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NPTEL C OURSE ON

M ATHEMATICS IN I NDIA :
F ROM V EDIC PERIOD TO M ODERN TIMES

L ECTURE 3
Vedas and Sulbasutras
- Part 2

K. Ramasubramanian
IIT Bombay

Outline

Mathematics in the Antiquity: Vedas and Sulbas


utras Part 2

Sum of unequal squares & implication of the procedure?

A note on the terminology employed (karan)

Applications of Sulba
theorem
I
I
I

Constructing a square that is difference of two squares


Transforming a rectangle into a square
To construct a square that is n times a given square

To transform a square into a circle (approx. measure preserving)

I Approximation for

I Citi Fire altar (types, shapes, etc)


I Fabrication of bricks, Constructional details
I General observations
I References

Constructing a square that is sum of unequal squares

An application of the Sulba-theorem


na.a:na.a:.ca:tua.=;(rea .sa:ma:~ya:n,a k+.na.a:ya:saH
A:[Na:ya.a.=:
*.uaH

.sa:ma:~ya:ta.eaH

k+=;Nya.a va:Sa.Ra:ya:sa.ea vxa:Dra:mua:a.+.Kea:t,a vxa:Dra:~ya

:pa.a.(;Ra:ma.a:na.a Ba:va: a.ta

(BSS I.50)

Desirous of combining different squares, may you mark the rectangular


portion of the larger [square] with a side (karan
a) of the smaller one
. y
(kanyasah.). The diagonal of this rectangle (vr.ddhra) is the side of the
sum of the two [squares].
I The term vr.dhra in the above s
utra
refers to the rectangle ABEF.
I Asking us to mark this rectangle, all that
the text says is the cord AE
aks.n
arajjuh. gives the side of the sum
. ay
of the squares.
I In other words,

F
A

AE 2
B

ABCD + CGHI

AB 2 + CG2

AB 2 + BE 2 .

Implication of the above construction ?


I Scholars trained in the Euclidean tradition, puzzled by the mere

statement of theorem, without the so called proofs always wondered

whether the Sulbak


aras knew the proof of Sulba-theorem,
or was it
purely based on empirical guess work?

I Though Sulvak
aras do not give explicit proofs, it is quite implicit in the
procedures described by them. In fact, the previous description of
construction clearly forms an example of that.
I In the figure, ABCD and CGHI are the
two squares to be combined. E is a point
on BC such that CG = BE.
I ABEF is the rectangle that is formed.
Now the sum of the two squares may be
expressed as

F
A

ABCD + CGHI

ABE + AEF + EHJ + HEG + FDIJ

ADK + AEF + EHJ + HKI + FDIJ

AEHK ,

which unambigously proves the


theorem.

A note on the terminology employed


I

Before introducing Sulva-theorem,


K
aty
ayana has exclusively
devoted one s
utra to clarify the different terminologies that
would be employed to refer to cords in different contexts.

k+=;Na.a

ta:tk+=;Na.a

; a.ta:yRa.*+;.
a:na.a

:pa.a.(;Ra:ma.a:na.a

A:[Na:ya.a ..cea: a.ta .=:


*.a:vaH

karan
. , tatkaran. . . . all refer to cords.
I

(KSS 2.3)

The commentary by Mahdhara (c. 1589 CE)explaining the


origin of the five names given in the above s
utrais quite
edifying.
k+=;Na.a

;a.k
+.ya:tea [ea.a:pa:a=;.cCe+dH A:na:yea: a.ta k+=;Na.a

That which limits or produces the length or area is


karan
. (producer).
ta:tk+=;Na.a

ta:t[ea.Ma ;d
+.ya:tea A:na:ya.a .sa.a ta:tk+=;Na.a
E :gua:Nya.a:a.d ;a.k

;aa:k+=;Na.a

;a.d
:k+=;Na.a

. ca:tuaHk+=;Nya.a:a.dH

That which produces an area that is twice etc. is called


tatkaran
. ,
. (that-producer); For example, dvikaran
trikaran., catuh.karan
. , and so on.

