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Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni


I
diogene laertelis wignSi `gamoCenil
filosofosTa cxovrebis, moZRvrebaTa da
gamonaTqvamTa Sesaxeb~ vkiTxulobT:
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis
Tbilisis saxelmwifo
universitetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Suamdinaruli miTologia; qarTuli miTologia
I, jvari da saymo; Zveli
aRTqmis wuTisofeli;
xuTwigneulis Targmaneba.
interesTa sfero:
qarTuli folklori,
mwerloba, miTologia;
qristianuli Teologia;
Zveli aRTqma; asiriologia, semitologia.

`roca platoni ideebis Sesaxeb msjelobda


da saxels urCevda magidobas (trapeZotes)
da Tasobas (kaTotes), diogenma Tqva: me, platon,
magidas da Tass ki vxedav, magram magidobas da
Tasobas vera. platonma ki: asea, magidisa da
Tasis dasanaxad Tvalebi gaqvs, magram magidobisa
da Tasobis saxilvelad goneba ar gaqvs~
[diogene: 230].

platonis mosaubre es diogeni is


saxelganTqmuli diogenia, romelmac im erTi
cnobili incidentis Semdeg, romelic aseve
diogene laertels aqvs moTxrobili amave
wignSi, araTu Tasobis, aramed Tavad Tasis
xilvac aRukveTa Tavs. bavSvis danaxvaze,
romelic peSviT svamda wyals, diogenma
moisrola Tasi, raTa aRar exila igi da
Tasobac mas gadaayola. am erTi ukanaskneli
da kidev sxva bevri sagnis amoRebiT,
erTaderTi kasris amara darCenilma,
sagrZnoblad gaaRariba yofa da, masTan erTad,
Sesabamisi ideaTa samyaro.
am dialogidan da diogenis cnobili
incidentidan _ maTi dakavSirebis Sedegad
is azri unda gamovitanoT, rom Tasobis
uaryofas aucileblobiT Tavad Tasis, rogorc

Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni

165

nivTis, uaryofa mosdevs. Tu nivTis sazrisi ucnobia, nivTic


kargavs aqtualobas da zedmeti xdeba. amave dros, platoni Tavisi
pasuxiT (ara aqvs mniSvneloba namdvilad man warmoTqva es Tu
miaweres) adamianis erTgvar gansazRvrebasac iZleva: adamiani gonieri
arsebaa, romelsac ideebis samyaros wvdomis unari aqvs. diogenis
yoveli mcdeloba ki mimarTulia iqiTken, rom uaryos Tavis TavSi
adamianoba, adamianis is saxe, romelic mis kulturaSi Camoyalibda.
diogeni aarsebs axali adamianis saxes `faseulobaTa gadafasebiT~,
romelic ar scnobs nivTebs, zedmetad miaCnia isini. da, kerZod, am
nivTs _ Tass, garkveuli daniSnulebis mqone, m. haidegeris
terminologiiT [haidegeri] xelsawyos (Zeuge) misi xelidan wasuls,
bunebis qmnileba Seenacvla. Tumca peSvi _ `erTmaneTs midebuli
orive xelis mtevani, WurWlis formiseburad moxrili, rom Sig
raime Caidos an Caisxas~ [qegl VI:178] _ ar CaiTvleba arc liton
nivTad, arc srulyofil xelsawyod, is mainc adamianis qmnilebaa.
magram peSvs, adamianis qmnilebas, damoukidebeli arseboba ara aqvs,
igi, rogorc adamianis nawili, romelic periodulad iqmneba da
qreba, moklebulia nivTobas, rom artefaqtad miviCnioT.
SeniSvna 1.
bunebrivi wyarodan wyurvilis mosaklavad adamianisTvis peSvic
sakmarisia. magram Tasis, rogorc yoveli WurWlis, aucilebloba
Cndeba mas Semdeg, ufro sworad ki, imasTan erTad, rac mis yofaSi
Semodis kulturis produqti, sasmeli (Rvino, ludi), romelic
Casayeneblad mudmiv WurWels da aseve misi Sesmis mudmiv xelsawyos,
rogoric aris Tasi, saWiroebs. Tavis genezisSi Tasi ara mxolod
yofiTi nivTia, aramed sakultoc, rac TvalsaCinoa Tundac erTi
kulturis farglebSi [kiknaZe:88-95].
SeniSvna 2.
peSvs, Tavisi konfiguraciiT da daniSnulebiT Tasis arqeti ps,
Tu sakulto fenomenad ver miviCnevT, mis erTgvar sakralur statuss
ver uarvyobT, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT maTxovrobis metafizikur sazriss
Zvel kulturebSi. gawvdili peSvi dRemde rCeba religiur da yofiT
praqtikaSi wyalobis gamoTxovis erTaderT niSnad.
Tu diogene kacobriobis uSores warsulamde anu im sawyisamde
daeSva, roca peSvidan xelsawyo Tasi warmoSobiliyo jer kidev ar
iyo, arsebobs teqsti, sadac peSvic ar aris gamoyenebuli, Tumca
mosalodneli iyo. Tu diogene ramodenime xnis Semdeg vinmes wabaZviT
uars ityoda xelis mtevnebis am spontanur moZraobazec, romelic

