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Umashankar

出處：2007 2nd International Symposium on

Wireless Pervasive Computing

授課教授：馮玄明

陳鍾誠

報 告 人：黃志昂

1

Outline

z Introduction

z Proposed Improved Hamming Code

z Conclusion

2

Hamming code

correction capability.

z based on the of adding ‘r’ redundancy bits to ‘n’ data

bits such that 2r ≧ n + r + 1.

z 2r -1 bits：Hamming Code

z r： redundancy bits

z (2r -1) -r：data bits

z redundancy bits ：be interspersed at bit positions

2n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) with the original data bits.

z Data bits：All other bit positions are for the data to be

encoded. (positions 3, 5, 6, 7, 9..etc.)

Introduction

3

Hamming code

{ Position 1: check 1 bit, skip 1 bit, check 1 bit, skip 1 bit,

etc. (1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,...)

{ Position 2: check 2 bits, skip 2 bits, check 2 bits, skip 2

bits, etc. (2,3,6,7,10,11,14,15,...)

{ Position 4: check 4 bits, skip 4 bits, check 4 bits, skip 4

bits, etc. (4,5,6,7,12,13,14,15,20,21,22,23,...)

{ Position 8: check 8 bits, skip 8 bits, check 8 bits, skip 8

bits, etc. (8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,24,25,26,27,...)

z total number of ones in the positions is odd -> set check

bit 1.

z total number of ones in the positions is even -> set

check bit 0.

Introduction

4

Hamming code

below( for comparison with the proposed

improvement.)

z the 7-bit data to be transmitted is 0110010.

z the 11-bit data actually transmitted is

011P001P0PP

z the P’s refer to the Hamming bits that are to be

calculated and interspersed at bit positions 1,

2, 4, & 8.

Introduction

5

Hamming code

z An example for 7-bit Hamming code 0110010.

z the 11-bit data actually transmitted is

011P001P0PP

z bit position 1 ：is even parity at bit positions 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,

& 11. Thus the Hamming bit at position 1 will be 0.

z bit position 2 ：is even parity at bit positions 2, 3, 6, 7,

10, & 11. Thus the Hamming bit at position 2 will be 1.

z bit position 4 ：is even parity at bit positions 4, 5, 6, & 7.

Thus the Hamming bit at position 4 will be 1.

z bit position 8 ：is even parity at bit positions 8, 9, 10, &

11. Thus the Hamming bit at position 8 will be 0.

Introduction

6

Hamming code

01100011010.

z For the calculation of Hamming bits at

positions 1, 2, 4, & 8, even-parity checks

were performed on 6, 6, 4, & 4 bits

respectively.

z Thus a total of 20 bits are involved in the

process of Hamming bits calculations.

Introduction

7

Hamming code

z The error-detection and correction process in Hamming code is

as illustrated in Table I.

zTABLE I

zerror-detection and correction using hamming code

S1-bit Position 2 : 2、3、6、7、10、11

S2-bit position 4 : 4、5、6、7

S3-bit position 8 : 8、9、10、11

Introduction

8

Hamming code

z After error detection & correction, if any, the data bits

have to be reassembled by removing the

redundancy bits.

z Hamming code is normally used for transmission of 7-bit

data item.

z Scaling it for larger data lengths results in a lot of

overhead due to interspersing the redundancy bits

and their removal later.

Introduction

9

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

bit data is obtained such that the relation (2r-1–1) ≥ n is

satisfied.

z The number of redundancy bits in this method is same

as that for Hamming code for some values of n.

z But in some cases, it will be just one more redundancy

bit than needed in the Hamming code.

10

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

to be transmitted is 0110010.

z For 7-bit data, the number of redundancy

bits required will be 4.

z the 11-bit data actually transmitted is

PPPP0110010.

z the P’s refer to the redundancy bits that are

to be calculated and appended at bit

positions 8, 9, 10, & 11.

