of earth rods of wood or metal are inserted in them. The face is sta. The various. So far as the casi ing is con· cerned all kinds of images.. which may be either recumbent or erect. . The comparative measure· ~ent is distinguished into twelv<~ kinds. etc. the main Vish1. and the wax is laid two or three aitgulas deep.sa). is not measured in any t(ila system.. and the effect of adopting a particular system are discussed in great detail. glass.. but his four legs. as well a. or at the door. are also taken into consideration in ascertaining the measures a1on0' and between the eleven plumb-lines. As many as eleven perpendienlar plumb-lines are referred to.ted to be oval or shaped like the egg of a hen. Metal images are first made of wax and coated with earth.. also.. comparative measures have been prescribed. His colour is white but his mane should be red.-. gold and other metals are purified and cast into the mould. He is covered with a tiger-skin and wears garlands at the neck. The eye. the basement. either inside the shrin_e.. Chapter LXIX deals with 1he defects of the limbs. and recumbent. : PREFACE xlv The details or other tr7la measures have been already given in various chapters. but various absolute and . in the Mla system. His nails and teeth are crescent-shaped. stucco.oge.XVI supply 1ninutest details of the large and th<:J middle types of the ten tiila system. · Chapter LXTV proposes to give a general description of all images particularly of the attendant dE. and in ai. The next chapter (LXVIII) d<. as also in cubit. sitting. of a figure is carefully considered in each case. are moulded in wax. temporary or permanent. He. He is not measured in any tr7la system.. baked clay. It is laid down that no part of a building should be larger or smaller than what is prescribed. or recumbent posture. The process slightly varies according to the material~ of which an idol i. three flexions and excessive flexions. Thus the variation of . 11scetics. the eyes like a. made. 'l'ho next chapter (LXVII) deals with the plumb-lines which are drawn through the body of an image in order to find out accurately the perpendi~ular and the horizontal measurement of and the distance between different parts of the bony.. which h. Generally a half of the image· is covered with a thin copper leaf or melted iron.gula of which four varieties have also been mentioned in Chapter LV. and grit.sub-divisions of each of these ~easures.r. as it is compared with the Phallus. He is white in colour. The Mountain~Maid Parvati rides on him. The lion is the next riding animal described (in Chapter LXIII). the nose like a sesame flower. Incidentally. the erect. and the four poses. solid or hollow.th the worshippt:r. slight flexion. and the pillar. is placed facing the Aiva temple on a pedestal. The construction of the boards between which the image is to be phced and of the plummet is d<. gems. . the width of the sanctum. wood.

the maE. There appear. Treatises like the Silpa-siistra of Ma:Q.charya is the most well-known text next to the M(ina&lra. etc. their sequence and contents theM ayamata a. tanks. and another V i~>vakarmlya-silpa or V isvakarm·~ya-silpascl. The first deals in thirteen chapters with directions on the building of houses. the making of roads. of which an account has been given in Appendix I of the writer's Dictionary of Hindu Architecture. The fact that one Mayan. The purification and set· ting of precious stones in the images and phalli are also mentioned. tht. The second deals with sculptural objects in a similar manner.nasara. similar to those given in the Milnasura.. some of which treat the subjects of their requirement in an abridged form while others m an enlarged form. It has been shown that in re-spect of the titles of chapters.on. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of the former appear to be an elaboration of the remaining twenty chapters of the latter. One such text is a?tu~lly ~lamed San~graha (compilation) and expressly acknowledges ltS mdebtedness to twenty-one authorities including the Mtl. because Mayamat!l. but nothing is specifically stated regarding the sculptural objects The concluding chapter (LXX) deals with the chiselling of the eyes of an image. The penalties for defective consiruction are ennmeratt.d with reference to architectural objects. It specifically states that such and such chapters h'ave been compiled from such and such authorities.kingdom.. and that the text has been compiled on the basis of these authorities. This brief outline of the chapters. A portion of the manuscript of the Mayamata contains the iitle Mdnasura and this fact has led to the assumption that the . The chapter closes with a statement that this science of architecture and sculpture was originally described by Brahmii. The treatise which is intended by its authors to be the most authentic is naturally the one attributed to Visvakarman.'. with great labour. where under each term all necessary information has been gathered together. The Arh. if read with reference to the Index. yet there is convincing reason to believe that they are but compilations.difficulty in accepting this view. It will be perhaps enough to refer to the conclusions only. like Manu or Mcinasara is apparently a generic name and the Greatise catalogued under the title M ayamatasilpa-sastra need not necessarily be ascribed to the authority mentioned in the Miinasara.§umadbheda of Kasyapa contains eighty-six chapters of which forty-seven are devoted to sculpture and are similar to the first fifty chapters of the Miina8dra. but in an abridged form. and the maker. whether or not . present much . the heavenly architect. 'i :rlvii included in ohe list of thirty-two authorities mentioned in the M anasara itself does not. (the creator of the universe). Indra. deal with some of those subjects outlined in the preceding section practically in the same manner as in the .Sutradhura are comparatively modern texts. .~ana and the Samara:ngai_la· . numbering some three hundred.ter_. to have been more than one treatise bearing the name of Visvakarman : one being called V isvakarma-prahisa.Manasc"ira.tata i~ . The Mayamata-silpasastra attributed to one Gannamii.stra. Some of these texts have been compared rather elaborately in the writer's Indian . may supply the gist of the summary without which an average reader might find it rather difficult to form a complete and connected idea by a single reading of the text or the translation.nd the Manasara are identical. mostly in manuscripts. Thus it has been concluded in the writer's Indian Arckit~c­ ture that " most of the architectural treatises.Architecture and the discussion need not be repeated here.L11ayamata is based on and is an ll>bridgement of the M ana8iira. Relation with other works The other existing texts. or V isvakarma-vastusiistra. and appears to have been influenced by the M·lnasara through the M ayamata.. which is the final functi. the Mayamata and others. however. and all other gods. 1""1' xlvi PREFACE PREFACE the king. Although they do not expressly say so.

Articles of furmture include bedsteads. Thus in the Vinaya texts. The Pura~1as and the "Tgamas are huge compilations gathered together from various sources dealing with heterocrenous subJ' ect .m are discussed in a separate chapter.re classified under three heads and twenty types. medical and historical treatises and in the Pura1~as and the Agamas the treatment of the subject varies from mere mention of certain architectural terms to the elaborate descriptions of to"\-'11-planning. pp. store-rooms. l di h' b s me u ng arc 1tecture and sculpture.zas. Buildings a. after examining the frequent references it has been shewn in the w-riter's Indian Architecture that the Vedic Indians " were not ignorant of stone forts. general measures. historical or mythical.a and the M ak(tbkcirata. karmya (palace). the ]}fanasara has influenced directly or mdirectly the subsequent works where the subjects were casually treated. forts.Vikura (monastery). steeples and cupolas are referred to · Buildin . couches covered with canopies. and not even excluding the spitoon. Some of these have actually acknowledged the sources drawn upon. namely the Vedic literature.ccounts are grven of mghteen ancient architects. . and the Epics have obviously supplied the basis of Manasara's compilation which has been certainly put into a scientific form by the per~onal observation and actual measurements of the then objects . temples. wells. mosqmto curtains. . But nowhere is to be found actual measurement and such other constructional details. palaces. The . pages 109. In regard to the Vedic literature. and brick edifices. b:tt no constructional details.ida (storied mansion). In the other two cha:pters the Phalli and Altars are described. fire places. Archi!ecture. porticos. has eight comprehensive chapters dealing in great. g mat erla. In . service-halls." Th~ Md·nasara itself is a compilation but it is the standard work on the subject because it is the most eomplete. · . oalcomes._ Pras. One chapter is devoted to the columns: which are divided into five classes as in the western system. the Buddhist scripture.anothe. carpets.by ~ts ~uthor. Thus in the Vedas. It has thus influenced all others directly or indirectly. 1 See the writer's Jnd. 4). Hou~es were built comprising dwelling-rooms. and Guka (cave temples). Three chapters are devoted to the description of images. the classical poetical works. nine of them have treated t~ subject ~?re ~~stematwally. pillows of various sizes. are but compilations. PREFAOE xlviii ascribed to an author.. cushioned chair. Thus standardised.:. steps for tanks._ halls.2 'Ihe Skanda-purarya has devoted three chapters to the subject One of these refers to the laying out of a large city. of which plans.Ll!at. arm-chair. In one of these chapters a. etc." The canonical books of the Buddhists more elaborately refer to the arrangement of villages. carved stones. the Buddhistic scnpture. chairs of various kinds. rugs. enclosing walls. closets and cloisters. arches. kitchens.storeys. I Ibid.eco· Roman orders. handkerchiefs.'1. residential houses. five kinds of abodes..ya-purana. PP· 17. 114-6. and have materially contributed to the later s~lpa-sustra texts and other works. bath rooms and a bathing place for hot sitting baths. builclings of various types and articles of furniture. . the astronomical. the RiimayaJ. etc. The foregoing works. classification. the Blessed one (Buddha) himself says "I allow you 0 Bhikkhus. PREFACE xlix floor c. 2). for instanc~. 9'-16. and their component parts into eight mouldings exactly like those of the Gr. walled cities. which includes a reference to the tc7lamc/na also. Although casual referenc 0 s are met with in al~ the Pun~1.ian Architecture.. the epics. detail with a~ch1tectu~e and sculpture. flights of stone masonry. ' For details see the writer's India. 1 The treatment of architectural and sculptural objects is of historical character rather than of practical nature in the non-architectural treatises. 89-132. ·of cities.loth.. . sofa. Ardha-yoga (bungalow). pavilions. retiring rooms. storied buildings. curtains. while others have not. stone houses. shapes and materials. M akctvagga (I 30. and a variety of other structures. Ohullavagga (VI l. scientific and probably the oldest extant record. of pillars and their mouldings. towns." Interesting details follow.. etc.l :h~ Epics. furnish copious ~scn~twns.

