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# Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

1 INTEGRATION

1.1 Indefinite Integrals  Understand integration as the reverse process of New Additional 5 weeks
differentiation. Mathematics Chapter 20
 Find indefinite integrals. Additional Mathematics
(Note: Stress on the need to write the arbitrary Chapter 17
constant c.)
http://www.mathsnet.net
 Integrate axn and sum of terms in powers of x,
/asa2/2004/c16int.html
excluding n = −1.
 Integrate functions of the form (ax + b)n where n ≠ http://www.mathsnet.net
1.2 Definite Integrals
-- 1. /asa2/2004/c27notation.
 Perform integration to get the equation of the curve html
and determine the arbitrary constant in the
equation of the curve.

##  Evaluate definite integrals of algebraic expressions.

 Know the results of the following definite integrals:
a

(i) ∫ f ( x )dx
a
=0

b a

## (ii) ∫ f ( x )dx = − f ( x )dx

1.3 Integration of
a b
Trigonometric b c c
Functions f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx =
(iii) ∫
a

b
∫ f ( x )dx .
a

##  Integrate functions of the form sin ( ax +b ) , cos ( ax +b )

1.4 Integration of
and sec 2 (ax +b ) , where a ≠ 0 .
Exponential
 Evaluate the definite integrals of trigonometric
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Functions functions.

##  Integrate functions of the form e ax +b , where a ≠ 0 .

 Evaluate the definite integrals of exponential
functions.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

2 APPLICATION OF
INTEGRATION

2.1 Plane Area  Find the area enclosed by a curve (consider both New Additional 3 weeks
cases: above x – axis and below x – axis), the x – Mathematics
axis and the lines x = a and x = b. Chapter 21
 Find the area enclosed by a curve, the y – axis and Additional Mathematics
the lines y = a and Chapter 17 and 18
y = b (consider the positive and negative area).
 Find the area enclosed by a curve and a line. http://www.mathsnet.net/
asa2/2004/c27area_2.ht
 Find the area enclosed by two curves. ml

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3 KINEMATICS

3.1 Displacement, Velocity  Know that for a particle moving in a straight line New Additional 4 weeks
and with displacement x, velocity v and acceleration a: Mathematics Chapter 22
Acceleration Additional Mathematics
dx dv d 2x
v= and a= = Chapter 19
dt dt dt 2

x = v dt and ∫
v = a dt .
 Know that when a particle is at instantaneous rest,
v = 0 and this will be followed by a change in
direction of motion.
 Use a number line to denote the positions of a
particle at the start of the motion, at the time t1
when v = 0 (if 0 < t1 < T) and at time T seconds, to
find the total distance travelled in the first T
seconds of the motion.
 Use the formula Average speed =
total distance travelled
total time taken
.
 Apply the differentiation and integration to
kinematics problems that involve displacement,
velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a
straight line with variable or constant acceleration.
(Suggestion: For motion with constant acceleration
teachers may introduce the equation v = u + at based
on the definition of acceleration

## ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS – SPN 21 SCHEME OF WORK (INTERIM STAGE) 4

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

v−u
a= ).
t

##  Describe briefly the motion of the particle by

3.2 Displacement-Time and observing the x-t or the v-t graph given.
Velocity-
Time Graphs  Sketch the x-t or the v-t graph for the motion
described.
 Know that for an x-t graph,
(a) a straight line shows motion of uniform
(constant) velocity,
(b) the velocity at any instant is given by the
gradient of the graph at that point.
 Know that for a v-t graph:
(a) a straight line shows motion of uniform
acceleration,
(b) the acceleration at any instant is given by the
gradient of the graph at that instant,
(c) both the change in displacement and the
distance travelled may be found by considering
the appropriate areas under the graph.
(Suggestion: For motion with constant acceleration,
1
derive the equation s = (u + v)t by using the area
2
under the v-t graph which is represented by a
trapezium with parallel sides u and v and width t ).
 Solve related problems.

4 SETS

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4.1 Introduction to Sets  Use set language and notation to describe sets New Additional 3 weeks
and represent relationships between sets as follows: Mathematics Chapter 1
A = { x : x is a natural number} Additional Mathematics
B = { (x, y) : y = mx + c} Chapter 1
C = { x : a ≤ x ≤ b}
D = { a, b, c, …}.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

##  Define the terms finite and infinite sets,

empty/null set, equal sets, subsets, universal sets
and complement of a set.
 Understand and use of the following notation:
Number of elements in set A n(A)
“…is an element of…” ∈
“…is not an element of…” ∉
Complement of Set A A’
The empty set ∅
Universal set ξ
A is a subset of B A⊆ B
A is a proper subset of B A⊂ B
A is not a subset of B A⊄B
A is not a proper subset of B A⊄B

##  Use Venn diagram to show the relationship

between sets.
 Know the terms intersection of sets and union
of sets.
 Use the following notation:
4.2 Intersection and Union Union of A and B A∪B
of Sets Intersection of A and B A∩B

##  Shade the region defined by the set notations

and vice versa.
 Describe set notations in words.
(Caution students on correct use of terms and the
necessity to write statements in detail especially in
cases involving the ∪ and ⊂ symbols e.g. If M =
{set of students studying mathematics} and P =