A note on the terminology employed (contd.)

; a.ta:yRa.*+;.
a:na.a

; a.ta:yRa:k
,
(ra.ea:NyMa:Za:~va.+pMa ma.a:ya:teaY:na:yea: a.ta .sa.a ; a.ta:yRa.*+;.a:n
a.a

:pra.a:.ca.a:sUa.a.a:nta:ya.eaH

; a.ta:yRa:gva:tRa:ma.a:nMa .=:
*.au:d
:ya:m,a

That by which . . . is measured is called tiryanm


an
(transverse-measurer) . . .
:pa.a.(;Ra:ma.a:na.a

:pa.a.(;a ma.a:ya:teaY:na:ya.a .sa.a :pa.a.(;Ra:ma.a:na.a

:pa.a.(;Ra:ya.ea:vRa:tRa:ma.a:nMa :pUa:va.Ra:pa.=:a:ya:tMa

.=:
*.au:d
:ya:m,a

That by which the sides are measured is called p


ar
svam
an
(side measurer); It refers to the cords on either sides that is
stretched along the east-west direction.
A:[Na:ya.a

A: a.[a:va:t,a [ea.Ma na:ya:ta.a: a.ta A:[Na:ya.a

k+ea:Na:sUa.a:BUa:ta.a ma:Dya.=:
*.a
u H

d.a.a:ya.Ma . ca:tua.=;~:Ma A: a.[a:d


:ya:sa:dx:ZMa Ba:va: a.ta

ta:~ya.Ma

H
ta:ta.ea:[Na:yea: a.ta k+ea:Na:sUa.a.=:*.a
u

That which makes the area look like eyes [i.e., splits into two]
is called aks.n
a (diagonal); The mid-cord that connects the
. ay
corners. Once it is fixed, the square looks like an eye, and
hence the term aks.n.ay
a is used to refer to the diagonal.

Different connotations of the word karan.


1.

k+=;Na.a

= side of a square

k+.na.a:ya:saH

k+=;Nya.a va:Sa.Ra:ya:sa.ea vxa:Dra:mua:a.+.Kea:t,a

By the side of the smaller [square] . . .

2.

k+=;Na.a

(BSS 2.1)

= square root

:pa:dM ; a.ta:yRa.*+;.
*.auH
a:na.a ;aa:pa:d.a :pa.a.(;Ra:ma.a:na.a ta:~ya A:[Na:ya.a.=:

d:Za:k+=;Na.a

[In a rectangle] with


upright one pada and base three padas, the
(KSS 2.4)
diagonal-rope is 10.

3.

k+=;Na.a

= a certain unit of measure

k+=;Na.Ma txa:ta.a:yea:na va:DRa:yea:t,a

ta:a:tua:TeRa:na

A.a:tma:.ca:tua:a.~
/:Ma:Zea:na.ea:nea:na

I+ a.ta ;a.va:Zea:SaH

.sa:a.va:Zea:SaH

(KSS 2.9)

Note: Though karan


. seems to have different connotations, on taking a
closer look, it becomes evident that some of these meanings converge to the

same thingthat which makes a square of area a. Obviously that 0 = a.


Examples dvikaran
. , trikaran., dasakaran
. , and so on.

Constructing a square that is difference of two squares


. ca:tua.=;(ra.a:a:tua.=;(rMa ;
a.na: ajRa:h.a:SRa:n,a ya.a:va: a.a: ajRa:h.a:SeRa:t,a ta:~ya k+=;Nya.a va:Sa.Ra:ya:sa.ea
vxa:Dra:mua:a.+.Kea:t,a vxa:Dra:~ya :pa.a.(;Ra:ma.a:na.Ma A:[Nya.a I+ta.=;t,a :pa.a.(;a o+pa:sMa:h:=e;t,a .sa.a ya.a

[BSS 2.2]

;
a.na:pa:tea:t,a ta:d:pa:a..c
/ /
C+nd;a.a:t,a ;
a.C+a:ya.a ;
a.na.=;~ta:m,a

Desirous of subtracting a square from another square, may you mark the
rectangular portion of the larger [square] with a side (karan
a) of the
. y
smaller one that you want to remove. With the [cord corresponding to the
larger] side of the rectangle turned into a diagonal (aks.n
a) touch the
. ay
other side. Wherever that intersects, chop off that portion. Whatever
remains after chopping, gives the measure of the difference.

