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zigmund froidi

1856 - 1939
avstrieli nevrologi, fsiqoanalitikuri skolis
damfuZnebeli. froidma cxovrebis didi nawili venaSi
gaatara, amitom misi saxeli mWirdodaa dakavSirebuli
am qalaqTan. cxovrebis bolos, nacistebisagan devnils,
londonSi mouxda gadasaxleba, sadac gardaicvala 1939
wels.
froidis fsiqoanalitikuri koncefcia or ZiriTad
princips efuZneba:
avtoris Sesaxeb

1. fsiqikur movlenebs aqvT sazrisi. isini ar xdeba SemTxveviT, meqaniku


rad _ Tu SecdomiT vambob saxels, arasworad vwer sityvas, vxedav absurdul
sizmars, saxlSi mrCeba gasaRebi _ yovelive amas aqvs sazrisi, romlis axsnac
SeiZleba;
2. Cveni fsiqikuri cxovrebis udidesi nawili mimdinareobs aracnobierad;
Zalian xSirad ar viciT, ra gvamoZravebs, ratom ganvicdiT ama Tu im emocias,
ratom vmoqmedebT ase da ara sxvagvarad. imitom, rom cnobiereba Cveni fsiqi
kis mxolod mcire nawilia. Cvens fsiqikur cxovrebaSi ganmsazRvrel rols
aracnobieri asrulebs. rogorc froidi ajamebs, `Cven ar varT baton-patrone
bi sakuTar saxlSi~.
fsiqoanalitikuri Teoriis es ori principi, iseve rogorc analizis sxvadasxva teqnika, romelTa saSualebiTac aracnobieris aRmoCena SegviZlia,
froidma gadmosca SromebSi: `sizmrebis interpretacia~ (1900), romelSic
sizmari ganxilulia rogorc `samefo gza aracnobierisaken~; `yoveldRiuri
cxovrebis fsiqopaTologia~ (1901) avtori asabuTebs, rom Cveni yoveldRiu
ri cxovreba yovel fexis nabijze avlens aracnobier motivaciaTa kvals; `sami
esse seqsualobis Teoriis Sesaxeb~ (1905) _ aq froidi gadmoscems seqsualobis
Sesaxeb sakuTar Teorias, romlis centrSic dgas oidiposis kompleqsi ero
tikul-agresiul ltolvaTa erToblioba, romelsac bavSvi ganicdis sakuTari
mSoblebis mimarT.
froidis didi mniSvneloba azrovnebis istoriaSi dakavSirebulia agreTve
mis mier normasa da normidan gadaxras Soris kavSiris axleburad gaazrebas
Tan. Tu froidamde aranormaluri qceva ganixileboda movlenad, romelsac
araferi hqonda saerTo normasTan, misi damsaxurebaa im kanonzomierebaTa Zie

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ba, romlebic safuZvlad udevs rogorc normalur, ise aranormalur fsiqikur


procesebs. amiT mkvlevarma dasabami misca fsiqikuri daavadebebis, sazrisis
mqone fenomenebad ganxilvas.
20-ian wlebSi froidma fsiqikis axali sqema SeimuSava, romelic samnawilia
nia: igi (germ. Es, ing. Id), me (germ. Ich, ing., Ego) da ze-me (germ. ber-Ich, ing.,

Super-ego). es sqema adamianis fsiqikis warmodgenis kidev erTi mcdelobaa, is


avsebs ufro adrindel, aseve samnawilian sqemas, romelic cnobierisagan, win
arecnobierisagan da aracnobierisgan Sedgeboda.
froidi Seecada, sakuTari fsiqoanalitikuri Teoria gamoeyenebina kul
turisa da sazogadoebis zogadi Teoriis asagebad. amas miuZRvna Semdegi
Sromebi: `totemi da tabu~(1913), `erTi iluziis momavali~ (1927), `kulturiT
daukmayofilebloba~ (1929) da sxv., romlebSic mocemulia socialuri insti
tutebis genezisis axsnis mcdeloba.
froidis koncefciam uzarmazari gavlena moaxdina ara mxolod XX sauku
nis fsiqologiasa da, zogadad, Teoriul azrovnebaze, aramed xelovnebisa da
kulturis ganviTarebazec. froidis Teoriisagan davalebul TeoretikosTa
da SemoqmedTa siaSi arian: karl-gustav iungi, herbert markuze, klod levistrosi, salvador dali, jeimz joisi, Tomas mani, d. h. lourensi, alfred hiCkoki, vudi aleni da mravali sxva.

* * *

avtoris Sesaxeb

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Tavi pirveli

sakuTar arsebiT saxelTa daviwyeba


`fsiqiatriisa da nevrologiis yovelTviuri Jurnalis~ 1898 w. gamocemaSi gamo
vaqveyne patara statia saTauriT `gulmaviwyobis fsiqikuri meqanizmisaTvis~, romlis
Sinaarss aqac gavimeoreb da Semdgomi msjelobisas masve daveyrdnobi. iq me fsiqolo
giurad gavanaalize sakuTari arsebiTi saxelebis droebiTi daviwyebis xSiri SemTxve
va, viSveliebdi ra Cemi TviTdakvirvebidan aRebul zedgamoWril magaliTs. davaskveni,
rom erTerTi fsiqikuri funqciis _ gaxsenebis moSlis es Cveulebrivi da praqtikulad
arc Tu ise Zalian mniSvnelovani erTeuli SemTxveva axsna-ganmartebis SesaZleblobas
iZleva, romelic fenomenis Cveulebrivi amokiTxva-amoSifvris farglebs scildeba
Tu Zalian ar meSleba albaT fsiqologisaTvis rom axsna gekiTxaT, ratom xdeba, rom
viRac ase xSirad ver ixsenebs misTvis nacnob saxelso, igi dakmayofildeboda pasuxiT,
rom sakuTari saxelebis daviwyeba ufro iolad xdeba, vidre sxvagvarad damaxsovre
buli Sinaarsisa. igi damajereblad daasabuTebda sakuTari saxelebis amgvar gamor
Ceulobas, Tumca procesis sxvagvar pirobiTobas ver ivaraudebda.
CemTvis saxelebis droebiTi daviwyebis fenomenis safuZvliani Seswavlis sababi
gaxda konkretul detalebze dakvirveba, Tumca isini yvelaSi ara, magram calkeul
SemTxvevebSi sakmaod naTlad Cans. amgvar SemTxvevebSi xdeba ara marto daviwyeba,
aramed araswori gaxseneba. daviwyebuli saxelis magier adamianis cnobierebaSi Cae
nacvleba surogati saxelebi (Ersatzname), romlebic maSinve aRiqmeba rogorc aras
wori, Tumca isev da isev xdeba maTi akviateba. saWiro saxelis reproduqciis magier
saqme gvaqvs procesis arevasTan da xdeba araswori Canacvleba. Cemi varaudiT es areva
fsiqikuri TviTnebobiT ki ar xdeba, aramed kanonzomieri da gamoTvladi gziT mimdina
reobs. sxvagvarad rom vTqva, me vvaraudob, rom erTi an ramdenime saTadarigo suro
gati sityva saWiro sityvasTan aSkara kavSirSia, romlis kvalis migneba SesaZlebelia,

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da vimedovneb, Tu movaxerxeb, es kavSiri davadasturo da naTeli movfino saxelebis


daviwyebis process.
1898 wels Cems mier gasaanalizeblad SerCeul magaliTSi, orvietos taZris dide
buli freskebis _ `jojoxeTi da mkacri samsjavro~-s Semqmneli ostatis saxeli, vera
da ver movigone. sasurveli gvaris sanacvlod _ sinioreli (Signorelli) amekviata ori
sxva mxatvris gvari _ botiCeli da boltrafio, romlebic maSinve da garkveviT uar
yavi, radgan vicodi, rom araswori iyo. roca sxvisgan movismine swori gvari, maSinve da
yovelgvari yoymanis gareSe gamaxsenda igi. imis gamokvlevam, Tu ram iqonia gavlena da
ra asociaciuri gzebiT moxda reproduqciis amgvari areva _ sinioreli botiCeliTa
da boltrafioTi, migviyvana Semdeg Sedegebamde:
a) siniorelis gvaris daviwyebis mizezi arc Tavad am gvaris gansakuTrebulobaSi
da arc im konteqstis fsiqologiur xasiaTSia saZiebeli, romelSic igi iyo CarTuli.
daviwyebuli gvari CemTvis iseve nacnobi iyo, rogorc erTerTi Canacvlebuli gvari
_ botiCeli da gacilebiT ufro metad nacnobi, vidre meore Canacvlebuli gvari _
boltrafio, romlis Sesaxeb mxolod imis Tqma SegviZlia, rom igi milanis skolis war
momadgeneli iyo. is konteqsti ki, ramac ganapiroba gvaris daviwyeba, umniSvnelod
meCveneba da Semdgom axsna-ganmartebas ver iZleva: ucxo adamianTan erTad erT va
gonSi movxvdi. dalmaTiaSi yofnisas raguzadan movemgzavrebodi hercogovinas erTerTi sadgurisaken saubarSi vaxseneT italiaSi mogzauroba. Cems Tanamgzavrs vkiTxe,
iyo Tu ara namyofi orvietoSi da unaxavs Tu ara iq imisi . . . cnobili freskebi.
b) gvaris daviwyeba mxolod maSin xdeba gasagebi, roca maxsendeba im saubris winm
swrebi Tema da aRiqmeba rogorc axlad aRmocenebuli, wamoWrili Temis Seferxeba

winmswrebi TemiT.
sanam Cems Tanamgzavrs vkiTxavdi, iyo Tu ara namyofi orvietoSi, cota xniT adre
Cven vsaubrobdiT bosniasa da hercogovinaSi mcxovrebi Turqebis zne-Cveulebebs. me
mas manamde vuambe, rac mosmenili mqonda TurqebTan momuSave erT-erTi kolegisgan,
rogori pativiscemiT da ndobiT epyrobian isini eqims da mTlianad emorCilebian beds.
roca isini igeben rom avadmyofis saSveli ar aris, ase pasuxoben: `batono (Herr) raRa
gveTqmis? vici gadasarCeni rom iyos Sen mas gadaarCendi!~ _ aqve am winadadebebSi
vpoulobT sityvebsa da saxelebs: bosnia, hercegovina, RmerTi romlebic sinioreli
da botiCeli _ boltrafio asociaciur jaWvSi xvdeba.
g) vvaraudob, rom Cemma azrma bosnieli Turqebis zne-Cveulebebze imitom SEeZlo
winamorbed fiqrTa msvlelobis Seferxeba, rom me manamde gadavitane misgan yuradRe
ba, sanam bolomde davasrulebdi azrs. saxeldobr maxsendeba, rom vapirebdi meore am
bis moyolas, romelic pirvelTan erTad iqve amomitivtivda mexsierebaSi. es Turqebi
yvelaze metad afaseben seqsualur gancxromas da sqesobrivi darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi

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sasowarkveTilebaSi vardebian, rac gasaocrad upirispirdeba sikvdilis saSiSroebi
sadmi gulgrilobas. erTerT pacients Cemi kolegisTvis uTqvams: `Sen xom ici, batono
(Heer), Tu es saqme awi veRar gamomiva, maSin sicocxles fasi aRar aqvs~ maTTvis damaxa
siaTebel Tvisebaze laparaki Sewyvite, radgan ar mindoda ucxo adamianTan am Temaze
mesaubra. Tumca ufro meti momivida; Cemi yuradReba `sikvdilisa da seq-sualobis~
Temidan sxvaze gadavitane. ramdenime kviriT adre, trafoiSi Cemi xanmokle vizitisas,
erTi ambavi Sevityve, romelmac Cemze imoqmeda. pacientma, romelsac me didi jafa da
energia Sevalie, ganukurnebeli seqsualuri darRvevis gamo Tavi moikla. namdvilad
vici, rom hercogovinaSi im mogzaurobisas es samwuxaro ambavi da yvelaferi, rac amas
Tan iyo dakavSirebuli Segnebulad ar gamxsenebia. magram trafoisa da boltrafios
erTmaneTTan dakavSireba mafiqrebinebs, rom maSin am reminiscenciam Cemze imoqmeda,
miuxedavad imisa, rom am faqtze ganzrax movadune yuradReba.
d) siniorelis gvaris daviwyebas awi rogorc SemTxveviT movlenas veRar gan
vixilav. unda vaRiaro am procesSi motivis gavlena. arsebobda motivebi, romlebic
maiZulebdnen fiqrebi (Turqebis zne-Cveulebebze da a.S.) ar gadmomeca da SemdegSic
masTan dakavSirebuli azrebi, romelsac SeiZleboda trafois ambamde miveyvane, CemSi
gacnobierebamde gamomericxa. e.i. me mindoda raRacis daviwyeba, raRac ganvdevne. yovel
SemTxvevaSi sxva ramis daviwyeba mindoda, vidre orvietos ostatis gvaris, magram am
sxvam gamoiwvia imis saxelTan asociaciuri kavSiri, ase rom Cemi survilis gamoxatvis
aqti mizans ascda da me survilis sawinaaRmdegod erTi rame damaviwyda, maSin roca

meores daviwyeba ganzrax mindoda. mogonebisadmi arasasurveli damokidebuleba


mimarTul iqna erTi Sinaarsis winaaRmdeg; gaxsenebis uunarobam gadmoinacvla win.
albaT ufro martivi SemTxveva iqneboda gaxsenebisadmi arasasurveli damokidebuleba
(antipaTia) da uunaroba erTi da igive Sinaars rom Seexeboda. _ surogati saxeebi axla
ukve aRar meCveneba absoluturad gaumarTleblad, rogorc es iyo axsna-ganmartebamde;
isini aseve mimaniSneben (kompromisis saxiT) imaze, Tu risi daviwyeba da risi gaxseneba
mindoda da aRmoCnda, rom Cemi ganzraxva, raRac dameviwyebina, arc mTlad gamomivida
da arc Tu mTlad CamefuSa.
e) Zalze TvalSisacemia kavSiri, romelic damyarda sasurvel saxelsa da gandevnil
(sikvdilisa da seqsualobis da a.S.) Temas Soris, sadac saxelebi bosnia, hercogovina,
trafoi gvxvdeba. 1898 wlis statiidan gadmotanili sqema TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs am
kavSirs.

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Signor

elli

Her

Her

zegowina

Bo

tticelli

Bo

snien

Bo

i traffio

was ist da zu sagen etc.


(batono, razea laparaki . . .)

Trafoi

(sikvdili da seqsualoba)

(gandevnili azrebi)

siniorelis gvari amasTan or nawilad gaiyo. marcvalTa erTi wyvili ucvlelad


ganmeorda Canacvlebul surogat gvarSi (elli), meore wyvilma Targmnis meSveobiT Signor

Herr SeiZina mravaljeradi da sxvadasxvagvari mimarTeba gandevnil TemaSi moxse


niebul saxelebTan, swored amis gamo aRar moxda misi reproduqcia. misi Canacvleba
ise moxda `hercegovinasa da bosniis~ saxeTa kavSiris msgavsad, rom ar momxdara azrisa
da marcvalTa akustikuri gamijvna. am procesSi saxelebis iseTi gamoyeneba moxda, ro
gorc rebusis asoebisa, siniorelis gvaris magier amgvari gziT surogati saxelebis
Seqmnis mTeli am procesis Sesaxeb cnobierebas informacia ar miuRia.
Tavdapirvelad Zneli misagnebia kavSiri siniorelis gvarTan dakavSirebul Temasa
da mis winmswreb gandevnil Temas Soris, rac msgavsi marcvlebis xelaxal dabrunebas
scildeba. zedmeti ar iqneboda imis aRniSvna, rom fsiqologebis mier navaraudebi
reproduqciisa da daviwyebis pirobebi, romelTa moZieba xdeba garkveul urTierT
kavSirsa da ganwyobilebaSi, zemoTaRniSnuli ganmartebis gamo winaaRmdegobas ar aw
ydeba. garkveuli SemTxvevebisaTvis Cven, yvela am karga xnis win aRiarebul momentebs,
rasac SeuZlia saxelis daviwyebaze imoqmedos, kidev erTi motivi davamateT da amasTan
araswori gaxsenebis meqanizmi avxseniT. is d i s p o z i c i e b i (midrekilebebi) aucile
belia Cveni SemTxvevisTvisac, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes, rom gandevnilma (Seviwroe
bulma) elementma asociaciurad imZlavros sasurvel saxelze da Seaviwrovos igi.
ufro xelsayreli reproduqciis pirobebis mqone sxva danarCen saxelTan es albaT ar
moxdeboda. cxadia, rom daTrgunuli elementi mudam cdilobs sadme sxvagan Tavi iCi
nos, am warmatebas ki mxolod iq miaRwevs, sadac mas Sesaferisi pirobebi daxvdeba. sxva

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SemTxvevebSi Seviwroeba xdeba funqciis moSlis gareSe, anda marTebulad rom vTqvaT

simptomebis gareSe.
daviwyebuli saxelis araswori gaxsenebis pirobebi daskvnis saxiT Semdegnairad
SeiZleba CamovayaliboT: 1) misi daviwyebisadmi garkveuli d i s p o z i c i a ; 2) cota
xniT adre winmswrebi d a T r g u n v i s (Verdrangung) procesi; 3) konkretul saxelsa da
manamde daTrgunul elements Soris garegnuli asociaciis aRdgenis SesaZlebloba. es
ukanaskneli piroba albaT Zlier gadaWarbebulad ar unda SevafasoT, radgan asocia
ciaze odnavi pretenziebis wayenebisas msgavsi asociaciis ganxorcieleba umravles
SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli unda iyos.
sxva da ufro Rrmad mimavali sakiTxia, is rom SeiZleba Tu ara amgvari garegnuli
asociacia namdvilad sakmarisi piroba iyos imisTvis, rom Seviwroebuli elementi sa
surveli saxelis reproduqcias uSlides xels. xom ar xdeba orive aucilebeli Temis
ufro axlo kavSiris arseboba. zerele dakvirvebisas am ukanaskneli moTxovnis uaryo
fis survili gaCndeboda da savsebiT Seusabamo Sinaarsis SemTxvevaSi droiTi momij
naoba SeiZleboda sakmarisadac ki yofiliyo miCneuli. safuZvliani Seswavlisas sul
ufro xSirad vawydebiT, rom garegnuli asociaciiT dakavSirebul orive elements
(daTrgunuls da axals) garda amisa Sinaarsobrivi kavSiric gaaCnia da siniorelis maga
liTic amas amtkicebs.
siniorelis magaliTis analiziT miRebuli Sedegis mniSvneloba rasakvirvelia
damokidebulia imaze, miviCnevT Tu ara am SemTxvevas tipur Tu calkeul movlenad. me
amiT vamtkiceb, rom saxelebis daviwyeba araswori gaxsenebiT saocrad xSirad xdeba ise,
rogorc es Cven siniorelis SemTxvevaSi avxseniT. radgan me am fenomens sakuTar Tavze
vakvirdebodi, TiTqmis yovelTvis SemeZlo zemoT dasaxelebuli wesiT amexsna igi, ro
gorc SeviwroebiT motivirebuli. garda amisa Cveni analizis tipuri bunebis sasarge
blod kidev sxva Sexedulebac unda moviSvelio. Cemi azriT samarTliani ar iqneboda
araswori gaxsenebiT saxeebis daviwyebis SemTxvevebis principuli gamijvna imaTgan,
roca araswori saTadarigo saxelebi ar Caenacvleba. es saTadarigo saxelebi mTel rig
SemTxvevebSi spontanurad Cndebian; sxva SemTxvevebSi, roca isini spontanurad ar amo
tivtivdebian SesaZlebelia maTi amotivtiveba yuradRebis daZabvis wyalobiT da isini
konkretul kavSirs avlenen gaZevebul elementTan da saZiebel saxelTan, TiTqos isi
ni spontanurad iyon aRmocenebuli. saTadarigo saxelis gacnobierebisaTvis rogorc
Cans, ori momenti aris gadamwyveti: erTis mxriv _ yuradRebis daZabva, meores mxriv _
Sinagani piroba, romelic fsiqikur masalasTan aris mibmuli, me SemeZlo es ukanaskne
li ase Tu ise, meti Tu naklebi siadviliT momeZiebia, riTac am orive elements So
ris saWiro garegnuli asociacia warmoiqmneboda. araswori gaxsenebiT saxelebis da
viwyebis SemTxvevebis mniSvnelovani nawili ukavSirdeba saTadarigo saxelwarmoebis

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SemTxvevebs, risTvisac swored `siniorelis~ magaliTis meqanizmi moqmedebs. Tumca me


Tavs uflebas ver mivcem vamtkico, rom saxelebis daviwyebis yvela SemTxveva saxel
dobr am jgufSi unda SevitanoT. udavod arsebobs saxelebis daviwyebis SemTxvevebi,
romlebic gacilebiT ufro martivad xdeba. Cven saqmis mTel arss sakmao sifrTxiliT
warmovaCenT, roca vambobT: sakuTari arsebiTi saxelebis ubralo daviwyebis gverdiT
arsebobs kidev erTi daviwyeba, romelic gandevniT aris motivirebuli.