one to the goddess of prosperity. Two others are devoted to sculpture. . three deal with sculpture and one witlt architecture proper comprising the construction of temples.A. including bedsteads. forts and fortified towns. In one chapter are described the dwelling-houses. The house-furniture. Of the rell8._ Twenty types of buildings referred to above are next described. In another chapter the details of a special pavilion for the wedding of a royal princess are desor\bed One of the four chapters of the Garuifa-purarya. In this treatise there are five chapters wherein both architecture and sculpture are treated with a master hand. two with temples and residential buildi~g~. wells and tankS. The Narada-purarya practically completes the PurtP_Ias contri· butiion to architecture by describing in a single chapter the construction of pools.s to all int~nts and purposes are but architectural tre.. the ultimate object in both cases being the worship of the Triad. is but a semi.a alSo describes in a single chapter the co~stru~tion of temples and residential buildings. 'lind. _ . By a detailed comparison it has been shewn that the architectural and sculptural portions of this treatise must have been based on the . usually classed under astronomical works. finding out of the cardinal points by means of gnomons for the orientation of 1 For references and details see the writer's Hi11-du A. pp 19-22. temples and monasteries together with gardenhouses. as well as the laying out of pleasure-gardens and pavilions therein.. couches and seats..OE 1i buildings described in it are identical with the twenty types found in the Matsya-purarya and in the Brihat-sarhhit of Varahamihira/ The Brihat-sa hitci.tu. but succinctly and to the point. two others also to Vishnu under the name of V1:1sudeva. names and other details of the PREF.rchfte<JWre. The Vayu-purana also m a sm~le chapter describes the construction of various temples upon mountam· tops many of whiCh still exist on several peaks of the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges.inill.PR:ElF. devotes sixty chapters out of 3 total of seventy-five to architecture and sculpture.L11ana. The chapters open with a definition of architecture and the author goes on describing briefly. The Brahma~•rJa-purc"iry. dealing as it does.o.r. testing of soil.PuraYfa. like the eighteen great Pura'l}as deal incidentally with architectural a_nd sculptural objects. comparative measures of storeys and doors. scheme of measurement. general plan. and other important parts of a building. selectior1 of sites. 114-I2Q. military. namely. and the other with installation of image$ in temples. Preparation of cement ancl paste is described in a separate chapter. The Kamikrlgama. 2 The Agamas like the Pura.C:El 1 mention is made of the construction of a golden hall and three chariots and the names of the architects. one dealing with rules relating to the co)lstruction of an image.qas are encyclopaedic works dealing with heterogenous subjects. and carvings thereon.f the Agama. Some -. There are sixteen chapters in the Agni-puratJa. The twenty-eight chief gamas. The most striking feature of this Pura~ta is that the number. and the remli'ining one to the stone god (Salagrama) and others. devoted to t. . and its treatment Jf the subjects can hardly be surpasse'd by that of an ordinary architectural treatise. with heterogenous subjects like the PurcU}as themselves. are described in another chapter. But the contribution of the former is much ill')l'e extensive and valuable to the~e subjects. pp. four to the Phallus and Altars. One chapter deals with town-planning. Of the four chapters of the Bhavishya-purd'fj·a devoted to the subject. Another deals exclusively with religious buildings. it begins systematically with the preliminary matters. i.sara. one to the guardian angel of the hous~. as well as temples. three dealing with architecture and thirteen with sculpture. 161-164. Just like a f::jilpa-sastra. 22. deals systematically with all the three classes of the buildings. such as the testing and preparation of soil. two to the female deities in general. for instance.ses. 117-118.A. residential.g thirteen chapters one is devoted to the descnpt10n of the sun-god. 'on~~ to the ten incar:nations of Vish. the suitable building-sites. In a single chapter important sculptural matters and images are described. and religious.e subject of architecture and sculpture.

the lasy is stated to be the Indian Composite order.. Jati.~. depend on the erect. Sivakanta. Priyadarsana. But its uniqueness consists in the fact that it has quite successfully summarised all important matters in a comparatively small space.ntfl. l?l'· 27~28. the Bhavishya-punJ. according to which thP. and Vritta.ich a:re common to all orders. which of almost all th~ . Saumukhya.fo!ty-fiv6 types. and Kumbha-stambha.PREFACE PREFACE 1ii buildings. 3 So far as the lists of buildings are concerned it W' • be noticed that the Manasara contains in twelve classes ninetv-eight ty1_)es of buildings. pp.tnd in the same senses in the .. It contributes two valuable chapters dealing in detail with the nine 2 and ten W. and in respect of brevity. Padm.aka.1 gam as' contribution to the later Silpa-sustra texts.la systems.ions twenty types. 23-28. in case of temples. It makes a distinct addition to the .akant~t. Thus in the JJ. Tuscan.. such as 8uddha (of one material) 8xmchita. 118-133.weH as in the Brihat-sa'lf. and Skandakii. •Ibid. Chitra-skambha. By an elaborate comparison it has been shewn that this and the other 1 . there is in the Kumikiigama a discussion of architectural matters under certain highly technical classifications. shapes.I :i !i liii divisions but retained the same twenty types as in the Matsya-purai. and the Suprabhedclgama having left out all the minor divisions refers to the three styles (Niigara. But unlike the Pun"iry. etc.sses the same forty-five types. pp.hit~'l the five orders are called Ruchaka.~ta and the Brihat-sandiitO: have left out the broader ·' be~ the writer's Indian Architecture. 119~133. sitting. 117-110. 26~27. A sana and Sayana.prabhedagama has devoted only fifteen chapters to arehit::cture and sculpture.just as in the Matsya and Bhavishya Pura(zas :tnd the Brihat-sarhhittt. and Composite. PraliQ. The component parts of tb.mn. . just as the Gra:co· Roman composite order is j. 113.J. These divisions 11re based on the general shapes. With respect to dimensions and ornaments the five orders are called Chitrakar~ta. vary in number.Jgamas must have been based for these subjects on the Mcinasara. Vish:nukanta. columns in ancient India also were divided into five main orders or classes. Pu1hlinga (masculine). feminine and neuter. The Kr7mik(7gama also contains in three divisipns of various kinds twenty types. and reclining postures of the image. 110. Vajra.. being a compound of Sa\lmukhya and Priyadarsana. masculine. Corinthian.. Even the broadest division into storeys under which the Manas1jra describes the buildings in twelve or thirteen chi!!pters has lost its prominence in the latter works. There are thirty-seven chapters in the KaraY}agama which deals with architecture and sculpture exhaustivdy.1ong the Purcl. These are purely architectural classifications. Rudrakanta. A. Buildings proper are described under twenty types.kanta. and Subha:..e ci}lp.as. It will be further noticed tha~ the various broader divisions. the Agni-pura'l}a has in five classes . Like the five Gra:co-Roman orders. Dol'lc. the Suprabhedagarna contains the essential details. of the Mana· sdra are repeated in the same terms ~. Ionic. euro. and the site plans. The Sv. In the M£7naslira they are called Brahmakanta. the Matsya-purarya has in three div:h. pure. such as the styles Nagara..nast'ira. mixed and amalgamated as based on one. wherein a~-:. ' Ibid. Its similarities with the Manasara has shewn that it must have drawn upon a text on Silpa-sastra.Igamas. Palika-starnbha. which. . After the styles. wh. Sth:tnaka. Vesara and Dr:~vi~a. the Garuda-puriina also has in the same five clR. a. and they are not taken into consideration in the nonarchitectural treatises like the Purai_ias and the Brihat-sarhhita. Vesara and Dravi~a) which comprise ten types of buildings.. Of the ..five orders are Stikara. Asarhchita and Apasmchita otherwise known as Sthanaka.mchita.lgama8. explicitness and precision it surpasses even the Bfihat-sari-1 hitc't of Varahamihira.ikari . . The most important divisipn into the three styles is also preserved intact in the latter works. two or more materials.r. This also closely follows the Mc7nasc7ra. colun:ms or orders are the most important matter for consideration. Dvivajr::J.(ir:t8 only the Matsya refers to the subject. Sa.Chandrs.nother very technical matter refer· red to is the ay1idi tormula used in selecting the right proportions.pound of Corinthian and Ionic.

the base and the entablature. The Surya-siddhanta. and of various . The Garga-sa1hhita deals with a large number of purely architectural subjects.liv PREFACE treatises deals separately with the pedestal.nce.ses were stately buildings. Except in a few instances.a relation of indebtedness between the M anasara and the other works. The Uttara-Ramacharita refers to the preparation of ceme~t. difficult to ' Indian Architecture.s aspects as they. 2 Ibid. pp.{ir&mani and the Lilavat6 deal in detail with a technical matter. The Mrichchhakatika describes in detail the gatehouses. In the light of all these facts. and to Nala. as well as their comparative measure. monumental buildings and monasteries. The poetical works of Kalidfisa.~a it is stated thl<. pillars.. Bhavabhuti and others refer occasionally to arehitectural matters. compartments. concern the Mdnasara. one for intimate persons only. 2 These minor non-architectural treatises have certainly drawn upon the standard architectural treatises. The N irukta of Yaska refers to masonry houses. merely to deal with the question in it. the base and the entablature. the Agamas.tial buildings. mention is made of a flight of stairs made like the waves of the Ganges. the Epics. Of the other non-architectural works the ArthaMst?·a of Kau~ilya devotes some seven chapters to the subject. compounds. the Siddhanta-. e9~l20.d the direction regarding the repair of broken images. 12h124. In the grammar of Panini reference is made to edifices. The increasing number of mouldings reached the significant figure of eight in the Matsya-puni.amely the gnomons which are used for finding out cardinal 2 points in <'J. sculpture. the P•tra(1as. town-planning. and military and reside:n. 3Q--31. lv PREFACE pala. both architectural and nonarchitectural. etc.. of some forty-seven mouldings.s and fo. the base. f'P· 2j!. the number of their subservient parts called mouldings. the courts and compounds of the heroine's 2 palace. It will be noticed that the component parts of the Grreco-Roman orders are also eight in number.t. In th~ Amarakosha and other lexicons lists of severn. it is. son of the heavenly architect Visvakarman. the Brihat· sarhhit(i and the Kira~w-tantra. and bears the very same eight names. and the entablature. The Suprabhedcigama describes two sets of seven mouldings.2 In the Harsha-charita of Ba:t. however.r state recept!-an 1 1ihe ne4t inner one for chiefs and nobles and the third. of temples and other kinds of buildings. . containing interesting descriptions of forts? fortified cities. given more than one name. :o. wherein are also found certain rules and structural details along with descriptions of fort. mention is made in connection with the pillar proper or the shaft of five mouldings.nasdra in connection with the pedestal.! architectural terms are met with. rooms. ·the palace had besides the harem alway& rnore than thr~e courtyards. There was usually a several storeyed building with inner gardens of flower-beds and large ~ruit trees.>nnection with the orientation of buildings.t "'"oed cities. and that such comparative measure of the pedestal.-30. for inst[. • I~icJ. The • fo~ de~ails ~e th~ writer's Indian firq~ct'l!r-e. and the entablature and such elaborate classification and description of them as are given in the M(inas<ira are to be found neither in the Purtti2a8 nor in the iigamas.'1 The Rc"ijatara1igiw& of Kalhan.(£a.iterature. pp. the Manasdra will occupy the first place among the avowedly architectural treatises and the architectural portions of the Purar<as and the ifgamas. and refers to many other architectural matters. In the Vikramorvas'i. and dimensions and situation of doors in houses. P?· J25-l29. the outer one being for people and fo. also the pedestal. Thus in respect of bhe names of the columns. The columns and walls were ornamented with gold and precious stones. most of which are. however. The Sulcra-nUi deals with both architectural and sculptural objects. who built the bridge joining India with Ceylon. namely courts. the Buddhist scripture or even upon the Vedic J.a refers frequently to architec1 tural objects like castles. It will be further noticed that mention is made in the Mri. brick. 32~34. it seems impossible to resist the conclusion that there was .Kinds of images including a reference to the seven tala measure au. the b~se.