P
G

111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

I Problem: Find the side of square which is the


difference of the squares ABCD and AEGH.
I Solution: Obtain the vr.dhra (rectangle) AEFD,
and with radius EF mark a point P on AD. AP
gives the desired measure.
I It is evident from the figure
AP 2

EP 2 AE 2

AD 2 AE 2 .

ABCD AEGH

(EP = AD)

Transforming a rectangle into a square


Sequel to finding the sum and difference of squares

x +.tva.a Zea:SMa ;a.d


d.a:GRa:.ca:tua.=;(rMa .sa:ma:.ca:tua.=;(rMa ;
a. ca:k
 +a:SRa:n,a ; a.ta:yRa.*+;.
:Da.a ;a.va:Ba.$ya
a:na.Ma k+=;Na.Ma k

:pa.a.(;Ra:ya.ea.+.pa:d:Dya.a:t,a Ka:Nq+m,a A.a:va.a:pea:na ta:tsMa:pUa.=;yea:t,a

ta:~ya ;
a.na:h.Ra.= o+H

[BSS 2.5]
terms in s
utra

correspondence with figure

d.a:GRa:.ca:tua.=;(rMa

rectangle ABCD
east-west cord (AB)
the portion XYCB
square RSNM
by placing

; a.ta:yRa.*+;.
a:na.a
Zea:Sa:m,a
Ka:Nq+m,a
A.a:va.a:pea:na

It is evident from the figure


DP 2

EP 2 DE 2

AE 2 RS 2 .

AENF RSNM

HIJK

P
Y

To construct a square that is n times a given square


I

K
aty
ayana gives an ingenious method to construct a square
whose area is n times the area of a given square.
A
ya.a:va:tpra:ma.a:Na.a:
a.na .sa:ma:.ca:tua.=;(ra.a: a.Na O;:k
 +a:k+.tua

(n+

a n

;a.d
a:va: a.ta
:gua:Na.a:nyea:k+.ta O;:k+a: a.Da:k+a:
a.na ya: a.~:a:BR

)a
(n+1
2

1)a

;
a. ca:k
 +a:SeRa:t,a O;:k+ea:na.a:
a.na ta.a:
a.na Ba:va:a.nta
/  ; a.ta:yRa:k
,

ta:~yea:SuaH

As much . . . one less than that forms the


base . . . the arrow of that [triangle] makes

that (gives the required number n).

D
(n1)a

I In the figure BD =

AD 2

[KSS 6.7]

ta:tk+=:ea: a.ta

1
BC
2

= ( n1
)a. Considering 4ABD,
2


n+1
2

2

a2

n1
2

2

AB 2 BD 2 =

a2

a2
a2
[(n + 1)2 (n 1)2 ] =
4n = na2
4
4

To transform a square into a circle


E

. ca:tua.=;(rMa ma:Nq+lM ;
a. ca:k
 +a:SRa:n,a A:[Na:ya.a:Da ma:Dya.a:t,a :pra.a:.ca.a:m,a
P
D
M

A:Bya:pa.a:ta:yea:t,a ya:d;a:d: a.ta: a.Za:Sya:tea ta:~ya .sa:h txa:ta.a:yea:na ma:Nq+lM

[BSS 2.9]

:pa:a=;
a.l+Kea:t,a

A:[Na:ya.a:Da
O

= semi-diagonal (OD)
= from centre to the east

ma:Dya.a:t,a :pra.a:.ca.a:m,a
ya:d;a:d: a.ta: a.Za:Sya:tea

= whatever [portion] remains


= with one-third of that

ta:~ya .sa:h txa:ta.a:yea:na

W
B

As per the prescription given,


AB

2a (given)

OP

OD

r (to find)

2a

ME

=
=
=

OE OM

2aa

a( 2 1)

Radius OP = r

=
=
=

How to find

2?

