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Part 2: Country Profiles

Nicaragua
Key Demographic and Economic Indicators

Gender Gap Index 2014


Rank

GDP (US$ billions)..................................................................................8.31


GDP (PPP) per capita (constant 2011, international $)..........................4,293
Total population (millions)......................................................................6.08
Population growth (%)...........................................................................1.47
Overall population sex ratio (male/female).............................................0.98

Score

6 0.789

(out of 142 countries)

(0.00 = inequality, 1.00 = equality)



Rank Score

FemaleSample to-male
average
Female
Male
ratio

Country Score Card


ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION AND OPPORTUNITY......... 95 0.635 0.596

Female-to-male ratio

Labour force participation.......................................116 0.60 0.67 49 82 0.60


Wage equality for similar work (survey)....................93 0.61 0.61 0.61
Estimated earned income (PPP US$).......................112 0.46 0.53 2,758
5,933 0.46
Legislators, senior officials and managers................20 0.69 0.27 41 59 0.69
Professional and technical workers............................1 1.00 0.65 51 49 1.05
0.00 = INEQUALITY

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT.....................................33 1.000 0.935

1.00 = EQUALITY

1.50

1.00 = EQUALITY

1.50

1.00 = EQUALITY

1.50

1.00 = EQUALITY

1.50

Female-to-male ratio

Literacy rate.............................................................56 1.00 0.87 78 78 1.00


Enrolment in primary education..................................1 1.00 0.94 92 91 1.01
Enrolment in secondary education..............................1 1.00 0.62 49 42 1.14
Enrolment in tertiary education...................................1 1.00 0.88 19 17 1.09
0.00 = INEQUALITY

HEALTH AND SURVIVAL..............................................1 0.980 0.960

Female-to-male ratio

Sex ratio at birth (female/male)..................................1 0.94 0.92 0.95


Healthy life expectancy...............................................1 1.06 1.04 66 61 1.08
0.00 = INEQUALITY

POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT.......................................4 0.544 0.214

Female-to-male ratio

Women in parliament..................................................7 0.74 0.25 42 58 0.74


Women in ministerial positions...................................1 1.00 0.20 57 43 1.33
Years with female head of state (last 50)..................15 0.16 0.20

7 43 0.16
0.00 = INEQUALITY

Country score within income group

Country score vs sample average


Economy

1.0

1.00
0.80

0.8

0.60
0.40

0.6

0.20

Health

Education

0.00

0.4

0.2

0.0

Overall Index

Economy

Education

Health

n maxmin range of income group l country score


income group average

The Global Gender Gap Report 2014

Politics

country score

Politics

sample average

0.00 = inequality
1.00 = equality

Part 2: Country Profiles

Nicaragua

ECONOMIC
EDUCATIONAL
HEALTH AND
POLITICAL

OVERALL PARTICIPATION ATTAINMENT SURVIVAL EMPOWERMENT

Rank Score

Gender Gap Index 2014 (out of 142 countries)

6 0.789

Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score

95 0.635

33 1.000

1 0.980

Rank Score

4 0.544

Gender Gap Index 2013 (out of 136 countries)

10

0.771

91

0.622

28

1.000

55

0.976

0.489

Gender Gap Index 2012 (out of 135 countries)

0.770

88

0.615

23

1.000

58

0.976

0.489

Gender Gap Index 2011 (out of 135 countries)

27

0.725

79

0.619

25

1.000

58

0.976

21

0.304

Gender Gap Index 2010 (out of 134 countries)

30

0.718

94

0.591

24

1.000

57

0.976

19

0.304

Gender Gap Index 2009 (out of 134 countries)

49

0.700

104

0.563

1.000

65

0.976

25

0.262

Gender Gap Index 2008 (out of 130 countries)

71

0.675

117

0.461

1.000

62

0.976

23

0.262

Gender Gap Index 2007 (out of 128 countries)

90

0.646

117

0.434

51

0.991

60

0.976

28

0.181

Gender Gap Index 2006 (out of 115 countries)

