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OPNPaper7 - New Results on Odd Perfect Numbers

OPNPaper7 - New Results on Odd Perfect Numbers

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Far Eastern University

Manila, Philippines

jabdris@yahoo.com.ph

June 17, 2012

Let I(x) =

(x)

x

given in Eulerian form (i.e. q k 1 (mod 4) and gcd(q, n) = 1). The

author wants to show that n < (q k ). (Note that n 6= (q k ) because of parity

constraints.)

In this note, we shall prove the following result:

Lemma 0.1. If N = q k n2 is an OPN with Euler factor q k , and if (q k ) < n,

then

"

r !#

1

25

(q k )

375 5

1

.

< 10

(n2 )

4 2

32

Proof. Let N = q k n2 beqan OPN with Euler factor q k . Suppose that (q k ) < n.

Since 1 < I(q k ) < 45 < 85 < I(n) < I(q k n) < 2, then we have:

r

8 k

q < (n).

5

Consequently,

r

8 k

q (q k ) < n(n)

5

n

(q k )

< k

(n)

q

Now, from I(q k ) <

5

4

<

8

5

5

.

8

I(q k )

<

I(n)

125

128

qk

(q k )

<

(n)

n

(q k )

(n) ,

(q k )

(n)

2

<

125

.

128

we have

25

625

=

1024

32

(q k )

<

(n)

25

0.88388.

32

(q k ) (n2 )

(q k ) [(n)]2

(q k ) (n) (n)

(q k ) (n2 )

.

=

<

=

2=

qk

n2

n2

qk

n2

qk

n

qk

n

It follows that

I(n2 )

(n2 )

=

< I(n)

I(n)

n(n)

(n)

1

>

.

(n2 )

2n

(n)

8

2

We also want an upper bound for (n

2 ) . Since I(n) < 2 and I(n ) > 5 , we get

the following:

2n

5

(n)

< 8 2 =

.

2

(n )

4n

5n

(It is easy to verify that the upper bound thus obtained is indeedqgreater than

k

)

25

the lower bound that was previously calculated.) Since (q

(n) <

32 , we have

the following:

r

(n) (q k )

25

(q k )

=1

>1

.

(n)

(n)

32

Consequently:

(n) (q k )

(n)

"

r #

25

1

(n)

>

1

,

2

(n )

2n

32

"

r #

25

(n)

(q k )

1

1

.

>

(n2 ) (n2 )

2n

32

2

(n)

(n2 ) ,

we get

"

r #

25

5

(q k )

(n)

(q k )

1

1

>

>

4n (n2 )

(n2 ) (n2 )

2n

32

whence it follows that

"

1 5 1

n 4 2

(A rational approximation for

5

4

1

2

25

32

!#

25

32

>

(q k )

.

(n2 )

is 1.19194173824159220.) By

Ochem and Raos recent result on a lower bound of 101500 for OPNs [2], and

since q k < n2 as shown by the author in his M. Sc. thesis completed in 2008

[1], then we get the lower bound n > 10375 . Therefore,

"

"

r !#

r !#

(q k )

25

25

1 5 1

1

375 5

1

< 10

1

.

<

2

(n )

n 4 2

32

4 2

32

(q k )

5

<

(n2 )

12

at least for the case (q k ) < n. This follows from the series of inequalities:

2

(q k )

5

8

(n2 )

(n2 )

(q k )

<

1

<

<

<

<

<

2

<

3

,

n2

3

qk

4

5

n2

qk

and

(q k )

=

(n2 )

(q k )

qk

(n2 )

qk

+

+

(q k )

n2

(n2 )

n2

<

+ 23

5

8 = 12 .

3+ 5

5

4

(q )

It remains to calculate a lower bound for (n

2 ) that will (perhaps) contradict

Lemma 0.1. This problem appears to be intractable.

References

[1] J. A. B. Dris, Solving the Odd Perfect Number Problem: Some Old and

New Approaches, M. Sc. Math thesis, De La Salle University, Manila,

Philippines, Aug. 2008. Available online: http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.

1450.

[2] P. Ochem, Odd perfect numbers, http://www.lirmm.fr/~ochem/opn/.

3

11J99.

Keywords: odd perfect number, Sorlis conjecture, Euler prime.

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