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qmnis peSvs (rogorc peSvma Tasis forma Seqmna), es, cxadia, ar


iqneboda Cadenili im motiviT, rogorc `msajulTa wignSi~ Caidines
meomrebma.
`adga diliT ierobaali, igive gedeoni, agreTve
masTan myofi mTeli xalxi, da qarodis xevSi
dabanakda. midianis banaki misgan CrdiloeTiT iyo,
mores borcvTan, vakeze. uTxra ufalma gedeons: Zalze
bevria xalxi. ar Cavagdeb amaT xelSi midians, rom
ar gamididguldes israeli, ar Tqvas, Cemma xelma
mixsnao. amitom gamoucxade xalxs da uTxari: vinc
SeSinebulia da kankalebs, ukan gabrundes, wavides
galaadis mTidan. ocdaori aTasi kaci ukan gabrunda,
xolo aTi aTasi darCa. uTxra ufalma gedeons:
mainc bevria xalxi. wyalze Caiyvane da iq gamogirCev
maT. viszec getyvi, gamogyves-meTqi, is gamogyves. viszec
getyvi, nu gamogyveba-meTqi, nu gamogyveba. da Caiyvana
man xalxi wyalze. uTxra ufalma gedeons: vinc eniT
Sesvleps wyals, rogorc ZaRlebi svlepen, calke
daayene, agreTve isinic, vinc Caimuxlebs da ise dalevs.
eniT msvlepelTa ricxvi samasi iyo, danarCenma xalxma
Caimuxla da ise dalia wyali. uTxra ufalma gedeons:
samasi msvlepeliT gixsniT da xelSi CagagdebinebT
midians, danarCeni xalxi Sin wavides~ (msaj. 7:1-7).
gasagebia, meomarTa umciresi raodenobis datovebiT RmerTs
surda, eCvenebina, rom gamarjveba israels ara Zalis simravlem, aramed
RvTiurma Carevam moutana. magram ismis kiTxva: risi niSani iyo
wylis ZaRliviT svlepa samasi meomris mier da ratom iqna es
samasi msvlepeli arCeuli gasamarjveblad? SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom
xalxis es kategoria _ ZaRliviT msvlepelni _ im zRvrze imyofeba,
romlis qvemoT adamiani, rogorc adamiani, wyvets arsebobas. brZola
ki adamianebis saqmianobaa, risTvisac ZaRlebi sruliad gamousadegarni
arian. meore mxriv, Tumca msvlepelni rCebian adamianebad, magram
iseTebad, rogornic TavianTi sulmokleobis gamo aseve sruliad
gamousadegarni arian brZolisaTvis. magram ufali maTi saSualebiT
imarjvebs.

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167

SeniSvna 1.
SesaZlebelia msvlepelTa poziciis sxvagvari inerpretaciac,
Tumca es iqneba adamianuri TvalTaxedva. msvlepelni anu uTasoni,
rogorc barbarosni, upiratesoben brZolaSi kulturiT ganazebul
adamianebze, romlebic adamianuri wesebiT iqcevian: Caimuxleben, iaraRs
gverdze dadeben, raTa xeli gaiTavisuflon Tasis asaRebad an peSvis
Sesaqmnelad, rom wyali adamianurad Sesvan. maT omis pirobebSic ar
aviwydebaT es wesi. magram maTi iaraRi Tundac erTi wamiTac
upatronod devs miwaze, rasac msvlepeli ar dauSvebs: iaraRi xelSi
CabRujuli aqvs da svleps wyals. mxolod aseTni imarjveben.
SeniSvna 2.
diogene sinopelis cxovrebaSi konceptualur mniSvnelobas
iZens ZaRlis Tema, rac, erTi mxriv, ganpirobebulia im skolis
saxelwodebis etimologiiT, romlis saukeTeso warmomadgeneli Tavad
iyo. SesaZloa, kynikos ar ikiTxebodes, rogorc `ZaRluri~ da sruliad
sxva Sinaarsi Caido masSi, roca es termini Seiqmna, magram aravis,
TviT diogenesac, es ar gausaCivrebia, piriqiT, daeTanxma, ZaRli rom
uwodes, da aitaca da ZaRli Tavisi cxovrebis stilis simbolod
aqcia. da Tumca igi ambobda, rom mas surs, araTu hgavdes ZaRls,
aramed iyos ZaRli, yovelgvari simbolizmis gareSe, mainc mTeli
misi cxovreba da misi yoveli saqcieli simboluri iyo. misma
konkretulma realurma saqmianobam, monetebis yalbismqmnelobam,
`faseulobaTa gadafasebis~ simboluri saxe miiRo. adamiani ZaRlad
gadafasda. kulturuli cxovrebis pirobiTobas (romelic Tavisi
bunebiT simboluria) ZaRluri cxovrebis pirobiToba Seunacvla.
adamianobaze uari iTqva adamianisve saxeliT. roca aleqsandre
makedonelis sityvebs `me didi mefe aleqsandre var~, man miugo me
ki ZaRli diogene varo~, es adamianobis gamowveva iyo isev da isev
adamianobis poziciidan. is ambobs amiT, rom me ZaRli var da
srulyofilad vasruleb ZaRlobas, ara ise, rogorc Tqven adamianebi
_ adamianobas. roca Zvali gadaugdes, rogorc ZaRls, man ZaRliviT
daaSarda Zvals [diogene:228]. es epataJi iyo, romelic TavisTavad
simboluri saqcielia da qcevis am simbolizmSi sinopeli diogene
Zveli aRTqmis winaswarmetyvelebs gvagonebs, romlebic xalxis
darwmunebas, roca sityva aRar Wrida, igavur-simboluri qceviT
cdilobdnen.
diogene amayad uwodebs Tavs `upolisos~ (berZn. apolis), rac
gulisxmobs berZnul polisSi istoriulad dagrovebul yvela im