1
a + ME
3


1
a 1 + ( 2 1)
3

a
(2 + 2).
3

How did Sulvak


aras specify the value of
I

The following s
utra gives an approximation to

:pra:ma.a:NMa txa:ta.a:yea:na va:DRa:yea:t,a

ta:a:tua:TeRa:na

2?

2:

A.a:tma:.ca:tua:a.~:M
/a:Zea:na.ea:nea:na

[BSS 2.12]

.sa:a.va:Zea:SaH



1
1
1
1
1+ +
3 34
34
577
=
408
= 1.414215686

(1)

What is noteworthy here is the use of the word .sa:a.va:Zea:SaH in the


s
utra, which literally means that which has some speciality
(speciality being approximate)

How did the Sulvak


aras arrive at (1)?

Several explanations have been offered over the last centuries.


Here we will discuss the geometrical construction approach.


Approximation for 2
Rationale for the expression

2=1+

1
3

1
3.4

1
3.4.34

by Geometrical Construction

Consider two squares ABCD and BEFC (sides of unit length).

The second square BEFC is divided into three strips.

The third strip is further divided into many parts, and these parts
are rearranged (as shown) with a void at Q.

Now, each side of the new square APQR = 1 +

void that
remains

II

III 1
F

C
III 1

II

III 2
III 3

1
3

1
3.4 .

Approximation for

Rationale for the expression (contd.)


1 2
3.4 .

The area of the void at Q is

Suppose we were to strip off a segment of breadth b from either


side of this square, such that the area of the stripped off portion
is exactly equal to that of the void at Q, then we have,


2

1
1
1
2
b =
.
2b 1 + +
3 3.4
3.4

Neglecting b2 (as it is too small), we get



2
1
3.4
1
b=

=
.
3.4
34
3.4.34

Hence the side of the resulting square

2=1+

1
1
1
+

3 3.4 3.4.34

Approximate value of

An estimate of the value of used by Sulvak


aras
I

If 2a is the side of the square, then we saw that the prescription


given in the text amounts to taking the radius of the circle to be


1
(2)
r = a 1 + ( 2 1)
3

If we were to impose the constraint that the transformation has


to be measure preserving, then it translates to the condition
r 2 = 4a2 .

From the relation given above we have,




2
1

(2 + 2) 4.
3

Using the value of

(3)

2 given in the text we get


3.0883,

which is correct only to one decimal place.

(4)

Value of

3 (trikaran
. )

Geometrical construction described by Datta

Each side of the new larger


1
square APQR = 1 + 23 + 3.5

So for closer approximation, let


the side of the new square be
diminished by an amount y ,
such that

1
0
Q
0
1
0
1

R
IV
III
D

V
1

VI1

V2

VI2

void that remains


to the filled
H

2y

III

II

IV

V1

VI 1

V2

VI 2

V3

VI 3



2
2
1
1
2
1+ +
y =
.
3 3.5
3.5

Neglecting y 2 as too small, we


1
, nearly.
get y = 3.5.52

Thus
we get

3 = 1 + 23 +

1
3.5

1
3.5.52

Problem of squaring a circle


1

x +.tva.a
ma:Nq+lM ..ca.ua.=;(rMa ;
a..ca:k
 +a:SRa:n,a ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba:m,a A:.Ea Ba.a:ga.a:n,a k

O;:k+ea:na:aMa:Za.;d
.a ;a.va:Ba.$ya A:.a:a.vMa:Za: a.ta:Ba.a:ga.a:n,a o;;d
:=e;d
,
:Sa:M A::ma:Ba.a:ga.ea:na:m,a

2 3

Ba.a:gMa

Ba.a:ga:~ya ..ca

[BSS 2.10]

With the desire of turning a circle into a square [with the same area]
dividing the diameter into 8 parts . . .