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{set of students studying physics},
(i) M ∪ P is the set of students studying
mathematics or physics or both mathematics and
physics,
(ii) P ⊂ M means all students studying physics also
study mathematics.)
 Solve related Set problems including the
maximum and minimum possible value.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

5 PERMUTATIONS
AND COMBINATIONS

5.1 The Basic Counting  Determine the number of ways of performing New Additional 3 weeks
Principle several tasks in succession by using the basic Mathematics Chapter 13
counting principle. Additional Mathematics
Chapter 11
5.2 Notation of n Factorial,  Use the notation of n! = n (n-1) (n-2) x . . . x 3 x
(n!) 2 x 1 or n (n-1)! http://www.themathpage.
[Note: 0! =1]. com/aPreCalc/permutatio
ns-
5.3 Permutation of n combinations.htm#perm
 Recognise a permutation as an arrangement of
Different objects in a definite order.
Objects
 Determine the number of permutations of n
different objects as n!.

5.4 Permutation of r n!
Objects From n  Evaluate
n
Pr = and apply the rule that
( n − r )!
Different Objects the number of permutations of r objects from n
n!
different objects is Pr =
n
.
( n − r )!

## 5.5 Permutation with  Solve simple problems on http://www.themathpage.

Restrictions arrangements/permutations with restrictions such com/aPreCalc/permutatio
as the arrangement of letters in a word beginning ns-combinations-
with a vowel, the number of 4-digit odd numbers, 2.htm#Cfactorial
etc.
5.6 Combinations Relate to the use of n
Cr
 Recognise a combination as any selection of in the Binomial
objects where the order of the objects is of no Expansion.
5.7 Combination of r concern.
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Objects From
n Different Objects n!
Evaluate C r = (n −r )! r! and apply the rule
n

that the number of combinations of r objects from n
different objects is n C r .
n
n Pr
 Know the relation, Cr =.
r!
 Solve miscellaneous problems.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## (Note: Stress on the need to distinguish between

permutations and combinations. Cases with
repetition of objects or with objects arranged in a
circle or involving both permutations and
combinations are excluded).
6 VECTORS IN TWO
DIMENSIONS

6.1 Basic Concepts  (Revision on vectors). Define a vector as a New Additional 3 weeks
directed line segment which has magnitude and Mathematics Chapter 23
direction. Give examples of vector quantities: Additional Mathematics
displacement, velocity and acceleration. Chapter 13
2  2 
 Know vector notation: AB =  3  , a or a =  3  . Remark: Students have
   
prerequisite knowledge
 Define equal vectors and zero vector. on Vectors from
 Define a negative vector as a vector having the Mathematics Syllabus D.
same magnitude but opposite in direction i.e.
BA = − AB .
6.2 Operations on Vectors

##  Perform addition of vectors by using the Triangle

Law and Parallelogram Law of Addition.
 Use vector diagram to show AB + BC = AC .
 Perform subtraction of vectors a – b as – (b – a)
using vector diagrams.
 Perform scalar multiplication of a vector.
(Show students that vector ka has a magnitude k
times that of vector a, by using examples that
vector 3a is actually a + a + a, etc.)
 Know that vector ka is parallel to vector a and is in
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the same direction as a if k is positive but is
opposite in direction if k is negative.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## 6.3 Magnitude of Vectors,  Use Pythagoras Theorem to find the magnitude of a

Unit vector.
Vectors and Parallel x
Vectors (If AB =   then AB = x 2 +y 2 .)
y
 Define unit vector as a vector with a magnitude of 1
unit.
(If OP is a unit vector, then OP =1 . )
 Find the unit vector in the same direction as a given
vector a.
1
(Required unit vector, â = a
.a .)

##  Define parallel vectors as two non-zero vectors a

and b having the same or opposite direction and
that a = kb.
 Know that if a = k b , then a = k b .
 Know that for two non-parallel vectors a and b:
pa+ qb = ra+ sb ⇔ p = r and q =s .
 Solve related problems.
6.4 Position Vectors
 Know position vectors as vectors which are
described relative to the origin O.
(e.g. the position of a point P with respect to an
origin O is indicated by the directed line segment
OP . Thus the vector OP or p is called the position
vector of P relative to O and OP =xi + yj where i
and j are unit vectors in the positive direction along
the x – axis and the
y – axis respectively. In column vector form,

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x
OP = 
y
 .)
 
 Find the magnitude of OP using the formula
OP = x 2 +y 2 .

## Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

6.4 Position Vectors  Find the unit vector in the direction of OP using the
OP xi + yj 1  
x
formula =
or 
 y.
OP x 2 +y 2 x + y2
2  
 Know that if a and b are the position vectors of
points A and B with respect to the origin, then AB =
b–a.
 Express given vectors in terms of given position
vectors and solve problems including finding
(i) the position vector of the midpoint M of the line
1
segment AB as OM = (a + b),
2
(ii) the position vector of point R given e.g.
2
AR = RC ,
3
(iii) the unit vector in the direction of AB .
 Know the term collinear points: If A, B and C are
three points lying on a straight line, then A, B and C
are collinear points.
 Use one of the equations AB = k BC or AB = k AC or
6.5 Miscellaneous AC = k BC to show that points A, B and C are
Problems on collinear.
Vectors
 Solve miscellaneous problems related to vectors.
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7 RELATIVE VELOCITY

7.1 Composition of  Understand that velocity is a vector quantity and so New Additional 5 weeks
Velocities the composition of two velocities results in a Mathematics Chapter 24
resultant velocity that has the same effect as the Additional Mathematics
two velocities combined and the resultant velocity Chapter 13
can be found by using the Parallelogram or Triangle
Law of Addition.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

## 7.2 Resolution of Velocities  Find the resultant velocity , vR of two given

velocities v1 and v2 where
(i) v1 is parallel to v2 by using the i or j direction,
(ii) v1 is perpendicular to v2 e.g. 3i and 4j by using
Pythagoras’ Theorem to find the magnitude and
tangent ratio to find the direction/bearing of the
resultant velocity,
(iii) v1 and v2 are in any direction by using
trigonometry e.g. v1 is 6 ms-1
°
on a bearing of 060 and v2 is 8 ms-1 due north-
east.

##  Understand that the reverse process of combining

two velocities(vectors) is resolving a velocity i.e.
“splitting” it into two perpendicular components,
usually in the i – j directions.
 Show that a velocity of magnitude V making an
angle of θ with the vertical can be resolved into
the components V sin θ i and V cos θ j.
 Resolve given velocities into the i – j components.
 Obtain the resultant of the two velocities e.g. given
°
in (iii) above, v1 is 6 ms-1 on a bearing of 060 and
v2 is 8 ms-1 due north-east by
- resolving each velocity as components v1 = 6 sin
° ° ° °
60 i + 6 cos 60 j and v2 = 8 sin 45 i + 8 cos 45 j ,
7.3 Introduction to Relative - adding the components giving vR = 10.853 i +
Velocity 8.657 j ,
- then finding the magnitude of vR and the
direction.
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(Suggestion: The method of resolution of velocities
into the i – j components to find the resultant
velocity is an alternative method for students who
have difficulty dealing with the direction of arrows
using trigonometry.)

##  Understand the concepts involving relative motion

of a moving object and a stationary object e.g. a
boy in a moving car looking at a tree, and relative
motion of two moving objects e.g. two cars
approaching each other, etc.

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Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

##  Know the term true (actual) velocity, e.g. v A , the http://webphysics.davids

true velocity of a moving object A relative to the on.edu/physlet_resources
Earth. /bu_semester1/c4_relv1D
 Know the term relative (apparent) velocity, e.g. v A/B .html
, the velocity of a moving object A relative to a
moving object B (observer). http://www.saburchill.co
7.4 Relative Motion
m/physics/chapters/0083
.html
 Use relative velocity equation,
vA / B = vA − vB to solve problems involving motion
7.5 Relative Velocity - along a straight line and non parallel motion.
Motion in a Current and
Motion in the Air  Use the alternative equation, vA = vA / B + vB .

##  Know the terms actual path, track, actual speed,

ground speed, course, speed in still water, speed in
still air, air speed and speed of current.
(Teachers may use the examples of a man rowing a
boat on a river and an aircraft flying in the wind.
Show, using vector diagrams, the composition of the
velocities and use the parallelogram law to get the
resultant velocity.)
 Use the relative velocity equation:
v A/W + v w = v A
where v A / W is the velocity of aircraft relative to the
wind or the velocity of boat relative to water
current, v w is the velocity of the wind or water
current, and v A is the true velocity of the aircraft or
boat.
 Solve problems involving motion in the water such
as river crossing problems, like finding:

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- the actual velocity across the river,
- the time taken to cross the river,
- the angle of motion,
- the resultant speed of the boat on return journey,
etc.
 Solve problems involving motion of aircraft in the
air:
- find the true velocity and direction (ground speed
and track),
- find the course and time taken for the journey,
- find the course of outward and return journey,
by drawing vector diagrams and using the
trigonometry method.

## Topic Learning Outcomes Resources/Activities Time

7.5 Relative Velocity - (Caution: Students must be aware that the wind
Motion in a Current and velocity is usually given from the direction it
Motion in the Air is blowing from, e.g. if the wind is blowing from
east, then the direction of the vector is towards
west.)
7.6 Relative Motion of Two
Moving  Define the apparent path of A relative to B as the
Objects path that would be taken by A as observed by B if B
is assumed to be stationary.
(Suggestion: Plot actual positions at regular time
intervals to show the apparent path of A relative to
B.)
 Know that for interception or collision to
occur, the apparent path of A relative to B must be
parallel to AoBo where Ao and Bo are the given initial
positions of A and B i.e. vA / B is parallel to AoBo.
 Solve problems on relative motion of two moving
objects.
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 Solve problems involving interception (collision) of
two moving objects (but not closest approach).

Text books
1 New Additional Mathematics (Ho Soo Thong & Khor Nyak Hiong)
2 Additional Mathematics (H H Heng, JF Talbert)

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