Tavi meore

ucxo sityvebis daviwyeba

Cveni mSobliuri enis yoveldRiuri leqsikuri maragi, rogorc Cans, normaluri


funqciis farglebSi, dazRveulia daviwyebisagan. ucxo enis sityvaTa maragTan ki Cveu
lebriv sxvagvarad aris saqme. misi daviwyebisadmi winaswari dispozicia aSkaraa yvela
metyvelebis nawilebTan mimarTebaSi, da funqciis darRvevis pirveli maCvenebeli Tavs
iCens Cvens gankargulebaSi myofi ucxo enis sityvaTa maragis araTanabarzomierebaSi,
Cvens saerTo mdgomareobasa da gadaRlis xarisxSi. es gulmaviwyoba vlindeba SemTx
vevaTa erT wyebaSi imave meqanizmiT, romelic `siniorelis~ magaliTma TvalnaTliv
dagvanaxa. amis dasturad moviSvelieb erTaderT, Tumca mniSvnelovani Taviseburebe
biT gamorCeul analizs, romelic exeba erTi laTinuri citatis ara arsebiTi saxelis
daviwyebis SemTxvevas. neba momeciT, es patara SemTxveva warmovaCino srulad da Tval
saCinod.
gasul zafxuls vimyofebodi saSvebulebo mogzaurobaSi da nacnoboba ganvaaxle
akademiuri ganaTlebis mqone erT mamakacTan. maSinve mivxvdi, rom wakiTxuli hqonda
Cemi zogierTi fsiqologiuri statia. rogorRac saubari Seexo Cveni saerTo modgmis
socialur mdgomareobas. am pativmoyvare kacma sinanuli gamoTqva imis gamo, rom misi
Taoba dakninebisken mieqaneba, sakuTar niWs ar anviTareben da TavianT moTxovnile
bas ver ikmayofilebeno. man Tavisi mgznebare sityva daasrula vergiliusis cnobili
leqsiT, romelSic sabralo didos eneasisadmi mimarTuli SurisZieba mis STamomav
lobaze gadaaqvs: Exoriare..., ufro sworad, mas surda es ase daesrulebina, Tumca citata
ver gaixsena da cdilobda daviwyebiT gamowveuli aSkara Cavardna sityvebis gadaadgi
lebiT daefara: Exoriar(e) ex nostris ossibus ultor! bolos gabrazebulma Tqva: `nu gaqvT
aseTi damcinavi saxe, TiTqos Cemi dabneulobdiT xarobdeT, umjobesia SemomeSveleT.
leqss raRac aklia. rogor aris sinamdvileSi?~

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zigmund froidi
siamovnebiT, mivuge me da citata sworad warmovTqvi:

Exoriar(e) a liquis nostris ossibus ultor!


`ra sisulelea amgvari sityvis daviwyeba! sxvaTaSoris, Tqvengan gamigia, rom
usafuZvlod arafris daviwyeba ar xdeba. Zalian mainteresebs gavigo, ratom damaviwda
es ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxeli aliquis~.
me es gamowveva siamovnebiT miviRe, radgan Cemi koleqciis gamdidrebis imedi mqon
da. me mas vuTxari: axlave gavarkvevT. erTi ram minda gTxovoT mxolod, yvelaferi
gulwrfelad da kritikis gareSe miTxraT, ra gaxsendebaT, roca Tqven yovelgvari gan
zraxvis gareSe mTeli yuradReba daviwyebul sityvaze gadagaqvT1.
`maS kargi, am dros sasacilo azri mebadeba, es sityva Semdegnairad davyo: a da

liquis~. ras niSnavs es? _ `ar vici~. _ mere kidev ra azri gebadebaT? _ `es amgvarad
grZeldeba: Reliquien Liquidation Flssigkeit (siTxe) Fluid (Txieri saSualeba). axla
xvdebiT?~
vera, jer vera, ganagrZeT.
`maxsendeba, ganagrZo man dacinviT, trentoeli simoni, romlis reliqviebi tren
tos erT-erT eklesiaSi vnaxe ori wlis win. vfiqrob sisxlian braldebaze, rasac
swored axla isev ebraelebs uyeneben, klainpaulis (Kleinpaul) naSromze, romelic
yvela am moCvenebiT msxverplebSi inkarnaciebs, ase vTqvaT, mxsnelis axal variants
xedavs~.
es uecari azri garkveul kavSirSia TemasTan, romelzec vsaubrobdiT, vidre Tqven
is laTinuri sityva amogivardebodaT mexsierebidan.
`sworia. garda amisa, magondeba erTerT italiur JurnalSi axlaxan wakiTxuli
statia. me mgoni aseTi saTauri hqonda: ras ambobs wm. augustinusi qalebis Sesaxeb.
amas ra axsnas mouZebniT?~
velodebi.
`maSasadame, axla iqneba is, rac aSkarad aranair kavSirSi ar aris Cvens TemasTan~.
gTxovT, Tavi SeikavoT yovelgvari kritikisagan da _
`ukve vici, maxsendeba erTi didebuli xandazmuli mamakaci, romelsac Sevxvdi wina
kviraSi mogzaurobisas. naRdi originali iyo. did mtacebel frinvels waagavda. Tu
gainteresebT, mas benediqti hqvia.
yovel SemTxvevaSi, aq erTad jgufdeba wmindanebi da saeklesio mamebi: wm. simoni,
wm. augistinusi, wm. benediqtusi. erT saeklesio mamas mgoni orijinesi erqva. samiveni
iseTive saxelebia, rogorc pauli, klainpaulis gvarSi.
`axla wm. ianuariusi magondeba da misi sisxliani saswauli _ me mgoni, es meqaniku
rad grZeldeba~.
SeeSviT amas; wm. ianuariusi da wm. augustinusi, orive dakavSirebuli arian kalen

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darTan. ar gindaT, sisxliani saswauli gamaxsenoT?


`es Tqven gecodinebaT! neapolis erTerT eklesiaSi kolbaSi inaxeba wminda ianua
riusis sisxli, romelic saswaulis meSveobiT garkveul dResaswaulze Txevadi xdeba.
xalxs sjera am saocrebisa da Zalian Relaven, Tu raime Seferxebaa, rogorc amas erTxel franguli okupaciis dros hqonda adgili. maSin generalma Tu meSleba? gari
baldi xom ar iyo? _ gverdze gaixmo sasuliero piri da Zalze gasagebi JestiT gareT
Camwkrivebul jariskacebze miuTiTa da uTxra, imedia, saswauli male aRsruldebao.
da marTlac moxda...~
mere? ratom SeCerdiT?
`axla raRac gamaxsenda... erTob intimuri ram aris saTqmelad... veraviTar kavSirs
ver vxedav da verc saWiroebas, amis Sesaxeb mogiTxroT.~
kavSirze me vifiqreb. TqvenTvis usiamovno ramis moyolas ver gaiZulebT, magram
Cemganac nu moiTxovT imis axsnas, Tu ratom dagaviwydaT sityva aliquis.
`namdvilad? Tqven ase fiqrobT? uecrad erTi qali gamaxsenda, romlisganac orive
CvenTaganisTvis usiamovno ambavi momividoda.~
rom cikli Seuwyda?
`rogor gamoicaniT?~
es ukve sirTules ar warmoadgens. Tqven sakmarisad SemamzadeT saamisod. gaixseneT
kalendris wmindanebi, sisxlis gaTxevadeba gansazRvrul dRes, amboxi, Tu movlenas
adgili ar eqneba, aSkara muqara, rom saswauli unda moxdes, Torem... Tqven xom wminda
ianuariusis saswauli gadaamuSaveT da Cinebuli miniSneba gaakeTeT qalis menstrua
lur periodze.
`ise, rom es arc ki vicodi. da Tqven namdvilad TvliT, rom am saSiSi molodinis
gamo ver SevZeli sityvis aliquis reproducireba?~
amaSi eWvi ar mepareba. aba gaixseneT Tqvens mier danawevrebuli sityva a - liquis da
asociaciebi: Reliquen, Liquidation, siTxe.
reliqvia likvidacia, gnebavT amave kavSirSi Cavaqsovo jer kidev bavSvobisas
msxverplSewiruli wminda simoni, romelic Tqven reliqviebTan dakavSirebiT gagax
sendaT?
`umjobesia, ara. imedi maqvs, seriozulad ar miiCnevT am Cems fiqrebs. samagierod
unda vaRiaro Tqvens winaSe, rom is qalbatoni italielia, masTan erTad movinaxule
neapoli. gana es SemTxveviTobas ar unda mivaweroT?~
es Tqveni gansjisTvis momindvia, yvela am kavSirs SemTxveviTobiT axsniT Tu ara. me
ki getyviT, yoveli msgavsi SemTxveva, romlis gaanalizebas moindomebT, aseve ucnaur
`SemTxvevebamde~ migiyvanT2.
uamravi safuZveli gamaCnia am patara analizis saTanadod Sesafaseblad, rasac

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zigmund froidi
me Cems masindel Tanamgzavrs vumadli. erTi mxriv, am SemTxvevaSi me ufleba momeca
gamomeyenebina is wyaro, romelic CemTvis daxSuli iyo. ZiriTadad iZulebuli var,
yoveldRiuri cxovrebis fsiqikuri moSlilobis magaliTebi, rasac aq vuyri Tavs, Cemi
dakvirvebidan moviSvelio. Cemi nevrotuli pacientebis mier mowodebul gacilebiT
ufro mdidar masalas vcdilob Tavi avarido, SiSiT, rom Semomedavebian, es fenomenebi
nevrozis gamoxatuleba da Sedegiao. Cemi miznebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelova
nia, roca jansaRi nervebis mqone ucxo piri amgvari kvlevis obieqtad momevlineba. sxva
mxriv, es analizi CemTvis mniSvnelovania imiTac, rom igi naTels hfens sityvis davi
wyebis SemTxvevas saTadarigo sityvis gaxsenebis gareSe da Cems adrindel winadadebas
adasturebs, rom araswori sanacvlo mogonebebis amotivtiveba Tu ararseboba arsebi
Tad ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan3.

aliquis-is magaliTis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba mdgomareobs `siniorelis~ SemTxvevis


erTerT sxva gansxvavebaSic. bolo magaliTSi saxelis reproduqcia ferxdeba cota
xniT adre dawyebuli da Sewyvetili fiqris msvlelobis momdevno moqmedebis Sedegad,
romlis Sinaarsi axal TemasTan aranairad gamokveTil kavSirSi ar iyo. daTrgunuli
da daviwyebuli saxelis Temas Soris arsebobda mxolod droSi urTierTSexeba; orive
erTmaneTTan kavSirSia garegnuli asociaciis meSveobiT4. Aliquis-is magaliTSi ki ar
aris amgvari damoukidebeli daTrgunuli Tema, romelic manamde iyo fiqris sagani
da axla mxolod xelisSemSlel faqtorad gvevlineba. reproduqciis Seferxeba xdeba
mocemuli Temis Signidan, maSin, roca gauTviTcnobiereblad iqmneba winaaRmdegoba
citataSi mocemul ideasTan. procesis konstruireba Semdegnairad unda moxdes: mo
saubrem sinanuli gamoTqva, rom misi xalxis Tanamedrove Taoba TavianT uflebebSi iz
Rudeba; daTrgunuli axali Taoba Surs iZiebs, winaswarmetyvelebs igi didonas msgav
sad. maSasadame, man STamomavlobis survili gamoxata.
amasobaSi sapirispiro fiqrma gauelva: `namdvilad ase mondomebiT isurvebdi STa
momavlobas? ar aris marTali. rogor Secbebodi, axla rom SenTvis ambavi moetanaT, rom
im meore mxridan, visac Sen icnob, STamomavals elodebi. ara, araviTari STamomavloba,
Tumca, igi Cven SurisZiebisTvis gvWirdeba~. es winaaRmdegoba angariSgasawevia, roca
igi zustad iseve, rogorc `siniorelis~ magaliTSi, garegnul asociacias aRadgens
misi warmosaxvis elementTagansa da sadavo survilis elements Soris, da amjerad
ki ukiduresad Zalismieri xerxiT xelovnurad moCvenebadi asociaciuri SemovliTi
gziT. meore arsebiTi Sesabamisoba (damTxveva) siniorelis magaliTTan Cans imaSi,
rom winaaRmdegoba Seviwroebuli wyaroebidan modis da fiqrebidan gamomdinareobs,
romlebic yuradRebis gafantvas (sxvaze gadatanas) gamoiwvevda. _ es mindoda meTqva
saxelis daviwyebis orive paradigmis Sinagan naTesaobasa da gansxvavebulobaze.
Cven gavecaniT daviwyebis (gulmaviwyobis) meore meqanizms, Sinagani winaaRmdegobis
meSveobiT daTrgunuli fiqris Seferxebas. am process, romelic ufro iolad gasagebi

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yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

gveCveneba, Semdgom axsna-ganmartebebSi xelaxla SevxvdebiT.


Tavi mesame

saxelebisa da sityvaTmimdevrobis daviwyeba

ucxoenobriv teqstSi sityvaTmimdevrobis daviwyebis zemoT ganxiluli maga


liTebidan gamomdinare Cndeba kiTxva, esaWiroeba Tu ara mSobliur enaze sityvaTa
Tanmimdevrobis daviwyebas arsebiTad sxvagvari axsna, Tu motivacia orive SemTxveva
Si erTnairia. rogorc wesi, ar gvaocebs is faqti, rom zepirad naswavli formulis an
leqsis reproducireba garkveuli periodis Semdeg mxolod arasworad, mcire cvli
lebebiT da adgilebis gamotovebiT xdeba SesaZlebeli. magram radgan es daviwyeba
erTnairad ar exeba saerTo konteqstSi daswavlils, aramed iqmneba iseTi STabeW
dileba, TiTqos mTels raRac pawawina namcecebi mowyda, fuW Sromad namdvilad ar
CagveTvleba, Tu teqstis SecdomebiT reproducirebis calkeul magaliTebs anali
tikurad ganvixilavT.
erTi axalgazrda kolega CemTan saubrisas gamoTqvamda varauds, rom mSobliur
enaze naswavli leqsebis daviwyebas igive motivacia udevs safuZvlad, rac ucxoenob
rivi teqstis sityvaTmimdevrobis calkeuli nawilebis mexsierebidan droebiT amo
vardnas. bolos Tavisi varaudis dasamtkiceblad eqsperimentis mowyoba SemomTavaza,
xolo cdis obieqtad _sakuTari Tavi. vkiTxe, romeli leqsis magaliTze isurvebda
aRniSnuli eqsperimentis Catarebas. man goeTes leqsi sacole korinTidan~ airCia.
Tqva, rom es leqsi gansakuTrebulad uyvars da darwmunebulia, rom calkeuli
strofebi mainc zepirad axsovs. teqstis reproduqciis dawyebisTanave aSkara yoymani
daetyo. <<rogor aris, `korinTidan aTens gaswia~, _ mkiTxa man,_ Tu `korinTisken
gaswia aTenidan~?>> erT momentSi mec daveWvdi, Tumca saTauri maleve gamaxsenda da
siciliT SevniSne, rom leqss sacole korinTidan~ hqvia da es ukve aSkarad miuTiTebs,
saiT mimaval gzas dasdgomia ymawvili. amis Semdeg pirveli strofis reproduqcia
uproblemod ganviTarda, yovel SemTxvevaSi, TvalSisacem darRvevebs adgili ar
hqonia. pirveli striqonis Semdeg kolegas Seetyo, rom sityvebs eZebda; Tumca maleve
gaagrZela da strofi amgvarad gadmosca:

Aber wird er auch willkommen scheinen,


Jetzt, wo jeder Tag was Neues bringt?
Denn er ist noch Heide mit den Seinen
Und sie sind Christen und getauft. 5
me aqamdec daeWvebiT vusmendi, bolo striqonis dasrulebis Semdeg ki oriveni

215

zigmund froidi
mivxvdiT, rom aq udaod raRac damaxinjebas hqonda adgili. radgan swori variantis
aRdgena ver SevZeliT, saswrafod biblioTekas mivaSureT da wigni moviZieT. goeTes
leqsSi Cvenda gasaocrad aRmovaCineT, rom am strofis meore striqons sruliad sxva
mimdevroba hqonda, romelic Cemi kolegis mexsierebidan TiTqosda amovardnili
yo da, Canda, raRac ucxoTi Canacvlebuliyo. goeTesTan es striqoni Semdegnairad
ikiTxeboda:

Aber wird er auch willkommen scheinen,


W e n n e r t e u e r n i c h t d i e G u n s t e r k a u f t.6
sityva erkauft` (daujda) eriTmeba sityvas getauft` da ucnaurad momeCvena rom Cems
kolegas teqstis aRdgenaSi ase umniSvnelo daxmareba gauwia sityvaTa mimdevrobam:

warmarTi, qristianebi da monaTluli.


riT SegiZliaT axsnaT, rom savaraudod TqvenTvis Zalian kargad nacnob leqsSi
erTi striqoni ase mTlianad amoagdeT da Tu SegiZliaT warmoidginoT, ra konteqsti
dan moitaneT sityvaTa is Tanmimdevroba, romliTac CaanacvleT aRniSnuli striqoni?
_ aseTi kiTxviT mivmarTe Cems axalgazrda kolegas.
man SeZlo axsna moeZebna momxdarisTvis, magram rogorc etyoboda, es ganmarteba
maincdamainc didi siamovnebiT ar gaukeTebia. << striqoni: `axla, roca yovel dRes ra
Rac axali moaqvs~ mecnoba; me mgoni, cota xnis win swored es fraza vixmare Cems samedi
cino praqtikasTan dakavSirebiT, romlis bolodroindeli warmatebebiT, rogorc
iciT, axla Zalian kmayofili var. magram rogor moxvda es winadadeba am leqsSi? me aseT
kavSirs vxedav: striqoni, `T u Z v i r a d

a r d a u j d a e s w y a l o b a ~ , etyoba, CemSi

usiamo grZnobas iwvevs. is ukavSirdeba xelis Txovnas, razedac pirvelad uari miviRe,
da rasac kvlav vapireb, viTvaliswineb ra Cems bolo dros zedmiwevniT gaumjobesebul
materialur mdgomareobas. mets verafers getyviT, magram darwmunebuli var, namd
vilad ar mesiamovneba, Tu Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi magrZnobineben, rom amjeradac ise
Tive gaTvlam Seasrula gadamwyveti roli, rogorc maSin, Cemi uariT gamostumrebis
SemTxvevaSi.>>
am ganmartebam CemTvis yvelaferi naTeli gaxada, ise rom aRarc mWirdeboda
garemoebebSi ufro dawvrilebiT Caxedva. mainc gavagrZele SekiTxvebis dasma: rogor
mixvediT saerTod iqamde, rom Tqveni piraduli momentebi goeTes leqsis sacole
korinTidan~ teqstSi CarTeT? iqneb Tqvens SemTxvevaSi religiuri aRmsareblobis
iseTive gansxvavebebTan gvaqvs saqme, rogoric am leqsSia gamoxatuli?