7d
d
28d
d
d
2a =
+

(5)
8
8
8.29
8.29.6 8.29.6.8
This may be rewritten as


1
1
1
1

+
2a = d 1 +
8 8.29 8.29.6 8.29.6.8
1
2
3

Ba.a:ga:mua.;
d :=e;t,a

:Sa:;Ba.a:ga.ea yaH

(:pUa:vRa:sma.a:t,a)

Ba.a:ga.a:t,a o;;d
:=e;t,a

.saH

ta:d::ma:Ba.a:ga.ea:naH

k+a:yRaH ta:m,a o;;d


:=e;t,a

I+tya:nua:Sa.$ya:tea

(6)

Citi: Fire altar


I

;
a. ca: a.taH

. ca.a:ya:tea A:~ya.a:m,a I+ a.ta ;


a. ca: a.taH

Platform constructed of burnt bircks and mud mortar.


: [the locus] unto which things are brought

into [and arranged].


I

;
a. ca

(.sMa:vxa:tya.a:d.a:na:ya.eaH )= assembling or fetching together

I Fire altars are of two types. The ones used for

daily ritual.
intended for specific wish fulfilment.

I ;
a.na:tya:k+.mRa

I k+a:}ya:k+.mRa

I The fire altars are of different shapes. They include

:pra.Ea:ga:
a..ca: a.ta (isosceles
triangle), o+Ba:ya:taH :pra.Ea:ga:
a. ca: a.ta (rhombus), .=;Ta:.ca:k+.
a. ca: a.ta (chariot wheel),
d:ea:Na:
a. ca: a.ta (a particular type of vessel/water jar), k
U +.mRa:
a..ca: a.ta (tortoise),
Zyea:na:
a. ca: a.ta

(bird, falcon type), etc.

I Number of bricks used is 1000 (.sa.a:h:~:Ma

;
a. ca:nva.a:ta

...), 2000, and 3000.

I Altar has multiples of five layers, with 200 bricks in each layer.

Types of Fire altars (representative list)


I

Different types of wish-fulfilling fire-altars are described in Vedas.


C+nd: a.
(a:tMa ;
a. ca:nva.a:ta :pa:Zua:k+a:maH

Ba:va: a.ta

:pa:Za:va.ea ;vEa C+nd.a>+ a.sa :pa:Zua:ma.a:nea:va

Zyea:na:
a. ca:tMa ;
a. ca:nva.a:ta .~va:gRa:k+a:maH

Zyea:na O;:va BUa:tva.a .~va:ga :pa:ta: a.ta

, . . . .=;Ta:.ca:k+.
a. ca:tMa

Bra.a:txa:v.ya.a:n,a nua:d:tea

Zyea:na.ea ;vEa va:ya:sa.Ma :pra: a.ta::a

. . . :pra.Ea:ga:
a. ca:tMa

;
a. ca:nva.a:ta Bra.a:txa:v.ya:va.a:n,a ;prEa:va

;
a. ca:nva.a:ta g{a.a:ma:k+a:maH

...

The table below presents a list some of them, along with the
shapes and the purpose as stated in the text.
Name of the citi
C+nd: a.(
a: a.ta

Zyea:na:
a..ca: a.ta k+.*:+

a..ca: a.ta

:pra.Ea:ga:
a..ca: a.ta
.=;Ta:.ca:k
+.
a..ca: a.ta
d:ea:Na:
a..ca: a.ta

Its shape
Form of a bird
Form of bird

Who has to perfom


Desirous of cattle
Desirous of heaven

Isoceles triangle
Chariot wheel
Form of a trough

Annihilation of rivals
Desirous of region
Abundance in food

Table: Different citis, their shapes and purpose.