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kulturul faseulobaTa uaryofas, romlebic berZnuli polisis


sazriss, rogorc istoriul monapovars, Seadgens. ramdenadac diogene
upolisoa, imdenadve uTasoa. elinuri civilizaciis dasasruls,
elini diogene uaryofs poliss, adamianuri Tanacxovrebis umaRles
formas, romliTac elini emijneboda danarCen barbarosul samyaros.
es sazRvari TiTqos waSlilia kulturul nivTTa uaryofiT, magram
ideaTa samyaro uxilavad myofobs mis caze, rac mentalur
barbarosobaSi gadavardnas ar anebebs. igi rCeba filosofosad.
aristoteles cnobil debulebas _ `is, vinc Tavisi bunebis da
ara raRac SemTxvevis gamo cxovrobs polisis gareSe, an zneobrivad
moumwifebeli arsebaa an zekaci~ (politeia 1253a), Tu diogeneze
SevamowmebT, unda vifiqroT, rom mas Tavi umwifarad aramc da aramc
ar unda mieCnia (diogeni boloa, ara dasawyisi). diogenes mcdelobaSi,
Seicvalos buneba anu bunebiT upoliso (da uTaso) gaxdes, zekacobis
pretenzia Cans. mas surs iyos zekacic da bavSvic, romelic zekacis
meore mxarea da romlis qceva WeSmaritebas RaRadebda mis TvalSi.
am konteqstSi mis pasuxSi aleqsandresadmi `me ZaRli diogene var~
hubrisis gamoxatuleba unda davinaxoT. SesaZloa, marTlac am
cxovelis saxeli zeironiiT zekacze mianiSnebdes. kasris binadris
paradoqsuli yofa da azrovneba am varauds ar gamoricxavs.
II
diogene eTxoveba imas, riTac, SesaZlebelia, adamianma adamianuri
cxovreba daiwyo. Tu diogenesTvis Tasma amowura Tavisi Tavi,
Suamdinarul eposSi igi Tavidan iwyebs Tavis saqmes. velebidan
mosul naxevarmxec enqidus `galavniani uruqis~ saxiT polisis
povnis gzaze, gzis dasawyisSi, rac misi gankacebis gzaa (romelsac
ukuqceviT gaivlis diogeni), Tasi elodeba.
igema enqidum Wamadi ZRomamde,
sasmeli Sesva _ Svidi Tasi.
am aqtis Semdeg, eposis Tanaxmad, msvlepelis gankaceba
dasrulebulia.

