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ALGEBRA

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities

Time

1.1 Solutions of Equations 1.2 Multiplication of Polynomials 1.3 Factorisation

Solve simple linear and fractional equations. Expand products of algebraic expressions. Factorise expressions of the form

, a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and ax 2 +bx + c .

a +b , a 2 x 2 −b 2 x x

3 weeks

1.4 Solving Quadratic Equations 2. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 2.1 Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Unknowns 2.2 Simultaneous Linear and NonLinear Equations in Two Unknowns

** Solve quadratic equations by factorization. Solve quadratic equations by use of quadratic
**

formula.

Solve simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns either by substitution or by elimination.

** Solve simultaneous linear and non-linear equations
**

in two unknowns by substitution.

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 2 Additional Mathematics Chapter 5

3 weeks

** Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of
**

a straight line and a curve by solving their equations simultaneously.

1

3.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

3.1 Distance between Two Points

Calculate the length of a line segment by using the formula

( x 2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 − y1 ) 2 .

Solve problems on distance between two points.

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 7 Additional Mathematics Chapter 7

4 weeks

2

Topic 3.2 Midpoint of the Line Joining Two Points

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities

Time

** Find the midpoint of a line segment using
**

x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 , and solve problems related to the 2 2 midpoint of a line segment.

3.3 Gradient of a Line 3.4 Equation of a Straight Line

** Calculate the gradient of a straight line passing
**

through two points. State the gradient of a straight line from a given equation.

** Obtain the equation of a straight line graph in the
**

form y = mx + c given the gradient, m and the yintercept, c. Obtain the equation of a straight line using y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) given the gradient and one point (x1 , y1) on the straight line. State that the gradients of parallel lines are equal. Solve problems on the gradients and equations of parallel lines and non-parallel lines.

3.5 Equations of Parallel and Non-Parallel Lines

3.6 Equations of Perpendicular Lines

** State that the product of the gradients of the
**

3.7 Perpendicular Bisector 3.8 Miscellaneous Problems

perpendicular lines is equal to −1. (m1 m 2 = −1) . Solve problems on the gradients and equations of perpendicular lines.

Write the equation of the perpendicular bisector of a 3

given line segment and solve problems on perpendicular bisector.

** Solve miscellaneous problems on coordinate
**

geometry including finding the coordinates of vertices of a triangle or quadrilateral, ratio of lengths of sides and area of a triangle or trapezium.

4

Topic 4. INDICES / SURDS

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities

Time

4.1 Indices (Exponents)

** Perform simple operations using rules of
**

indices. Simplify expressions and write answers as a single term e.g. write

4.2 Simple Exponential Equations

**the form of a power of 2. Expand and simplify expressions like
**

( a 3 + b 3 )( a 3 − b 3 ) .

2 1 1 2

2 3 x −2.8 x as a single term in 4 2 x +1

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 3 Additional Mathematics Chapter 4

3 weeks

** Solve simple exponential equations a x = b by using
**

the same base or index. Solve exponential equations e.g. 2 2 x −3(2 x ) +2 = 0 by using suitable substitution. Define a surd as a root that cannot be expressed as a rational number. Apply the rules of surds a × b = ab and a a = to perform simple b b operations with surds.

http://library.thinkquest.org/C 0110248/algebra/islsurdlaw.h tml

4.3 Surds

http://www.purplemath .com/modules/radicals. htm

4.4 Rationalising Surds

** Know that the product of a surd expression and its
**

conjugate surd gives a rational number. Rationalise the denominator of simple surds like 1 8 , , by multiplying both numerator and 3 2 denominator with the surd itself.

5

** Rationalise the denominator of surds like
**

2 3 +10 3 −1

2 3− 2

,

by multiplying both numerator and

denominator with the conjugate surd of the denominator. Solve word problems involving surds.

6

Topic 5. LOGARITHMIC & EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS 5.1Logarithmic Functions

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities

Time

5.2Laws of Logarithms

Define logarithmic function as the inverse of exponential function. Convert exponential functions to logarithmic functions and vice-versa. Solve simple logarithmic equations such as x = log 2 64 , log x 25 = 2 , etc. by converting to exponential form.

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 3 and Chapter 19 (Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions) Additional Mathematics Chapter 7 http://www.coolmath.c om/algebra/Algebra2/0 6ExponentialsLogs/07_ whatsalog.htm

6 weeks

** State and apply the laws of logarithms to evaluate
**

5.3 Common and Natural Logarithms logarithmic expressions. Apply the laws of logarithms to solve logarithmic equations.

** Define common logarithm as logarithm to the
**

base 10, written as lg x. Define natural logarithm as logarithm to the base e, written as ln x. Solve equations of the form a x = b by taking logarithms on both sides. Solve logarithmic equations involving common and natural logarithms. Solve exponential equations involving substitution and use of logarithms e.g. 32 x −6(3 x ) +8 = 0 . Solve simultaneous equations involving exponential functions and logarithmic functions. 5.6Application of

5.4 Simultaneous

Equations Involving Exponential & Logarithmic Functions 5.5Change-of-Base Law

7

Exponential & Logarithmic Functions

State the change-of-base law log a b =

log c b . log c a

Apply the change-of-base law to simplify and evaluate logarithmic expressions. Apply the change-of-base law to solve logarithmic equations. Solve word problems involving exponential and logarithmic functions.