On the height and the shape of citis


Measurements were case-based (based on the performer) and not standardized
I

Taittirya-sam
a, prescribing the height of the citi observes:4
. hit

M ;
a. ca:nva.a:ta :pra:Ta:mMa ;
a. ca:nva.a:naH
.ja.a:nua:d*+

ga.a:ya:aa:yEa:vea:mMa l;ea:k+.ma:Bya.a.=:ea:h: a.ta

M ;
a. ca:nva.a:ta ;a.d
na.a: a.Ba:d*+
:ta.a:yMa ;
a. ca:nva.a:naH ;aa:u:BEa:va.a:nta:a=;[a:ma:Bya.a.=:ea:h: a.ta

M ;
a. ca:nva.a:ta txa:ta.a:yMa ;
a. ca:nva.a:naH
g{a.a:va.a:d*+

.ja:ga:tyEa:va.a:mMua l;ea:k+.ma:Bya.a.=:ea:h: a.ta

Knee-deep should he pile when he piles for the first time,


and indeed he mounts this world with g
ayatr, naval-deep
should he pile when he piles the second time, . . . neck-deep
should he pile when he piles the third time . . .
I

Elsewhere (5.5.3) observing on the shape of the fire-altar it is


said that it should be akin to the shadow cast by the bird.


va:ya:sa.Ma va.a O;:Sa :pra: a.ta:ma:ya.a ..ca.a:ya:tea ya:d: a.
+;aH ya:nya.*.a:

a*.a:nu
a:ya.a:t,a

4
5

Taittirya-sam
a 5.6.8.
. hit
va:ya:sa.Ma va.a O;:Sa :pra: a.ta:ma:ya.a . ca.a:ya:tea o+tpa:ta:ta.Ma C;a:ya:yea:tya:TRaH

(BSS.8.5)


SyenacitiFalcon-shaped
fire-altars
I
I

The origin of Syenaciti


can be traced back to vedas.
For instance in .sad.vim
ahman.a belonging to s
amaveda,
. sa br
. . . ya:Ta.a Zyea:na A.a:d:Da.a:ta O;:va:mea:va O;:na:mea:tea:na A.a:d.ea 6

A:TEa:Sa Zyea:na

Another version of the same statement perhaps on another


Br
ahman.a which is more popular goes as
ya:Ta.a ;vEa Zyea:na.ea ;
a.na:pa:tya A.a:d.ea O;:va:mea:va.a:yMa ;a.d
:Sa:ntMa Bra.a:txa:v.yMa ;
a.na:pa:tya
A.a:d.ea

These sentences are cited in the Mm


am
a text in connection
. s
with the discussion on deciding the meaning of the word syena
that appears in the vidhi (injunction)
Zyea:nea:na.a: a.Ba:.ca.=;n,a ya.jea:ta

S.ad.vim
ahman
. sa br
. a 4.2.3.

Measurement units used in construction

A:Ta.a:*:
u +l+pra:ma.a:Na:m,a

d:Za.a:
*: +lM
u

..ca:tua:dR:Za.a:Na:vaH

[ua:d;pa:d:m,a

d
.a:d:Za

*.a.a.=:a:
a.aH
:pra.a:de:Za.a:va.=; a.aH :pa.

..ca:tua:a.~:M
/a:Za: aa:l;aH

:pra.a:de:ZaH

:pa:dM

;;.a
:pxa:Tua:sMa:
a(

:pa.
*.a:d:Za

:pua.+.SaH ..ca:tua.=:=; a.a:v.ya.Ra:ya.a:maH

;a.d
:pa:dH

= 14 an.u or 34 tila
ks.udrapada = 10angula

angula

pr
adesa = 12angula

pada = 15angula

prakrama = 30angula

aratni = 2pr
adesa = 24angula

vy
ay
ama = 4aratni
purus.a

Baudh
ayana-sulbas
utra,1.3

= 5aratni

I+tya:pa.=;m,a
:pra:k
+.maH

d
.Ea


Construction of Syenaciti:
I
Types of bricks: 1, 2 and 3
I

Bricks of geometrical shapes other than rectilinear are needed.

The five types of bricks used:


1. B1 one-fourth brick (caturth)30 30 angulas;

i.e., a
square whose side is 14 pu.
2. B2 half brick (ardh
a)obtained by cutting the one-fourth
square brick diagonally;

and
each of 2 sides equals angulas
the hypotenuse 30 30 2 angulas

3. B3 quarter brick (p
ady
a)obtained by
cutting B1

and
diagonally; each of 2 sides equals 15 2 angulas
hypotenuse 30 ang.