ectural and sculptural objects for the construction of which the essence of measurement is required. Historical facts extricated from the complexities of such a fiction can hardly supply the necessary clue to the solution of the pr?blem. 176. This Manas. 1?1. 2 The only other external reference to the name of Manasara in a clearer term is in the Dasa~ K umara-charita of Dan din of probably the sixth century A. the chief of the ten princes or Dasa-Kumara after whom the fiction is named. Ibid. The avowedly architectural compilations like the Sa1hgraha 4 referred to above.o time until it has grown up to its present complete form and thus spreading its time to a long period. which have expressly quoted from 1 For dotails see the writer's Indian Architecture. pp.l~ID.. note 1. that there exist striking similarities between these two standard works. 1 Age of compilation So far as the date of the M anaacZra is conc0rned the indications to the period discussed at great length elsewhere2 must await fi. as well as rules and regulations and illustrative examples of all the principal archit.charge of refuse or according to the Manastira" (not Manasara. 198.. PREFACE !vii the Manasara. t4at is all. 1 . 169. who might have added to it from time t. it must be noted that King Manasara was not the hero nor even one of the chief characters of the fiction.sa.1al decision till the question of the identification of the author and the treatise have been satisfactorily settled. 170-171. however. a class of sage-artists who deal with the essence of measurement which is the derivative meaning of the term mana-sara. instead of a single individual. who is. of which also the date of co~pilation . The reference of the Agni-pura?Ja..) 1 A similarly ambiguous reference is made to Mtinasarpa. It is stated therem that above that should be raised a platform tog~ther with its neck either for the di. ' See this preface. Although some vague conclusion has been inferre. no such vague idea even is available about the period or periods in which the more or less imag~ary incidents described in the fiction might have taken place. lived. ii-iv. t~e f ther of one of the ten princes who are the principal characters.lvi PREFACE state definitely that the J. in two late inscriptions.ctically no direct or indirect reference made as to the nature of mterest ' See the wrlt6r'a Indian Architecture. 'See the Prefa. rtnta 5 . Up till now no tangible argu· ment or proof has been found as to the possibility of the treatise being the compilation of a number of authors. Therein Manasara is rep~~tedly mentioned in unmistakable terms as the King of Malava (Malwa) with whom wat:~ engaged in war K~g Rajahari1 sa of Magadha (Patna).~s not quite certain. pp.:tra. the latter was the father of RaJavahana. _IB s~ated to have been engaged in a war with King Rajaharil. an individual author of an unknown parentage and time. pp. note 2 . l:iO. not Munasdra. pp.ra. 134-159.Vidnasc"ira ii:l the debtcr or creditor t this or that work in respect of this or that matter. Nor has it been possible to say definitely what the title was intended to imply. ' See the writer's indian Architecture. 3 This King Manasara is stated lo be the father of one of the ten. xlvii-:dviii. not even the principal charact~r of the fiction. PP· 4 . There is in the fiction pra. note 2 .ce to the above.D. 160 .d from the crrcumstantial evidence about the period in which DaJ. Similar difficulties arise in regard to the exact relation between the architectural work of the Roman architect Vitruvius and the M<inasa. as an architect. lastly. p. is very ambiguous. 197-198. the father of the chief prince. the author of the Dasa-Kumura-charita. Besides. The external evidence referring to the treatise and the author is also very meagre. are also of uncertain authors and dates. There are no doubt historical facts concealed m a fictitious work. and. after an elaborate examination and minute comparjqon. • Ibid. But it is not easy to sift facts from fiction. princes.3 namely. although scholars and critics have admitted the write1''s conclusion. In the treatise itself Mtinasrira has been used in three distinct senses.. a treatise containing methods and principles. awl Opinions and Reviews quokd at tho end of this volume. pp.

Vesara or eastern. UNIVERSITY OF ALL. be admitted that there was no real occasion for sueh a referenee. ACHARYA. like the medical works. On the other hand. pp. Kerala. the Avanti-SundanKatha in prose and the Avanti-Sundari-Kathcisiira in verse. those who have admitted the striking similarities between the treatise of Vitruvius (of about 25 B.D. the date of the Mcinasdra may be a few centuries earlier or later than Vitruvius whose treatise was probably composed twenty· five years before the Christian era. but the author. or some floating traditions. DaJ.All. Magadha.PREFACE lvili which King Manasara might have been in the habit of taking in literary or artistic matters . because the foreign imitation in architecture for a millennium has proved more or less unsuccessful and uneconomical.ilga.) aJ:Ld the Ma:na. 173-1'76. Those who are. was a contempovacy of another author Bharavi. who is mentioned in an inscription of A. which was presumably the capital city and provincial kingdom of King Manasara of the fiction. In the circumstances it would be doubly unwarranted to take any decision as to the possibility or otherwise of King Manasara's direct patronage or indirect instrumentality in the production of the standard treatise on architecture which. Virata. DaJ. inclined to connect the treatise M ana. though circumstantial. 550). might have been named after him. lix PREFACE have to await the missing link in order to connect these two standard treatises. because the author of the fiction. and with the hope that a trial may be given to its methods and principles. including thos~ regarding the connection of the M unasara with the Matsya-purary. the most practical of all Sanskrit treatises. however. 1933. 606-64S. Lastly.c. February o.B. himself is held.L<. Kali. would assign the treatise to the seventh century. however.A. 634 and also of Harsha of Kanauj who reigned from A. takes the liberty to conclude this preface by reiterating the fact that this is.the other items of evidence which are un· doubtedly mo:re authenticated and substantial.D.D. Neither in the three styles mentioned in the treatise Miinasara under three geographical names (Nagara or northern. however.suro will ' For the provinces implied by these see the writer's ln&ian Architechwe. the reader may be inclined to consider more seriously . P.tin. It is. possible to think that instead of any one being directly influenced by the other.Lqin. however. nor in the ten types of the most gorgeous buildings bearing again geographical name<~ and provincial divisions (Panchrtla. and Sphurjaka? is included Malava. and Dravic~a or southern). In this connection another incident must be taken into consideration. Varbsaka. it must. 'The writer. 450) and the Btihat-sarhkita (prob· ably of A. in his recently discovered works.A.a (probably of A. In the event of a direct relation being established. K. namely some unknown work or works. its rules and regulations. in view of the several facts discussed at great length in the writer's Indian Architecture. as its title would seemingly indicate. Draviia Madhyakanta. .sara with this King of Malwa.D. both might have drawn upon a common source. Janaka. to be well learned in architecture of royal and divine structure.D.

Indra. the lotus-born (Brahma). 3-4. air. while causing the creation. conveyance. the rules for erecting the gnomon. and the sky. and c:ouch (. enunciated by all the great sages beginning with Him (Siva) who carries the Ganges on His head.like crowns of the kings of various gods. 7-8. I bow to (His) lotus-likE\ feet kissed by the waving lines of bees. In the fi. and the destruction of the worlds.rious) 'illage-schemes. (and) the arrangement of ground-plans for assigning the quarters of gods and others. brings forth earth. '" ~ l!lcluding divine and semi-divine bcrings. building. as also of the Viislu comprises four thingE. So also the rules regarding (architectural} offerings (to deities) and the det'ails of (va. 2 9-10. Brihaspati. the lotus-eyed (Vish:q. the pr@servation. The science of architecture. (and) likewise the examination of the soil. Then is described the selection of the site. ground. then (comes) the classification of viidul.ARCHI'rEC'fURE OF MAN ASARA CHAPTER I THE CONTENTS 1-2. fire. namely. He (Brahma). 3) . as well as demons. and Narada.u).rat place (is described) the system of measurement preceded by (an account of) the quali:ficn. water. has been elaborated by the sage Manasara having made the subject-matter even more than complete~ 5-6.see chapter III.1 1 .tions of architects.

. the eight-legged crow(shaped) bed. 7-8. 15-16. and the bedstead and other couches are the four classes (of architectura. the plank-bed. Oh architect. the council-chamber. the odour. The ground. and also the theatre: all these are stated by the ancients to be (understood by the term) edifice (harmya). 3. 13. the pavilion. . Of these classes the ground is the chief object for all purposes. the palanquin. Indeed these buildings are stated to be the (main architectural) object by those who specialise in the knowledge of architecture. The bedstead will similarly be described (now). the taste. the swing. and similarly. the chariot : all these. The contour. the car. and the touch : by examining these in order the site (for a "building) is ascertained for measurement.'"":- CHAPTER III THE CLASSIFICATION OF ARCHITECTURE 1-2. The cage. similarly the water-shed. the colour. namely. The earth becomes the abode of all beings because of the sun. 4. the sofa. the conveyance. 11-12.l 0bjects). 9-10. The mansion and other buildings are truly called dwellings because of their connection with the (chief) object (the ground). the hall. The palace. the edifice and other buildings. the ground and the others. 5-6. These are said to be the four main topics. those objects will also be elaborated now (in this science of architecture). The various abodes where gods and rnen dwell have been noticed by the divine sages. are known as the kinds of conveyance. The fast conveyance. the sound. 14. similarly the small bed: all these are stated to be (implied by the term) couch (paryanka). the features.

and wide in size: such a. site is suitable and prosperous to the Kshatriyas (lit. Associated with lotus-seeds and trumpet-flower-fragranc. namely. reddish in colour. That site is auspicious for the Brahmins.P.q conducive to the growth of all (other) seeds. the ma. 30. selected after all these te. the kings). reeds. site bears prosperity to the Siidras. I shall now describe science (of architecture). 33-34. and the poison-tree (upas tree). 24-26. 9-10.) the twice-born and the other.e. for the Vaisyas and the Siidras (the sites) should be as stated above in order. whitish in colour. and water-snakes. 4. bambootJ. (Associated) with horses. all the four classes are (treated in) the same (manner). 6-7. possessing the fig tree. The ground (which is) the chief of the (four classes of architectural) objects is thus described. 21-23. 5. . red. sloping towards the north. should be) of pleasant touch.ngo tree.··t the selection of site briefly in this 2-3. yellowish in colour. All (kinds of sites) are suitable to the Brahmins. and level. .s (lit. looking green to the sight and attractive . esp~ci­ ally to the Gods. The quadrangular ground which is elevated towards the south and towards the west is suitable (for the buildings of) the gods and the men respectively. They are (further) distinguished (separately) for (the different castes. 13-14. 27-29.12 ARCHITECTURE OF MANASA. With the length exceeding the breadth of four parts by one part (i. Associated also with cows and reptile species. black in colour. With the length exceeding the breadth by not more than one-sixth. The site. The (other) features : having a pond· surrounding the south (and) a southern aspect.lira. and hexagonal (in shape) : such a ground brings forth all prosperity. 'l'he clasEJific!l. and possessing colour.~:\ssociated with the sacred fig tree. and sour in taste: such a site is auspicious and the source of all success to the Vaisya. is (further tested) differently for the different castes (lit. e. with declivity towards the east.tion of architecture. golden. 18-20. the science of architecture. 8.the sapta-partJaka (Alstonia Scholaris). and for the Kshatriyas similarly. black or grey in colour. elephants. the asoka (J onesia Asoka Roxb ).chta Indica). White. .RA ( CHA. bitter in taste. possessing the fig tree (ficus infeeto:ria). CHAPTER IV THE SELECTION OF SITE 1.ts. III. possessing the peepal tree (ficus religiosa). one-fourth).] 17. entitled . the twice-born). and sweet and fragrant in taste. 11-12. With (the length) exceeding the breadth by one-eighth. pungent in taste. 31. Of the sites described above the (fir11t) two are stated to be the best and the (last) two fair. which is square (in shape). possessing the banyan tree. 32. the merchant class).. Attended with dense softness· and being (lit. 'Ihe classification of architectural objects is thus described. with declivity towards the east. and with declivity towards the east: such a. the nimb-tree (aza<. Thus in the Manasara. the third chapter.