Keimt ein Glaube neu,


wird oft Lieb und Treu,

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yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

wie ein bses Unkraut ausgerauft.7


marTalia, sworad ver gamovicani, magram gamikvirda, roca davinaxe, rogor gaunaTa
uceb goneba am kacs erTma kargad gamiznulma SekiTxvam. man pasuxad miTxra is, rac
aqamde sakuTari TavisTvisac ver gaemJRavnebina. miyurebda Sewuxebuli da ukmayofilo
mzeriT da TavisTvis butbutebda leqsis momdevno strofs:
Sieh sie an genau!
Morgen ist sie grau. 8
da mokled daamata: Ees gogona cotaTi ufrosia Cemze. Mgadavwyvite, metad aRar dametanja da gamokiTxva Sevwyvite. Gganmarteba sakmarisi meCvena. Tumca namdvilad gasao
cari iyo, rom Cemi mcdeloba, damedgina mexsierebis erTi sruliad uvnebeli Secdomis
mizezi, Cemi gamokiTxvis obieqtis ase Soreul, intimur da uxerxuli afeqtis Tanmxleb
garemoebas Seexo.
erTi cnobili leqsis sityvaTmimdevrobis daviwyebis sxva magaliTi k. g. iungs min
da davesesxo da avtoris sityvebiTve daviwyo:
erTma batonma cnobili leqsis mxatvrulad wakiTxva moisurva:
`Ein Fichtenbaum steht einsam usw~.9 striqonze `Ihn schlaefert~,10 uimedod Seferxda
da absoluturad daaviwyda momdevno sityvebi `mit weisser Decke~.11 amgvari daviwyeba
aseT cnobil leqsSi maSinve TvalSi momxvda da vTxove, aRedgina, ra azrebi mouvida
TavSi sityvebTan dakavSirebiT _ `TeTri saburveliT~. ase warmoiSva azrTa Semde
gi rigiToba: `TeTri saburvelis gaxsenebisas s u d a r a momagonda, qsovilis naWeri,
romelsac micvalebuls afareben _ (pauza) _ amis Semdeg axlo megobari gamaxsenda _
mas sruliad axalgazrda Zma uecrad moukvda _ gulis SeteviT gardaicvala _ Tumca
a s e v e zedmeti simsuqnec iyo misi sikvdilis meore mizezi _ Cemi megobari garegno
biT Zalian hgavs Zmas, a s e v e Zalian msuqania _ da me ukve davfiqrdi, xom SeiZleba
isic a s e v e gardaicvalos _ Tanac Zalian cotas moZraobs; misi sikvdilis Sesaxeb
rom Sevityve, uceb SemeSinda, mec xom SeiZleba a s e v e damemarTos, miT ufro rom Cvens
ojaxSi yvelani simsuqnisaken varT midrekili, Tan babuaCemic gulis SeteviT garda
icvala. vTvli, rom mec sakmaod msuqani var da swored amitom daviwye am dReebSi gasax
domi procedurebis Catareba.~
gamodis, rom am batonma sakuTari Tavi aracnobierad maSinve fiWvis xesTan gaai
giva~, _ SeniSnavs iungi, _ romelic micvalebulis sudariT iyo Seburvili~.
mas Semdeg uamravi sxva eqsperimenti Cavatare sityvaTmimdevrobis SecdomiT rep
roduqciasa da daviwyebasTan dakavSirebiT da am gamokvlevaTa Sedegebis Tanxvedris
gamo vixrebi swored im varaudisken, rom leqsebis aliquis~ da sacole korinTidan~

217

zigmund froidi
magaliTebze naCvenebi daviwyebis meqanizmi TiTqmis sazogado xasiaTisaa. Uumetes
SemTxvevaSi mainca da mainc mosaxerxebeli ar aris amgvari analizis Catareba, radgan
es, rogorc wina SemTxvevebSi moxda, mudmivad dadis eqsperimentis obieqtisTvis me
tad intimur da uxerxul sakiTxebamde. Aamitom bevri aseTi magaliTis dasaxelebisagan
Tavs Sevikaveb. miuxedavad masalis gansxvavebisa saerTo niSani Aam SemTxvevebisaTvis is
aris, rom daviwyebuli an damaxinjebulad gaxsenebuli sityvaTmimdevroba romeliRac
asociaciuri gziT ukavSirdeba aracnobieri azris Sinaarss, saidanac gamomdinareobs
efeqti, romelic daviwyebis saxiT vlindeba.
kvlav sakuTari saxelebis daviwyebis sakiTxs mivubrundebi, romelTan mimarTeba
Sic Cven aqamde arc calkeuli SemTxvevebi gamogvikvlevia amomwuravad da arc motive
bi. radgan mexsierebis amgvar darRvevebs drodadro sakuTar Tavzec sakmaod kargad
SemiZlia davakvirde, saamisod magaliTebic sakmarisad maqvs. ramdenime saaTiT adre
swored saxelebis daviwyebiT vxvdebi msubuqi Sakikis moaxloebas, romliTac dRemde
vitanjebi. xolo maSin, roca Sakiki piks aRwevs, _ sxvaTaSoris am dros samuSaosTvis
Tavis ganebeba ar mixdeba _ `xSirad arcerTi saxeli da gvari ar maxsovs. SeiZleboda
swored iseTi SemTxvevebi rogoric Cemia, sababad gamoeyenebinaT Cvens oponentebs da
principulad dapirispirebodnen Cvens analitikur mcdelobebs. unda gamovitanoT
Tu ara amgvari dakvirvebebidan daskvna, rom gamomwvevi mizezi gulmaviwyobisa, ker
Zod ki gvar-saxelebis daviwyebisa Tavis tvinis saerTo da cirkulaciis darRvevebSi
aris saZiebeli? xom ar niSnavs es imas, rom Tavi unda davaneboT am fenomenis fsiqolo
giurad axsnis mcdelobebs? me vfiqrob, araviTar SemTxvevaSi! radgan qmedebis yvela
SemTxvevisaTvis erTgvarovani meqanizmi SesaZloa mis cvalebad da ara aucileblad
saWiro TanaqmedebaSi agverios. SekamaTebis nacvlad mxolod aseTi Sedarebis moyva
niT Semovifarglebi:
davuSvaT, iseTi daufiqrebloba gamoviCine, rom RamiT, didi qalaqis ukacriel
ubanSi saseirnod marto wavedi. am dros Tavs damesxnen da saaTi da safule wamarTves.
policiis uaxloes ganyofilebaSi gakeTebul werilobiT gancxadebaSi aseTi frazebi
Cavwere: me viyavi ama da am quCaze, iq martoobam da sibnelem saaTi da safule wamarTves.
Tumca am sityvebiT iseTi araferi miTqvams, rac simarTles ar Seefereba, magram mainc
memuqreba safrTxe, rom Cemi gancxadebis teqstSi aseTi sityvaTmimdevrobis gamo ara
normalurad CamTvlian. saqmis arsi koreqtulad mxolod amgvarad SeiZleba gadmoic
es: SemTxvevis adgilis ukacrielobam xeli Seuwyo imas, rom Ramis wyvdiadSi gamoCe
nilma ucnobma borotmoqmedma Zvirfaseuloba wamarTva. saqmis garemoeba saxelebis
daviwyebisas sxvagvari verc iqneba. ucnobi fsiqikuri Zala daRlilobis, cirkulaci
is darRvevis da intoqsikaciis xelSewyobiT marTmevs saSualebas visargeblo im saxe
lebiT, romlebic Cemi mexsierebis Semadgenel nawils warmoadgens. es igive fsiqikuri
Zalaa, romelsac sxva SemTxvevebSic, maSin roca adamiani sruliad janmrTeli da si

218

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

cocxlisunariania, SeuZlia misi mexsierebis darRveva gamoiwvios.


roca Tavsgadamxdar SemTxvevebs vaanalizeb, sistematurad vawydebi erTi da igive
moments, kerZod, daviwyebuli saxeli uSualod ukavSirdeba im Temas, romelic Cems
pirovnebasTan axlo SexebaSia, da SeuZlia Zlieri, xSir SemTxvevaSi uxerxuli efeqte
bic gamoiwvios CemSi. ciurixis skolis (b l o i l e r i , i u n g i , r i k l i n i ) mosaxerxebeli
da Zalian kargi swavlebis mixedviT zemoT Tqmuli aseTi formiT SemiZlia gamovxato:
daviwyebulma saxelma pirovnuli kompleqsi~ gaaRviZa CemSi. saxelis damokidebuleba
Cems pirovnebasTan warmoadgens moulodneli, metwilad zedapiruli asociaciis (si
tyvis mravalmniSvnelovneba, msgavsi JReradoba) gziT mowodebul damokidebulebas.
zogadad mas SeiZleba ewodos EgverdiTi (arapirdapiri) damokidebuleba. mis bunebas
saukeTesod axsnis ramdenime martivi magaliTi:
^1) erTi pacienti mTxovs, vurCio romelime kurorti rivieraze. vici erTi aseTi
adgili genuasTan sul axlos. vixseneb Cemi germaneli kolegis saxelsac, romelic iq
muSaobs, magram TviTon adgilis dasaxelebis gaxsenebas verafriT vaxerxeb, miuxeda
vad imisa, rom darwmunebuli var, vici. meti araferi damrCenia, pacients vTxov, cota
xans damelodos da saswrafod ojaxis wevrebs vukavSirdebi. ra hqvia im kurorts
genuasTan axlos, sadac doqtor N-s Tavisi patara klinika aqvs da sadac imden xans
mkurnalobda is qali?~ saocari ar aris, rom swored Sen dagaviwyda eg saxeli. im ad
gils xom n e r v i hqvia.~ nervebTan ki marTlac sakmaod bevri Sexeba maqvs Cemi saqmia
nobidan gamomdinare!
2) meore pacienti axlomdebare kurortis Sesaxeb melaparakeba da amtkicebs, iq ori
Zalian cnobili restornis garda kidev erTi aris, romelTanac garkveuli mogonebebi
makavSirebs, saxelsac axlave getyviTo. me TavgamodebiT uarvyof mesame restornis
arsebobas da vimowmeb im faqts, rom Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi zedized yovel zafxuls
swored im kurortze visvenebdi, da Sesabamisad is adgili me ukeT unda vicode, vidre
man. Cemma winaaRmdegobam pacienti ise gaaRiziana, rom ukve saxelis gaxsenebac SeZlo.
restorans h o x v a r t n e r i erqva. aq ki iZulebuli gavxdi dameTmo, ufro sworad me
Riarebina, rom Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi swored am Cems mier uaryofili restornis
gverdiT vcxovrobdi. rogor moxda, rom sagnis arsebobac damaviwyda da misi saxelic?
me mgoni, imitom rom es saxelwodeba zedmiwevniT kargad maxsenebs erTi Cemi veneli
kolegis gvars da kvlavac profesiul kompleqsebs~ aRviZebs CemSi.
3) erTxelac, is iyo sadgur raixenhalSi bileTis yidva davapire, erTbaSad amom
varda Tavidan momdevno didi sadguris dasaxeleba, arada, am sadgurze araerTxel
Camovsulvar. mTeli seriozulobiT Sevudeqi rukaze mis Zebnas. sadgurs r o z e n h a i
m i hqvia. maSinve mivxvdi, romelma asociaciam amomigdo es saxeli mexsierebidan. erTi
saaTis win Cemi da movinaxule, romelic raixenhalTan Zalian axlos cxovrobs. Cems
das roza hqvia. e. i. gamodis, rom rozenhaimSi ukve viyavi (Heim germanulad sacxovre

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zigmund froidi
bels, saxls niSnavs). es saxelwodeba ojaxurma~ kompleqsma damaviwya.
4) ojaxuri kompleqsis~ am swored rom mtacebluri zemoqmedebis damadasture
beli uamravi magaliTis moyvana SemiZlia.
erT mSvenier dRes axalgazrda kaci movida CemTan miRebaze, Cemi erT-erTi pacien
tis umcrosi Zma, romelic aqamdec mravaljer menaxa da Cveulebisamebr saxeliT mivmar
Tavdi. mogvianebiT, roca am vizitis Sesaxeb raRacis Tqma davapire, verafriT movaxerxe misi saxelis gaxseneba, arada saqme sruliad Cveulebriv da sakmaod gavrcelebul
saxels exeboda. mere quCaSi gavedi, rom firmebis firniSebi dameTvalierebina, da
saxelic maSinve gamaxsenda, pirveli SexvedrisTanave. SemTxvevis analizma naTlad da
manaxa, rom me miRebaze mosulsa da Cems sakuTar Zmas Soris paraleli gavavle, romlis
kulminacia amgvarad saxecvlil kiTxvaSi gamoixata: igive SemTxvevaSi Cemi Zmac aseve
moiqceoda Tu piriqiT? garegnuli dakavSireba ucxo da sakuTar ojaxebs Soris SemTx
veviTobis wyalobiT gaxda SesaZlebeli. aRmoCnda, rom dedebs iqac da Cvens ojaxSic
erTi da igive saxeli erqvaT: amalia. mere Camnacvlebel surogat saxelebsac mivageni:
danieli da franci. es saxelebi uneburad momivida TavSi, axsna-ganmartebis gareSe.
isini, amalias msgavsad, S i l e r i s `yaCaRebSi~ gvxvdeba, romelTa saxelebs ukavSird
eboda veneli d a n i e l S p i c e r i s erTi cnobili anekdoti.
5) erTxelac verafriT gavixsene pacientis saxeli, romelTanac axalgazrdobis
droindeli, Zalian mWidro mogonebebi makavSirebda. Catarebulma analizma Zalian
grZeli, SemovliTi gziT matara, vidre sasurvel saxelamde mimiyvanda. pacientma
SiSi gamoTqva, TvalisCini ar davkargoo. am naTqvamma erTi axalgazrda kaci gamaxse
na, romelsac tyvia moxvda da dabrmavda. am mogonebam kidev erTi ymawvilis suraTi
amomitivtiva, romelmac cecxlsasroli iaraRiT Tavis mokvla scada. am ukanasknels
igive gvari hqonda, rac pirvel pacients, miuxedavad imisa, rom erTmaneTis naTesavebi
ar iyvnen. gvaris gaxseneba mxolod mas Semdeg movaxerxe, roca am ori, axalgazrdo
bisdroindeli SemTxvevidan gadmomeca SiSnarevi molodinis gancda, romelic Tavis
mxriv Cemi ojaxis wevrs ukavSirdeboda.
Cemi azrovnebis gavliT miedineba TviTdamokidebuleba~ (Eigenbeziehung) mudmivi
nakadi, saidanac me, rogorc wesi, araviTar informacias ar viReb, magram es nakadi Tavs
swored saxelebis daviwyebiT avlens. ise memarTeba, TiTqos iZulebuli vxdebi, rom
yvelaferi, rasac ucxo adamianebze gavigeb, sakuTar pirovnebas Sevadaro, TiTqos
Cemi pirovnuli kompleqsebi sxvebze yoveli informaciis miRebisTanave gaaqtiurebas
iwyebdes. arafriT ar SeiZleba es Cemi pirovnebis individualuri xasiaTis Tavisebure
ba iyos. is albaT ufro miTiTebaa imaze, Tu saerTod rogor gvesmis fenomeni sxva~. me
gamaCnia safuZveli, vivaraudo, rom sxva individebsac msgavsi SegrZnebebi aqvT.
amasTan dakavSirebiT mSvenieri istoria momiTxro sakuTari cxovrebidan erTma

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batonma, gvarad l e d e r e r m a . veneciaSi saqorwino mogzaurobisas erT batons Sexved


ria, romelsac Turme Soridan icnobda. axladSerTuli meuRlisaTvis misi wardgena
moundomebia, magram gvari daviwyebia, da uxerxuli mdgomareobidan Tavis dasaRwevad
isRa mouxerxebia, rom gvaris nacvlad raRac gaurkveveli sityva specialurad xmadab
la da luRluRiT warmouTqvams. meored Sexvedrisas, _ amas veneciaSi yofnis dros
adamiani ubralod versad gaeqceva, _ es kaci gverdze gauxmia da TxovniT miumarTavs,
rogorme am uxerxuli mdgomareobidan damixseniT da Tqveni saxeli da gvari gamaxsene
To. ucnobis pasuxi dasturia imisa, rom es ukanaskneli zedmiwevniT kargad icnobda
adamianebs da maT Sinagan bunebas. eWvic ar mepareba, rom ver daimaxsovreT Cemi gvari.
me da Tqven xom erTi da igive gvari gvaqvs: l e d e r e r i ! _ upasuxia mas. veravin gaeq
ceva im odnav usiamovno SegrZnebas, romelic eufleba adamians, roca gaigebs, rom misi
sakuTar saxelsa da gvars viRac sruliad ucxo adamiani atarebs. es gancda did-xans
ar mtovebda mas Semdeg, roca erT mSvenier dRes CemTan miRebaze vinme z . f r o i d i
gamocxadda. (sxvaTaSoris aqve viTvaliswineb Cemi erTerTi oponentis pozicias, ro
melic amtkicebs, rom am konkretul SemTxvevaSi TviTon sruliad sapirispiro reaq
cia eqneboda).
6) TviTdamokidebulebis gavlenas aseve kargad vxedavT i u n g i s mier SemoTavaze
bul Semdeg magaliTze:
vinme baton Y-s uimedod Seuyvarda erTi qalbatoni, romelic male baton X-ze
daqorwinda. miuxedavad imisa, rom batoni Y baton X -s sakmaod didi xania icnobda da
masTan saqmiani urTierTobebic ki akavSirebda, am qorwinebis Semdeg gamudmebiT aviwydeboda misi gvari. batoni Y araerTxel gamxdara iZulebuli sxvebisTvis ekiTxa misi
saxeli da gvari, roca batoni X-isTvis saqmiani werilis miwera sWirdeboda~.
am SemTxvevaSi saxelis daviwyebis motivacia bevrad ufro gamWvirvale da gasage
bia, vidre wina magaliTebSi, romelTaA motivirebac uSualod TviTdamokidebulebis
gavleniT aixsneba. bolos moyvanil magaliTSi aSkarad Cans, rom daviwyeba pirdapiri
Sedegia im antipaTiisa, romelic gauCnda baton Y-s Tavisi bednieri metoqis mimarT.
mas aRaraferi surs icodes mis Sesaxeb: urCevnia saerTod aRar axsovdes is~.
7) sxvagvarad da Zalian daxvewilad motivirebulia gvar-saxelis daviwyebis qve
moT moyvanili SemTxveva, romelic TviTonve gaanaliza adamianma, romelsac es ambavi
gadaxda:
roca damatebiT sagnad arCeul filosofiaSi gamocdas vabarebdi, gamomcdelma
mkiTxa, ra vicodi epikures moZRvrebis Sesaxeb da mere mkiTxa, xom ar vicodi, vin iyo
misi moZRvrebis mimdevari Semdgom saukuneebSi. me davusaxele pier gasendi, romlis
gvarsac ori dRis win SemTxveviT movkari yuri kafeSi. gakvirvebuli gamomcdelis
SekiTxvaze, saidan vicodi pier gasendi rom epikures mowafe iyo, Tamamad vupasuxe,

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zigmund froidi
rom didi xania gasendiT viyavi dainteresebuli. Cemma pasuxma Sedegad magna cum

laude-s mowmoba momitana, da samwuxarod jiuti midrekilebac, gamudmebiT damviwye


boda gasendis saxeli da gvari. me mgoni, sindisis qenjnas ganvicdidi maSin naTqvami
tyuilis gamo da amis brali iyo, rom, miuxedavad didi Zalisxmevisa, ver vimaxsovreb
di gasendis gvars. me xom is wesiT arc maSin unda mcodnoda~.
Tu gvinda sworad SevafasoT Cveni informatoris siZulvilis intensivobis xarisxi
gamocdis epizodis gaxsenebisadmi, unda vicodeT, rad uRirs am adamians Tavisi doq
toris xarisxi, da ris kompensacias aZlevs is.
8) doqtori ed. h i C m a n i : baton N-s surs Tanamosaubres wignebiT movaWre firmis
G i l h o f e r & R a n s c h b u r g saxelwodeba dausaxelos. didi Zalisxmevis miuxedavad
mxo-lod meore gvari ranSburgi axsendeba, Tumca es firma misTvis kargad nacnobia. am
faqtis gamo cota ar iyos ukmayofilo brundeba Sin. gamomdinare iqidan, rom misTvis
es saqme sakmaod mniSvnelovania, ukve CaZinebul Zmas aRviZebs da firmis saxelwodebis
pirveli naxevris dasaxelebas sTxovs. es ukanasknelic myisve usaxelebs gilhoferis
gvars. baton N-s `gilhoferis~ gagonebisTanave sityva `galhofi~ axsendeba. ramdenime Tvis win `galhofSi~ erTi metad momxibvleli qaliSvilis TanxlebiT sasiamovnod
mosagonari gaseirneba moawyo. gogonam maSin nivTic usaxsovra, romelzedac waawera
`galhofSi gatarebuli lamazi saaTebis mosagoneblad~. ramdenime dRis win ki ujris
naCqarevad daxurvis dros batonma N-ma SemTxveviT seriozulad daaziana es saxsovari.
TavisTavad cxadia, amis gamo Tavs damnaSaved grZnobda. garda amisa, bolo dReebSi
erTgvar ambivalentur ganwyobaze iyo qalbatonis mimarT, romelic, marTalia, uyvar
da, magram qalis survilis dakmayofilebas daqorwinebis Taobaze, Tavs aridebda da
SeZlebisdagvarad aWianurebda~.
9) roca 1 9 1 5 wels omi daiwyo italiasTan, sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebisas aRmovaCine,
rom italiis mTeli rigi qalaqebisa da sxva adgilebis dasaxelebebi mexsierebidan amo
mivarda. es is saxelebi iyo, romelTac xSirad viyenebdi da kargad maxsovda. bevri sxva
germanelis msgavsad mec wesad mqonda, Svebulebis erTi nawili aucileblad italiis
miwaze gametarebina. eWvic ar Semparvia imaSi, rom italiuri saxelwodebebis es masiu
ri daviwyeba gamoxatuleba iyo im gasagebi mtruli ganwyobisa, romelmac Caanacvla
uwindeli siyvarulis grZnoba am qveynis mimarT.am pirdapiri motivaciis garda me sax
elwodebebis daviwyebis arapirdapiri motivaciac aRmovaCine, romelic imave gavle
niT aixsneboda. ganwyobili viyavi, sxva, araitaliuri saxelwodebebic dameviwyebina
da am SemTxvevebis gaanalizebisas aRmovaCine, rom isini raRaciT magonebda CemTvis
saZraxis, mtrul saxelebs. bevri viwvale erT dRes moraviis qalaq b i z e n c i s gaxsene
baze. roca bolos da bolos gamaxsenda, ukve vicodi, rom es daviwyeba orvietoSi mde
bare sasaxle b i z e n c i s ukavSirdeboda. romelSic ganTavsebulia sastumro Belle Arti
da romelSic me orvietoSi yofnisas davbinavdi. sasiamovno mogonebebi ukiduresad