62

0.657

101

0.463

40

0.994

50

0.978

25

0.192

Trend 20062014
1.0
Overall Index
Economic Participation and Opportunity
Educational Attainment
Health and Survival
Political Empowerment

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Selected contextual data


EMPLOYMENT AND LEADERSHIP
Female, male adult unemployment rate
(as % of female, male labour force)............................................................8.8, 7.4
Female, male part-time employment
(as % of total female, male employment)...............................................43.0, 21.0
Female, male workers in informal employment
(as % of non-agricultural employment)........................................................49, 51
Share of women employed in the non-agricultural sector
(% of total non-agricultural employment).......................................................... 38
Average minutes spent per day on unpaid work (female, male)...................... ,
Percentage of women, men with an account
at a formal financial institution.....................................................................13, 16
Ability of women to rise to positions of enterprise leadership1............................. 4.2
Firms with female top managers (% of firms)....................................................... 32
Share of women on boards of listed companies (%).............................................
Firms with female participation in ownership (% of firms).................................... 62
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH
Percentage of Internet users (female, male).................................................... ,
Women, men who used a mobile phone in the last 12 months (%)................. ,
Percentage of tertiary-level STEM students (female, male)............................. ,
Percentage of tertiary-level STEM graduates (female, male)........................... ,
Percentage of PhD graduates (female, male).................................................. ,
Percentage of total R&D personnel (FTE) (female, male)................................. ,
HEALTH
Cardiovascular disease age-standardized deaths
per 100,000 (female, male)................................................................197.8, 262.0
Cancer age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male),
excl. non-melanoma skin cancer............................................................90.2, 98.0
Diabetes age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male).................47.7, 41.4
Respiratory diseases age-standardized deaths
per 100,000 (female, male)....................................................................29.1, 41.4
HIV age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male)..............................1.4, 4.6
Malaria age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male).......................0.0, 0.0
Tuberculosis age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male)................3.1, 6.8
Malnutrition prev., weight for age (female, male) (% of children <5)..............5.9, 5.6

MARRIAGE AND CHILDBEARING


Singulate mean age at marriage (years) (female, male).................................. 21,
Early marriage (% of women aged 15-19)............................................................ 28
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)2................................100 [68-160]
Total fertility rate (children per women)............................................................... 2.5
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)............................. 100.8
Mean age of women at the birth of the first child.................................................
Antenatal care coverage, at least one visit (%)..................................................... 95
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%).................................................... 88
Contraceptive prevalence (% of married women or in-union)................................ 72
Legislation permitting abortion to preserve a womans physical health................. No
CHILDCARE ECOSYSTEM
Length of maternity leave (calendar days)............................................................ 84
Maternity leave benefits
(% of wages paid in covered period)............................................................... 100
Provider of maternity benefits.......................................... Employer and Government
Length of paternity leave (calendar days).............................................................
Paternity leave benefits
(% of wages paid in covered period).................................................................
Provider of paternity benefits................................................................................
RIGHTS AND NORMS
Parental authority in marriage3............................................................................ 0.5
Parental authority after divorce3.......................................................................... 0.5
Female genital mutilation (% of women aged 15-49).......................................... 0.0
Existence of legislation punishing acts of violence
against women in case of domestic violence3.................................................. 0.3
Existence of legislation prohibiting gender-based discrimination..........................
Inheritance rights of daughters3.......................................................................... 0.5
Womens access to land ownership3................................................................... 0.5
Womens access to credit3.................................................................................. 0.0
Womens access to property other than land3..................................................... 0.0
Year women received right to vote.................................................................... 1950
Quota type (single/lower house).................................... Legislated Candidate Quotas
Voluntary political party quotas............................................................................ Yes

1 Survey data, responses on a 1-to-7 scale (1 = worst score, 7 = best score)


2 Bracketed numbers show the range between the uncertainties, estimated to contain the true maternal mortality ratio with a 95% probability
3 Data on a 0-to-1 scale (1 = worst score, 0 = best score)
The Global Gender Gap Report 2014