resounded with the lowing of the oxen. 3 . 16. and then inhabited by cowh~rds. Consequently (the ground) stamped with the foot-tracks and the breathing of cattle. Cows. 'Let all creatures. etc. sound. and rendered whitish by the collective spreading of barley-corn (grown thereon). The rules for examination of soil also are now briefly described in this science (of architecture). let them gb elsewhere and make their abode there ' : this 111 antra (incantation) should. Adorned with the horripilations caused by. 2-4. 15. 17. successful day) to be pronounced together with the auspicious sounds of musical instruments (horn). leave this place . besmeared with eow-dung falling in lumps like the coming out of calves from kine. oxen and calves should be brought in there. On some auspicious day (made so) by the constellation of sta. 4-9.rs also. 11-14. 10. demons and gods as well. be repeatedly uttered in a low voice. Furnished with transparent water and fragrant with the smell of cows. as defined bdore and having made the architectural offerings as usual. After tJelecting a pot it should be (properiy) placed and covered (with soil) wherein should be sown all seeds manured with cow-dung and be watched the growth of dense sprouts from the unrestrained seeds. Having thus selected the ground which possesses the contour. the foam of chewing the cud and also with the foot-steps of cows. the expert architect should then cause benediction (lit.THE EXAMINA'riON OF SOIL 1. colour..

as stated (by the. Gold rings should be filleted round the foreparts of the horns and hoofs (of selected oxen). On the da-y previous to plou'?hing the wise builder should make. 44.xperimental yoking of the oxen to the plough for the :first pl'eliminary ploughing. In the (selected) spot the earth should be dug extending to the building site. I shall (now) det=~uri. nimb (Azadira. it means the loss of wealth and sustenance. but should ·make this a rule for characterist1c marks. the fount of blessings and (prithee) keep thyself dry and good. the (ceremony of) fasting should be observed. well-socketed and extended : a learned man should not miss such an ox. each of these oxen is auspicious. with superfluous horn. 36. 47-50. Whitish and brown as well as red and yellow.if it be not filled up with the (same) earth. . If it is seen that there is left some water. 32. it (the soil) should be taken to be for good . If it (the cavity) be filled up with earth (dug out. The ox who bea. an e. . and plants containing milky sap and blood : these are the desirable trees to make the plough with.' 30. 58-57. Acacia catechu. 20-22. good day).be the details of the plough. red. In an auspicious moment. The one who is naturally white in colour and is stamped with a spot at the forepart of the four feet. The ground (which) like the all-productive cow (is good in every way) should ba selected (as a building-site) in order to secure (all) prosperity (out of it). . The characteristic marks of oxen for ploughing (the selected site) are now described. and if it be wet. the wise builder together with the archite. the soil is good. and who possesses eyes resembling flowers. 28-29.ltiful Ambika (goddess) should be worshipped and adored with all jewels. as well as unhusked rice. I bow to Thee. 37. 18-19. the faithful and self-possessed (builder) with concentrated mind a. if (on the other hand) it be (entirely)· dried up. or with horns crossing each other should also be avoided.prayer (lit. 41. water. before) from all sides. and filled with water to the sa. rice and sugar. 53-55. The one of

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ariegated colour and the one with a mark of the stick should be avoided.] EXAMINATION OF SOIL 19 38.18 AROHITE01'URE OF MANASARA (CHAP. 31. disc-like hoof and are devoid of strength should (also) be avoided. The forehead-plate as well as the ears should also be ornamented with gold. 51-52. and if it be overfilled. In the morning. 46. at the root of the horns and at the centre of the forehead. while th~ highly learned Brahmins keep pronouncing all auspicious benediction (lit. v. 26-27. According to the scriptural injunction (sastra). incantation). Then in the morning the. Those who are too young or too old should also be avoided: this is the view (of the experts) on the matter of yoking (oxen in ploughing the selected site). It (the tank thus dug out) should be made quadrangular (in shape) and one cubit deep. flowers. the soil is bad . 23-25. After seeing (the results ofthese tests) it will be good for the master to walk round the site (in order to ascertain that all parts are equally good). BabUl tree. 43. After having repeated this .rs a spot caused by biting and who is of defective sight should be avoided. .33. 42. 39-40.nd his head towards the east (should pray as follows). 34-35.. kara?Ja (eleven divisions of the day) and lagna (conjunction).cts should examine the condition (of water in the tank). Those who have short tail. pines (Pinus Longifolia). Those who have torn ears and fallen teeth and are lame in legs should be avoided.me level on four sides. . it means destruction. ancients). the soil is fair. • May the great earth prosper in corn and riches. Those with horns bent downwards.chta Inawa). the beal. 45. wise (builder) should offer her an oblation of milk. (Sitting on) kusa grass spread on the ground near the tank. perfumes.

ehes gradually from the middle towards the forepart aud the hindpart.n iron na.. 83. half. 79. The width of its two ends should be two or three angulas each. 60. 90. The length of the ploughshare at the forepart of the tail should be three. 64. The length of the yoke should be made two cubits and a.il. 78. make the selection of the sito (and the preparation of soil) as enjoined above. one-and-onefourth. 85.e.rt of its bottom the top-end of a bamboorod should be pushed in. 67.tu). mented with perfumes anc1 flowers. EXAMINA'riON OP SOIL 21 76. lotus leaf (·like device). The ground is known as the foundation of all kinds of building. and on the builder as Brahma. 88. Its bottom should be octagonal. and the width at the bottom should be three. 89. and have an (ear-like) edge. four. At the hole (therein) the ca.e. entitled : 58-59. 61. 62. At the middle of its length the plough should be somewhat bent. The length of the rod should be three cubits and the breadth proportional. four or five angulas {of three-fourths inch each).. 75. Being furnished with ornaments on the five limbs and putting on a piece of white cloth and uppor garment tho wise architect should meditate on the two oxen as the sun and the moon. the science of architecture. done through ignorance. or one cubit. :. Half way between these two holes the plough( -rod) should be fitted in. Anything beginning from the selection (of the.] (CHAP. 91. There should bo two holes for yoking oxen. The top of the. He (the chief architect) should plough (only) three rounds and all the ploughing (of the selected site) should be done by the Sudras (i. At the upper pa. I ·.1':. This should be the measurement of the yoke which dimini. 66. 'l'he examination ofsoll. 71. and the width at the bottom :five angulas (of three-fourths inch each). the :fifth chapter.gulas (of three-fourths inch each). so that it may be strong. would lead to the destruction of all prospects. Consequently this. Thufl in the Manascira. angulas of three-fourths inch each)..rpenter should drive in a. tail ending by the plough-root should be two an. five or six angula$ (of three-fourths inch each) . (Both) tho oxen and tho architect should be tastefully orna. half being three-stripped like a. site) up to the end (0£ the preparation of the soil). and it should be furnished with all devices. on the plough as the Boar god (VishJ. 65. 73. or one-and-one-half cubits. As an alternative the length of the tail may be one-and-onefourth cubits. The root of the tail should in particular b3 furnished with a. object of building (i. 63. 84. The width at the middle of the ploughshare should be three. bamboo-leaf. 68.. 80-82. Then the architect should plough amidst all auspicious sounds. tillers). The length of the plough-tail should be one-and-one-half cubits. and its height should be two or three angulas. The Brahmins should pronounce tho benediction to the best of their power. the ground) shonld be done in accordance with all these characteristics. During ploughing the tiller too should be pure and attentive and inform the architects when the ploug-hing is completely ' finished. 86-87. one on each half of the yoke. 69-70. The wise builder should. therefore.20 ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA v. 7 4.e. i . 77. In an auspwwus moment and zodiacal conjunction the ploughing should be commenced. 72. The length of the plough should be one. four or :five miUras (i. From one to one-half angulas should fittingly be the thickness of the tail._ .

pages 113. made (pointed) like a needle. 2.) fixed at the four quarters (i. feminine and neuter aspects which are also referred to· in the . 24·.ns. 8. The second is a site of four plots and is named Paisaoha (or Peohaka). adimeda {a plant). . in the Manasara also quadrangular. vr. site of sixteen plots and is known as Mahapifha. joined) 1• This is of great benefit. 4.ll the pegs beginning. and his Dictionary of Hindu . entitled. marking of plots on the ground) in order. At the time of the fixing of the pegs. madhUka (bassia latifolia). 3. A triang1llar plan seems to be referred to in line 23 (see note thereunder). Now will be described the ground plans (lit. 7.ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA [cnAP. but (lrom above the ground) it should taper gradually from bottom to top. it should be done. l'he wood wi~h which these pegs are made will be.: The rnles for erecting gnomons and pags.outh-west corner amidst all auspicious sounds. 1.2 .. the Brahmin (priest} should pronounce benediction. 108-110.with ~.ha. site of one plot 1 and is named Sa kala. The ninth is a site of eighty-one plots and is called Paramasayika. and similarly milk-tree (mimusops 'kanki) and others. 6.ts (see ~b writer's Indian Archit~cture.lgam.e.. and therf:lafter those who aseemble (at the laying function of the foundation) should (also) pray (for the success of the uudertaking) ·.e. The third is a. east.. 114-llll. 118. 176. south and west). ve plots and is known a. oval or sixteen-sided 1 These plots· may as stated in the Pur(i?. and there should be eight strokes <}n each (of the pegs). 5. (each) catching hold of a peg by the left hand and holding a hammer should strike it (the p9g) with the right hand. be square. ItA bottom should be. 117-118. After this (ceremonial posting of pegs) the carpenter with the permission of the (chief) architect should iri the same way strike a. rectanguhtr. 49. The length of these pegs to be fixed should be twentyone or twenty-five ang•.apes of architectural and sculptural objects are admitted in reference to tbe styles.vith all auspicious sounds. north. the science o£ architecture.118. Four pegs at the four corners (ears) should be fixed and the corners should be attached (i. 119-120. the trees with (the timber of) which the pegs to be (thus) fixed are made are these : khadira (acacia catechu). tig. 111. lll-112. hexagonal. site of nine plots and is known by the name of Pitha. round.Arrchitecture under Prasada and Nagara). 113. ·The seventh is a site of' forty-nine plots and is called Sthan4ila. 1 See pla~e VI. the s1xtb chapter. The fifth is a site of twenty-fi. 10. although the buildings are stated to bear masculine..s Upa]Jif. The architect and the master standing: with face towards the east or north. D It is called Pechaka in the Mayamata (VII. Thus in the Jl anasiira. "*· CHAPTER VII THE GROUND PLANS 1. or the pithy trees. The sixth is a site of thirty-six plots and is called U qrapifha. The eighth is a site of sixty-four plots and is called Oharp:Jita. octagonal and ro·md sjJ. 9. The fourth is a. described (now) . about seven inches). The first is a. 23) which appears to b& a. summary of the Jlanasiira.e.tlas (of three-fourths inch each) and its width should be (equal to) the measurt> of one's fist (i.

ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA 34 vn. the western one to VaruJ. the remover of darkness. mes of plans would indicate certain figures. and Gagana (sky-god) to the north-west.). the site should be of nine hundred and sixty-one plots and is called isvara-kcintcJ.e.. The eleventh is likewise said to be a site of one hundred and twenty-one plots and its name is Sthctniya. Pavana (wind-god) is assigned to the south-west.r buildings) for the workship of gods and preceptors. 35-36. for the seat {i. the site should be of one thousand and twenty-four plots and is called Ohanm-kctnta. 45-46. sitting room~ and daily dinner (i. 18-20. And then the tweifth (named) De~ya is likewise a site of one hundred and forty-four plots. similarly. Similarly the eighteenth should be a site of three hundred and twenty-four plots (and is named) K artpashtaka. The Sakal:. In case of the thirtieth. ' Many of these thirty-two n . for sacrifices with fire. of these the eastern cord is assigned to Aditya (the Sun). while others seem to be 111ete technical names \see plates unde~ chapter VII)._<ita. 1 Thus it has been laid down by the ancients... 25-26. ·In case of the . the Moon). 17-18. 51-53. 22-23. sraddha. Similarly the fifteenth is a site of two hundred anu twenty-five plots and its name is stated to be Mahc"Z. Similarly the nineteenth is a site of three hundred and sixty nine plots (and its name is) Ga. In case of the twenty-third. The fourteenth is likewise said to be a site of one hundred and ninety-six plots and its name is Bhaclra. In case of the twenty-ninth. Similarly the seventeenth is a site .twenty-fourth. which is not mentioned elsewhere (see potes under lino 2). The Pechaka (plan) of four plots should be bounded by eight cords: in this plan !sa (Siva) is assigned to .. 12-13.p1a-garbha.a (or Jalesa.sa. the site should be of :five hundred and twenty-nine plots (and) its name is Visalaka.e. the southern one to Yama (God of death).g. In case of the thirty-second.. 37-38.~ana.the north-east. 20-21. the site should'be seven hundred and eighty-four plots and is known as Visalitksha. 30-31. the site should be of seven hundred and twenty-nine plots and is called V ipra-kunta.J. The Sakala (plan) is recommended (fc. 33-34. 43-44.e. 13-14. the site should be of five hundred and seventy-six plots and is known as V1.. etc. the tweBtieth is said to be a site of four hundred plots (and) it is namedSury a -visaluka. the site should be of six hundred and seventy-six plots and is known as Vipula-bhoga.£ (plan) of a single plot should be bounded by four cords . In case of the twenty-fifth. 39·-40.. 28-29. In case of the thirty-first. In case of the twenty-eighth. 41-42. dining room. 57-59. 'l'he thirteenth is likewise said to be a site of one hundred and sixty-nine plots and its name is known rts Ubhaya-chatpfjita. the God of water) and the northern one to Chandra (or Kshapahara. So also the twenty-second is a site of four hundred and eighty-four plots (and its name is) Supratikiinta. Agni (fire-god) is the deity of the south-east. This would look like a triangular plan. the site should be of nine hundred plots fltnd is called VUve. and for the usual ancestral worship (e.] GROUND PLANS 35 11 The tenth is a site of one hundred plots and is known by the name of A sana.~a-scira. the site should be of six hundred and twenty-five plots and should be known by the name of Viv. 48-50. 54-56. 1 . Similarly the twenty-first should be a site of four hundTed and forty-one plots and is called Susathhita. In case of the twenty-sixth.) of sages. 46-48. 31-32. similarly. In case of the twenty-seventh. the site should be of eight hundred and forty-one plots and is called Vipra-bhakti. of two hundred and eighty-nine plots and its name is stated to be Tri-yuta 1 • 23-21. the sixteenth should be a site of two hundred and :fifty-six plots (and its name is) Padma-garbha. 26-27: Then.. 15-16. i. Then.

although there ca'l be only sixteen plots (and twenty-five deities). 60. Mitraka.. as before (i.e. Vivasvat. a The reasons in consider~tion of which the fuH details of the e'ighth and particularly the ninth plans ·are given seem to be that the details of the subsequent twenty~three plans may be found out by multiplying the details of these even (i. As a matter of fact there would be thirty-two lines not thirty.e.~ 1 ~qqli ~~'$

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~T~r: ~ f~ar: I\ Mayamata. Mukhya. J ayanta.. eight deities are assigned to the four central plots. 27-29) Brahmii. Aryaman. Sugriva.36 ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA fcHAP.. but the next even number is called Pechaka. In the ( Oha~z{lita) plan of sixty-four plots named (here) Ma1. The details of the Pitha pb. the even one (of these two plans) is called Nishkala and the odd one Sakctla. YII. fourth) plan (of sixteen plots) the four central plots are assigned to Brahmii.. Bhrisa. Mitra and Bhiidhara to half-a-plot each. Pitri.itn a. Rudra and This plan obviously Nfers to the third plan called Htha . comprising eight in the interior block around the Bra. Indra.~clUka (frog-shaped) tbirty-(two) · lines 4 are drawi1 hy twenty-eight t That the same deities are assigned to one plot each is clearer from the following :- .~if.] 3'7 Bhiidhara.. . tt~ttt~<i~nia •<~mit~ q-do. '!'his 1 plan {is recommended for buildings) for domestic (?public) worship and public bath. Arya.ta. again the outside deities from Jayanta to Charaka are given a half-plot each.. eight other deities beginning with Savitra and ending with Apavatsa are also given a half-plot each . is placed o_!l the central point and is not assigned to any plot.~~t: 'l~~@Tat: .n a. 1 a Each of these twenty-four deities. GROUND PLANS vn. some lines describing this plan as also referring to the uses for which the Pechaka plan is recommended are missing from the text.ma-sutradhiira (chap~er XII.. V~rm.hma plots and sixteen in the exterio1· block. fifth) plan (of twenty-five plots) the aforesaid twenty-five deities are assigned to one plot (each) in the same order beginning with north-east. another eight deities are given one plot each. not Nishkala.re · translated within square brackets from the contents of the B. Sosha. 3 76-79. under chapter VII. Is a. 2 These two plans always (by being multiplied. II (Silparatna. Aditya. . 30. VI. D. Aditya to the east. Agni).ka. figure 4). half-plot each: this would already make twenty-nine deities and twenty· two plots. . Mayamata which is a summary of the Manaaiira (see note under text. Savitra. . Viva~vat.] 61-68. 8th) and odd (i. In the Mayamata (chapter VII. (Therefore) the characteristic features of the deities assignfld to the plots of these plans are (specially) desor~bed (below). beyond these along the boundary lines. beyond these along the surrounding lines are assigned.e. supply the details of all other plans) for all kinds of building.!. In the JJlahupi?ha (i. texts and the. Vitatha. similarly eight deities are assigned to the four plots in the four corners. 1 71-75. 9th) plots {see the concluding portion of note under line 154). yet another set of eight deities beginning with Parjanya and ending with Aditi are given a.. 28. Agni to the south-east. Krisanu (i. Varuna to the west and Soma to the north) and :first !sa or Siva to the north-east.e. begin~ing from north-east). is apparently intended to be assigned to half-a-plot (see plate. Gagana to the south. [In the Pi?ha plan of nine plots the four deities (stated above) are assigned to the four main quarters (i.e. Yama.e. In the silpa-ratna (chap1er VI.e. In the Upapithaka i.. beginning · from north-east are a::~signed in order Apa.· The Samariiizg. plots. the earth goddess is aseigned to the central plot). 3--14) h3s obviously confused the whole plan: it appears that Brahma is assigned to four.~ 1· ' ' ~ a-~m ~err: i. line 59). Bhringaraja. Yama to the south.nd the Parama·Miyik(J plans seem to be used as general terms in order to ascertain the subsequent odd and eYen number of plans in the way elucidated in the following note: it should be noted that the technical name of the first (odd number) plot is S·<kala (line'2J. 25) that twenty-five deities M"e assigned to the sixteen plots. Of all these aforesaid (thirty-two) plans two are described (with full details): the plan (named Oha?}(lita) of frog-shape and which is (called) Para ma-sayika. Soma and Aditi.. J :s'!X(~q)q)i ~~ ~'$

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q~:ucq~tf. 69-70.vatsa:. Maruta. and remaining eight plots are assigned to the remaining eight deities. .) s These epithets of the Chr1:1. west and Pavana to the north-west around Prithivi (i.e.25-27) the allocation of the deities is not specified: it is simply stated (VII.

then Antariksha to the one plot in the east {side). namely. 1873. 83~8s. named.e. 43--:44). chapter 52. 80-82. Jayanta (should be assigned) to the north (side-plot of the north-east corner). the four corners (are) partitioned by six more lines each. ed.. chapter XI. Beyond these (deities. maker of day.. Mukhya as well to the one plot in the west (side of the north-west corner) and Udita to the one plot in the north (side)...Sli"W. the !J1'. while retaining the order difi'er in the number of plots assigned to these deities :itW "~g'QqiO!fm~r fi{~T~"fimr: f~m. Sugriva to the one plot in the south (side of the south-west corner) and Godha' (Asura) to the one plot in the west (side). Agni and Pushan to the south-east Pitri and Dauvarika to the plot in the south-west corner. of the four corners beyond the fom (corners stated above). which too appear to have been based on the .. each to a half-plot.!I!I"g:fj~l' I ~TiiT ft. which is a snmm:uy of ~he Miin.:ri: ~~~T ~ :il'QT'l:a 'fi::q~T r.ds) (immediately} to the north of the middle line (running from west to· east through the whole plan). Mitra and Bhudhara to three plots each from the east) 1 . and Aryaka. (In the Pararna-.. (Now) he should start agsigning (the followingj deities) to the two sides. and Apavatsa.. and Savitra each to a half-plot assigned to those deities (i. 55-56 . J. 2 Obviously for Dinakam. 92. c.rgqcu: ~rmr~r~•".tl=fT•••ii: 1 But the following aitthorities. ~~J~ ~ i~it ~ ~ f~ QT~~: II · (Silparatra. p. Vivasvat..pavatsa. (thus) connecting thirty joints and the four pegs at (each) corner are connected with twelve joints of six-lined partitions.~ayika plan of eighty-one plots) there (should be) four lines at (each of the) four sides.38 ARCHI'TEC'fURE OF MANASARA [CHAP. (Brihat-samhitii. Vitatha to the one plot in the east (side of the south-east corner) and Mriga to the one plot to the south (side). a synonym· of the snn. 'llfQ:T~Sfiq"fll~. supplies both the reqmred order and number of plots for this frog-shaped Ohal)ditn.] GROUND PLANS B9 the beginni~g from the north-east in the circumambulating way A. .rsrr if. and the central plot is connected by lines with eight joints. R. Dvi vedi..s·i-a. Brahma to the four central plots.ltana~a.. A. 93-96. and four lines at the four corners..~ (Aditya) is assigned to the two (combined) plots (of the third and fourth rouJ:?. but is included in the other lists as well as in the treatises referred to in the note under lines 83-88. and Rudra and Rudrajaya are (each) the resident of a half-plot (in the north-west).yamakt (V. Trani. :qf~~ q. chapter VI. 97-99. thus making sixteen lines . two (combined) plots to the north of this (are reserved) for 1 It means an alligator and as such it may imply Asura (demon) who is missing in this list. south-west) Indra and Indraraja each to a half-plot.:ct('rr: ~T~. ~ "ttP-i"''iTi"f..~·(~.. 22)...II. then. fi'<<:i11~T: II qa: (Samarailga~ta-siitradhiira. Then beyond these deities he (the strchitect) should begin (with the corner plots of the fourth round) assigning Is ana and Pa.e<:tT t~~ t'fmiiTf~(jOF I ~ ~1ttr~TJfut'i{~~r ~ m~r: 11 ~~ n ~1:21 "E4 ~f~tmm:r~:r~T~~m:rf.t=tif6~ f~ II ~' II . Aditya in the oth€r lists and the treatises quoted in the noto under lines 83-88.nf"~' ~~rf( EiloFtt~. . 36). Thus are stated (to be assigned) eight deities (in the corner plots of the third round). and both' Vayu and Naga are each the master of half a plot in the northwest corner. ~~ R~T ~'Cii f~a: lUt:~~. and are also placed Savitra.TcrE<li'Tl'f: f~~lli ~~~ <tftf~at: II ~o II 'il'g:"'ff"!!q~ ""'~·~ 'el'gllqq::J. 40. to the southeast) . part II.. I are assigned) to the four cornera 1 These are to be gathered from lines 61-64 and 111-115.l. S. 289 VII.rjanya (to the north-east). II ~~II "' ~ "( . there should be another twenty lines drawn from south to the extremity of north. and from east to the extremity of west. but therein the order and the number of plots assigned to each of these are ditrerent . In the eastern side Dinaka."'. and in the next intermediate quarter (i.. Kern.e: ftre"T&~f!:: ' v<htl'a'T: ~{T~T'JT ~ Ei. 88-91. each. joints (or divisions)..