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III
ar unda iyos moulodneli, aramed sruliad kanonzomieri, Tu
romelime sakralur sazogadoebaSi Tasi adamianis simbolod
Segvxvdeba. indur religiur-ritualur, kerZod, dharmul teqstebSi
patra (~WurWeli~) marTal adamians, romelic imsaxurebs wyalobas,
xolo apatra (`uWurWlo~) _ codvils gulisxmobs, romelsac ara
aqvs mowyalebis gamoTxovis ufleba. orgzis SobilTa sazogadoebidan
gaZevebis (mokveTis) anu apatras mdgomareobaSi gadayvanis ceremoniali
Seicavs gasaZevebelisTvis uwmiduri wyliT savse WurWlis gadacemis
rituals. Tass gadmoayiraveben imis niSnad, rom adamians warTmeuli
aqvs misiT sargeblobis ufleba (TasiT wylis Sesma). roca codva
gamosyidulia, adamians aZleven WurWels wmida wyliT da igi
ubrundeba patras mdgomareobas [romanovi].
IV
ideebis nimuSad Tasis cnebis motana dasawyisSi moyvanil
anegdotSi SemTxveviTad ar CaiTvleba, Tu gavayolebT Tvals Tasis
biografias msoflio `anegdotebSi~, magram amjerad elinuri
msoflioTi vifarglebiT. marTalia, peSvi pragmatul-utilitaruli
TvalsazrisiT mainc asrulebs masze dakisrebul movalobas, da,
SesaZloa, ukeTesadac, ramdenadac adamiani bunebasTan siaxlovis
wyurviliT amjobinebs mis gamoyenebas da upiratesobas aZlevs mas
Tasis, rogorc xelovnuri xelsawyos, winaSe. es Cvens ganuSorebel
gamocdilebaSia. `peSvi movrkale TasiviT~ ambobs poeti (al. abaSeli)
da Cvenc araerTxel Segviqmnia am mizniT peSvi.
Tu diogenma Tasis gadagdebiT, Camoixsna adamianuri kulturis
tvirTi da ukanaskneli kavSiri gawyvita kulturul kacobriobasTan,
rogorsac misi qveyana warmoadgenda, ukacriel kunZulze gariyul
mis Tanamemamules filoktetes, gvelisgan dageslils, ukurnebeli
WrilobiT gawamebuls, romlis yivili cas swvdeboda, eyo Zala, rom
am kavSiris SesanarCuneblad xisgan Tasi gamoeCorkna (sofokle,
`filoktete~, 35-37).
orad-ori nivTi, rac aRmoaCines mis gamoqvabulSi, es iyo Tasi
da `kves-abedi~, romelTa xilvaze odisevsma warmoTqva fraza, romelic
SeiZleba gavigoT ase: `sul es aris misi nagrovebi (Tesaurisma)~?
an ase: `sul es aris mTeli misi ganZi~ (Tesaurisma)? arc erTi
gageba ironias moklebuli ar aris. ironia im adamianisa, romlis

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xelSi aRmarTuli niCabi naosnobis niSnad unda qceuliyo xalxebSi


(`odisea~) dadebiT Sinaarss iZens, radgan filoktetes Tasi, rac
unda Sors yofiliyo misi qveynis xelovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
srulyofilebisgan, da kidev, rac gamoqvabulSi aRmouCines, cecxlis
gaCenis xelsawyo (preion), marTlac ganZi ukacrieli kunZulis
binadarisTvis. is iyo niSani misi erTgulebisa kacobriobisadmi.
V
kvlav Cven Zvel avtors diogene laertels vubrundebiT. kiTxvaze
_ romelia adamianis xeliT damzadebuli is pirveli nivTi, kulturis
simbolod rom gamodges da itvirTos misi ani da hoe? _ vpasuxobT:
es Tasia, romelic Sors gascda Tavis pirvandel daniSnulebas,
yofiliyo wyurvilis mokvlis an, Tundac, msxverplSewirvis wmida
xelsawyo. man itvirTa imaze meti, risTvisac mowodebuli iyo.
Cveni avtori Talesis biografiaSi utrialebs Tasis Temas,
ramdenimegzis mogviTxrobs Tqmulebas sxvadasxva tradiciiT, sadac
centraluri figurebia Tasi da Svidi brZeni. sxva or TqmulebaSi
Tass samfexi enacvleba _ oriveni sakulto nivTebia [diogene:6264].
teqsti 1 (samfexi)
`amboben, ramdenime ionieli ymawvili kaci winaswar
SeuTanxmda mebadurebs, rom iyididnen imas, rasac maTi
bade amoaTrevda. badem samfexi amoaTria da Seiqna dava,
vis unda mikuTvneboda igi. bolos, miletelebma gagzavnes
samfexi delfoSi da RmerTma (apolonma) aseTi ganaCeni
gamoitana: `miletis naSiero, febis samfexze mekiTxebi?
aha, Cemi pasuxi: samfexi brZenTa Soris upirveless
ekuTvnis!~ samfexi gaugzavnes Taless, man sxva brZens
gadasca, sxvam _ mesames da ase solonamde. man ki ganacxada,
rom sibrZneSi RmerTia pirveli da samfexi delfoSi
gadagzavna~.
teqsti 2 (Tasi)
`magram kalimaxe `iambebSi~ sxvagvarad mogviTxrobs
ambavs, romelic meandrios miletelisgan gaugonia.
arkadielma vinme baTiklosma sikvdilis win dastova
Tasi (fiale) aseTi anderZiT: `mieciT mas, vinc brZenTa
Soris ukeTesia~. da misces Taless. Talesisgan

Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni

171

gadacemulma moiara yvela brZeni da kvlav Taless


daubrunda, Talesma ki apolon didimeels gaugzavna aseTi
warweriT: `mimarTva nelevsidebis mefes, feboss, Talesma,
romelmac orgzis damimsaxura jildod~. brZenidan
brZenamde ki Tass baTiklosis Ze firioni daatarebda~.
teqsti 3 (Tasi)
xolo evdoqsos knidieli da evanTes mileteli
amboben, rom kresosma (krezem) erT-erT Tavis megobars
Caabara oqros Tasi (poterion) elinTa Soris
ubrZenesisTvis gadasacemad. man igi Taless gadasca, Tasma
moiara yvela brZeni xilonamde, romelic piTias daekiTxa,
Tu vin iyo masze brZeni, man ki misani daasaxela...
teqsti 4 (samfexi)
`sxvani amboben, rom samfexi hefestom gamoWeda da
pelopss aCuqa mis qorwilze; pelopsisgan menelaoss
Sexvda da mere elenesTan erTad aleqsandrem (parisma)
moitaca, elenem igi kosis zRvaSi Caagdo sityvebiT `iomon
misTvis!~ gamoxda xani da ramdenime lebedoselma am mxareSi
mebadurebisgan maTi nadavli iyida da nadavlTan erTad
maT xelSi samfexic moxvda. daiwyes dava mebadurebTan
da imdeni idaves, rom kunZul kosamde mividnen. aq rom
ver morigdnen, TavianT metropolias milets mimarTes.
miletis elCobam nayofi ver gamoiRo da miletelebma
gailaSqres kosze. orive mxridan bevri daeca brZolaSi
da, bolos, orakulma brZana, samfexi yvelaze brZenisTvis
miecaT. maSin orive mxare SeTanxmda, rom samfexi
TalesisTvis miecaT. xolo mas Semdeg, rac samfexma yvela
brZeni Semoiara, Talesma igi didimeel apolons Seswira.
koselebs ki es ganaCeni emcnoT:
`ar Sewydeba ionielTa da koselTa omi,
vidre gadagdebuli zRvaSi samfexi, hefestos naxelavi,
ar moSordeba aqaurobas da ar Cabardeba kacs,
vinc uwyis yoveli _ rac iyo da rac iqneba~.
Tasis dawyvileba samfexTan moulodneli ar unda iyos,
ramdenadac Tqmulebis Tanaxmad maTi saboloo adgilsamyofeli
delfos samisnoa, sadac oriveni, rogorc sakulto nivTebi, Tav-

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TavianTi funqciiT, erTmaneTs avseben. magram am teqstebSi, romlebic


aseve erTmaneTis Semavsebelni arian, isini, rogorc sinonimebi, erTi
da imave funqciiT monawileoben.
es nivTebi sam etaps gadian am narativSi, romelsac aqvs miTosis
niSnebi, Tumca miTosad mas, SesaZloa, aravin miiCnevdes. nadavli,
romelSic garkveuli ganzraxviT zRvaSi gadagdebuli Tasi Tu samfexi
moyva, jer Tu megobarTa Soris Tanxmobis niSania, meore etapze
efemeruli davisa Tu xangrZlivi omis sagani xdeba (teqstebi 1-2),
_ roca is jer kidev Cveulebrivi nivTia, Tundac qmnileba, SesaZloa,
ganZic, _ raTa Tavdapirveli Tanxmoba ufro maRal safexurze aiyvanos,
vidre nivTi Tavis saboloo adgils i povides, risTvisac gamiznulia
igi. magram manamde is sxva funqcias asrulebs.
Tassa Tu samfexs erTi gza aqvT: Tavdapirvelad nivTieri
simdidris niSniT gamoCndebian narativSi, gansakuTrebiT, roca
miTosurad ganTqmuli krezes xelSi vxedavT erT maTgans da is
(Tasi) oqrosia (midieli mefis sabediswero niSanic es aris), an
samfexs, romelic ver iqneba oqrosi, rogorc cecxlTan saurTierTo
nivTi, magram miuxedavad amisa, rac, SesaZloa, abrkolebdes mis
gaTanabrebas Tasis, rogorc ZRvenis, simbolizmTan, mainc samfexma,
rogorc hefestos naxelavma, saqorwino saCuqris maRali statusi
daimsaxura da orakulis ganaCenis gamocxadebamde elenes wyevlas
emorCileba da omis sababi xdeba. narativis saboloo sazrisi ar
Seecvleba, imisda mixedviT, Tu ra Tavgadasavali aqvs Tassa Tu
samfexs _ zRvidan aris amoTreuli TevzebTan erTad, Tu yovelgvari
winaistoriuli peri petiebis gareSe, is mainc Seasrulebs Tavis
misias, anderZiT Tu danabarebiT gamoxatuls. am mxriv, klasikuria
Tavisi simartiviT da gamWvirvalobiT teqsti 1.
dasmulia es kiTxva _ vin aris yvelaze brZeni? _ rogorc
gamowveva da gamocda, da dasmulia igi zRvis siRrmeebidan, qveynierebis
arqedan, rogorc es Taless, mokvdavTa Soris upirveles brZens
miaCnda. Tass Tu samfexs daekisra misia, amoicnos yvelaze brZeni, da
nivTi mogzaurobs brZenidan brZenamde im gamomcdeli molodiniT,
rom romelime maTganis xelSi darCeba samudamod. magram ase ar
moxda.
Tasi gadaeca Taless, romelic miiCnies yvelaze brZenad, magram
Tavad Talesi aseTad ar miiCnevs Tavs, gadascems x-s (variantebSi
sxvaoben pirTa saxelebi), romelsac is Tavisze brZnad Seracxavs, es
ukanaskneli mis kvalze iqceva da yvela brZenis gamovlenis Semdeg
kvlav Taless ubrundeba. ras niSnavs es? Tu es narativi Svidi

Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni

173

brZenis gamovlenis miTosia, Tasi an samfexi is nivTia, romlis


meSveobiTac xdeba gamovlena. aq nivTi kravs wres, romelic mis
gareSe verasodes Seikvreboda, ganusazRvreli raodenobidan Svidis
arCeva ver moxdeboda. nivTi aq arCevis nivTieri sayrdenia.
Tasis pirvelma gadacemam amoarCia brZeni da axla TiToeul
brZens Tasi aZlevs Sanss amoarCios Tavisze brZeni. nivTi, rogorc
gamowvevis niSani, elis TiToeulisgan gadawyvetilebas. roca Tasi
pirvelad arCeulTan dabrundeba anu Seikvreba wre, aRmoCndeba, rom
TiToeuli maTgani erTmaneTze brZenia anu isini sibrZneSi Tanabarni
arian. swored am Tanamimdevruli arCeviT, roca erTmaneTs upiratesoba
mianiWes, daamtkices maT TavianTi sibrZne. ise moxda, rogorc platoni
werda `saxelmwifoSi~, rom Rirseuli da brZeni kaci ar cdilobs
aRematos Tavissave msgavss (saxelmwifo 350b). ricxvi Svidi amas
mianiSnebs. Svidi xom ar aris ricxvebis jami, is erTiani mTlianobaa,
romelic ar iSleba Semadgenlebad, romelTagan erTi naklebi iqneboda
meoreze. magram verc erTs ver davukargavT individualobas, ver
gavTqvefT erTmaneTSi, Tundac SvidSi: TiToeuli maTgani Seudareblad
unikaluria. magram Svidi TiToeul maTganze upiratesobs.
mas Semdeg, rac Svidi brZenis xelSi gaiara da yovel maTganSi
sibrZne damowma, Tasma unda Sewyvitos Tasoba, rogorc Tavdapirvelad
Cafiqrebulma xelsawyom. am wris Semoweris Semdeg, axali
gamocdilebiT gamdidrebuli, kidev ufro maRal safexurze adis
apolonis sakuTrebaSi. Tass (Tu samfexs) brZenTa ambavi miaqvs
apolonTan. apoloni ki Tavis mxriv adasturebs brZenTa
gadawyvetilebas.
SeniSvna
makari egvi ptels stumrad mosulma berma yurZeni miarTva.
makarim TavisTvis ver gaimeta yurZeni da mis axlo dayudebul
sneul bers gaugzavna. am bermac ar axlo xeli yurZens da sxva bers
gadaugzavna. is sxvac ase moiqca. da ase, am yurZnis mtevanma yvela
beri Semoiara, vinc ki axlo-maxlo eyuda.
Svidis aRmomCeni SeiZleba yofiliyo nebismieri sxva sagani Tu
nivTi, an sulieri arseba _ cxoveli (furi) Tu frinveli (mtredi),
rogorc SegviZlia analogiur daarsebis miTosebSi vixiloT, sadac
arsebani, rogorc RvTis nebis saukeTeso gamtarni, ar saWiroeben
Suamavals, gamZRols. Tassac da samfexsac SeeZlo mxolod RvTis
nebas yofiliyo minebebuli, rogorc analogiur SemTxvevebSi fSav-