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daaziana Secvlilma emociurma ganwyobam.


sasargeblo iqneboda gagvexsenebina ramdenime magaliTi, romlebic gviCvenebs,
rogor SeiZleba Cadges sxvadasxvagvari ganzraxvis aRsrulebis samsaxurSi saxelebis
daviwyebis fenomeni.
10) doqtori hans z a q s i : erT dRes axalgazrda kacma pansionSi ingliseli gogona
gaicno da maSinve moewona. imave saRamos Sexvdnen erTmaneTs. axalgazrda kaci gogonas
missave mSobliur inglisur enaze esaubreboda, romelsac sakmaod kargad flobda. ra
Rac momentSi sityva Gold-is (oqro) gamoyeneba dasWirda, magram miuxedavad didi mon
domebisa, verafriT SeZlo sasurveli sityvis gaxseneba. sanacvlod mexsierebaSi jiu
tad amoutivtivda franguli or, laTinuri aurum da berZnuli chrysos, da gaWirvebiT
moaxerxa maTi Tavidan moSoreba, Tanac darwmunebulic iyo, rom am sityvebs araferi
hqondaT saerTo im sityvasTan, romelsac uSedegod eZebda. bolos isRa darCa, xeliT
Sexeboda gogonas TiTze wamocmul oqros beWeds da am gziT gaegebnebina mosaubris
Tvis saTqmeli. saSinlad Sercxva, roca gogonam auxsna, rom sityva, romelic veraf
riT gaexsenebina, zustad germanuli sityvis (Gold) identuri iyo. didi mniSvneloba
amgvari, am SemTxvevaSi sityvis daviwyebiT ganpirobebuli Sexebisa, ara mxolod imaSi
mdgomareobs, rom axalgazrda kacma qalis Rirsebis Seulaxavad daikmayofila masTan
fizikuri Sexebis wyurvili, risTvisac Seyvarebulebi SemTxvevas xelidan arc ara
sodes uSveben xolme, aramed ufro metad imaSi, rom am Sexebam SesaZlebeli gaxada,
kacs gogonasTan dakavSirebiT Tavisi ganzraxvis samomavlo perspeqtivebi daenaxa. qa
lis aracnobieri, _ gansakuTrebiT ki maSin, Tu qali Tavisi partnioris mimarT simpa
Tias grZnobs, _ myisve gamoicnobs daviwyebis uvnebel niRabs amofarebul erotiul
survils. is, Tu rogor aRiqvams qali am Sexebas da ra motivacias mouZebnis mas, iqceva
orivesTvis gaucnobierebel, magram Zalian mniSvnelovan saSualebad es-es aris dawye
buli flirtis samomavlo Sansebis urTierTSesaTanxmeblad~.
SemeZlo ufro meti magaliTi momeyvana saxelebis daviwyebis SemTxvevebze, da am
sakiTxze diskusiac gagvegrZelebina, magram ar minda, ise moxdes, rom yvela Tvalsaz
risi, romlebic momdevno TematikasTan dakavSirebiT unda ganvixiloT, aqve, pirveli
Temis ganxilvisTanave amomwuravad ganimartos. da mainc, Tavs uflebas mivcem, war
modgenili magaliTebis ganxilvis Sedegebi ramdenime winadadebiT Sevajamo:
saxelebis daviwyebis meqanizmi (ufro sworad: mexsierebidan amovardnis, droebiT
daviwyebis) mdgomarebs imaSi, rom saxelis reproducirebis ganzraxuli procesi ir
Rveva azrTa ucxo da amavdroulad gaucnobierebeli mimdevrobis gamo. damaxinjebiT
reproducirebul saxelsa da gaxsenebis procesis xelisSemSlel kompleqss Soris an
Tavidanve arsebobs urTierTkavSiri an aseTi kavSiri xSir SemTxvevaSi xelovnuri gze
biT, zedapiruli (garegani) asociaciebis saSualebiT warmoiqmneba.
xelisSemSlel kopleqsebs Soris TviTdamokidebuleba (Eigenbeziehung) (pirovnu

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zigmund froidi
li, ojaxuri, profesiuli) yvelaze didi gavlenis mqone aRmoCnda.
saxels, romelic Tavisi mravalmniSvnelovnebis gamo azrTa ramdenime sxvadasxva
wres (kompleqss) miekuTvneba, xSirad swored imis gamo ver vixsenebT azrTa erT rome
lime mimdevrobasTan kavSirSi, rom xels gviSlis misi imavdrouli kuTvnileba azrTa
sxva, ufro Zlierad Camoyalibebul mimdevrobasTan (kompleqsTan).
mexsierebis amgvar darRvevaTa motivebs Soris gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva motivi,
romelic miznad isaxavs saxelwodebis daviwyebis gziT Tavidan aacilos adamians is
usiamovneba da cudi ganwyoba, romelsac uciloblad gamoiwvevda masSi am konkretu
li saxelis gaxseneba.
zogadad saxelebis daviwyebis fenomenis ori ZiriTadi SemTxveva SeiZleba ganvasx
vavoT. erTi, roca TviTon saxeli modis SexebaSi raRac arasasiamovnosTan, an roca is
ukavSirdeba meore saxels, romelic ase qmedebs. ase rom, saxelebis reproducirebis
procesi SeiZleba Seferxdes erTis mxriv sakuTriv maTive mizeziT, da meores mxriv,
maTi axlo Tu Soreuli asociaciuri kavSirebis gamo.
am zogadi mimoxilvis Semdeg gasagebi xdeba, rom saxelebis droebiT daviwyeba mex
sierebis Secdomebs Soris yvelaze xSiria.
Tumca unda iTqvas, rom jer kidev bevri ram gvaSorebs im dros, roca am fenomenis
yvela Taviseburebis dasaxelebas SevZlebT. minda imazec mivuTiTo, rom saxelebis da
viwyeba Zlier gadamdebia. sakmarisia, ori pirovnebis saubrisas erTma Tqvas, esa Tu is
saxeli damaviwydao, rom maSinve meoresac aviwydeba igive. Tumca iq, sadac daviwyebis
fenomeni inducirebulia, daviwyebuli saxelis gaxseneba kvlav ufro advilad xerxde
ba. es koleqtiuri~ daviwyeba, ufro zustad Tu vityviT, masebis fsiqologiis feno
meni, jer kidev ar gamxdara analitikuri kvlevis sagani.
adgili aqvs xolme saxelebis daviwyebis gaxangrZlivebul processac, romlis
drosac erTbaSad xdeba saxelTa mTeli wyebis mexsierebidan gandevna. daviwyebuli
saxelwodebis Zebnisas adamiani sxvebs eWideba, romlebTanac is saxeli, romelsac
eZebs, Zalian axlo kavSirSia. am dros ki xSir SemTxvevaSi isinic aviwydeba, romelTaA
gamoyenebasac sayrdenad apirebda sasurveli saxelwodebis Zebnisas. daviwyeba ise dax
tis erTi saxelidan meoreze, TiTqosda advilad verdasaZlevi dabrkolebis arsebobis
damtkicebas cdilobdes.

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Tavi meoTxe

bavSvobisa da gadamfaravi mogonebebis Sesaxeb

Cems morig naSromSi (1899 w. gamoqveynda yovelTviur JurnalSi fsiqiatria da


nevrologia~) SevZeli damemtkicebina gaxsenebis fenomenis tendenciuri bunebis ar
seboba CvenTvis sruliad moulodnel sferoSi. me vxelmZRvanelobdi im ucnauri rea
lobiT, rom, rogorc irkveva, Zalian adreuli bavSvobidan adamians xSirad misTvis
sruliad umniSvnelo da meorexarisxovani mogonebebi aqvs Semonaxuli, da amavdrou
lad imave periodis mniSvnelovani, dasamaxsovrebeli da afeqtebiT datvirTuli
STabeWdilebebi (xSirad, cxadia, ara yovelTvis) zrdasruli adamianis mexsierebidan
ukvalod aris gamqrali. radgan cnobilia, rom mexsiereba arCevans akeTebs SemoTava
zebuli STabeWdilebebidan misTvis yvelaze sasurvelze, gamodis, unda vivaraudoT,
rom es arCevani sruliad gansxvavebuli principiT keTdeba bavSvobis asakSi, da sul
sxvagvarad mimdinareobs igive procesi inteleqtualurad momwifebuli pirovnebis
mexsierebaSi. dawvrilebiTma gamokvlevam aCvena, rom es varaudi gadaWarbebulia. mex
sierebas SemorCenili bavSvobisdroindeli umniSvnelo mogonebebi TavianT arsebobas
unda umadlodnen mexsierebaSi mimdinare Camnacvlebel process. reproduqciis dros
swored isini enacvleba sxva, namdvilad mniSvnelovan da Rirebul STabeWdilebebs,
romelTa gaxseneba Canacvlebuli mogonebebis (Ersatzerinnerungen) fsiqikuri analizis
meSveobiT xerxdeba, da romelTa pirdapiri reproduqcia ferxdeba sxvadasxva winaaRm
degobis gamo. radgan isini TavianT SenarCunebas sakuTar Sinaarss ki ara, maTi Sinaar
sis sxva SinaarsTan asociaciur kavSirs unda umadlodnen. aqedan gamomdinare, maT
namdvilad Seesatyviseba gansazRvreba, romelic me movuZebne, kerZod, gadamfaravi
mogonebebi (Deckerinnerungen).~
kavSirebisa da mniSvnelobebis mravalferovnebas zemoT xsenebul statiaSi me mxo
lod Sevexe, es sakiTxi ar amomiwuravs. iq dawvrilebiT gaanalizebul magaliTSi gansa
kuTrebiT wamovwie win gadamfarav mogonebasa (Deckerinnerung) da mis mier gadafarul
Sinaarss Soris arsebuli d r o i T i urTierTmimarTebis Tavisebureba. gadamfaravi
mogonebis Sinaarsi iq bavSvobis adreul wlebs ukavSirdeboda, maSin roca im azriT
gancdebs, romlebic mexsierebaSi am gadamfaravi mogonebis saxiT iqna warmodgenili,
da romlebic TiTqmis gaucnobierebeli darCa, am adamianis cxovrebis SedarebiT
gviandel wlebSi hqonda adgili. am saxis gadanacvlebas vuwode u k u m i m a r T u-

225

zigmund froidi
l i anu k u s v l a d i. albaT kidev ufro xSirad vxvdebiT sapirispiro damokidebu
lebas, roca uaxloes warsulSi miRebuli umniSvnelo STabeWdileba gadamfaravi mo
gonebis saxiT rCeba mexsierebaSi da gadafaravs adreuli wlebis mogonebas, romlis
uSualo reproduqcia sxvadasxva winaaRmdegobis gamo ver xerxdeba. es imiT aixsneba,
rom es gadamfaravi mogoneba TavianTi SinaarsiT dakavSirebulia sakmaod Soreul
wlebSi gancdilTan. mas SeiZleba ewodos w i n m i m a r T u l i

an

winswrebuli

gadamfaravi mogoneba. mTavari, rac mexsierebis zrunvis sagans warmoadgens, drois


TvalsazrisiT, gadamfaravi mogonebis u k a n devs. da bolos, verc mesame SemTxvevis
SesaZleblobas avuvliT gverds, miT ufro, rom mas arc Tu iSviaTad aqvs adgili: es is
SemTxvevaa, roca gadamfaravi mogoneba aramarto SinaarsiT, aramed droiTac Tanxved
rilia im mogonebasTan, romelsac faravs. e. i. saqme gvaqvs Tanadroul anu mosazRvre
gadamfarav mogonebasTan.
Tu Cveni mexsierebis maragis ra nawili miekuTvneba gadamfarav mogonebaTa ricxvs
da ra rols TamaSobs es mogonebebi nevrotiuli azrovnebis sxvadasxva procesebSi, is
problemebia, romelTa Sefaseba me arc iq micdia, arc aq maqvs dagegmili. me mxolod
is mainteresebs, rom win wamovwio sakuTari saxelebis daviwyeba-gaxsenebis da gadam
faravi mogonebebis warmoqmnis procesebis erTgvarovnebis sakiTxi.
erTi SexedviT am ori fenomenis gansxvavebuloba bevrad ufro TvalSisacemia, vid
re maTi SesaZlo analogiebi. iq saqme exeba sakuTar saxelebs, aq ki mTlian, realobaSi an
sulac warmosaxvaSi gancdil STabeWdilebebs. iq saqme gvaqvs gaxsenebis funqciis aSka
ra darRvevasTan, aq ki gaxsenebis SedegTan, romelic usiamo gaocebas iwvevs CvenSi. iq
adgili hqonda droebiT Seferxebas radgan es-esaa daviwyebuli saxeli am momentamde
asjer SeiZleba yofiliyo am adamianis mier sworad reproducirebuli da SesaZloa,
xvalidan kvlavac mravaljer uproblemod moxdes misi gaxseneba, aq ki mexsierebis
grZelvadian, uwyvet maragzea saubari, radgan gvgonia, rom bavSvobis umniSvnelo mo
gonebebi SeiZleba sul Tan mihyvebodes adamians cxovrebis xangrZlivi periodis man
Zilze. orive SemTxveva sxvadasxva gamocanis winaSe gvayenebs: iq saqme daviwyebas exe
ba, aq mogonebebis Senaxva-SenarCunebas, es ki Cvens mecnierul interess kidev ufro
amZafrebs. Tu cota ufro CavuRrmavdebiT, SevamCnevT, rom miuxedavad orive feno
mens Soris arsebuli gansxvavebulobisa, rogorc fsiqikuri masalis, ise drois Tval
sazrisiT, TanxvedraTa ricxvi aSkarad Warbobs sxvaobebs. iqac da aqac adgili aqvs
gaxsenebis procesis mcdar ganviTarebas. mexsierebis mier imis reproducireba ki ar
xdeba, risic konkretul SemTxvevaSi unda momxdariyo, aramed mis sanacvlod sruli
ad sxva ramisa. sakuTari saxelebis daviwyebis SemTxvevaSic adgili aqvs mexsierebis
Cveulebriv qmedebas, is axdens reproducirebas, oRond Camnacvlebeli saxelebi
sas (Ersatznamen). gadamfaravi mogonebebis warmoqmna mimdinareobs sxva, ufro mniS

226

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

vnelovani STabeWdilebebis daviwyebis fonze. orive SemTxvevaSi inteleqtualuri


SegrZneba gvamcnobs procesSi Seferxebis CarTvis Sesaxeb, oRond TiToeul SemTx
vevaSi sxvadasxva formiT. saxelebis daviwyebis dros v i c i T, rom Camnacvlebeli
saxelebi a r a s w o r i a; gadamfaravi mogonebebis SemTxvevaSi ki g v a o c e b s is faq
ti, rom es mogonebebi saerTod Semounaxavs Cvens mexsierebas. Tu Semdgomi fsiqolo
giuri analizi daamtkicebs, rom Camnacvlebeli azrebis warmoqmna orive SemTxvevaSi
erTnairi gziT ganxorcielda, kerZod didi xnis droindeli zedapiruli asociaciis
gadanacvlebis Sedegad, maSin swored orive am fenomenis gansxvavebuloba masalis,
drois xangrZlivobisa da centrirebis TvalsazrisiT gagviZlierebs imis molodins,
rom raRac mniSvnelovani da sazogadod miRebuli aRmovaCineT. es sazogadod imis
gamomxatveli iqneboda, rom reproduqciuri funqciis Seferxeba an mcdaroba ufro
xSirad, vidre Cven vvaraudobT, swored mikerZoebis faqtoris CarTvaze miuTiTebs,
anu tendenciaze, romelic erT mogonebas reproducirebaSi exmareba, imavdroulad ki
cdilobs xeli SeuSalos meore mogonebis warmoqmnas.
bavSvobisdroindeli mogonebebi imdenad mniSvnelovnad da sainteresod meCvene
ba, rom minda mivuZRvna mas kidev ramdenime SeniSvna, romlebic scdeba Cvens mier aqa
mde ganxilul mosazrebebs.
ramdenad swvdeba warsulis Soreul siRrmeebs bavSvobis mogonebebi? CemTvis
cnobilia am sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime gamokvleva, mag. h e n r i s a (V. et C. H

e n r i) da p o t v i n i s (P o t w i n); am gamokvlevebma aCvenes, rom dakvirvebis obieqtTa


Soris didi individualuri gansxvavebulobaa. maSin, roca erTi maTganis pirveli mo
goneba sicocxlis meeqvse Tves ukavSirdeba, meores Tavisi bavSvobis Sesaxeb meeqvse
anda merve wlamde araferi axsovs. rasTan aris dakavSirebuli bavSvobis mogonebebis
daviwyebis sxvadasxvagvaroba, da ra mniSvneloba eniWeba maT? dasmul kiTxvaze pasuxis
gasacemad, TavisTavad cxadia, am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli masalis mogroveba sakma
risi ar iqneba. mas aucileblad dasWirdeba damuSaveba, raSic informaciis momwode
beli pirma aucileblad unda miiRos monawileoba.
infantiluri amneziis faqts, Cveni sicocxlis pirvel wlebTan dakavSirebuli mo
gonebebis daviwyebis fenomens, vfiqrob, satanado interesiT ar vekidebiT da Sesaba
misad vkargavT SesaZleblobas, amovicnoT masSi arsebuli Zalze ucnauri gamocana.
Cven gvaviwydeba, rogori maRali inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebi da rTuli SegrZ
nebebis unari gaaCnia bavSvs ukve daaxloebiT oTxi wlis asakSi. aqedan gamomdinare,
unda gvaocebdes is faqti, rom am rTuli mSvinvieri procesebis Sesaxeb mexsierebas
sicocxlis gviandel periodSi, rogorc wesi, TiTqmis araferi aqvs Semonaxuli. miT
ufro, rom yvela safuZveli gvaqvs vivaraudoT, rom am daviwyebul bavSvobisdroin
del gancdebs ukvalod ar CauvliaT. maT udaod moaxdines gavlena pirovnebis ganvi