and Bhringa-raja in place of Mri§a. : . Antariksha in place of Vitatha. the Silparatna.a is assigned to the two (combined) plots (in:medl. Sugriva in place of Godha.rly) .. Jayanta in place of Antariksa. VI. Then Apava (i. 122-123. it should be noted that according to the authorities referred to above M. (of the northern side). the Mayamata. and Putana should be assigned to the outside of ~ e south-west corner. Thus is described the Cha1. 167) and Aryaka (line 62): .• 1 Otherwise called . It should be noted.19. Similarly (i. and similarly to the two (combined) plots to the west of the same ~s placed Gandharva.ma. 38-39. and similarly two plots to the north of Aryaka are r€served for Apavatsya. and also Udita in place of Jayanta. 45. In the southern side (oi the second round) lndra is assigned similarly to the two plots to the west of the six plots (of Vivasvat). The cause of disagreement is not known: it is all the more GROU~D-PLANS 'I" ' inexplicable why the ilJrin..Aryamanl.. " h south-east corner. six plots to the south are stated to belong to Vivasvat. and the two (combined) plots to the same direction (i. The other authorities.ARCHITECTURE OF MAN ASARA 40 [OHA. As regards other deities there is a correspondence. outside this) six plots to the east {of Brahman) are known to bel<mg to . of the four directions. 221.-vatsa) is likewise assigned to the two plots to the east of Bhudha.~. Vitatha in place of M. 242.fC referred to in this chap~er. lines 141..s to the south of (the six plots d) Mitra. 120-121.Apa. 100-102. seem to have 1mproverl then texts.] Mahendra. and similarly Papa-rakshasi is place~ to the outstde of the north-west corner.~fj'lta plan. Asura in place of Sosha.. 110-111.Pl?t but to) the outside of the north-east corner (of th~ wh_o~e plan). similarly to. In the southern side Ya. 116-117. west) of the latter are (reserved) for M!'isa.-inga-raja as given here. 216. . 106. Mrisa in place of Sugriva. Charaki (demoness) is assigned to {no specified . and to the south of the latter two (combined) plots for Bhrisa. In the western side Varu:Q. 151-153. Soma is assigned to the two (combined) plots (immediately) to the west of the (same) middle line as runs from north to south (through the whol~ plan) and two combined plots to the west of this are reserved for Bhallata similarly to the east of the middle line are assigned respectively Bhrioga-~·aja and Aditi to two combined plots each (see the Manasiira. vn. 28).mariingana-s~itradhara. likewise Indrajaya is assigned to the two plot.ately) to the south of the (same) middle line ·(as runs west to east through the whole plan) and two (combined) plots (to the south of this) are (reserved) for Pushpa·danta . 103-105. 1 1 Thatis.-iga is assigned in place of Bh.e.e. particularly leaving out the details and obscure portions of the ManrLSCiN. Roga in place of Mukhya. similarly two (combined) plots to the south of the same for Satya.rl 1s the outs1de of the th e ru1e (l..-iga. ~he place of assignment) for VIdii.e. however. Now the Parama-sayika plan is described: making (therein) eighty-one plots Brahman is ~ssigned to the nine central plots. and the Sr..P. that the plots assigned to these deities by these authorities are different from those specified here. 118-119.e. Sosha in place of Roga. VII.ara should n~t follow its own order in all the three places where these forty-five deities !J.t. In order the wise (architect should fill in) the four sides knowing (i. is assigned to the two (combin·ad) plots (immediately) to the east of the middle line (running from north to south through the whole plan). the north (of the middle line) are assigned (respectively) the Lord of Sosha and of Roga to two (combined) plots each. (Then) is described (below) the assignment of the four plots at each of all (four) corners (of the second round) between the four intermediate regions. ])eginning with the north-east.o. 244. XI. assigning) those two (combined) plots for each of the deities. Savitra is assigned to the two plots to the east of the extreme limit of the six plots (of Mitra). as they are based on uhe Mdnasiir .. six plots again to the west are known to belong to Mitra and siY plots to the north to Bhudhara : (thus are assigned) the four (deities).. . and Savitra is assigned to the two eastern plots of Vivasva. 41 107-110... (~tmtla. to the two (combined) plots to the east of this is placed Rakshasa.ra. · 112-115.!rya (lines ). Further.

128. The one plot to the west of Bh:ringa-raja 1s recommended for Mrisa. towns and forts (see the writer's Indian Archite(!ture.l noted (i) t. 13l. Bhanu (i.a shol!ld be one plQt for Ddita!. a:ud (iii) that these pll'\Dil do not app11.). foqrth (wanting i~ full. The one plot to the et1st of NP..e. first. . rihe ono plot to the west of Ptishaka (i. stl:!!ted to bt? for Bhalllta. 'l'he one plot to the north of Varnna is recommended for Asura. 130. 142. The on~ plot to the south of Aditya is (reserved) for Satya. vu. The one plot to the south of Satya is (reserved) for Bh:risa. is (reserved) for Sugriva. although other shapes have been recognized in the plans of both buildi~g!l a. (i.e. including four demonesses assig!led to the outside) de1t~es w1th va.rhe one plot to the west of Gandharva ehould be (reserved) for Bhringa-raja.st of Mukhya. r. 150. 148. i. 113-ll8. · 152. Piishan) should be (reserved) for Vitatha. V arul).hat (ll'!t of the thirty-two pla~s d13t!l!ils -a~E'l-. . . Between Aditi and !Ss. 126.. pages 24. Ul.us. fifth. 1~7. And one plot to the south of ba is (reserved) for Parjanya. Yama) ~honld be (reserved) for Gaudhana..e north of Asura is (res :rved) for Bosha. And the one plot to t b. ·118. 14 7.e.rut to the one plot in the north-west.) should be assigned to the one (middle) plot in the north. similarly in the uorbhern side Rudrajaya is assigned to the two plots to the west of the ail'. The o:p. In the western side (of the second round) the Rudra. 'l'he one plot to the north of Dauvarika. The water-god (i. eighth and the ninth i (ii) that though the eigb. while the number of plots v:ories.yanta.e plot to th-e west of the south-east corner should be (reserved) for Pushan.~ven only of seven pla. plots (of Bhiidhara.e. namely. 153. The one plot to the north of Gagana is (reserved) for Dauvarika.j GROUND-PI. is known to be for Mukhya. the share_s . 135. Soma. 124-125. rrhe one -plot to the east of Pavana is recommended for Naga. . 134. 'l'he one plo~ to the west of Vitatha is (reserved) for Grihakshata. details I. 139. 149. ~~ It should bf. 145..nd yii]ages.aitya. The one plot to the norbh of the south-east corner is reserved for Autariksha. ninth eighty. and one plot of !Sa (should be) in its own quarter north•west)... thus the number of dettHlS remal:lZ constant at leali!t in the eighth and ninth pians.o: the d~1t~es varying f1·om a half-plot to nine ph>ts. 182.st of the god Soma HI recommended • . The one plot to the south of J ayanta is (reserved) for Mahen{ba..'• 42 ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA (CHAP. 144. 49.ga.nta.e plot to the west of the god of religion (i.• r'':-"'":. !. for Mriga. 151. .e. The one plot to the south of Parjanya is (reserved) for Ja. deity is assigned to the two plots to the north of the six plots (of Mitra.ssignE)d deities to the inner regions and to the outer are (to be) the demone. the very same fort~-~ve (~ather :orty nme.e. 129. 136. rrhe one plot to the north of Sosha is (reserved) for Roga. and chapters Y_ :X! of thi& volum~:). u. The wielder of the wheel (of life. The one plot to the north of Sugriva is (reserved) for Pushpada. third. Chandra. 154. 'rhe one plot to the ea. The op. 146.). 133.one plot!l.e. · 143. Yama) should be assigned to the (middle) south plot and Pitri to the one plot in the south-west.. Thus are a.th pl!m compmes s1x:ty-~ou:r plots and the . ir:.) should be (assigned) to the (middle) east plot and Agni to the south-east plot.ANS 43 141..a) should be assigned to the one (middle) plot in the west and Ma. 138. iii! recommended for Ad1t1. ilecond. 140.rently admit of any other shape except square or quadran-gular.nous s!~o· nyms in some ca:>es have been assignecl to these plots. The one plot to thG e~~ost of Mriga. The one plot to the ea. 137.P.