30

30
D

30

30
C

B
B1

15
C

B2

30
B3

Types of bricks: 4 and 5


A

15 2

B4 four-sided quarter
brick (caturasra-p
ady
a)of
sides equal to 22 21 , 15, 7 12

and 15 2 ang.
The area is
15 15 ang,
the same as
that of B3 .
B5 (ham
. samukh)- half
brick obtained by joining
two B4 s, along their
common longest side.

15

72
15

B4

A
15 2

1
2
D
7

F
30
B5


Outline of body and head of Syena
I

45

A
L

30

G
30

82

1
2

240

H
B
45

I
150

C
60


Syenaciti:
Falcon-shape
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
00
11
00
11
000
111
00
11
00
11
000
111
00
11
00
11
000
111
00
11
00
11
000
111
00
11
000
111

1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11

Number of bricks used

O;:vMa :Sa.*:+tva.a:
a=M;Za:d.a:tma:
a.na ; a.Za.=; a.sa . ca:tua:dR:Za d
.a:aMa:Za:tpua:.cCe :pa:[a:ya.ea.=;:Za:ta:m,a

A:a.sma:n,
/////// a

:pra:~ta.a:=e

na:va:Sa:a.:(
a:tua:TyRaH

A:Da.Ra

d
.a:sa:a: a.taH

:pa.a:d;a.a

:Sa:f
,
..ca:tua.=;(ra:pa.a:d;a.a
O;:k+a hM:sa:mua:Ka.a

Parts of the citi


Head
Body
Wings
Tail
Total

B1
1
30
30
8
69

B2
6
62
4
72

B3
6
10
16
20
52

B4
6

B5
1

Total
14
46
108
32
200

a
;a.d
:pa.*.a.a:Za:t,


Syenaciti:
second layer
Number of bricks used in the second layer

Parts
Head
Body
Wings
Tail
Total

B1
12
48
8
68

B2
10
28
28
4
70

B3
4
34
18
56

B4

B5
4
2
6

Total
10
48
110
32
200

Fabrication of bricks
Ingredients to be added to the mixture of clay employed in manufacting the bricks
I

:pa:NRa:k+.Sa.a:ya:
a.na:Spa:*:+a

O;:ta.a A.a:pa.ea Ba:va:a.nta


// .~Tea:}:ae nvea:va

Extracts of gum from certain trees (pal


asa)

A:Ta A.ja:l;ea:mEaH

Hair of the goat, of a bullock, horse, etc.

Za:k
R +=:a:Zma.a:h.ea .=;saH

Fine powder of burnt bricks ..

o+K.ya:Ba:sma:na.a .sMa:sxa.$ya I+:k+aH

...

.sMa:sxa.ja: a.ta .~Tea:}:ae nvea:va

...

.tea:na .sMa:sxa.ja: a.ta .~Tea:}:ae nvea:va

O;:ta:d
u :pa:pa:d;a:te
a na .=:a:aa:Bxa:taH

k+a.=;yea:a.d: a.ta .sMa:va:tsa.=;Bxa:taH

O;:va

The above process of strengthening is in practice till date.10


8

Satapatha br
ahman.a, 6.5.1.16.

Baudh
ayana Sulbas
utra, 2.7879
10
The addition of fly ash as well as pozzuolana is well known in the
manufacture of cement.
9

Fabrication of bricks
Handling the contraction in size of the brick (Suns heat + Burning in the kiln)
I

There will be reduction in the size of the moulded bricks:


I I+:k+a Za.ea:Sa:pa.a:k+a:Bya.Ma ;aMa:Za:n}.a.a:na.a.ua h.a:ya:tea 11

Different Sulbas
utra texts suggest different measures to
handle this problem of contraction
I .sa:d.a ..ca ;aMa:Za:k
x +.ta.a
M Ba.a:gMa I+:k+a :h:sa:tea k

ta.a:va:t,a .sa:ma: a.Da:k


M
k+a:ya k+=;NMa .sa:ma: a.ma:.cC+ta.a

12

Appropriately increase the size of the mould.

