You are on page 1of 32

PARAPHRASING SKILL

UHB 2422

PARAPHRASING
Paraphrasing is rewriting other
peoples work in your own words
The paraphrase must have the
same meaning as the original work
Author must be cited for every
paraphrase

PARAPHRASING SKILLS
Involves 2 main steps:
1) Change WORDS
2) Change STRUCTURE

CHANGING WORDS
1) Read the sentence to be paraphrased a
number of times
2) Circle the specialised words
o Circle the words focusing on the topic

3) Underline keywords that can be changed


4) Find alternative words for the keywords

CHANGE THE WORDS


Cyclonic winds battered the small town
and its outskirts.
Possible answer:
Powerful winds hit the settlement and
its surroundings.

CHANGE THE WORDS


The problem was hazardous for the
townsfolk .
Possible answer:
The issue was dangerous for the citizens.

CHANGE THE WORDS


Although the operation was somewhat
dangerous, the team was triumphant .
Possible answer:
Despite the fact that the operation was
risky, the group was very successful .

CHANGE THE WORDS


Therefore, the effect will be a reduction
in production .
Possible answer:
Consequently, the outcome will be a fall
in output .

CHANGE THE WORDS


With the invention of nylon, the market
for natural luxury fibres suffered
dramatically.
Possible answer:

With the creation of nylon, the


demand for natural luxury fibres
dropped sharply

CHANGE STRUCTURE
1) Read and understand the paragraph
2) Write down the main ideas & concepts
Do not copy down entire sentences.
3) Put the original away
4) Write your paraphrase from memory.
5) Check your version against the original

ACTIVE VS PASSIVE
Change active sentences to passive forms,
or passive sentences to active forms.
Active
The Japanese government offered new
homes to homeless people in Tokyo.
Passive
Homeless people in Tokyo were offered
new homes by the Japanese government.

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
Change the sentence below from active to
passive
Many parents in the program failed to
recognise their childrens achievements.

Childrens achievements failed to be


recognised by many parents in the program

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
The storm destroyed dozens of houses
and buildings in the inner city.
Dozens of houses in the inner city were
destroyed by the storm

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
The stock handler must identify lambs that
are at risk.
Lambs that are at risk must be identified
by the stock handler

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
Humidity, temperature, air pressure and
cloud cover all affect the process
The process is affected by humidity,
temperature and cloud cover

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
In an unexpected dawn raid, the infantry
took the city.
The city was taken by the infantry in an
unexpected dawn raid

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE
Change the sentence below from passive to
active
The lecture on Egyptology was attended by
all the History students.

All the history students attended the lecture


on Egyptology

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE
Two teenagers were caught by the police
for armed robbery.
The police caught two teenagers for armed
robbery

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE
Three men who were linked to the
murder were arrested by the authorities.
The authorities arrested three men who
were linked to the murder

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE
Four of the building plans submitted
were rejected by the town council
The town council rejected four of the
building plans submitted.

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE
The final draft of the experiment was
completed last year by scientists involved
in the stem cell research.
Last year, scientists involved in stem cell
research completed the final draft of the
experiment

REMEMBER THAT
It is not enough to change only the structure or
only the words.
You must change
BOTH
WORDS AND STRUCTURE

PARAPHRASING
EXERCISES

SAMPLE PASSAGE
The original passage:
In American society, Introverts are outnumbered about three to
one. As a result, they must develop extra coping skills early in
life because there will be an inordinate amount of pressure on
them to act like the rest of the world. The Introvert is pressured
daily, to respond and conform to the outer world. Classroom
teachers unwittingly pressure Introverted students by
announcing that One-third of your grade will be based on
classroom participation. From Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Thuesen,
Type Talk: The 16 Personality Types that Determine How We Live, Love and
Work. New York: Dell Publishing, 1989.

EXAMPLE OF PARAPHRASING
There are many more extroverts than
introverts in America. This puts a lot of
pressure on introverts to fit in and be like
everybody else. Even in school, teachers add
to this pressure by making class participation
part of the student's grade. Consequently,
introverts have to acquire additional skills to
deal with these pressures. (Kroeger &
Thuesen, 1989)

PARAPHRASING EXERCISE 1
Read the following passage and paraphrase it by putting it
into your own words.
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes,
and as a result they overuse quotations in their research
paper. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of
exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

PARAPHRASING EXERCISE 2
Read the following passage and paraphrase it by putting it into
your own words.
Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, threefourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are
school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike
helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an
accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the
head.
Source: Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers. (1990, May). Consumer Reports, 55,
p.348-353

PARAPHRASING EXERCISE 3
Read the following passage and paraphrase it by putting it into
your own words.
Language is the main means of communication between
people. But so many different languages have developed that
language has often been a barrier rather than an aid to
understanding among people. For many years, people have
dreamed of setting up a universal language which is simple
and obvious to all people. If all people spoke the same
tongue, cultural and economic ties might be much closer, and
better relationship will increase between countries
Source: Kispert, J. (2004). Language and Its Barriers. USA: Pearson Education,
Inc.

PARAPHRASING EXERCISE 4
Read the following passage and paraphrase it by putting it into
your own words.
Cigarettes are well known to suppress appetite and weight.
So, it is hardly surprising that women who have trouble
managing their weight or are dissatisfied with their bodies are
drawn to smoking. It was reported that 75 percent of all
women smokers say they would be unwilling to gain more
than five pounds if they were to quit smoking, and nearly half
said they would not tolerate any weight gain. In fact, many
women started smoking in the first place because they
thought it might help them stay slim.
Source: Eric, L. (2008, April). Female Smoking. Health Today, p. 17-18.

PARAPHRASING EXERCISE 5
Read the following passage and paraphrase it by putting it into
your own words.
According to recent statistics, the average American, including
children, watches four hours of television a day. This cannot
be beneficial for the children. Among the many consequences
of this situation are the rising levels of obesity among children
and the increasing risk of heart disease and diabetes. The fact
of spending much time in front of television also means that
they read less than in the past and this has negatively affected
their level of achievement in school. Furthermore, the
violence in many programs viewed by children has led to an
increase in violent behaviour on the part of children.
Source: Mikulecky, B. & Jeffries, L. (2008). Children and Television. Advanced
Reading Power. (p.226). USA: Longman

PARAPHRASING EXERCISE 6
Read the following passage and paraphrase it by putting it into
your own words.
Social work is a profession for those with a strong desire to help
improve peoples lives. Social workers help people function the
best way they can in their environment, deal with their
relationships, and solve personal and family problems. Social
workers often see clients who face a life-threatening disease or
a social problem, such as inadequate housing, unemployment,
a serious illness, a disability, or substance abuse. Social workers
also assist families that have serious domestic conflicts,
sometimes involving child or spousal abuse.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Social Workers: Nature of the work.
Retrieved August 26, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm.

RECAP OF THE LESSON


So
What did YOU learn today?
PARAPHRASING
a skill used to
avoid plagiarism

How?
1) Change structure

AND
2)Change words