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SEMESTER 1 2013-2014


Sources Of Energy

ARW Group No



Name of Student

Matric Number


Bong Kuek Kong



Leong Geok Teng



Sim Joo Ern


Assignment deadline

12th November 2014

Assignment submitted on

12th November 2014


38) Therefore. Electricity can be produced by using solar thermal energy through thermodynamics process and this can be achieved by concentrating sunlight with mirrors (Ngo. (p. Renewable energy is further divided into five components of energy which are solar energy. 2008). 36). In general. 2005). drive a water pump and run a refrigerator to preserve drugs and vaccines. Photovoltaic is a decentralised energy source. useful in sunny areas for relatively low energy requirements. Windmills are used to generate the electricity as the wind blade that rotated by the wind force. Ngo (2010) explains that Photovoltaic is a very useful source of energy for remote areas because it saves the need the need to invest in kilometres of electric cable.Sources Of Energy There are a lot of energy sources on earth. solar energy is considered as renewable energy that can benefit to society. energy sources can be categorized into two major components that are renewable energy and non-renewable energy. The alternator will rotate once the wind blade is rotating. Wind energy . It can provide some lighting. Photovoltaic is the solar electric technology that converts sunlight directly into electrical energy (Fanchi. 82). wind energy. Another renewable energy is wind energy. The rotating alternator will produce electricity. Fossil fuel and nuclear power are classified under non-renewable energy (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).solar thermal and photovoltaic energy” (p. 2010). Solar thermal is defined as mechanical systems that used to collect and concentrate solar energy (Fanchi.7 GW of wind capacity from its installations which is consider as the largest wind market size in the world. Ngo (2010) stated that “solar energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity. the wind energy generator became more efficient in 1850 with the appearance of dynamo (Ngo.or any equipment that needs only around 1kWh/day. The first type of renewable energy is solar energy. Fanchi (2005) explain that “the solar heating system uses solar energy to heat a liquid coolant and the heat exchanger uses heat from liquid coolant such as water or anti-freeze in the primary circulation to heat water in the secondary circulation system” (p. biomass energy and geothermal energy. World Wind Energy Association stated that in June 2012. This concept converting wind energy to electrical energy is found out by Lord Kelvin in 1802. These sources are important to human for certain propose. 2005). China has around 67. hydro energy. The largest contribution of energy sources to human is to generate electricity.

uranium-238. According to Ngo (2010). It is a source of electrical power. Next. 2005). Biomass material can be burned directly or converted into fuels (Franchi. Another advantage of biomass energy is its availability due to the energy is stored in the material until it is needed compared to other renewable energy such as wind energy that need to depend to environmental condition (Franch. Biomass is the fourth type of renewable energy. Geothermal energy has a low impact on the environment because geothermal power plants have very low gaseous . however. food waste and industrial waste. Hydro energy required a dam to retain the water in a natural. So. hydro energy is also one of the renewable energy. the primary form of energy is potential (Sorensen. the potential energy of the river water also increase. 2010). 2008).required a lot of cost for the installation the windmills and maintenance is needed after a period of time to maintain the efficient the power output. There are many sources of biomass energy such as virgin wood. Although (Ngo. the river water is release from the dam and flow pass through the turbine blade. Lastly the electricity is produce through the alternator (Ngo. The rotation of the turbine blade generates mechanical energy. Another type of renewable energy is geothermal energy. The construction of dam has bring negative impact to environment such as water pollution. Geothermal energy is the heat comes from the Earth. The dams are usually built near to the river. To generate the electricity. the main component of generating electricity from hydro is turbine blade which is located inside the dam. 2010). The material of the Earth’s crush undergoes the process of cooling down from an initial high temperature. agricultural residues. and thorium and potassium isotope 40 K. The steam that produced by the burning of the biomass material can be used to generate electricity. 2010). The temperature increases as go deeper to the Earth’s crush (Ngo. 2010). the final balance of biomass is considered as positive one compared to burning of fossil fuel. Ethanol fuel is an example of biomass fuel which added together with gasoline for the use in internal combustion engines (Franch. As the river water inside the dam is rising. its accumulation is sufficient to generate heat that can be collected and stored in the underground aquifers (Ngo. The heat is caused by radioactive disintegration of atomic nuclei. 2010). biomass is defined as energy that stored in biological material which derived from living organisms. Ngo (2010) explains that although the burning of biomass material will produce carbon dioxide which contributes to the growth of greenhouse effect. Apart from that. mainly from uranium-235. 2010).