227

zigmund froidi
Tarebaze da Sesabamisad gansazRvres misi cxovrebis yvela Semdgomi periodi. da mainc,
miuxedavad am Seudareblad didi gavlenisa, isini daviwyebas mieca! es miuTiTebs gax
senebis sruliad specifiur pirobebze (cnobieri reproduqcia), romlebic aqamde Cve
ni SemecnebisTvis dafaruli iyo. advilad SesaZlebelia, rom bavSvobisdroindelma
mogonebebma gvapovninos gasaRebi im amneziebis arsSi Casawvdomad, romlebic Cveni
uaxlesi monacemebis Tanaxmad, unda warmoadgendes nevrologiuri simptomebis Camo
yalibebis safuZvels.
mexsierebaSi Semonaxuli bavSvobisdroindeli mogonebebis nawili Zalian gasagebad
gveCveneba, nawilic ucnaurad da gaugebrad. arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar warmoadgens sir
Tules zogierTi Secdomis gasworeba. Tu adamianis mexsierebaSi Semonaxul mogone
bebs analitikurad ganvixilavT, advilad davadgenT, rom maTi namdvilobis garantia
praqtikulad ar arsebobs. mogonebis bevri xati ueWvelad damaxinjebuli, arasruli,
an drosa da savrceSi gadanacvlebulia. gamokiTxuli adamianebis mier mowodebuli
informaciebi imis Taobaze, TiTqos maTi pirveli mogonebebi sicocxlis meore wels
ukavSirdebodes, sarwmuno namdvilad ar aris. male im motivebis dadgenac xerxdeba,
romelTa meSveobiT gasagebi xdeba ram gamoiwvia warsulSi gancdilis damaxinjeba an
drosa Tu sivrceSi misi gadanacvleba. es motivebi imasac amtkicebs, rom mxolod mex
sierebis Ralati ar SeiZleba iyos mogonebebis arasworad reproducirebis mizezi.
sicocxlis Semdgomi periodebis Zlieri Zalebis zemoqmedeba ganapirobebs bavSvo
bis mogonebebis gaxsenebis unaris formirebas. savaraudod, es is Zalebia, romelTa
wyalobiTac sazogadod ase gagviucxovda sakuTari bavSvobis xana da wagverTva misi
gagebis unari.
zrdasrul adamianebSi gaxsenebis procesi, rogorc cnobilia, sxvadasxva sax
is fsiqikur masalaze dayrdnobiT mimdinareobs. zogierTi adamiani mxedvelobiTi
xatebis moSveliebiT ixsenebs, aseT mogonebebs vizualuri xasiaTi aqvs; zogic gancdi
lis yvelaze mwiri monaxazis aRdgenasac Zlivs axerxebs; aseT adamianebs S a r k o s
mixedviT uditifs da moteurs uwodeben, sawinaaRmdegod Visuels-isa. sizmarSi es gansx
vavebebi qreba; sizmars metwilad suraT-xatebad vxedavT. igive procesi mimdinareobs
bavSvobis mogonebebis reproducirebisas. amitom maT sanaxaobiT-mxedvelobiTi saxe
aqvT im adamianebTanac ki, romelTa mexsierebas vizualuri elementebi zrdasrul
asakSi saerTod aRar gaaCnia. mxedvelobiTi gaxseneba am gziT inarCunebs infantiluri
gaxsenebis tips. piradad Cems SemTxvevaSi mxolod Zalian adreuli bavSvobis wlebi
dan SemorCenil mogonebebs gaaCnia vizualuri xasiaTi. es aris aSkarad sanaxaobrivi
scenebi, zustad Teatraluri dadgmebis msgavsi. bavSvobis STabeWdilebebis amsaxvel
am scenebSi _ miuxedavad imisa, namdvilia isini Tu damaxinjebuli _ adamiani siste
maturad xedavs sakuTar Tavsac, bavSvuri garegnobiTa da bavSvobisdroindeli samo

228

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

siT. es garemoeba gaocebas unda iwvevdes. vizualuri mexsierebis mqone zrdasruli


adamianebi gviandel STabeWdilebebTan dakavSirebuli mogonebebis reproducirebi
sas sakuTar Tavs veRar xedaven.12 Tu davuSvebT, rom bavSvs Tavisi gancdebisas mTeli
yuradReba sakuTar Tavze aqvs gadatanili, nacvlad imisa, rom moaxdinos misi sruli
koncentrireba garegan STabeWdilebebze, winaaRmdegobaSi movalT yvela im daskvnas
Tan, rac aqamde gagvikeTebia. es gansxvavebuli poziciebi gvaiZulebs vivaraudoT, rom
Cvens, ase vTqvaT, yvelaze adrindel bavSvobis mogonebebSi marTla realuri mogone
bebis kvals ki ar vxedavT, aramed maT gviandel, gadamuSavebul variants, romelic si
cocxlis gviandeli periodis sxvadasxvagvari fsiqiuri Zalebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad
iqna formirebuli. amgvarad, individis @`bavSvobis mogonebebi~ zogadad gadamfaravi
mogonebebis saxes iZens da amave dros Tavisi mniSvnelobiT utoldeba xalxebis sawyiss
mogonebebs, romlebic maTsave zepirmetyvelebaSi Tqmulebebisa da miTebis saxiTaa
Semonaxuli.
visac fsiqoanalizis meTodiT sakmao raodenobis adamiani hyavs gamokvleuli, mas
yvela saxis gadamfaravi mogonebebis magaliTebic mravlad eqneba mogrovili. Tumca
am magaliTebis mowodebas zedmiwevniT arTulebs zemoT ganmartebuli Taviseburebebi
im urTierTmimarTebisa, romelic arsebobs bavSvobisdroindel mogonebebsa da indi
vidis cxovrebis gviandel periods Soris. imisaTvis, rom Sefasdes romelime bavSvobi
sdroindeli mogoneba rogorc gadamfaravi mogoneba, xSirad am pirovnebis cxovrebis
mTeli istoriis saaSkaraoze gamotana xdeba aucilebeli. mxolod Zalian iSviaT SemTx
vevaSia SesaZlebeli, msgavsad qvemoT moyvanili mSvenieri magaliTisa, erTi konkre
tuli SemTxvevis calke gamoyofa da misi damoukideblad ganxilva.
ocdaoTxi wlis axalgazrda ixsenebs xuTi wlis asakSi gancdils. suraTi aseTia:
biWuna sazafxulo agarakzea, baRSi. taburetze zis, deidis gverdiT, romelic cdi
lobs asoebi aswavlos pataras. biWs uWirs aso m-sa da aso n-s Soris gansxvavebis dam
axsovreba da sTxovs deidas, maswavle, rogor unda gamovicno, romeli romeliao.
deida yuradRebas imaze amaxvilebinebs, rom m n-s mTeli erTi nawiliT metobs, m-s
n-sgan gansxvavebiT erTiT meti xazi aqvs. ar arsebobda araviTari safuZveli eWvisa,
rom bavSvobis es mogoneba namdvili ar iyo, Tumca Tavisi namdvili mniSvneloba man
mxolod mogvianebiT aRidgina, roca gairkva, rom am mogonebas SeuZlia simbolurad
ganasaxieros biWis sul sxva saxis daintereseba. rogorc maSin, xuTi wlis asakSi cdi
lobda gaerkvia, rogor ganesxvavebina erTmaneTisgan m da n asoebi, iseve undoda
axla, ukve mozrdil bavSvs, gaego ra gansxvavebaa gogonasa da biWs Soris. namdvilad
araferi eqneboda sawinaaRmdego, Tu amjeradac deida ikisrebda maswavleblis rols.
mere gaarkvia kidec, rom gansxvaveba marTlac im asoebis magaliTis msgavsi iyo: biWi
mTeli erTi nawiliT metobda gogonas. swored am mignebam gauRviZa mas sakuTar bavS
vur cnobismoyvareobasTan dakavSirebuli Sesabamisi mogoneba.

229

zigmund froidi
kidev erTi magaliTi ufro gviandeli bavSvobis wlebidan: seqsualur sferoSi Za
lian dakompleqsebuli kaci, romelic amJamad 43 wlisaa, yvelaze ufrosia cxra daZmas Soris. yvelaze umcrosis dabadebisas is TxuTmeti wlisa iyo, Tumca axla jiutad
amtkicebs, rom dedisTvis fexmZimoba arasodes SeumCnevia. es, cxadia, daujereblad
meCveneba da daJinebiT vcdilob gavaxseno is periodi. rogorc iqna, axerxebs mexsiere
baSi aseTi suraTis aRdgenas: deda sarkis win dgas da aCqarebiT i x d i s q v e d a t a n s.
Tavisi varaudiT biWi maSin 11-12 wlisa iqneboda. dedas eubneba, quCidan Semovedi da
moulodnelad WinTvebi damewyoo. qvedatanis g a x d a (Aufbinden) biWisTvis gadamfar
av mogonebad iqca, romlis ukan m S o b i a r o b a imaleba. amgvari `sityvieri xidebis~
magaliTebs Cven sxvaganac mravlad SevxvdebiT.
mxolod erT magaliTze minda gaCvenoT, ra azri SeiZleba SeiZinos analitikuri
gadamuSavebis Semdgom bavSvobisdroindelma mogonebam, romelic erTi SexedviT
arafrismTqmeli Canda. roca ormocdasami wlis asakSi Cemi bavSvobis mogonebebis nar
CenebiT davinteresdi, gonebaSi erTi scena amomitivtivda, romelic ukve didi xania
(meCveneboda, rom Zalian adreuli asakidan) drogamoSvebiT maxsendeboda da yvela
safuZveli mqonda mefiqra, rom is Cemi sicocxlis mesame wlis bolos ukavSirdeboda.
vxedavdi, rogor vdgavar yuTTan da tiriliT viTxov raRacas. yuTis saxuravi Cems oci
wliT ufros naxevarZmas uWiravs xeliT. uceb dedaCemi Semodis, lamazi da gamxdari,
TiTqos axlaxans Semovida quCidano. am sityvebiT aRvwere scena, romelsac aqamde mxo
lod vxedavdi da verafris Tqmas ver vaxerxebdi. ra undoda Cems Zmas, am yuTis _
am scenis pirvelad aRwerisas ratomRac sityva `karada~ gamoviyene _ gaReba Tu da
xurva, ra matirebda, ra hqonda saerTo am yvelaferTan dedis Semosvlas, metismetad
bundovani iyo CemTvis. Cemeuli axsna aseTi iyo: ufrosi Zma Cemi wvalebiT erToboda,
rac dedis gamoCenisTanave Sewyvita. bavSvobisdroindel mexsierebebTan dakavSire
buli aseTi gaugebrobebi sakmaod xSiria. adamians axsovs raRac situacia, romelic ar
aris centrirebuli da ver xvdeba, kerZod romel elementze unda gaakeTos fsiqikuri
aqcenti. Cemma analitikurma mcdelobebma sruliad moulodnel Sedegamde mimiyvana.
suraTi ukve amgvarad avxseni: karga xans uSedegod veZebdi dedas, mere ratomRac eWvi
gamiCnda, rom SeiZleboda am yuTSi Tu karadaSi yofiliyo Caketili. amitom vTxovdi
Zmas mis gaRebas. manac Seasrula Cemi moTxovna, magram roca davrwmundi, rom deda iq
ar iyo, xmamaRali tirili movrTe. swored es momenti CamebeWda mexsierebaSi. suraTi
sruldeba oTaxSi dedis SemosvliT, rac miqarvebs dardisa Tu monatrebis grZnobas.
sainteresoa, saidan mouvida bavSvs is azri, rom deda yuTSi eZebna? bolodroindeli
sizmrebi bundovnad mimaniSnebdnen Cems ZiZaze, romelic me sxva mogonebebsac aRmiZ
ravda. mag. ZiZa moiTxovda Cemgan, rom yovelTvis patiosnad Camebarebina misTvis is
wvrili fuli, romelsac zogjer saCuqrad viRebdi. es is detalia, romelic, advilad

230

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

SesaZlebelia, gadamfarav mogonebad iqces ufro gvian momxdari sxva STabeWdilebi


saTvis. gadavwyvite, amjerad saqme gameiolebina da Cemi moxuci dedisTvis gamomekiTxa
ZiZasTan dakavSirebuli ambebi. bevri ram Sevityve. mag. gavige, rom am Wkvian, magram
uweso adamians dedaCemis mSobiarobis periodSi uamravi ram mouparavs Cveni saxlidan,
ris gamoc Cemi naxevarZmis daJinebiT gausamarTlebiaT kidec. am informaciam Zalian
naTlad damanaxa zemoT aRwerili scenis namdvili arsi: saxlidan ZiZis moulodnelad
gaqroba SeumCneveli ar damrCenia. swored Cems Zmas mivmarTe kiTxviT, ZiZa ratom aRar
Cans-meTqi, radgan rogorRac SevniSne, rom am saqmeSi masac miuZRoda wvlili. Cemma
Zmamac pirdapir pasuxs Tavi aarida da kalamburiT miTxra: `yuTSi gamoketeso~. naTq
vami ise gavige, rogorc is Cemma bavSvurma gonebam aRiqva da gamokiTxvasac Tavi da
vanebe, imitom rom meti mainc aravin araferi miTxra. magram roca cota xnis Semdeg
deda movisaklise, maSinve Zmaze mivitane eWvi. CavTvale rom am borotma biWma deda
sac igive gaukeTa, rac ZiZas. amitom movTxove, saswrafod gaexsna yuTi. axla imasac
vxvdebi, ratom iyo bavSvobisdroindel am vizualur mogonebaSi ase xazgasmuli dedis
sigamxdre. me misi sigamxdre TvalSi momxvda, rogorc dedis sul cota xnis aRdgeni
li Zveli garegnoba. me orwlinaxevriT ufrosi var Cems maSin gaCenil daze. sami wlis
asakidan ki ukve aRar vcxovrobdi Cems ufros naxevarZmasTan erTad.13

Tavi mexuTe

mcdarTqma

Tu mSobliuri yofiTi salaparako enis masala daviwyebisgan ase Tu ise daculia,


maSin igi miT ufro midrekilia sxva darRvevebisadmi, romelic mcdarTqmis saxeliT
aris cnobili.
normalur adamianSi gamovlenili mcdarTqma paTologiur pirobebSi gamomJRavne
buli e.w. `parafaziebis~ winare safexuris STabeWdilebas tovebs.
aq me _ rac ar unda uCveulo iyos es _ iseT mdgomareobaSi vimyofebi, roca vi
Racis mier Cemamde Catarebuli samuSaos dafaseba SemiZlia. 1895 wels meringerma da

k. maierma gamoaqveynes narkvevi `mcdarTqma da mcdarkiTxva~, romelTa midgomac Ce


meulisagan Sors dgas. kerZod, avtorTagan erT-erTi, romlis saxeliTac xdeba Txro
ba, enis mkvlevaria da lingvisturma interesebma ubiZga gamokvlevisaken, daecva is
wesebi, romelTa mixedviTac xdeba mcdarTqma. is imedovnebda, am wesebis safuZvel
ze SeZlebda daskvnis gamotanas `raRac garkveuli sulieri meqanizmis~ arsebobaze,

231

zigmund froidi
`romlis Tanaxmadac raime sityvis, winadadebis bgerebi da Tavad sityvebic sruliad
specifiuri gziT arian erTmaneTTan gadabmulni da dakavSirebulni.~
Tavdapirvelad avtorebi `mcdarTqmis~ maT mier Tavmoyril magaliTebs ajgufeben
wminda deskripciuli principiT, rogorc gadanacvlebas (mag. milo veneseli nacvlad
venera miloselisa): a) rogorc winmswreb gaJRerebas anu anticipaciebs (mag. mker
daSi.... mkerdSi ise damimZimda), b) nagvianeb gaJRerebas anu postpozicias (mag. `mogi
wodebT, Cveni Sefis dRegrZelobisa movuWaxunoT~ nacvlad miWaxunebisa), g) Serwymas
anu kontaminacias (mag. `ukana Tavze dgeba~ nacvlad: `TavSi Caido~ da `ukana TaTebze
dgeba~), d) Canacvlebas anu substitucias (mag. `preparatebs CavuSveb safosto yuT
Si~ nacvlad sainkubacio yuTisa), am mTavar kategoriebsac kidev ramdenime naklebad
mniSvnelovani (da Cveni miznebisaTvis naklebad Rirebuli) kategoria unda miematos.
am dajgufebaSi ar xdeba gansxvaveba, es gadanacvleba ganzraxuli winadadebis sityvis
calkeul bgerebs Seexeba, marcvlebs Tu mTlian sityvebs.
mcdarTqmis gamovlenil saxeebs meringeri enobrivi bgerebis gansxvavebuli fsiqi
kuri intensivobiT xsnis. Tu xdeba sityvis pirveli bgeris, winadadebis pirveli si
tyvis stimulireba, maSin agznebis es procesi ukve momdevno bgerebsa da sityvebze
vrceldeba da ramdenadac stimulirebis es procesi erTdroulad mimdinareobs,
erTmaneTze SeiZleba cvlilebis gamomwvevi zegavlena iqonios. intensiuri bgeris
stimulireba an winmswrebad an eqosebr gamoZaxilad JRers da aferxebs naklebi inten
sivobis process. axla ki unda ganvsazRvroT, Tu romlebia sityvaSi umaRlesi intensi
vobis bgerebi. meringeri ambobs: `Tu gvinda, vicodeT, sityvis romeli bgeraa yvelaze
maRali intensivobis mqone, amisaTvis sakuTar Tavs unda davakvirdeT daviwyebuli si
tyvis, mag.saxelis Zebnisas. pirvel rigSi cnobierebaSi Semodis is, rasac daviwyebamde
yvelaze maRali intensivoba hqonda. ese igi, maRali intensivobis mqone bgerebi fuZi
seuli marcvlebis sawyisi bgera da sityvis sawyisi bgeraa da _ aqcentirebuli xmovani
an xmovnebi~.
ar SemiZlia, aq winaaRmdegoba ar gavwio. varaudSi, miekuTvneba Tu ara saxelis sawy
isi bgera sityvaSi umaRlesi Rirebulebis mqone elementebs, is mainc arasworia, rom
sityvis daviwyebis SemTxvevaSi pirvelad swored is aRsdgeba cnobierebaSi; amdenad,
zemoT moyvanili wesi gamousadegaria. Tu sakuTar Tavs raime daviwyebuli saxelis Zeb
nisas davakvirdebiT, umetes SemTxvevaSi darwmunebulebi varT, rom is raRac garkveul
asoze iwyeba. es darwmunebuloba iseve xSirad aris usafuZvlo, rogorc safuZvliani.
diax, minda ganvacxado, rom umetes SemTxvevaSi sawyisi bgera arasworadaa miTiTebu
li. `sinioreli~-s Taobaze Cvens magaliTSiac Casanacvlebel saxelSi gvxvdeba sawyisi
bgera da arsebiTi marcvlebi dakargulia; swored marcvlebis is naklebad Rirebuli
wyvili `eli~ daubrunda mexsierebas Casanacvlebel saxelSi `botiCeli~. is, Tu ramde

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fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

nad naklebad scemen pativs Casanacvlebeli saxelebi gonebidan amovardnili saxelis


sawyis bgeras, dae Semdegma SemTxvevam gaxados TvalsaCino:
xandaxan CemTvis SeuZlebelia, gavixseno im patara qveynis saxeli, romlis dedaqa
laqicaa monte karlo. misi Casanacvlebeli saxelebi Semdegnairad JRers:

piemonti, albaneTi, montevideo, koliko.


albaneTi male montenegroTi Seicvleba da mere TvalsaCino xdeba, rom marcvali
`mont~ (gamoTqmuli rogorc `mon~) mainc miesadageba yvela Casanacvlebel saxels,
ukanasknelis garda. amiTi miadvildeba, hercogi albertis saxelidan gamomdinare,
daviwyebuli monako vipovo. koliko daviwyebuli saxelis marcvalTa Tanmimdevro
basa da riTmikas daaxloebiT miagavs.
Tu vivaraudebT, rom mcdarTqmis SEemTxvevebSi imave meqanizmTan gvaqvs saqme, ra
sac saxelebis daviwyebis SemTxvevaSic vxvdebiT, maSin, mcdarTqmis SemTxvevaTa ufro
Rrmad dasabuTebul gagebamde mivalT. metyvelebis is darRveva, romelic mcdarTqmis
saxiT warmogvidgeba, pirvel rigSi, SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos imave frazis sxva Semad
geneli nawilis zegavleniT, anu winmswrebad imisa, rac Semdgom unda iTqvas an naTqva
mis Semdgom gamoZaxilad, anda sxva formulirebis zegavleniT, romelic gamosaTqme
li winadadebis an azris farglebs ar scildeba, romlis gamoTqmac gvaqvs ganzraxuli
_ amas ganekuTvneba meringerisa da maierisgan aRebuli zemoT CamoTvlili yvela mag
aliTi; meores mxriv ki, SesaZlebelia darRveva siniorelis SemTxvevis analogiurad
moxdes da rodesac es darRveva am sityvis, winadadebis Tu mocemuli kavSiris gareSe
gavlenebidan xdeba, im elementebidan momdinare, romelTa gamoTqma ar Sedis Cvens
ganzraxvaSi da romelTa agznebis Sesaxeb mxolod da mxolod am darRveviT Tu vigebT.
unda davaskvnaT, rom agznebis erTdrouloba, simultanuroba aris is saerTo, rac am
ori tipis mcdarTqmas aerTianebs, xolo mocemuli winadadebis an mocemuli kavSiris
gareT an mis farglebSi yofna ki _ mcdarTqmis orive saxisaTvis ganasxvavebs. pirve
li SexedviT gansxvaveba iseTi didi ar Cans, rogorc is SemdgomSi Cndeba mcdarTqmis
simptomatologiis garkveuli daskvnebis gaTvaliswinebisas, Tumca sruliad naTe
lia, rom mxolod pirveli SemTxveva gvaZlevs imeds, rom mcdarTqmis fenomenis gax
ilvisas davaskvnaT iseTi meqanizmebis arsebobis Sesaxeb, romlebic iseTnairad aer
Tianeben calkeul bgerebsa da sityvebs, rom isini urTierTzegavlenas axdenen maTive
artikulaciis procesze. ese igi iseTi daskvnebi, romelTac lingvisti isurvebda,
rom mcdarTqmis gamokvlevidan mieRo. garedan Semosuli gavleniT ganpirobebuli wi
nadadebisa Tu frazaTa darRvevis SemTxvevaSi upirveles yovlisa saWiro iqneboda,
darRvevebis gamomwvevi elementebis dadgena da Semdeg wamoiWreboda kiTxva, SeuZlia
Tu ara darRvevis meqanizmsac sityvaTwarmoebis navaraudevi kanonzomierebebis ga
moaSkaraveba.