d does not refer at all to the otheJ. (f) 'rhe Agni-pura. the following details of the triangular and the circular plans:- ~~T""ifm . water-pot and a rosary in the two left hands. 155-162.:rn trq-f:rla: or er~n<:r11<!TqlUTm~T~I)tl1!Ji' ~~T1!JT~ I ~Tt '. This treatise also refers to only the square or quadrangular plans.-t.Tll'T cfiT1!I<f~T a-a: q-t I 1..Cf)lt 1{~Cf~T1Tr: ~r:s~fu:~mT~a: I II Cf'S{rfq trmf'SlRit 1{~hnTi1 ftri!~TOJ ~~~ II lil~!l <fi1Egi611l<!i~-t ~{r~ f. 1-50) ma'O-es a mention of all the thirty-two names of the plans.t. as referred to above. 1-30) also does not refer to all the thirty-two names..\ II am •u:a-9frro:tT s~~· ~ 1J&:l!'mll l a~q-~~ll~T~Tifr<J tr~~T~rmfl:ilr ~a1 a'~~T l U:OfiTlUTfa'~ ~~ Ofiffo<i ~q~Ofill I orr~ {'6a<:f <i'tf(q'q!::T~lU<:rT ~~ II Q..n'l' {'6T<i'€t. and the foreparts or hind unnamed authorities. ninth and tenth plans. hexagonal. lotus throne and as heing of golden complexion.sd'~ 'Of I <fi~T ~¥fn{. 20-32) also refers only to the ninth plan (cl The Kasyapa-sil'Pa (!I. but in fact of the first ten plans..r.r . aE! he corroborates.-. possessing eight ears and four necks.rfii~~. 55-56) also does not mention the thirty-two names at all.eqa: 1 ~ ~ ~ • .cn)fm: 11 ~ ~if O:'OfiTlUTfottfi: I .J!l f'f~Be: I aa: 'fu~efiT"l ~<iT-t~ f<lf.:o:fri &r~lUtT~ . (b) The Ma71. but gives very brief accounts of the nipth and tenth plans... circular. but summarises brief accounts not of only three as stated (<:rmr~ ~fe:f~<l' ~~l!h <fi4:~..44 ARCHITH:CTURE OF MANASARA [CHAP. eight eyes. he supplies. and crescent-shaped pbns.e.. but gives summarised accounts of the eighth and ninth plans only. 20): " ww' ..rg~ g ~ l~ll ' ~~ q:atl 'OfiT<i if~ q~~<lf~cr: II flU~q-<J~g f&qqr orf~rfciG<fi~~~~m·: 1 'Q<hnur: 5u: ~~ qfq-Ofir: qf. 1-47) summarises the details only of the ninth plan a!)... <: ""' O:<f"'"" 'lil'o.. the creator Bra. hexagonal.~Pf fqoTJ:ii[: l?tT~ II ~fu er~e:l~ ~s:'q'fi.. " I~ 'Of 'f'tr~ .hma) as seated on a.. therefore.r ~~f<i+~~a 'l'tr~~. Utpala. while

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lVen the Manasara gives details of the first nine plans only.) 45 clothes. four faces. (d) The Silpa ratna (VI.gana-sutr.. holding a. mention is made in the Brthat-sa'inhita also (see the writer's Indian drchitecture referred to above)..n outer garment. ~ ..:'rloiT l'Cf"':n~: 'OfiT<:r: I S<l'~ e:I'Sl S'Jmll!f q~'SlTfln Rftrilr qf(Ofi~~~ II 'tfT"EElfq~~ OF.S~Ifi1:r ~'Sf<!'~ II l~ II). 1-16) does not refer to all the names even.:f. sixteen-sided. possessing four hands. from a· Bltarahmuni and other GROUND-PLANS VII.c..mata (VII. octagonal. wearing white Minasira's apparently incomplete treatment of the ground-plans is found almost in the same way in all the treatises dealing with the subject:(cz) The Vastu-vidyii refers only to the ninth plan (chapter III.1_1. ellipticai. 1-12) also refers to only the ninth p1an.tdharll tXI. 11-26). One should meditate upon the grandfather (i. a sacred thread and a.. ~~ ~atit ~ ~~ <tit~~ u ~ · I ...a: f<~f<f1i<!r: qq-g:l:t "a'T<ilfenrq<rii 1 'Qiqrq~~ Rfqqr: trfotOTiigtq. Its commentator.. criticises the omission of circular.tr~ I Cf'Sl ~· fmf~: I era: ~~OfTitT ~~~ II t.:r~ II ~o II (h) The Brih·1t-samhitii LII.. (g) The Sarnal'iiil.if 1J~trl'lf'I1TUfln ~~oa l mf4T l =a~~""if1!.a:rfm arfrr g II a ~f# '<IT~ ~~qft'f ~rm!l f'. a diadem. but gives fairly complete details of the eighth.HI)tl:l~.rg~" ~~ <f~g.:r~lUlto fG. 1('6TTif ~~C ~~Tfrr iic<lT ~iig:qf~qqt::q ~~en l ~~q-~.r'l'I!!!TW.ushyalaya ch·tndrika (II. adorned with earrings.a (chapter 105. plans.. decagonal and sixteen-sided plans of which. twisted hair. octagonal.r "i 11 flU~~~.r+1T~~ <l~.. (e) The Mayt7. are admitted (XI. although triangular. but all these three are obviously square or quadrangular plans.. 42__'50.

rcrmf'i:!~Jt'SlT "ii ~~~Cf il~~UT II tl~ 'lf~·::{~ milT «<~~~ 'it "ii I "i:f9U q~n:n:n•r: !ll(C{T ~~n~m 11 fr. two eyes. quite conform to the description of the M tya·mata on which they are apparently based. decorated with all ornaments. snare with the two other (i. 1873. the whole being in the boon-giving attitude.~a-sutradhara. Upapitha). pages 1.. wearing fine clothes of gold colour.442) supplies the required explanation as to why (i) the full details of the fourth and fifth plans and of the eighth and particularly the ninth one have been given and (ii) the details of the other plans. Bhudhara (upholder of the earth) should be meditated upon as placed above (i.man. therefore.e. Kern's figures of the very same two figures (J.t::rrJ~tr forf~f~~~~JlZf<i ft. our. 170. Dr. right) hands holding lotuses. drawn with details found in the Manasiira.man is meditated upon being. A later passage in the Munasara (Chapter IX. and (ii) the same number of forty-five deities are allocated to the plan of sixtycfour plots (i. A. From this passage it is clear beyond doubt that (a) these thirty-two ground-plans ar€1 not intended to be independent and absolutely separate plans. The. and foreparts of two left hands imparting protection. 171-1 72. R.N D-PLA NS 41 all plan::!. Agni-purii?. whose figures do not seem to conform to the description of the Brihat-samhita itself. decorated with all ornaments and (with hands) in boon-giving attitude and holding a snare. excepting those of the fourth one which have been supplemented from the §ilpa·rat·:'!. the details of those plans which are not described may be found out by merely multiplying the plans of which full details are given.ttitude. Cha.nds.= . A. pages 287.rf~o::{fu{f 1 ""4: r" t':Sll. MaMpitha) as well as to the plan of twenty-five plots (i. Dutt's figures of these two plans (Town-plam•mg.e. decorated with all ornaments. A. right) hands: the remaining features being as those of the aforesaid (deities). bearing sacred (tilaka) marks on the cheek.figu:res of the eighth and ninth plans are also materially different from those given by Dvivedi. four hands. as usual.e.e. with two other (i. explain why (i) the same number of twenty-five deities &reallocated to the plan of sixteen plots (i. but (b) within a plan of a larger number of' plots. further. four hands. 42'l. considered superior to) the presiding deity of architecture. B. especially. . and the remaining being in boon-gi "

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ing s. in the cow-like (dhenu) pose.) GROU. is stated to be of two ha.e.nd outer garment. possessing red complexion. red clothes a. 173-176. wearing a bee-hive-shaped diadem.a.pavatsa. T. 168-169 The god Vivasvat is meditated upon as possessing white complexion. S. Bhiirati's fio-ures based on Mandana's 0 •• Vastu-siistra need a passing mention only. Mitra should be of dark blue complexion : the rest (of his features) should be considered similar to those of the aforesaid (deities). In plate II are given figures of the seven plans.plans of smaller number ofplots may be marked and referred to by the technical epithets of the latter.e.~'. adorned with bee-hive-shaped diadem. B. holding a lotus and a. K.e. This would. possessing golden complexion. one face. Param!!-sayika}. Dr.e. two eyes.l}gita) and to the plan of eighty-one plots (i. pages 145-146) also do not ###BOT_TEXT###quot;II. holding a snare and a goad with the two other (i. 11) do not refer to these plans but to the Parivara deities in a temple. Dvivedi. These two figures are slightly different from those given in the Brihat-samhita (between pages 672·673) by S. possessing white complexion and an extra (third) eye. ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA 46 (CHAP. and assuming these characteristic features for the purpose of creation. 163-167. right) hands : the remainmg features are stated to be like those of Arya. The god Arya. parts of two right hands imparting protection. . of the last twenty-three rather twenty-two have been altogether left out. 289) are still more lacking in conformity to the deS<lription of the Bril•atsamhita on which they are based. assigned to the central plot (or plots) of gT1iiT{f~JI'~rTCf'Sl't ~Cfi!T "ii {f{f: q{~ ft. The triangular and the circular figures are based on the details as supplied by the commentator o£ the •Brihat-eamhitii from Bharata and others. tenth plan is also drawn from details supplied by the silpa-ratna. and S'1:mara:ngct?.l. Gopinatha Rao's figures (ElP-mmt8 of Hindu Iconography. and that.

carrying a. possessing three eyes and hair resembling flame. accompanied by a goddess 2 of Indra. Sa vitra. wearing reQ. 202-205. is adorned with twisted hair and diadem. 210-212. accompa. adorned with all ornaments. three eyes.: it is not usual for a goddess to accompany formally a god other thai' her husband. two hands.ani). clothes. bee-hive-shaped diadem: the reRt (of his features) should be as (stated) before. iThis should implo s0me one otl. snare and conferring a 'boon. and adorned with a. dark blue come plexion.. three eyes. •. 206-209. the sacred thread and an outer garment. smoky) complexion and red clothes on.na.nd a doe in the left. wearing red clothes. possessing whitish complexi0n. white iu complexion.s (other) ornaments. wears skin-clothes and outer garment.a. possessing two hands. and Pitri 1see lines 59. and decorated with all ornaments. Ss. obviously. two eyes. accompanied by his consort goddess Svaha.. 183-185. the sacred thread. with varioQ. should be meditated upon as possessing dark blue complexion and wearing red clothes and outer garment . (Each of) the two Rudras (i. One should meditate upon Ya.nd the plate). holding a trident in his right hand and a snare in his lower left hand1 having a. 128). 177-178. One should meditate upon (the wind) god Vayu as seated on a. Indra's complexion is red and Indrari'\ja's golden: each of these is decorated with all ornaments and adorned with good features and eyes : the rest (of their features) is directed to be like those of the aforesaid (deities). putting on earrirrg~ and a. the rest (of his features) should be like those of the aforesaid (deities). 198-201. grey (lit.e.s possessing blood (red) complexion: the rest (of his features) are stated to be like those of the aforesaid (deities).li (i e. 67. three eyes. and wearing blue clothes. holding a. holding a club in his right hand and bestowing a boon with his left haud. it refers to Aditya and not to Indra (see further explanation under note of the text). (One should meditate upon) the god Agni as possessing a fi~e-like complexion. and decorated with all ornaments : the rest (of his features) should be like those of the aforesaid (deities).er than lndraui who is the chief wtte of Indra.ni&Ci by (his consort) Bhara:r.ma (god of death) as seated ou a buffalo. possessing a. 48 ARCHITECTURE OF MANASlRA [cHAP. Rudra and Rudra-jaya) possesses red complexion. . and adorned with all ornaments as st. crocodile (makara).uds. diadem. and the rest (of his features) should b.) as possessing red complexion. two arms. accompanied by his consort goddess Yamya. possessing two hands.. V!J. moreover between lila and Agni comes Aditya (see lines 127:. small sacrificial ladle iu his two bands. holding a snare and a goad. tabor in the right ha.ta as seated on a. gift and a goad. an outer garment. a chariot and an elephant a. as those of the aforesaid (deities).s conveyance.l 194-197. a. and adorned. ram for vehicle.ated above. putting on tiger-skin clothes.. One should meditate upon the image of !sa (Siva) as being seated on a bull accompanied by his consort. 49 This is obviously a. 176-177. adorned with all ornaments. 190-193. deer. hair rese~bling flame. synonym of Gaga. . 186-190.130 o. GROUND-PLANS vn.nd. possessing two ha. therefore. 143.. And Apavatsya is meditated upon a. is in the boon-giving attitude.vitra should be likewise of blood (red) complexion· his two hands are held upwards. 1 1 This epithet usually hnplies Indra who is already described (see lines 180-1821. two hands. One should med1tate upon Varm. One should meditate upon Nir-:riti 1 a~ seated on a man. carrying a. two eyes. 90. accompanied by (his consort) ·Maruti. 17 tl-18~.· the upper right hand being in the attitude of imparting protection and the (upper) left hand in that of bestowing a boon. holds a trident. (One should meditate upon) Sachipati 1 (rather Aditya.ru:q. three eyes. holding a large and a.