2012). 2010). It is provided by nuclear fission whereby a large and unstable nucleus splits into two smaller fragments that will release a lot of energy (Franch. 2006). it is reinjected underground to avoid contamination of surface and ground water aquifers.71). 2006). Those wastes lead to health problems among people who exposed to it such as cancers. Oil forms from dispersed organic material. 2012). Fossil fuels are a popular energy sources because have been found in tremendous quantities and relatively cheaper than some other energy sources (Gimpel. U-235 which is a non-renewable resource. nuclear energy is nonrenewable energy which will cause unsafe and unrealisable environment to living organism. oil. The main component used in nuclear power station is a rare type of uranium. Ngo (2001) defined that “radioactive waste is made up of matter which cannot be used further and whose level of radioactivity does not allow it to be directly disposed of in the environment” (p. . It only emits little carbon dioxide when compared with other power generation technologies that emit carbon dioxide during operation (DiPippo. In certain cases. The gas is either gather in large volume above the oil or migrate through a very long distance that causing it no longer associated with the oil or coal deposit that produce it (Aubrecht. The first type of non-renewable energy is fossil fuel. Natural gas is known as methane. Nuclear power station is build based on nuclear fission concept to generate electricity. There is a difference between natural gas with coal and oil. 2006). such as organic sediment on a continental shelf which is buried by geological processes and. Coal remains at the same place and the oil migration is heated by caps impermeable to liquid (Aubrecht. Nuclear energy is under non-renewable energy category. 2006).emissions. Hence. it is subjected to a high heat and pressure at the deep underground (Aubrecht. There are three main types of fossil fuels which are coal. Nuclear energy does not contribute to greenhouse effect but will produce radioactive wastes. It is formed in association with coal and oil by the similar processes (Aubrecht. (DiPippo. The waste water from the geothermal exploitation that contains salts and heavy metals cannot be expelled at the surface. Therefore. Coal is formed from geological processes that involve the burying of flora and fauna under anaerobic condition in swamps (Aubrecht. 2010). 2006). these caps are permeable to gas and migrate through pores in the rock containing coal or oil. and natural gas.

Appendix 1 Energy NonRenewable Renewable Solar Wind Water Biomass Geothermal Figure 1. Sources of energy Fossil Fuels Nuclear Power .

environmental.Reference Aubrecht. Brown. San Diego. G. Retrieved from http://news. technologies and the environment. M. (2013). (2005). DiPippo.). Gimpel.CA: Academic Press . Energy. (2006). Sorensen. C. (2010). J. Renewable energy physics. San Francisco. engineering. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann Fanchi. case studies and environmental impact (3rd ed.). Energy in the 21st century. R. applications. (2012) Geothermal power plants: principles. NJ: World Scientific Publishing Company. C. environmental. E. Top 10 Countries on wind power. J. resources.discovery. London. Farmington Hills. Energy. World energy resources. A. Energy physical. CA: Pearson Addison Wesley. Retrieved from nergy+sources&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9X5EVO21HYuQuQTwq4CwBA&ved=0CEYQ6 AEwBg#v=onepage&q=energy%20sources&f=false Danigelis. (2010). and social impact (3rd ed. MI: Lucent Books Ngo. Oxford. (2002). (2010). : Hackensack. B. UK: The Institution Of Engineering And Technology. economics & planning (4th ed. D.).com.