174

zurab kiknaZe

xevsurul andrezebSi vadasturebT dinamiuri, damoukideblad moZravi


Tasis Tu sxva sagnebis mimarT. magram klasikuri ti pis elinuri
narativi ar cnobs TviTmoZravi nivTebis saswaulebriv gamoCenas
(`iudevelni moiTxoven saswaulebs da elinebi sibrZnes eZeben~, 1
kor. 1;22), amitomac teqsti 2 Tasis mimotanas brZenTa Soris
avalebs meanderZis baTiklosis vaJs. elinur racionalistur
warmosaxvas am miTosSi adamianuri agenti esaWiroeba, rac sruliad
zedmetia.
zemoT iTqva, rom im miznis aRsrulebaSi, risTvisac Tasi da
samfexi arian mowodebulni, es nivTebi semiotikuri sinonimebia,
magram ara absoluturi. Tass garkveuli upiratesoba aqvs, Tumca
Tu Sors wavalT, samfexi (tri pos) didad ar CamorCeba mas. samfexs
vxedavT im saCuqrebis TavSi, romelic odisevsma feakelTa karze
miiRo (od. XIII, 13), xolo `iliadaSi~ srbolaSi morkinalTa sapatio
jildoa (il. XI, 700), rac cxadyofs mis maRal niSnobriv statuss.
magram Tass, rogorc xelsawyos, erTi mniSvnelovani funqcia
gamoarCevs: masSi ziarebis siTxea Cayenebuli (miTosis Tanaxmad:
ambrosia `ukvdavebis sasmeli~), romelic aRrmavebs da ganamtkicebs
Svidis kavSirs.
VI
adamianis xeliT Seqmnil saganTa ierarqiaSi Tass namdvilad
umaRlesi safexuri uWiravs. Tavis mniSvnelobas adasturebs igi
ara mxolod gankacebis gzaze Semdgar enqidus xelSi, aramed misi
uarmyofeli diogenes saqcielSic da mravalnacadi odisevsis
ironiaSic, roca ganZad moixsenia filoktetes xeliT gamoCorknili
es WurWeli. rac unda martivi iyos es sayofacxovrebo nivTi,
xelsawyo, romelsac forma adamianis peSvma ukarnaxa, igi ver eteva
utilitaruli praqtikiT miCenil sazRvrebSi. mas SeuZlia moeqces
saganTa ierarqiis TavSi, rogorc svetis Tavze Semodgmul yabaxs.
yabaxis Tasi ukiduresad sublimirebulia, is Sors aris
gacdenili zRurbls, romelic misma avtorma miuCina, da mTlianad
Camocilebuli aqvs gamosadegoba. is ukve wmida niSania, niSani wmida
saxiT. magram ra aris is, risi niSanicaa igi? es aris raime siqveleze
dafuZnebuli Rirseba, romelic iseve gamousadegaria, rogorc misTvis
miRebuli jildo.

175

Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni

VII
roca Tasze vlaparakobT, ver gaveqceviT qristianul dasavleTSi
ganTqmul graalis Tass. Tu Tasoba Tavis mwvervals graalis TasSi
aRwevs, is sxvagvarad aRwevs, vidre Tasi yabaxisa an Tasi, rogorc
delfos sakulto xelsawyo. graalis Tasi aris Ziebis saganic da
maZieblis jildoc erTdroulad. Tu Tasis mxridan, misi poziciidan
SevxedavT, igi igi elis Tavis rCeuls: Ziebis dasawyisi arCevaa,
radgan mxolod rCeulTa xvedria Zieba da povna, rogorc jildo.
Tasi irCevs mas, vinc misi xilvis da mopovebis pirobebs akmayofilebs.
asea Tu ise, graalis Zieba srulyofilebis gzaze svlaa.
mociqulTa ricxvis Tanaziari mefe arturis is Tormeti
raindi, romelic mrgvali magidis (Tasis da, Tundac, samfexis
konfiguracias rom imeorebs) irgvliv aris Semokrebili, qristes
mociqulTa msgavsad, Tanabarni arian, amitomac am magidas ara aqvs
arc saTave, sadac maT Soris ukeTesi daikavebda adgils, da arc
bolo, sadac maT Soris udaresi dajdeboda. es Tormetic imave
Tvisebisaa, rac Svidi elinur TqmulebaSi, sadac aseve arsebobs
mrgvali magida, magram misi arseboba virtualuria, ufro droJamul
ganzomilebaSi myofobs uxilavad, vidre sivrculSi da, amrigad,
ufro magidis ideas _ magidobas gamoxatavs, ris saxilveladac
platonis TqmiT gonebis Tvalia aucilebeli. iseve, rogorc elinur
TqmulebaSi, aqac Tasi TiToeulis wilxvedrili unda iyos: TiToeuli
maTgani unda eziaros am Tasidan mas Semdeg, rac srulyofis gzas
gaivlis. qriste, romelsac xelT upyria barZimi (legendebSi graalis
Tasad wodebuli), Tanabrad aziarebs mociqulebs, rig-rigobiT rom
eaxlebian mas, erT mxares eqvsi, meore mxares eqvsi, rogorc mociqulTa
ziarebis xati gvisuraTebs (es scena gansxvavdeba ukanaskneli serobis
aRwerisgan). graalis legendis Sinagani logika karnaxobs narativis
ganviTarebas: TiToeulma am Tormetidan Tav-Tavisi unikaluri gza
unda gaiaros srulyofisken, raTa TiToeuli Tavis gzis bolodan
dabrundes mrgval magidasTan, sadac mas magidis SuagulSi dasvenebuli
safarvelaxdili Tasi, rogorc jildo RvawlisTvis, daxvdeba.
SeniSvna 1
magram legendis Tanaxmad, mefe arturs Tormetze gacilebiT
meti saxelovani raindi hyavda Tavis karze da metoqeoba maT Soris
iseTi mwvave iyo, rom man daamzadebina mrgvali magida, raTa
acilebuliyo dava imis Taobaze, Tu vin unda mjdariyo saTaveSi.