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zigmund froidi
ufleba ar gvaqvs ganvacxadoT, rom meringers da maiers `rTuli fsiqikuri ze
gavlenebiT~, imave sityvis, winadadebisa Tu igive frazis Tanmimdevrobis gareT
arsebuli elementebiT metyvelebis darRvevis SesaZlebloba gamorCaT. maT unda
SeemCniaT, rom is Teoria, romlis mixedviTac fsiqikisTvis yvela bgera Tanabrad
Rirebuli ar aris, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, mxolod bgeriTi darRvevebis, an winmswrebi
da Semdgomi gamoZaxilis asaxsnelad aris sakmarisi. iq, sadac sityvieri darRvevebi
bgeriT darRvevebze ver daiyvneba, mag. sityvebis Canacvlebebisa da kontaminaciebis
dros, mcdarTqmis mizezs isinic uneblied im ganzraxuli urTierTkavSiris gareT
eZebdnen da saqmis amgvari viTareba mSvenieri magaliTebiTac gaaTvalsaCinoes. me
Semdegi adgilebis citirebas movaxden:
ru. yveba ambavs, rasac is sulis siRrmeSi `Rorobad~ afasebs. magram is amis ufro
rbilad gamoxatvas cdilobs da iwyebs: `magram mere iseTi faqtebi gamoRordnen...~ ma
ieri da me amas SeveswariT da ru.-m daadastura, rom `Rorobebze~ ifiqra. is, rom am
nafiqrma sityvam (Roroba) gamoaaSkarava Tavi da ucbad gaxda qmediTi da laparakis
dros wascda, am ori sityvis msgavsebiT aixsneba.
`iseve rogorc kontaminaciebis, Canacvlebebis drosac,

magram albaT kidev

ufro didi xarisxiT, did rols TamaSoben xatovani sityva-Tqmani da orazrovani


Sesityvebebi. isini, marTalia cnobierebis zRvars qvemoT, magram mainc qmediT
siaxloveSi arian, advilad SeuZliaT saTqmel kompleqsTan msgavsebis meSveobiT
mizidul iqnen da metyvelebis Tanmimdevruli msvlelobis procesidan gadaxveva
gamoiwvion an metyvelebisas sityvebis msvlelobaSi CaerTon. es xatovani sityvaTqmani, rogorc vTqviT, xSirad cota xnis win dasrulebuli enobrivi procesebis
`dagvianebuli mgzavrebi~ (gamoZaxili) arian.
zemoTaRniSnuli msvlelobidan gadaxveva msgavsebiTac SeiZleba iyos gamowveuli,
roca raime sxva msgavsi sityva cnobierebis zRvars qvemoT devs, magram saTqmelad ar
aris gamiznuli. es exeba Canacvlebebs. _ amitom vimedovneb, rom gadamowmebisas Cemi
wesebi dadasturdebian. magram amisaTvis saWiroa, rom roca dakvirveba sxva adamianze
xdeba, cxadad gaviazroT yvela SesaZlebloba, Tu raze SeeZlo mosaubres efiqra 14. aq
erT karg magaliTs moviyvan. li.-m Cvens Sekrebaze Tqva: `es qali Semamzinebda~. me dav
eWvdi, radgan es `mz~ auxsnelad momeCvena. Tavs ufleba miveci, mosaubris yuradReba
mimeqcia mis Secdomaze, `SemaSinebda~-s magivrad `Semamzinebda~ rom Tqva, razec maS
inve mipasuxa: `diax, es imitom, rom vfiqrobdi: ar viqnebodi mzad~ da a.S.~
`kidev erTi SemTxveva. vekiTxebi r. f. Sid.-s, Tu rogor aris misi avadmyofi cxeni.
man mipasuxa: `xo, albaT gamwuxrd... gagrZeldeba kidev erTi Tve.~ es `gamwuxrd~ `xr~Ti sruliad gaugebrad mesaxa, radgan SeuZlebeli iyo `gagrZeldebis~ `gr~-s emoqmeda
amgvarad. amitom r. f. S.-s yuradReba gavamaxvilebine amaze, razec man mipasuxa, rom

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ifiqra `es Zalian samwuxaro ambaviao~. ese igi, mosaubres orgvari pasuxi hqonda TavSi,
romlebic Seerwynen erTmaneTs.~
ar SeiZleba ar aRvniSnoT Tu rogor axlos modis cnobierebis zRvars qvemoT mdgomi xatovani sityva-Tqmanis da Sesityvebebis gaTvaliswineba, romlebic saTqmelad ar
arian gankuTvnilni da is mowodeba, rom gamovikiTxoT, Tu raze ifiqra mosaubrem Cve
ni `analizebis~ pirobebTan. Cvenc imave gziT veZebT aracnobier masalas, mxolod im
gansxvavebiT, rom gamokiTxulis TavSi mosuli sityvebidan darRvevis matarebeli el
ementis aRmoCenamde kompleqsur asociaciaTa wyebis gavliT ufro grZeli gzis gavla
gviwevs.
me SevCerdebi kidev erT saintereso qcevaze, romelzec meringeris magaliTebi
mowmoben. avtoris azriT, ganzraxul winadadebaSi romelime sityvis msgavseba sxva

im sityvasTan, romlis gamoTqmasac ar vapirebT, ukanasknels saSualebas aZlevs, rom


damaxinjebis, gadanacvlebis, kompromisuli warmonaqmnis (kontaminaciiT) gziT subi
eqtis cnobierebaSi SeaRwios.
SemaSinebda

gagrZeldeba

gamovlinda

mzadyofna

samwuxaro

Roroba

`sizmrebis axsnis~ Sesaxeb Cems nawerSi ganvmarte, Tu ra wvlili Seaqvs konden


saciis samuSos sizmris latenturi azrebidan e.w. sizmris cxadi Sinaarsis SeqmnaSi.
aracnobieri masalis or elements Soris nebismieri sagnobrivi an sityvieri msgavseba
sababia imisaTvis, rom raime mesame, Sereuli an kompromisuli warmodgena Seiqmnas,
romelic sizmris SinaarsSi Tavis orive komponents Seenacvleba da romelic amgvari
warmomavlobidan gamomdinare, ase xSirad gamoirCeva calkeuli Tvisebebis winaaRmde
gobriobiT.
amrigad, mcdarTqmis dros Canacvlebebisa da kontaminaciebis warmoqmna im kon
densaciis samuSaos dasawyisia, romlis Sedegsac vpoulobT sizmris agebis procesSi.
ufro farTo wreebisaTvis gankuTvnil erT patara naSromSi (1900 wlis 23 agvis
tos `axali Tavisufali presa~: `rogor SeiZleba mcdarTqma mogvivides~) meringerma
yuradReba dauTmo mcdarTqmaTa iseTi SemTxvevebis gansakuTrebul praqtikul mniSv
nelobas, roca raime sityvas misi sapirispiro mniSvnelobis mqone sityviT Cavanacv
lebT. `albaT jer kidev bevrs axsovs, Tu rogor gaxsna amas winaT sxdoma avstriis
parlamentis sakrebulos prezidentma: `uzenaeso sakrebulo! vadastureb amdeni da
amdeni batonis aqyofnas da amiT xsdomas daxurulad vacxadeb!~ mxolod sayovelTao
mxiarulebam miapyro misi yuradReba Secdomas da man is gamoaswora. am SemTxvevaSi axsna albaT is iqneboda, rom prezidents surda, es sxdoma, romlisganac arafer kargs ar

235

zigmund froidi
eloda, namdvilad daexura, magram _ es xSiri movlenaa _ gverdiTma azrma nawilob
riv mainc gamoJona da Sedegad miviReT `daxuruli~ nacvlad `gaxsnilisa~, ese igi imis
sapirispiro, risi Tqmac iyo ganzraxuli. magram mravalgvarma dakvirvebam maswavla,
rom, saerTod, urTierTsawinaaRmdego sityvebs sakmaod xSirad vurevT erTmaneTSi;
isini ukve Cvens enobriv cnobierebaSi arian asocirebulni, erTmaneTTan SemWidrove
bulni arian da Zalian advilad xdeba maTi SecdomiT wamoZaxeba.~
sapirispiroTa arevis yvela SemTxvevaSi ar aris ase advili, rogorc prezidentis
magaliTSi, imis gamoaSkaraveba, rom mcdarTqma winaaRmdegobis mizeziT, erTgvari
protestis gamo xdeba, xdeba, romelic mosaubris SigniT gamoTqmuli winadadebis
sawinaaRmdegod aRiZvreba. analogiuri meqanizmi Cven `a liquis~-is magaliTis anal
izis drosac vipoveT; Sinagani winaaRmdegoba iq sityvis daviwyebaSi gamovlinda, misi
sapirispiroTi Canacvlebis magivrad. magram, am gansxvavebebis mosaxsnelad gvsurs
SevniSnoT, rom patara sityva `aliquis~ im antipodis matarebeli ar aris, romelic si
tyva `daxurvas~ da `gaxsnas~ erTmaneTis mimarT aqvT da rom `gaxsna~ rogorc Zalze
xSirad gamoyenebuli, Znelad miecema daviwyebas.
Tu meringerisa da maieris es ukanaskneli magaliTebi gviCveneben, rom metyvelebis
darRveva SeiZleba ganviTardes rogorc erTi da imave winadadebaSi gamosaTqmelad
gankuTvnili bgerebisa da sityvebis zegavleniT, aseve gamosaTqmelad ganzraxuli
winadadebis farglebs miRma arsebuli myofi sityvebis zemoqmedebiT, romlebic
sxvagvarad ver gamovlindebodnen, maSin Tavdapirvelad imis gageba unda movindomoT,
SegviZlia Tu ara mcdarTqmis es ori klasi erTmaneTisgan mkveTrad gavmijnoT
da rogor aris SesaZlebeli, erTi klasis magaliTis meore klasisagan garCeva.
gamokvlevis am adgilas ki vundtis mosazrebebi unda gavixsenoT, romelic enis
ganviTarebis kanonzomierebaTa Sesaxeb Tavis mravlismomcvel gamokvlevaSi (xalxTa
fsiqologia, tomi I, nawili I, gv. 371-dan, 1900) mcdarTqmis gamovlinebebsac exeba.
rac am gamovlinebebsa da sxvebs, maT monaTesaveT, arasodes akliaT, vundtis mixedviT,
es garkveuli fsiqikuri zegavlenebia. `amaSi, pirvel rigSi, pozitiur winapirobad
iTvleba gamoTqmuli bgerebiT gamowveuli bgeriTi da sityvieri asociaciebis
SeuCerebeli nakadi. amas, rogorc uaryofiTi faqtori, emateba nebisyofis da
yuradRebis zegavlenis Sesusteba an sruli Sewyveta, rac am nakads aferxebs. am
SemTxvevaSi yuradReba nebisyofis funqciad gvevlineba. asociaciis es TamaSi vlindeba
Tu ara imaSi, rom momavali warmosaTqmeli bgeris anticipacia an warmoTqmuli bgeris
reproduqcia xdeba, an rom CvevaSi gamjdari romelime bgera sxvebs Soris CaerTveba,
an da, bolos da bolos, imaSi, rom sruliad sxva sityvebi, romlebic gamoTqmuli
bgerebiT asociaciur kavSirSi imyofebian, maTze ukuqmedeben _ yvelaferi es mxolod
gansxvavebebs aRniSnavs am mimarTulebiT da, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, am sivrceSi,

236

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

ganxorcielebul asociaciebSi, magram ara maT saerTo bunebaSi. zogierT SemTxvevaSi


isic ki SeiZleba iyos saeWvo, romel formas unda mivakuTvnoT raime garkveuli
darRveva an unda daviyvanoT Tu ara isini, ufro metad, mizezTa garTulebis principis

mixedviT 15, mraval motivTa Tanxvedraze.~


vundtis es SeniSvnebi marTebulad da damakvalianeblad mimaCnia. SeiZleba vundtze
ufro didi SemarTebiTac gavusvaT xazi imas, rom metyvelebaSi Secdomebis pozitiu
rad xelSemwyobi momenti _ asociaciaTa SeuCerebeli nakadi _ da negatiuri _ yur
adRebis Semakavebeli zegavlenis Sesusteba _ sistematurad modian urTierTqmede
baSi, ise rom orive momenti erTi da imave procesis mxolod da mxolod gansxvavebul
aspeqtebad iqceva. yuradRebis Semakavebeli zegavlenis SesustebasTan erTad swored
am asociaciaTa SeuCerebeli nakadi amoqmeddeba; kidev ufro zustad rom gamovTqvaT:
am SesustebiT.
Cems mier Segrovil mcdarTqmaTa magaliTebs Soris TiTqmis ver vpoulob iseTs,
romelSic metyvelebis darRveva mxolod da mxolod imaze dayvaneba, rasac vundti
`bgeraTa kontaqtur gavlenas~ uwodebs. TiTqmis yvela SemTxvevaSi me vpoulob
darRvevis gamomwvev zegavlenasac, romelic ganzraxuli frazis farglebs miRmaa
da es damrRvevi zegavlena an erTeuli aracnobierad darCenili azria, romelic
mcdarTqmiT gamoavlens Tavs da xSirad mxolod gulmodgine analizis meSveobiT Tu
ubrundeba cnobiers, an da es raime ufro zogadi fsiqikuri motivia, romelic mTeli
frazis winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli.
1) Cems qaliSvils, romelic vaSlSi CakbeCisas mJave saxes iRebs, citatas movuyvan:
`manWiaobs maimuni,
metadre vaSls roca Wams.~
me ki viwyeb: manWams... es albaT `manWiaobis~ da `Wamis~ kontaminaciaa (kompromisuli
warmonaqmni am or sityvas Soris) an da gamzadebuli `Wamis~ anticipaciadac SeiZleba
iqnes aRqmuli. saqmis viTareba ufro zustad SemdegSia: erTxel me es citata ukve war
movTqvi da pirvel jerze araferi wamcdenia. mcdarTqma momivida mxolod misi gameo
rebisas, romelic aucilebeli aRmoCnda, radgan is, visac mivmarTe, sxva ramiT iyo gar
Tuli da ar mismenda. swored es gameoreba da masTan dakavSirebuli mouTmenloba, am
winadadebis moSorebis survili Cemi mcdarTqmis motivebis im rigs unda mivakuTvno,
romelic kondensaciis qmnilebad gvevlineba.
2) Cemi qaliSvili ambobs: me vwer frau Srezingers... im qalbatons Slezingeri
hqvia. metyvelebis es Secdoma albaT artikulaciis Semsubuqebis tendenciasTan aris
dakavSirebuli, radgan `l~ gameorebuli `r~-s Semdeg rTuli gamosaTqmelia. magram
isic unda davamato, rom Cemi qaliSvilis am mcdarTqmas ramdenime wuTiT adre Cems
mier areuli `manWams~ da `manWiaobs~ uswrebda win. gamodis, rom mcdarTqma didwilad
gadamdebia, iseve rogorc saxelebis daviwyeba, romelTanac meringerma da maierma

237

zigmund froidi
es Tavisebureba SeamCnies. am fsiqikuri inducirebis mizezi namdvilad ar SemiZlia
davasaxelo.
3) `ise vikecebi rogorc dibis jana - jibis dana~, ambobs erTi pacienti qali seansis
dasawyisSi, bgerebis areviT, rac isev artikulaciis siZneliT SeiZleba gavamarTloT.
roca metyvelebis Secdomaze gavamaxvilebine yuradReba, maSinve mipasuxa: `diax, es
mxolod imitom, rom dRes Tqven `Seriozuli~ (Ernscht) TqviT.~ me mas marTlac am fraziT
davxvdi: `dRes seriozuls (Ernst) vizamT~ (radgan bolo seansi iyo gamgzavrebamde) da
`seriozuli~ xumrobiT `Seriozulad~ gadavakeTe. seansis manZilze mas kidev bevrjer
mosdis mcdarTqma da bolos vamCnev, rom igi ubralod Cems imitacias ki ar akeTebs,
aramed mas gansakuTrebuli mizezi aqvs, qvecnobierSi sityva `seriozulTan~ rogorc
saxelTan gaCerdes. 16
4) `iseTi gaciebuli var, rom ar SemiZlia viriT cxvisunTqo - cxviriT visunTqo~
(durch die Nase atmen) _ wacdeba igive pacients sxva dros. is maSinve xvdeba Tu rogor
mivida metyvelebis am Secdomamde. `me yovel dRe hazenaueris quCaze vjdebi tramvai
Si, da dRes dila-adrianad vagons rom vucdidi, gamielva, rom frangi rom vyofiliyavi,

azenauers vityodi, radgan frangebi sawyis bgeraSi `h~-s yovelTvis toveben~. Semdeg
moiyvans mTel rig reminiscenciebs frangebze, romlebsac icnobs, da farTo Semov
liTi gzebiT im mogonebasTan miaRwevs, rom ToTxmeti wlis asakSi patara speqtaklSi
`mewvrilmane da pikardi~ pikards TamaSobda da maSin damtvreuli germanuliT lapara
kobda. im SemTxveviTobam, rom mis sacxovrebelSi axlaxan parizeli stumari Camovida,
mogonebaTa mTeli es wyeba gaaRviZa. ese igi, bgerebis gadanacvleba sruliad ucxo kav
Siridan momdinare aracnobieri azris zegavleniT iyo gamowveuli da araviTari kav
Siri ar hqonda saubris TemasTan.
5) mcdarTqmis meqanizmi msgavsia erT sxva pacient qalTan, romelsac mexsiereba
Ralatobs swored im dros, roca didi xnis win miviwyebul bavSvobis mogonebas miecema.
is, Tu sxeulis ra adgilas wvda mas sxvisi cnobismoyvare da msunagi xeli, mexsiereba
ar eubneba. pirdapir amis mere is Tavis daqals inaxulebs da mas sazafxulo agarakebze
esaubreba. roca ekiTxebian, Tu sad mdebareobs misi patara saxli m.-Si, igi pasuxobs:

mTis mkerdobze nacvlad mTis ferdobisa.