11

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

z bit position 8：is even parity at bit positions 1, 3, 5,

7 and bit position 8. Thus the bit at position 8 will

be 1.

z bit position 9 ：is even parity at bit positions 2, 3, 6,

7 and bit position 9. Thus the bit at position 9 will

be 0.

z bit position 10 ：is even parity at bit positions 4, 5, 6,

7 and bit position 10. Thus the bit at position 10

will be 0.

z bit position 11： is even parity considering only the

redundancy bits（8,9,10,11）. Thus the bit at

position 11 will be 1.

PROPOSED IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

12

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

10010110010.

z For the calculation of bits at positions 8, 9,

10, & 11, even parity checks were performed

on 5, 5, 5, & 4 bits respectively.

z Thus a total of 19 bits are involved in the

process of calculation of redundancy bits.

13

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

method is as illustrated in Table II.

zTABLE II ※the 11-bit data actually transmitted is 10010110010.

zerror-detection and correction using improved hamming code

S1-bit Position 9 : 2、3、6、7、9

S2-bit position 10: 4、5、6、7、10

S3-bit position 11: 8、9、10、11 PROPOSED IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

14

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

error at bit position 5.

z the status of parity check S0 is shown as F：even parity

error at bit positions 1, 3, 5, 7 & 8.

z the status of parity check S1 is shown as T： no even

parity error at bit positions 2, 3, 6, 7 & 9.

z the status of parity check S2 is shown as F： even parity

error at bit positions 4, 5, 6, 7& 10

z the status of parity check S3 is shown as T ： even

parity occurs at bit positions 8, 9, 10 & 11.

z Interpreting F as 1 and T as 0 in the status of parity check,

we find that the error is at bit position 0101 i.e. 5. Bit

5,which was received as 0, is corrected as 1.

15

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

an error at redundancy bit position 8.

z Then the status of parity check will turn out to be

FTTF.

z If status of parity check is FXXX, it implies that

there is an error only in a redundancy bit.

z The actual redundancy bit in error can easily be

identified by the position of the of F. However, this is

not a data bit there is no need for any correction.

z Suppose the received information is 10010110010, with

no error. Then the status of parity check will turn out

to be TTTT, implying error at bit position 0000 i.e. 0.

This is treated as no error.

PROPOSED IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

16

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

bits can be removed easily and there is no need to

reassemble the data bits.

z This improved method can be scaled easily for larger

data lengths. The redundancy bits just get appended to

the data.

17

IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

can contain eight 7-bit ASCII characters or seven bytes.

z This needs 7 redundancy bits, which are selected as in the

previous example.

z In spite of an extra redundancy bit when compared to

the Hamming code, the number of bits involved in the

process of calculation of redundancy bits is much less

than in the Hamming code.

z It can be shown that it involves a total of 172 bits in the

process of calculation of these 7 redundancy bits.

z In comparison, in the Hamming code it involves a total

of 182 bits in the process of calculation of 6 redundancy

bits.

PROPOSED IMPROVED HAMMING CODE

18

Proposed Improvement vs. Hamming Code

redundancy bits are appended at the end of

data bits.

z This eliminates the overhead of interspersing

the redundancy bits at the sender end and their

removal at the receiver end after checking for

single-bit error and consequent correction, if any.

z Further the effort needed in identifying the values

of the redundancy bits is lower in the proposed

novel method.

Conclusion

19

Proposed Improvement vs. Hamming Code

data item.

z Scaling it for larger data lengths results in a lot of

overhead due to interspersing the redundancy bits and

their removal later.

z In contrast, the proposed method is highly scalable

without such overhead.

z there is only 7 bit overhead for a 56-bit data stream, which is

much less compared to 4 bit overhead for a 7-bit data.

z Because of this feature this new method is suitable for

transmission of large size data bit-streams as long as

there is likelihood of at the most single-bit error during

transmission.

Conclusion

20

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