the rest (of their features. (all) holding (in their two hands) :sclub and a snare.olding two snares. his two hands are yellow ·m comp1e:x:1·0 n ·. adorned with all ornaments. weanng a dia~em and holding a pike and a shield. as put~mg on a redcoloured garment adorned with d!l. Sosha's complexion is grey (smoky). a diadem. 239-241. adorned with all ornaments.eer's complexion. a snare. havmg an elephant's face and two hands. and that of Mrisa is grey (smoky). The image of ~asin (i. and Griha-kshata a black complexion. ~hey put. 207.he should be meditated upon) as holding a mace and .ARA [CHAP. the three carrying a club. and putting on red clothes and an outer garment.d complexion. black complexion. 212-'216. and the rest (of their features) should be as stated before. 243-247.- 50 ARCHrrECTURE OF MANAS. the complexion of Bhringa is like the colour of a collyrium. on red clothes.rk blue borde~s. Muku~a and Karanda as in other instances (see lines 164. Bhringesa as having a grey (smoky) complexion. and a trident. a pike and adorned with all ornaments. 210. wearing a diadem. 173 205 . Thus oare described those who are assigned to the plots other than those for the immortals (deities). and the rest (of their features) being as befora. a pike. One should meditate upon Mriga. 229-230. (each) wearing red and yellow 1 clothes. the sacred thread and a diadem. Charaki should be of a white complexion. (they are furnished) with dishevelled red ha1r (on the1r head) ' ~they 1 The expression may imply ft red garment for Piishan and a yellow garment both for Vitatha and Griha-kshata.ite\ complexion. (One should meditate upon) Mukhya as. 220-224. thus are stated to be the four class. 248-252. the rest (of their features) is directed to be as before. 1 That is. Nags. 234-236.nta GROUND-PLANS VII·) 51 being black (in complexion). similarly. Sugriva a re. 217-220.. (One should meditate upon) Dauvi'lrika as having a dark blue complexion. and Antariksha as having a blue complexion. holding respectively a goad. Soma) is described hero : one should meditate upon the Soma-image as possessing two hands. {One should meditate upon) Pushan as having a red complexion. Pnshpada. their t':o eyes are _ternble-l~okmg. th~ rest (of their features) should be as stated before. etc. wearing earrings and a diadem . Vita. holding a snare and a lotus (in two hands). and decorated w1th all ornaments. or n yellow garment with red borders for all the three. A{l. having a white complexion. and (each) possessing two hands and two eyes.nd (other) ornaments. (One should meditat0 upon) Gandharva as having a red complexion. they posses. and the rest (of his features) should be as before. is directed to be as before. 242. (. and adorned' with all menta as stated to fit. seated on a horse.tha a yellow complexion. and w1th two hands as holding a snare and a goad. Jayanta a dark blue complexion and Mahendra a yellow complexion.. Udita as having a red complexion and the hon s face.). . has a serpent's head. 225-228. and a spear (respectively). Vidari o~ a red · complexwn Putana of a dark bl ue comp1ex1·on ' and Papa-rakshas1 of a blue compl~xion. 228. and holdina a club: the rest (of their features) should be as stated before.es (of demoness) : (their two hands) should hold a pike and a skull . (Oneshould meditate upon) Bhalla~a as having a ram's face. wearing a white garment. (each) possessing two hands and two eyes. Roga (ht . holding two lotuses. w_hose fa~e is like that of a deer. One should meditate upon Parjanya as having a red complexion. two eyes. (One should meditate upon) Satya as having a wh. (One should meditate upon) Asura as havi~g a. (all) being in the boon-giving attitude. wearing earrings. red eyes and a pale complexion and holds a p1ke and a skull . r""".s large fangs. 231-233. (their two hands) h. including) the garment and twol diadems. as having a f:.iti as having a blue complexiOn and holding a sword and a skull and adorned with a diade~ a. accompanied by this consort) Chandrika. 237-238. d1sease) has a lean form.e.

.. (His) head should be assigned to the plot of . ~54. .i~a II IS II ~ ~ . it is stated that this Spirit lay on the feet of Isa (Siva). His left hand is stretched out by the corner line in the north-ea.( ~~~ 'a" a.. 25.rqTf't!J ~'~~rf.oo<h~'' ~~ '' ?I"~~!Jrin'«rrftr CfT~gtTurot~f~t: II ~~~II (Silparatna. the master of north-east quarter: ~~m-~~:glii ~~: trrc..i fer~: ' ci~lllT~W:::!'l~: f~~TI:I'J~Tl!i fcrf.. · s (backbone) and Sir<'i (artery or vein) would be tdentlCal With the b o... 1 The other treatises obviously h<\sed on :JHinasara have improved the reading: q~r~~fq-~J:I''i-::tr t=i.r ift~ '=.ta specifies these lines : - QliiiEQI ~a'T "'T~~ iftmf.nilsa.tq:r 11 (Ibid.o~.~~r. ~tpala...~~ (Brihat-sarhhitii...lffi I . 262.i "a"~ I ~ ttlftiCiaT <fiT~ ~ Wf1l!CITf&-il II .) A curious explanation is given in the Silparatna as to .. f q f.. ft:lu ~: ~~J~~q: I ~mfm ~rf. XIII. • d" "d d several east-west and north-south lines by which the gT~un::l-plans are 1v1 e . Aryaman) : he is known to lie by the north-east direction with his face turned downwards 1 255... 6-7.. elaborately :~l:T cf~T3troTia' B~: ~T'3~1Ei~: II Jt~T11l(~ J:~~lcfm ~~m <.:f ~T~Tfif g:ro:t~Tfot ~Tfif "a" II ~ c II (Ibid. and his left side should be assigned to the plot of Bhiidhara.. his middle body is assigned to the plot (or plots) of Brahma. VII.) The same authority refers to the s(S) and Vi...ncrt~t'I'T ~'atr«<rrU q-~ a:~ ~1!11't ~~r: II \~II .e..1-63.aN i~A~ia' wft<Jq: II ~~ II ~llfTCI'T o:r<f it m..) The Agni-puriiil. Dvivedi...... and his right foot is stretched out by the ....a' lt'O. 28..hy the Spirit of the site should lie with face turned downwards.) . 24-25. (One should know that) his penis is stated to be (assigned) to the plot of Mitra..ed to the aforesaid "forty-five de1t1es : trwtr~~ fGQ. 6.:r 1 ~a:l q~~T~i~t€1~ it~ A~f~T~ II ~~ II ~~~~ m~ ctm~t"'ITf.TA<:ttTfe <ff ~'ll~<ff ~~. ~60-'261... ..t'f.corner line in ·the north-west. th .r~'<:q: II ~ ~ II ~T~9.tr. VII.:qftr. ~ (e(~tg~: I Cf~gl'll+f17(J:I'~ g oror: ~ 'lti~~~r: II ( Mayamata.:.:r "{. LII..) 263-265..... XII.Arya (i.52 ARCHI'rEO'l'URE OF MANASARA [CHAP~ are respectively assigned) to the outside of the north-east and other corners (of the plan)...ih: qfaarJE~: 1 ~~m-"a-~~r.nrritg.· 10... 51 ed. his left foot is stretched out by the corner line in the south-west ..lti~ ' ~mtm CfT~cf~ITJ~ 1if~~f.3t .) According to the Brihat-sr£mhita as explained by its com~enta_tor. LII. (several) vital arteries (nagi) and veins (Sira).. ·... f~u~.. 38. GB. (Brihatsamhita. his right hand is stretched out by the corner line in the south-east.. His right side is stated to be (assigned to) the plot of Vivasvat.s~qor~·~TJ~ f~t~ f~~ar' ~ '~ ~~ .OUND -PLANS VII. This is known to be the Spirit of the site .rr~g~itl:wtT: I ~mT fuu: ~:!f~1:PI "'IT~Tclm?!<i~·r<ritr crng~~ l ~if J:~'l"Tfm tfi~Tf"' ~r ~ ~~ ~a·~'itf~ .. six backbones and one heart are stated (to be assigned to the t futt: ~'imcrr <m ~ar ""~: qfi:qjlfm: 11 ~~ n (Samarailga"Oa-stitradhiira.ar sanr.. 53. ram a. The presiding Spirit of the site is assigned to the plots (already) allocated to Brabma and other deities. into several plots assiga.:J ~~"'T~ fcre~re: 1 S~~ <i'Pl. XII. His two ears. 256-259.) iI I .) em ~r.... 253..r 'I"~ f~~T ~Till ~ g II ~ II g~ lfa: -:.

This (primary} object of architecture 1 should be carefully kept in view in connection with buildings of gods and men2..g CfHce[Cfl:fstf6'tl'&: ifTG~ 'ii_itT.) 3How this defect may occur has presented difficulties to several authorities on the subject.IUI'OICI'T: ~'{<TTq'T 71aT ~efT ~ I f&~<IT ~<:reT ~~litfcrwcrffl'l'~T f">~"<:rT II <iii. as the occupants of the several plots into which a ground-plan.r OfiT<rT I crmfq -:r.r 1 llil' .rF:. 105. etc. towns. The Brihat-sainhita has attempted an unscientific and mythologic:l.r ~ ~~S'{T 'f!"(~T cr~:rr 11 ~ "' ~~m:T. Vastu-purusha). Silparatna (VII.r ~aT~: ~srtrrcra: II (Agnipur:iJ.!~. rather forty· nine.:rri!ifcr~ 11 :a-'ffi'Tf...rr.. 22-24. ~~ f..:rT I '!'a1::Tt:l!T ~~T.ARCHITECTURE OF MANASARA 54 [OHAP.r 1J~i'

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