6) kidev erTi pacienti qali, romelsac seansis damTavrebis Semdeg vekiTxebi, Tu
rogor aris biZamisi, mpasuxobs: `ar vici, exla mas marto in flagranti Tu vxedav.~ meore
dRes is iwyebs: `saSinlad Semrcxva, aseTi suleluri pasuxi rom mogeciT. ra Tqma unda,
sruliad gaunaTlebel pirovnebad migaCnivarT, romelic gamudmebiT urevs erTma
neTSi ucxour sityvebs. me mindoda meTqva: en passant .~ maSin jer kidev ar vicodiT, Tu
saidan moetana mas es arasworad gamoyenebuli ucxouri sityvebi. magram imave seansis
dros, wina dRis Temaze saubrisas mas erTi viTareba, romelSic in flagranti nivTieri

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samxiliT daWera asrulebda mTavar rols. amgvarad, wina dRis Secdomam, jer kidev
gaucnobierebeli mogonebis anticipacia moaxdina.
7) kidev erTi sxva pacientis Sesaxeb, analizis msvlelobisas, im mosazrebis gamoTq
ma miwevs, rom im dros, romelsac im momentSi vexebiT, mas Tavisi ojaxis rcxvenoda
da mamamiss sayvedurobda da CvenTvis jer ucnob braldebas uyenebda. igi amdagvars
verafers ixsenebs da es saeWvodac miaCnia. Tumca igi saubars agrZelebs ojaxze SeniS
vnebiT: `isini mainc gansakuTrebuli adamianebi arian, yvelas aqvs Suriereba _ me
mindoda meTqva_ `suliereba~ (Geist). da marTlac es iyo is braldeba da sayveduri,
romelic mas Tavisi mexsierebidan ganedevna. is, rom am mcdarTqmaSi swored is azri
gamoxteba, romlis daTrgunvac gvinda, xSirad xdeba (Seadare meringeris SemTxveva:
gamoRorva, gamovlenis nacvlad). gansxvaveba mxolod isaa, rom meringerTan pirovne
bas iseTi ramis daTrgunva surs, rac mas gacnobierebuli aqvs, roca Cemi pacienti am
daTrgunuls ver acnobierebs, an da, SeiZleba iTqvas, ar icis, Tu ras Trgunavs da rom
raRacas Trgunavs.
8) ganzrax SekavebasTanaa dakavSirebuli mcdarTqmis Semdegi magaliTic. erTxel,
dalmaTiaSi, or qalbatons Sevxvdi, romlebic turistebiviT iyvnen Cacmulni. me maT
raRac monakveTze gavyevi da vsaubrobdiT im siamovnebebze, magram aseve im uxerxu
lobebze, rasac turistuli cxovrebis wesi gvTavazobs. erTerTi qalbatoni aRiarebs,
rom dRis gatarebis es wesi sakmaod Seicavs Semawuxebel faqtorebsac. `marTalia~,
Tqva man, `rom srulebiTac araa sasiamovno, roca mTeli dRe mzeSi siarulis Semdeg
maisuri da perangi sul mTlad gaoflianebulia.~ am winadadebaSi mas mouwia erTi pa
tara Secbuneba daeZlia. Semdeg ganagrZo: `magram mere sacvalSi (saxlis magivrad) rom
brundebi da gamocvla rom SegiZlia...~ miviCnie, rom aq CaZieba ar iyo saWiro, am mcdarTqmis asaxsnelad. qalbatons aSkarad ganzraxuli hqonda, CamonaTvali ufro sruli
gaexada da eTqva: maisuri, perangi da sacvali. mesame saxis TeTreulis dasaxelebis
ganzraxva man wesierebis gamo daTrguna. Tumca Semdeg, Sinaarsobrivad damoukidebel
windadebaSi gandevnilma sityvam rogorc misi msgavsi sityvis _ `saxlis~ _ damaxin
jebam misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod mainc gaitana Tavi.
9) `Tu xaliCebis yidva gindaT, kaufmanTan midiT maTes quCaze. me mgoni, iq TqvenT
vis rekomendaciis gawevac SemiZlia, `meubneba erTi qalbatoni. me vimeoreb: `eseigi ma

TesTan... kaufmanTan, mindoda meTqva.~ TiTqos es dabneulobis Sedegi iyo, erTi saxe
li meoris nacvlad rom gavimeore. am qalbatonis saubars marTlac davebnie, radgan
yuradReba sxva raRacaze gamamaxvilebina, rac CemTvis bevrad ufro mniSvnelovani
iyo, vidre xaliCebi. kerZod, maTes quCaze is saxli dgas, romelSic Cemi coli cxov
robda, roca jer kidev sacole iyo. saxls Sesasvleli sxva quCidan hqonda, da SevamC
nie, rom misi saxeli damviwynoda da rom misi cnobierSi dabruneba mxolod SemovliTi

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zigmund froidi
gzebis meSveobiT SemeZlo. saxeli maTe, romelTanac gaCerebuli var, CemTvis, ese igi,
Casanacvlebeli saxelia quCis daviwyebuli saxelisaTvis. amisaTvis is ufro Sesaferi
sia, vidre saxeli kaufmani, radgan maTe marto sakuTari saxelia, kaufmani 17 ki _ ara,
da daviwyebul quCasac sakuTari saxelis mixedviT hqvia: radecki.
10) winamdebare SemTxveva SemeZlo SemdgomSi gansaxilvel `SecdomebSic~ Camesva,
Tumca mas aqve moviyvan, radgan is bgeriTi mimarTebebi, romelTa safuZvelzec sityvis
Canacvleba xdeba, gansakuTrebiT mkafioa. erTi pacienti qali miyveba Tavis sizmars:
viRac bavSvma gadawyvita, gvelis nakbeniT moiklas Tavi. mas es gadawyvetileba sis
ruleSi mohyavs. qali uyurebs, Tu rogor ikrunCxeba is da a.S. axla ki me mas vTavazob,
rom sizmari daakavSiros winadRiT gancdilTan. maSinve axsendeba, rom guSin saRamos
gvelis mier kbenis SemTxvevaSi pirveladi daxmarebis Sesaxeb sajaro leqcias mous
mina. Tu gvelma erTdroulad dakbina ufrosi da bavSvi, maSin pirvel rigSi bavSvis
iara unda damuSavdes. igi ixsenebs, Tu ra instruqciebi misca maT momxsenebelma. mas
uTqvams, rom Zalian bevria damokidebuli imaze, Tu romeli saxeoba gikbens. aq me
mas vawyvetineb da vekiTxebi: man ar giTxraT, rom Cvens mxareSi Zalian cota Sxamiani
gvelia da romlebia saSiSi? `ki, man gansakuTrebiT Cxriala gvelze (Klapperschlange)
gaamaxvila yuradReba.~ Cemi sicili mas axvedrebs, rom raRac araswori Tqva. magram
is axla saxels ki ar asworebs, aramed ukan miaqvs naTqvami. `marTlac, is xom Cvens mxa
reSi ar aris, aspitze laparakobda is kaci. mainc ram maTqmevina Cxriala gveli?~ me
vvaraudob, rom im azrebis zegavleniT, romelic sizmris ukan iyo damaluli. gvelis
nakbeniT TviTmkvleloba sxva araferi SeiZleba iyos, Tu ara miniSneba mSvenier kleo

patraze. orive sityvis sakmaod didi bgeriTi msgavseba, `kl..p...r~-asoebis erTnair


rigiTobaSi da `a~-asoze aqcentirebaSi Tanxvedra SeuZlebelia ver SeamCnio. Cxriala
gvelsa (Klapperschlange 18) da kleopatras Soris mimarTeba masSi wamierad msjelobis
unaris daqveiTebas iwvevs, ris Sedegadac igi im gancxadebaSi, rom momxsenebelma venis
publikas Cxriala gvelis nakbenebis movla aswavla, verafer ucnaurs ver xedavs. ise,
man iseve kargad icis, rogorc me, rom am saxis gveli Cvens faunas ar miekuTvneba. arc
imaSi davZraxavT mas, rom ver moisazra Cxriala gvelis egvipteSi lokalizeba, radgan
Cven miCveulebi varT, yvelafer gareevropuls, egzotikurs erTad movuyaroT Tavi,
da mec ki raRac garkveuli dro damWirda, sanam is azri gamovTqvi, rom Cxriala gveli
mxolod axal miwas miekuTvneba.
analizis msvlelobasTan erTad kidev bevri damadasturebeli argumenti iCens
Tavs. sizmris mnaxvelma guSin pirvelad daaTvaliera misi binis axlos Straseris mier
dadgmuli antoniusis skulptura. es iyo, ese igi, sizmris meore sababi (pirveli gve
lis nakbenebze leqcia iyo). sizmris gagrZelebaSi is viRac bavSvs arwevda, razec mas
gretheni gaaxsenda. imas, rac Semdgom axsendeba, `ariasa da mesalinaze~ moaqvT remi

240

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niscenciebi. sizmarSi piesebidan amdeni saxelis gamoCena ukve gvafiqrebinebs, rom


sizmris mnaxveli adreul wlebSi msaxiobis karieraze ocnebobda.
sizmris dasawyisi: `erTma bavSvma gadawyvita, sicocxle gvelis nakbeniT daes
rulebina~, sxvas marTla arafers niSnavs, Tu ara imas, rom pacients bavSvobaSi ganz
raxuli hqonda, odesme cnobili msaxiobi gamosuliyo. saxel mesalinadan im azrTa na
kads, romelsac sizmris arsebiT Sinaarsamde mivhyavdiT, ukve sxva mimarTuleba aqvs.
bolo drois garkveulma SemTxvevebma is sazrunavi gauCines, rom mis erTaderT Zmas
SeiZleba maTi wrisTvis Seuferebeli araarieli coli moeyvana, anu mezaliansSi (Mesaliance) Sesuliyo.
11) minda erTi sruliad umanko da, motivaciis mxriv SeiZleba CvenTvis sakmaris
doneze auxsneli, magaliTic moviyvano, radgan is sruliad gamWvirvale meqanizms
gviCvenebs:
italiaSi mogzaur erT germanels dasWirda Rvedi (riemen), Tavisi dazianebuli Ce
modani rom Seekra. leqsikoni RvedisaTvis italiur sityva `coreggia~-s awvdis. is miiC
nevs, am sityvas advilad davimaxsovrebo mxatvris (korejos) saxelze fiqriT. Semdeg
maRaziaSi midis da iTxovs: una ribera.
rogorc Cans, mas ar gamouvida, mexsierebaSi germanuli sityva italiuriT Cae
nacvlebina, magram mis garjas mTlad amaod mainc ar Cauvlia. man icoda, rom mxatvris
saxels unda mihyoloda, da ase igi im mxatvris saxels ki ar miadga, romelic saWiro
italiur sityvas hgavs, aramed sxvas, romelic germanul sityva riemen-s (Rveds) uax
lovdeba. bunebrivia, SemeZlo es magaliTi rogorc saxelTmaviwyobis ise mcdarTqmis
SemTxvevebSic Camesva.
roca am naweris pirveli gamocemisaTvis mcdarTqmis magaliTebs vagrovebdi, ise
moviqeci, rom yvela SemTxveva, romlebze dakvirvebac SemeZlo, maT Soris yvelaze nak
lebad STambeWdavebic ki, analizs davuqvemdebare. mas Semdeg bevrma sxvam itvirTa es
saxaliso jafa, mcdarTqmebi epovna da gaeanalizebina, da amgvrad iseT mdgomareoba
Semiqmnes, rom SemiZlia ufro mdidari masalidan amovarCio magaliTebi.
12) erTi axalgazrda kaci eubneba mis das: d.-ebTan ukve mTlianad gavwyvite urT
ierToba, aRarc ki vesalmebi. misi da pasuxobs: saerTod, saeWvo zasogadoebaa. mas un
doda eTqva: sazogadoeba, magram man kidev ori ram Caatia metyvelebis am SecdomaSi, is,
rom erT dros mis Zmas Tavad hqonda am ojaxis qaliSvilTan flirti, da rom am gogoze
ambobdnen, bolo dros seriozul, sruliad gaugonar sasiyvarulo istoriaSi aris
gaxveulio.
13) axalgazrda kaci quCaSi erT qalbatons Semdegi sityvebiT mimarTavs: `neba mo
meciT, qaliSvilo, gagamciroT..~ is aSkarad fiqrobda, rom siamovnebiT gaacilebda
mas, magram eSinoda, rom am SeTavazebiT qaliSvils daamcirebda. is, rom am orma urTi

241

zigmund froidi
erTsawinaaRmdego grZnobam erT sityvaSi _ swored am mcdarTqmaSi _ hpova gamoxatu
leba, imaze miuTiTebs, rom axalgazrda kacis namdvili ganzraxvebi mTlad wminda ar
iyo da mas Tavad unda mosCveneboda isini damamcireblad am qalis winaSe. xolo, roca
igi qalisagan swored amis damalvas cdilobda, misma qvecnobierma is oini gaukeTa, rom
Tavisi namdvili ganzraxva gasca, riTic, meores mxriv, man qals Semdegi sazogadod
gavrcelebuli pasuxiT daaswro: `rogor ggoniaT, riTi SegiZliaT exla damamciroT?~
(magaliTi momawoda o. rankma.)
zog magaliTi momyavs 1904 wlis 4 ianvars v. Stekelis mier `berliner tageblatSi~
gamoqveynebuli statiidan `qvecnobieri aRiarebebi~.
14) `Cemi qvecnobieri fiqrebis erT patara usiamovno nawils aaSkaravebs Semdegi
magaliTi. imTaviTve igulisxmeba, rom Cems saeqimo praqtikaSi moxveWis surviliAT ara
sodes viyavi Sepyrobili da mudam avadmyofis interesebi maqvs TvalTaxedvis areSi,
rac, ra Tqma unda, TavisTavad cxadi ambavia. vimyofebi erT qalTan, romelsac, mZime
avadmyofobis Semdeg, gamojanmrTelebis stadiaSi rogorc eqimi daxmarebas vuwev.
erTad bevri rTuli dRe da Rame gadavitaneT. bednieri var, mas ukeTes mdgomareo
baSi rom vxedav, vuxatav abaciaSi dasvenebis mTel netarebebs da vamateb: `Tu Tqven,
rogorc vimedovneb, loginidan male ar wamodgebiT...~ aSkarad qvecnobieris egois
turi motividan warmoiSva is, rom kidev didxans SemZleboda am mdidari avadmyofis
mkurnaloba, iseTi survilidan, romelic Cemi fxizeli cnobierebisTvis sruliad
ucxoa da romelsac darcxvenili uarvyofdi.~
15) sxva magaliTi (v. Stekeli). `Cemi coli naSuadRevisaTvis mosamsaxured erT
frang qals iyvans da unda, rom, pirobebze SeTanxmebamde, misi dokumentebi daitovos.
frangi sTxovs, rom isini daubronos, Semdegi sababiT: `Je cherche encore pour les apresmidis, pardon, pour les avant-midis~ 19. rogorc Cans, mas ganzraxuli hqonda, sxvaganac
mimoexeda da iqneb ukeTesi pirobebi mieRo _ ganzraxva, romelic man Seasrula kide
vac.~
16) (dr. Stekeli) `erTi qalisaTvis leviaTani unda wamekiTxa da misi qmari, rom
lis TxovniTac xdeboda es, kars ukan dgas da gviyuradebs. qadagebis bolos, romelmac
aSkarad moaxdina STabeWdileba, me vambob: `xels emTxvie, mowyaleo batono!~ amiT
saqmeSi Caxeduli unda mimxvdariyo, rom es sityvebi im batonisadmi iyo mimarTuli da
rom me es mis gamo warmovTqvi.~
17) dr. Stekeli Tavis Tavze yveba, rom erT dros or triestel pacients mkurnalob
da, romlebsac is yovelTvis erTmaneTis saxelebiT esalmeboda. `dila mSvidobisa, ba
tono peloni~, _ veubnebodi askolis, _ `dila mSvidobisa, batono askoli~, _ pelo
nis. is Tavidan aranair ufro Rrma motivacias ar miawerda am arevas da amas mxolod
orive batonis mravali saerTo niSniT xsnida. Tumca, advili gaxda misi darwmuneba,

242

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

rom aq saxelebis es areva erTgvar kudabzikobas Seesabameboda, romliTac, SesaZloa,


Tavisi orive italieli pacientisTvis surda eTqva, rom igi araa erTaderTi trieste
li, romelic venaSi Camodis, raTa mas samedicino rCeva hkiTxos.
18) Tavad dr. Stekeli ambobs erT xmaurian generalur Sekrebaze: gadavCxubvarT
(gadavdivarT) dRis wesrigis meoTxe punqtze.
19) wardgenis sityvaSi erTma profesorma Tqva: `me ar mivdgebi (gamovdgebi) Cemi
didad pativsacemi winamorbedis damsaxurebaTa CamoTvlas.~
20) dr. Stekeli eubneba qalbatons, romelTanac bazedovis daavadebas eWvobs:
`Tqven erTi CiyviT (TaviT) maRali xarT Tqvens daze.~
21) dr. Stekeli yveba: viRacas surs aRweros ori megobris urTierToba, romelTa
gan erTerTi unda daxasiaTdes rogorc ebraeli. is ambobs: isini ise iyvnen erTad ro
gorc kastori da polaki. 20 es srulebiTac ar iyo xumroba, mosaubrem verc ki SeamCnia
es mcdarTqma da mxolod me mivapyrobine mas amaze yuradReba.
22) xandaxan erTi mcdarTqma mTeli zedmiwevniTi daxasiaTebis saqmes akeTebs. axal
gazrda qalbatoni, romelic saxlSi ufrosobs, Tavis avadmyof qmarze miyveba, rom is
eqimTan iyo, raTa misTvis saWiro dietaze ekiTxa. eqmis uTqvams, rom es ar aris mniSv
nelovani. `mas SeuZlia Wamos da svas, rac me minda.~
T. raikis momdevno magaliTebi (fsiqoanalizis saerTaSoriso Jurnali, III, 1915) is
eTi situaciebidanaa aRebuli, roca mcdarTqma gansakuTrebiT advilad xdeba, radgan
ufro meti unda iqnas daTrgunuli, vidre unda Tqmuliyo.
23) erTi batoni axalgazrda qalbatons, romlis qmaric cota xnis win gardaicvala,
samZimars ucxadebs da miugebs: `nugeSs hpovebT imaSi, rom mTlianad Tqvens bavSvebs
miuqvrebT Tavs.~ daTrgunuli azri sxvagvar nugeSze miuTiTebs: axlagazrda qvrivi
male axal seqsualur siamovnebas miiRebs.
24) igive batoni imave qalbatons saRamos Sekrebil sazogadoebaSi im did samzadisebze esaubreba, romlebic berlinSi aRdgomis dResaswaulisaTvis imarTeba, da ekiTxeba:
`naxeT dRes verThaimis vitrinaSi reebia gamodebuli? sul dekoltirebulia.~ mas ar
hqonda ufleba, mSvenieri qalis dekolteTi aRfrTovaneba xmamaRla gamoeTqva, axla
ki ukugdebulma azrma Tavisi gaitana, saqonlis vitrinis dekoraciis dekoltirebad
gadaqceviT, raSic sityva `gamodebuli~ aracnobierad ormagi datvirTiT iqna gamoye
nebuli.
igive exeba im dakvirvebasac, romlis gadmocemac surs dr. hans zaqss:
25) `erTi qalbatoni Cvens saerTo nacnobze miyveba, rom, bolos rom vnaxe, iseve el
eganturad iyo gamowyobili rogorc yovelTvis da gansakuTrebiT lamazi, yavisferi
naxevrad daxuruli fexsacmeli ecvao. Cems kiTxvaze, Tu sad naxa igi, qalma mipasuxa:
`man Cemi saxlis karis zari dareka da me is CamoSvebuli Jaluzebidan davinaxe. magram

243

zigmund froidi
arc kari gamiRia da arc sicocxlis raime niSani mimicia, radgan ar mindoda gaego, rom
ukve qalaqSi viyavi.~ mosmenisas vfiqrob, rom is raRacas mimalavs, albaT swored imas,
rom, man kari ar gaaRo, radgan marto ar iyo da stumris misaRebad Sesaferisad Cacmu
li ar iyo, da cotaTi ironiulad vkiTxe: `ese igi daxuruli Jaluzebidan SeZeliT misi
saxlebrad... naxevrad daxuruli fexsacmliT damtkbariyaviT?~ `saxlis fexsacmelSi~
mis saxlis tanisamosze Sekavebuli fiqri gamoaSkaravda. meore mxriv ki, sityva `naxevr
is~ moSorebis moTxovnileba imitom gaCnda, rom swored am sityvaSi ido ukugdebuli
pasuxis arsi: `Tqven mxolod naxevar simarTles meubnebiT da mimalavT, rom mxolod
naxevrad iyaviT Cacmuli.~ es mcdarTqma imiTac iyo gamowveuli, rom zustad manamde
Cven zemoTxsenebuli kacis col-qmrul cxovrebaze, `ojaxur bednierebaze~ vsaubrob
diT, rac mis personaze gadasvlaSi ganmsazRvreli iyo. da bolos unda vaRiaro, rom
SeiZleba Cemma Surmac imoqmeda, roca es eleganturi batoni saxlis fexsacmelebiT
gamovaWene quCaSi; mec viyide amaswinaT yavisferi naxevrad daxuruli fexsacmelebi,
romlebic ukve namdvilad aRar arian `gansakuTrebiT lamazi~.
dRevandeli omis msgavs periodebs iseT mcdarTqmaTa mTeli wyeba moaqvT, romelTa
gagebac aranair siZneles ar warmoadgens.
26) `romel batalionSi imyofeba Tqveni vaJi?~ - ekiTxebian erT qalbatons. is pa
suxobs: `42-e mkvlelebSi (mcvelebSi).~
27) leitenanti henrik haimani brZolis velidan iwereba: `me damatyvevebeli wig
nis kiTxvas mwyveten, rom cota xniT radisti Sevcvalo. xelmZRvanelobis mier mZime
teqnikis sadgomis Semowmebaze ase vreagireb: kontroli sworia, kavSiris siwynare.
reglamentis mixedviT ase unda yofiliyo: kontroli sworia, kavSiris dasasruli.
Cemi wacdena im gaRizianebiT aixsneba, rom kiTxvaSi Semawuxes.~ (fsiqoanalizis saerT.
Jurn., IV, 1916/17.)
28) feldfebeli arigebs jars, rom zustad gaagzavnon TavianTi misamarTebi sa
xlebSi, raTa maTi qoni (qoneba) gzaSi ar daikargos.
29) am araCveulebriv da Tavisi Zalian samwuxaro warsulis mqone mniSvnelovan mag
aliTs me dr. l. SCeSCeris monayols vumadli, romelmac, omis dros neitralur Svei
cariaSi yofnisas, es dakvirveba gaakeTa da amomwuravad gaaanaliza. mis monaTxrobs aq
patara, SedarebiT araarsebiTi nawilebis gamotovebiT gadmogcemT:
`Tavs uflebas mivcem, `mcdarTqmis~ erT SemTxvevaze mogiyveT, romelic baton
profesor m. n.-s o.-Si amJamad ukve dasrulebuli zafxulis semestris dros SegrZne
baTa fsiqologiaze leqciis kiTxvisas gaepara. winaswarve unda gacnoboT, rom es
leqciebi universitetis darbazSi frangi internirebuli omis tyveebisa da umetes
SemTxvevaSi antantis momxre frangebisa da Sveicarielebisgan Semdgari studentobis
winaSe ikiTxeboda. o.-Si, rogorc TviTon safrangeTSi, sityva boche amJamad mxolod