176

zurab kiknaZe

SeniSnulia, mrgvali magida imeorebs graalis tablas, romelic sxva


arafria, Tu ara tabla ukanaskneli serobisa. amitomac evalebodaT
mis garSemo msxdom raindebs iseTive harmonia yofiliyo
damkvidrebuli maT Soris, rogoric qristes mociqulTa Soris
sufevda [kavendiSi:53-54]. Tumca iyo SemTxveva, roca zebedes Svilebma,
iakobma da ioanem, mosTxoves iesos, rom Tavis didebaSi erTi Tavis
marjvniv daesva, meore _ marcxniv, ramac danarCeni aTis drtvinva
gamoiwvia (mr. 10:35-41).
SeniSvna 2
aSkaraa graalis Tqmulebis ara mxolod zogadqristianuli
arsi, aramed misi konkretuli gamoxatuleba, kerZod, evqaristiis
saidumlos saxiT. Cans, dasavleTis religiurma cnobierebam legendaSi
siuJeturad ganfina saRvTo liturgiis mTeli Sinaarsi. am saidumlos
Zlier da Rrma liturgiul gancdas ganumsWvalavs qristianobamdeli
warmoSobis kelturi Tqmuleba da sruliad gardauqmnia igi.
mociqulTa ricxvis Tanaziari is Tormeti raindi, romelic mrgvali
magidis (Tasis da, Tundac, samfexis konfiguracias rom imeorebs)
irgvliv aris Semokrebili da zneobriv srulyofas eswrafis, sxva
ra unda iyos, Tu ara eklesia, romlis zRvruli ricxvi `mociqulTa
dadgenilebebis~ Tanaxmad, Tormetia _ krebuli morwmuneTa barZimis
gamoCenis molodinSi, romelsac maT winaSe safarveli unda aexados,
rom saTiTaod eziaron `uxrwnelTa da cxovelsmyofelTa
saidumloTa~. Jamiswirvis mTeli ganmavloba maT gamobrZanebamde
xom ziarebisTvis samzadisia.
aseTia graalis legendis idea. magram mrgval magidasTan erTi
skami Tavisufalia. Tavisufali adgili SeiZleba niSnavdes an imas,
rom erTi wevri gasulia am wridan, rogorc iuda, romelmac datova
ukanaskneli serobis tabla, an imas, rom igi elis rCeuls. wre ar
aris dasrulebuli, is gawyvetilia erT adgilas da rCeba ase,
vidre ar mova rCeuli graaliT xelSi, raTa daikavos Tavisi kuTvnili
adgili da, amrigad, gaamrTelos gawyvetili wre.
literatura
gilgameSiani 1984: gilgameSiani, nakaduli, Tb., 1984.
diogene 1998: , ,
, ., , 1998.

177

Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni

kavendiSi 1983: Cavendish R. King Arthur and the Grail, Granada Publishing,
1983.
kiknaZe 1996: kiknaZe z. qarTuli miTologia I, jvari da saymo,
quTaisi, 1996.
romanovi 1980: . .
(
), 3, 1980.
qegl 1960: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, T. VI, Tb., 1960.
haidegeri 1992: haidegeri m. dasabami xelovnebis qmnilebisa,
germanulidan Targmna giorgi baramiZem, `goni~, Tb., 1992.
Zurab Kiknadze

A Cup, Diogenes and Seven Sages


In the hierarchy of things made by human hand a cup holds the highest
place. Its symbolic meaning is attested not only in the hands of Enkidu on his way
to becoming human (The Epic of Gilgamesh), but in the behavior of Diogenes of
Sinope, who denies culture and in the words of Odysseus as well, when he ironically
called treasure the vessel roughly made on the deserted island by Philoctetes
(Sophocles: Philoctetes), as the first and the last sign of culture.
However, primitive this everyday life utensil might seem, the form of which
was dictated by the cup of the hand, it could not be restricted to the limits of its
practical use.
In the narrative of Diogenes Laertius (Lives and Opinions of Eminent
Philosophers) the question is asked as a challenge and a test: who is the wisest
among the sages. The cup (or tripod) is assigned the mission to find the answer to
the question and this thing travels from one wise man to another in testing
expectation that it will remain in the hands of one of them.
But each wise man is given a chance to choose the person more wiser than
himself. The item as a sign of challenge, awaits from each of them the only right
decision. When the cup (or tripod) so circulated returns back to the first chosen
(Thales), it turns out that all of them are equally wise. By giving to each other the
priority, they proved their wisdom.