I ya:.cC;ea:Sa:pa.a:k+a:Bya.Ma :pra: a.ta:h:sea:t,a :pua.=:a:Sea:Na ta:t,a .sMa:pUa.=;yea:t,a

A:
a.na:ya:ta:pa:a=;ma.a:Na:tva.a:t,a

Compensate the loss with the mortar.

M
anava Sulbas
utra, 10.3.4.17

M
anava Sulbas
utra, 10.2.5.2
13

Baudh
ayana Sulbas
utra, 2.60
11
12

13

:pua.=:a:Sa:~ya

Constructional Details
Specifications regarding the arrangement of bricks in different layers
I

Bea:d.a:n,a va.jRa:yea:t,a
I

A:Da.=:ea.a.=;ya.eaH
I

Here the word bheda does not simply mean


difference/distinction (in fact, this has to be maintained).
What is meant is a clear segregation between two rows
across all the layers. This is to be avoided.
Joints should be disjoint! (not continuous)
14
:pa.a.(;Ra:sa:nDa.a:nMa Bea:d.a I+ a.ta o+pa:a.d:Za:a.n
/
ta

The etymology could be:

A:mxa:n}.a:ya.a: a.BaH
I

A:
a.na::k+a: a.BaH

Bea:d:he:tua:BUa:ta:tva.a:t,a Bea:dH

+;a.
na .sa:*

Ma :pUa.=;yea:t,a

(Arbitrary) foreign material should not be employed to fill


the gaps.

The above-mentioned are very important principles from the


view point of civil engineering.
14

BSS. 2.2223. (RPKs Book)

General observations
I The purpose for which the geometry got developed in the Indian context

is construction and transformation of planar figures.


I We saw that Bodh
ayana (prior to 800 BCE) not merely listed the

so-called Pythagorean triplets, but also gave the theorem in the form of
an explicit statement.
I Extensive applications of the theorem in the context of scaling and

transformation of geometrical figures was also discussed.

I Though Sulbak
aras did not explicitly give proofswhich anyway was
NOT a part of their oral tradition (of the antiquity)it is evident from
several applications discussed, that the proof is implicit.

I From the view point of history it may also be worth recalling:

Antiquity? Though the Babylonians of 2nd millenium BCE had


listed triplets in cuneiform tablets, there is no general
statement in the form of a theorem.
Pythagorean? Since there is hardly any evidence to show Pythagoras
himself was the discoverer of the theorem, some of the
careful historian call it Pythagorean theorem.

General observations

I It may be reiterated that Sulbas


utra texts were primarily meant for
assisting the Vedic priest in the construction of altars designed for the
performance of a variety of sacrifices.
I However, these texts shed a lot of light from the view point of

development of mathematics in the antiquity, particularly the use of


arithmetic and albegra, besides geometry.

Use of fractions The expressions used by the Sulvak


aras for expressing
surdsin terms of sums of fractions, leading to a
remarkable accuracy15 is quite interesting.
Use of algebra The rules and operations described by them in the
context of scaling geometrical figures unambiguously
demonstrate the use of algebraic equation.
I The different citis not only speak of the aesthetic sense, but also of the

creativity and ingenuity of Sulvak


aras to work with several constraints
imposedboth in terms of area and volume.
I The archaeological excavations at Kausambi (UP) seems to have

revealed a Syenaciti
constructed around 200
15

Five decimal places in the case of

2.

BCE .

References
I

K
aty
ayana-sulbas
utram, with the comm. of Karka and
Mahdhara, Kashi Sanskrit Series, No. 120. (1900?)
[digital version from Univ. of Toronto].

B. B. Datta and A. N. Singh, Hindu Geometry, Indian


Journal of History of Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1979,
pp. 121188.

S. N. Sen and A. K. Bag, The Sulbas


utras,
INSA, New

Delhi 1983.

Bibhutibhushan Datta, Ancient Hindu Geometry, The

Science of Sulba,
Cosmo Publications, New Delhi 1993.

T. A. Sarasvati Amma, Geometry in Ancient and Medieval


India, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1979; Rep. 2007.

Thanks!

T HANK YOU