Topic 5.7Graph of Exponential & Logarithmic Functions

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities Use Graphmatica software or graphic calculator to investigate the graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions.

Time

Draw the basic graph of exponential and logarithmic functions, y = e x and y = ln x. Explain the characteristic of the two graphs. Recognize that since y = ln x is the inverse function of y = e x , thus the graph of y = ln x is the reflection of the graph of y = e x in the line y = x. Sketch or draw the graph of exponential and logarithmic functions and use it to solve equations graphically.

6.

FUNCTIONS

6.1 Introduction to Functions

** Understand the terms function, domain, range
**

(image set), one-one function, inverse function and composition of functions. Use the notation, f : x → lg x, (x > 0) [read as ‘f maps x onto lg x’] , 1 f(x) = sin x [read as ‘f of x is equal to sin x’], f − (x) and f 2 (x) = f(f(x)).

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 9 Additional Mathematics Chapter 2

5 weeks

6.2 Composite Functions

8

6.3 Inverse Functions

** Form composite functions. Know that fg ≠ gf , f 2 ( x) ≠ ( f ( x )) 2 . Explain in words why a given function is a function
**

or why it does not have an inverse. Find the inverse of a one-one function and of a composite function. Use sketch graphs to show the relationship between a function and its inverse.

http://www.coolmath.c om/algebra/Algebra2/0 5InverseFuncs/02_oneto-one.htm Use Graphmatica software to investigate the relationship between a function and its inverse. Use Graphmatica software or graphic calculator to observe the relation between of graphs of y = f(x) and y= f(x) .

6.4 Absolute-Valued Functions

** Understand and use the relationship between y =
**

f(x) and y = f(x) where f(x) may be linear, , quadratic or trigonometric. Solve absolute-valued equations. Sketch the graphs of the absolute-valued functions.

9

Topic 7. FACTORS OF POLYNOMIALS 7.1 Polynomial Identities

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities

Time

** Recognise polynomials and know the terms:
**

coefficient, constant term, degree of a polynomial and polynomial identity. Find unknowns in an identity.

7.2 Remainder Theorem

** Find the remainder when a polynomial f(x) is
**

divided by (ax+b) using long division, then use the −b ). Remainder Theorem to evaluate f ( a Evaluate unknowns using the Remainder Theorem.

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 5 New Additional Mathematics Chapter 6 http://www.purplemath .com/modules/polydiv3. htm

4 weeks

7.3 Factor Theorem 7.4 Solving Cubic Equations

** Determine if (ax + b) is a factor by testing if
**

f( −b ) =0. a

Find one factor for f(x) by trial and error. Find the other factors either by long division or by inspection. Solve f(x) = 0 and if the resulting quadratic factor cannot be factorised further, then use the quadratic formula.

8. QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS AND EQUATIONS 8.1 Maximum/ Minimum Value of a Quadratic Expression

5 weeks

** Write f: x → ax2 + bx + c in the completed square form f:
**

x → a(x – h)2 + k.

** Find the maximum or minimum point of the
**

quadratic function

New Additional Mathematics Chapter 4 Additional

10

f: x → ax2 + bx + c by using the completed square form

Mathematics Chapter 3

or any other method. Sketch the graph of f(x) and describe the properties of the parabola. Determine the range of f(x) for a given domain.

11

Topic 8.2 Roots of a Quadratic Equation

Learning Outcomes

Resources/Activities http://www.coolmath.c om/algebra/Algebra1/1 1Quadratics/07_introgr aphing.htm to ...Quadratics/17.... Use Graphmatica software or graphic calculator to investigate the coordinates of the maximum or minimum points in relation to the values of h and k in the function f: x → a(x – h)2 + k. http://www.purplemath .com/modules/ineqqua d.htm

Time

** State the conditions with respect to the discriminant
**

b 2 −4ac for a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 to

have (i) two real and distinct roots, (ii) two real and equal roots, or (iii) no real roots. Determine the nature of the roots of a quadratic equation. State the conditions when a given line (i) intersects a given curve at two points, b 2 −4ac > 0 , (ii) is a tangent to a given curve, b 2 −4ac = 0 , or (iii) does not intersect a given curve, b 2 −4ac < 0 . Solve problems related to the condition that b 2 −4ac = 0 given that the roots of the quadratic equation are real and equal or that a line is a tangent to a curve.

8.3 Quadratic Inequalities

Find the solution set for quadratic inequalities. Solve quadratic inequalities formed using conditions related to b 2 −4ac ≥ 0 (when the roots are real), b 2 −4ac > 0 or b 2 −4ac < 0 .

Text books 1. New Additional Mathematics (Ho Soo Thong & Khor Nyak Hiong) 2. Additional Mathematics (H H Heng, JF Talbert)

12

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