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germanelis aRsaniSnavad ixmareba. Tumca Ria yrilobebze, iseve rogorc leqciebze da


amisTanebze msxvili moxeleebi, profesorebi da sxva pasuxismgebeli pirebi cdilo
ben, neitralitetis gamo, am av sityvas moeridon.
amasobaSi profesori n. imiT iyo dakavebuli, rom afeqtebis praqtikuli mniSvneloba gaerCia, da ganizraxa, erTi magaliTis citireba moexdina romeliRac afeqtis
mizanmimarTuli gamoyenebisTvis, raTa kunTebis TavisTavad uintereso samuSao pozi
tiuri grZnobebiT daetvirTa da amgvarad ufro intensiurad gamoekveTa. amisaTvis
igi moyva, ra Tqma unda frangulad, sayovelTao germanuli gazeTidan aqaur gazeTeb
Si gadmobeWdili ambavs germaneli maswavleblis Sesaxeb, romelmac Tavis moswavleebs
baRSi muSaobisas stimulis misacemad ubrZana, warmoedginaT, TiTqos TiToeuli goji
miwis nacvlad frangis Tavis qalas apobdnen. am ambis moyolisas n., ra Tqma unda, yov
elTvis, roca germanelze iyo saubari, sruliad koreqtulad ambobda Allemand-s da
ara boche-s. Tumca, roca Tavisi istoriis puantesTan mivida, maswavleblis sityvebi
man Semdegnairad gadmoTqva: `Imaginez vouz, quen chaque moche vous ecrasez le crane dun

Francais.~ eseigi, motte-s (goji) nacvlad _ moche! (maxinji.)


xom aSkaraa, rogor ahyavs koreqtul swavluls Txrobis dawyebidanve Tavi xelSi,
rom ar minebdes Cvevas da, SeiZleba iTqvas, cdunebasac, da is mTavrobis brZanebiTac
ki mkacrad uaryofili sityva universitetis darbazis kaTedridan ar wamoroSvas!
da swored im momentSi, roca man bednierad bolojer sruliad koreqtulad Tqva
`instituteur allemand ~ da Sinaganad amosunTqviT uproblemo dasasrulisaken miiCqa
ris, wvalebiT ukugdebuli is sityva miekroba sityva motte-s msgavs JReradobas da _
ubedurebac xdeba. politikuri utaqtobis SiSi, SeiZleba ukugdebuli survilic, es
Cveuli da yvelas mier gamoyenebuli sityva mainc exmara, iseve rogorc suliT xor
camde respub-likelisa da demokratis Sinagani janyi azris Tavisuflad gamoTqmis
nebismieri saxis SezRudvis winaaRmdeg magaliTis koreqtulad gadmocemaze mimar
Tul mTavar ganzraxvasTan inteferireben. interferirebis es tendencia mosaubri
saTvis cnobilia da _ sxvanairad es arc SeiZleboda yofiliyo _ zustad mcdarTq
mamde igi amaze fiqrobda.
profesorma n.-m Tavisi es mcdarTqma ver SeamCnia, yovel SemTxvevaSi, man is ar
Seaswora, rac, wesiT, maSinve xdeba avtomaturad. samagierod lafsusi ZiriTadad
frangebisgan Semdgarma auditoriam didi siamovnebiT miiRo da sruliad ganzraxuli
sityvieri xumrobis STabeWdileba datova. me ki am TiTqos uxifaTo movlenas namdvili
Sinagani mRelvarebiT mivyvebodi. radgan, TavisTavad cxadi mizezebis gamo ar unda
damesva profesorisaTvis fsiqoanalitikuri meTodis codniT gamowveuli akviate
buli kiTxvebi, es mcdarTqma CemTvis sabuTi iyo, rom Tqveni moZRvreba cdomilebaTa
gansazRvrulobis Sesaxeb marTebulia da mcdarTqmasa da xumrobas Soris Rrma analo

245

zigmund froidi
gia da urTierTkavSiri arsebobs.~
aqedan metyvelebis im darRvevebamde mivdivarT, romlebic aRar aRiqmebian ro
gorc mcdarTqma, radgan ara ubralod calkeul sityvas, aramed mTeli frazis riTmsa
da mimdevrobas moicaven, rogorc, magaliTad, uxerxulobaSi enis dabma da waborZikeba.
magram aqac da iqac es raRac Sinagani konfliqtia, romelic metyvelebis darRvevaSi
vlindeba. ara mgonia, vinmes raime wascdes mis aRmatebulebasTan audienciis dros,
seriozuli sasiyvarulo paemanis dros, naficTa winaSe Rirsebisa da saxelis dasacavad
warmoTqmuli sityvis dros, mokled, yvela im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac pirovneba mTlianad
CarTulia. stilis Sefasebisasac, rogoriTac avtori wers, SegviZlia da miCveulni
varT, axsnis is principi gavataroT, romelsac metyvelebis TiToeuli Secdomidan
daskvnis gamoyvanisasac ki ver veleviT. weris cxadi da araorazrovani manera gveubneba,
rom aq avtori Tavis TavTan srul TanxmobaSia, xolo sadac naZaladev da natanj
winadadebas vpoulobT, iseTs, romelic, rogorc amboben, mets gulisxmobs, vidre
ambobs, aq SegviZlia raime arasakmarisad dasrulebuli, rTuli azris monawileoba an
da avtoris mier Tavis kritikis gaguduli xma SevicnoT. 21

Tavi meeqvse

mcdarkiTxva da mcdarwera

is, rom kiTxvis da weris dros daSvebuli SecdomebisaTvis igive Tvalsazrisebi da


SeniSvnebia qmediTi, rac metyvelebis SecdomebisaTvis, am funqciaTa Sinagani naTesa
obis fonze gasakviri ar aris. me aq imiT Semovifarglebi, rom yuradRebiT gaanalize
buli ramdenime magaliTi gadmogceT, da ar Sevecdebi, movlenaTa mTlianoba movicva.
a) mcdarkiTxva
1) yavis saxlSi `laipciguri ilustrirebulis~ erTi nomeri gadavSale, romelic
iribad miWiravs, da am gverdze gadaWimuli suraTis saTaurad vkiTxulob: saqorwilo
zeimi odiseaSi. yuradRebagamaxvilebuli da gaocebuli furcels sworad viWer da vas
woreb: saqorwilo zeimi an der ostsee.22 rogor momivida kiTxvis es suleluri Secdoma?
Cemi azrebi maSinve garbian ruTis erTi wignisaken _ `eqsperimentuli gamokvlevebi
musikaluri fantomebisa da sxvaTa Sesaxeb~, romelsac bolo dros did yuradRebas
vuTmobdi, radgan Cem mier ganxilul fsiqologiur problemebs exeba. avtori Semd

246

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

gomisTvis gvpirdeba nawarmoebs, romelsac `sizmris fenomenis analizi da safuZvel


Ta kanonebi~ erqmeva. araa gasakviri, rom me, romelmac axlaxans gamoveci `sizmrebis
axsna~, udidesi RelviT veli am wigns. musikaluri fantomebis Sesaxeb ruTis nawerSi
win gamotanil sarCevSi vipove im dawvrilebiTi induqciuri dasabuTebis winmswrebi
ganacxadi, rom Zvel elinur miTebsa da Tqmulebebs mTvaravi safuZveli Tvlemisa da
musikalur fantomebSi, sizmris fenomenebsa da aseve deliriebSi aqvT. maSin im wamsve
gadavSale teqsti, rom gamerkvia, dahyavs Tu ara mas odisevsis nausikaasTan gaCenis
scena, siSiSvlis Cveul sizmarze. erTma Cemma megobarma mimiTiTa g. keleris `mwvane
hainrixSi~ erT lamaz adgilze, romelic odiseis am epizods xsnis rogorc samSob
losagan Sors moxetiale mezRvauris sizmrebis obieqtivacias; me, Cemi mxriv `eqzi
biciur~ sizmarTan davakavSire (me-8 gamoc. S. 170). ruTTan amis msgavsi veraferi vnaxe.
am SemTxvevaSi, rogorc Cans, prioritetuli azrebi mawuxebda.
2) rogor mivedi iqamde, rom erT dRes gazeTSi wamekiTxa: `evropaSi fexiT mkasri~,
nacvlad mgzavrisa? amisi axsna didi xnis manZilze sirTuleebs miqmnida. Tumca Semd
gomi fiqrebi imaze mianiSnebdnen, rom diogenes kasri unda yofiliyo nagulisxmevi,
da xelovnebis istoriaSi cota xnis win aleqsandres droindel xelovnebaze wamekiTxa
raRaceebi. amdenad, araa gasakviri, rom aleqsandres cnobil gamoTqmaze mefiqra:
aleqsandre rom ar vyofiliyavi, diogened yofnas varCevdio. aseve vinme herman cai
tungis Sesaxeb amomitivtivda raRaceebi, romelic yuTSi CafuTuli mogzaurobda.
magram urTierTkavSiris dasadgenad meti veRaraferi xerxdeboda, da verc is SevZeli,
xelovnebis istoriaSi is gverdi mepovna, romelzec Tavis droze is SeniSvna momxve
droda TvalSi. mxolod Tveebis Semdeg gamaxsenda es ganze gadadebuli gamocana, da
amjerad axsnac mohyva. momagonda gazeTis erT statiaSi wakiTxuli SeniSvna imis Tao
baze, Tu gadaadgilebis ra ucnaur xerxebs mimarTaven adamianebi, raTa parizSi moxvd
nen msoflio gamofenaze, da iq, rogorc maxsovs, xumrobiT isic iyo naTqvami, rom erT
batons is ganzraxvac ki aqvs, sxva batonis mier gagorebuli kasriT igoros parizamde.
am xalxs, ra Tqma unda sxva aranairi motivi ar hqonda, garda aseTi sisuleleebiT yu
radRebis miqcevisa. herman caitungi (germanulad caitungi gazeTs niSnavs), marTlac
iyo im kacis saxeli, romelmac gadaadgilebis aseTi uCveulo gzis pirveli magaliTi
aCvena. Semdeg gamaxsenda, rom erTxel vmkurnalobdi pacients, romelsac gazeTebis
mimarT avadmyofuri SiSi hqonda. es SiSi iyo reaqcia avadmyofur pativmoyvareoba
ze _ survilze, enaxa Tavisi saxeli gazeTSi. aleqsandre makedoneli albaT erTer
Ti yvelaze pativmoyvare adamiani iyo kacobriobis istoriaSi. igi xom Cioda, rom
versad ipovida meore homeross, romelic mis sagmiro saqmeebs Seasxamda xotbas. mag
ram rogor SemeZlo imaze ar mefiqra, rom sxva aleqsnadre ufro axlos dgas CemTan,
rom aleqsandre Cemi umcrosi Zmis saxelia! me maSinve vipove usiamovno da gandevnis

247

zigmund froidi
saWiroebis mqone fiqri am aleqsandresTan mimarTebaSi da amis uSualo mizezi. Cemi Zma
tarifebisa da transportis specialistia, da Tavisi samaswavleblo saqmianobisaT
vis male erT komerciul umaRles saswavlebelSi profesoris titulic unda mieRo.
aseTive Tanamdebobaze gadayvanaze igive universitetSi wlebis ganmavlobaSi mec vi
yavi wardgenili, Tumca uSedegod. dedaCveni gakvirvebas gamoTqvamda imaze, rom misi
umcrosi vaJi ufro male xdeboda profesori, vidre - ufrosi. aseTi viTareba iyo im
dros, roca kiTxvis SecdomisaTvis axsnas ver vpulobdi. mere Cem ZmasTan dakavSire
biTac warmoiqmna sirTuleebi; misi Sansebi, profesori gamxdariyo, Cemsas CamorCa. aq
ki uceb ganmicxadda mcdarkiTxulis azri; ise gamovida, TiTqos Zmis Sansebis Semcire
bam dabrkoleba momixsna. ise miveqeci, TiTqos gazeTSi Zmis daniSvnaze vkiTxulobdi
da am dros Tavs veubnebodi: ucnauria, rom aseTi sisuleleebisaTvis (rogoric misi
profesiaa) SeiZleba Senze gazeTSi daweron! (e. i. profesoroba moganiWon). Semdeg
aleqsandres droindeli elinisturi xelovnebis Sesaxeb is adgili wvalebis gareSe
gadavSale da gaognebuli davrwmundi, rom wina Zebnis dros am gverdze ganmeorebiT
vkiTxulobdi da yovel jerze, rogorc raRac negatiuri halucinaciis Zalauflebis
qveS, am winadadebas vaxtebodi. igi arafer iseTs ar Seicavda, rac axsnaSi damexmare
boda, rac daviwyebis Rirsi iqneboda. vgulisxmob imas, rom wignSi saWiro adgilis ver
povnis simptomi mxolod CemTvis gza-kvalis asarevad iyo Seqmnili. azrTa kavSiris
gagrZeleba iq unda meZebna, sadac Cems Ziebas gzaSi dabrkoleba dauxvda, anu aleqs
nadre makedonelis Sesaxeb raime ideaSi, da amiT igive saxelis mqone Zmas rac SeiZleba
saimedod avcdenodi. es mSvenivradac moxerxda; me mTeli Zalisxmeva imaze movmarTe,
rom xelovnebis istoriaSi dakarguli adgili mepovna isev.
sityva `gadaadgilebis~ orazrovneba am SemTxvevaSi asociaciuri xidi iyo or komp
leqss Soris, umniSvnelos - romelsac gazeTis nota aRZravs _ da ufro sainteresos,
magram usiamovnos Soris, romelic aq wasakiTxis darRvevaSi xdeba qmediTi. am magali
Tidan Cans, rom yovelTvis ar aris advili, kiTxvis am Secdomis magvari SemTxvevebi
axsna. xandaxan isic gviwevs, rom gamocanis axsna ufro xelsayreli droisaTvis gadav
doT. magram rac ufro rTulia axsnis samuSao, miT ufro mosalodnelia, rom bolos
da bolos aRmoCenili xelSemSleli fiqri Cveni cnobieri azrovnebis mier ucxod da
winaaRmdegobrivad Sefasdeba.
3) erT dRes venis maxlobeli adgilidan werils viReb, romelic Tavzardamcem
ambavs iuwyeba. Cems colsac maSinve vurekav da movuwodeb gaiziaros sawyali qalba
toni vilhelm m.-s ase mZimed daavadeba, romlis gadarCenis imedi eqimebs aRar aqvT.
magram sityvebSi, romlebiTac wuxili Sevmose, raRacas yalbad unda eJRera, radgan
Cemi coli eWvdeba, werilis naxvas iTxovs da darwmunebiT ambobs, rom ase ar SeiZle
boda yofiliyo iq dawerili, radgan aravin moixseniebs qals Tavisi qmris saxeliT, da

248

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

rom, amas garda, werilis avtorisaTvis qalis saxeli Zalian kargad iyo cnobili. me
Cems azrs jiutad vicav da savizito baraTebis im miRebul formaze mivuTiTeb, roca
qali Tavisi qmris saxels iyenebs. sabolood werilis aReba miwevs, da Cven marTlac
vkiTxulobT `sawyali batoni v. m.~, da kidev ufro meti, rac saerTod gamomrCenoda:
`sawyali batoni dr. v. m.~. Cemi Secdoma erTgvar sasowarkveTil mcdelobas warmoad
gens, samwuxaro axali ambis simZime kacidan qalze gadavitano. artikls, epiTetsa da
saxels Soris Securebuli wodeba ar uxdeba im moTxovnas, rom aq qali unda igulisx
mebodes. amitom kiTxvis drois is saerTod amovarda. xolo, am gayalbebis motivi is ki
ar iyo, rom qali naklebad mesimpaTiureboda vidre kaci, aramed am sawyali kacis beds
Cemi Relva sxva, axlobeli pirovnebis garSemo gaemZafrebina, romelsac avadmyofobis
am SemTxvevasTan dakavSirebuli CemTvis nacnobi viTarebebi hqonda saerTo.
4) gamaRizianebeli da sasaciloa CemTvis erTi mcdarkiTxva, romelic xSirad mom
dis, roca ardadegebis dros ucxo qalaqis quCebSi vseirnob. yvela maRaziis abras
vkiTxulob rogorc antikvars, Tu isini amas ramenairad Camogvanan. amaSi koleqcio
neris Tavgadasavlis Jini vlindeba.
b) mcdarwera
1) furcelze, romelzec met-wilad samsaxureobrivi interesis mokle dRiuri
Canawerebia, Cemda gasakvirad, seqtembris Tvis swor TariRiebs Soris vpoulob mcdar
weril TariRs _ `xuTSabaTi, 20. oqt.~. ar aris rTuli am anticipaciis, survilis gamo
xatulebis axsna. sul ramdenime dRis dabrunebuli var saSvebulebo mogzaurobidan
da Tavs mzad vgrZnob datvirTuli saeqimo saqmianobisaTvis, Tumca pacientTa ricxvi
jer isev cotaa. dabrunebisas erTi avadmyofi qalbatonis werili vnaxe, romelic iu
wyeboda, rom 20 oqtombers movidoda. roca dRis igive ricxvi seqtemberSi CaviniSne,
albaT unda mefiqra: neta X ukve aq yofiliyo; afsusia mTeli erTi Tve! da am fiqrebSi
TariRi win wavwie. damrRvev fiqrs am SemTxvevaSi aRmaSfoTebels namdvilad ver vu
wodebT; samagierod, SevniSnav Tu ara maSinve momepoveba axsna weris SecdomisaTvis.
mTlianad analogiur da igivenairad motivirebul mcdarweras vimeoreb Semdegi wlis
Semodgomaze. _ e. jonsma TariRis werisas daSvebuli msgavsi Secdomebi Seiswavla da
umravles SemTxvevaSi advilad motivirebadad aRiara.
2) viReb `nevrologiisa da fsiqiatriis wliuri uwyebisaTvis~ Cem mier dawerili
statiis koreqturas da, ra Tqma unda, gansakuTrebuli gulmodginebiT avtorTa sa
xelebi unda Sevasworo, romlebic, sxvadasxva erovnuli mikuTvnebis gamo, asoTam
wyobs yovelTvis udides sirTuleebs uqmnis. zogierTi ucxod mJReri sityva marTla
Sesasworebelia, magram erTi saxeli, rac ar unda ucnauri iyos, asoTamwyobma Cemi

249

zigmund froidi
xelnaweris sawinaaRmdegod Seaswora, da sruliad marTebuladac. kerZod, me `burk
rardi~ damewera, roca asoTamwyobma `burkhardi~ amoicno. erTi meanis naweri me Tavad
Semeqo rogorc damsaxurebuli naSromi. arc araferi mqonda misi avtoris sawinaaRm
dego, magram igive saxels atarebs aseve erTi veneli mwerali, romelmac Cem `sizmrebis
axsnaze~ ugunuri kritikiT gamabraza. TiTqos saxel burkhardis dawerisas, romelic
meanze miuTiTebda, raRac cudi vifiqre meore b.-ze, mweralze, vinaidan saxelebis Set
rialeba sakmaod xSirad, rogorc mcdarTqmaSi vaxsene, Seuracxyofas niSnavs23.
4) mcdarweris rogorc Cans ufro seriozuli SemTxveva, romelic aseTive warmate
biT `wacdenaTa~ 24 rigsac SeiZleba mivaTvaloT:
ganzraxuli maqvs, fostis bankidan 300 kronis odenobis Tanxa gamoviwero, romelic
sakurorto daniSnulebisaTvis minda gavugzavno iq wasul naTesavs. amasTan vamCnev, rom
Cem angariSze 4380 kronaa da gadavwyvet, exla es Tanxa mrgval 4000 kronaze daviyvano,
romelic momdevno xanSi xelSeuxebeli unda darCes. mas Semdeg, rac Ceki mowesrigebu
lad Sevavse da Tanxis Sesabamisi cifrebi gamovkveTe, uceb vamCnev, rom, rogorc min
doda, 380 krona ki ara, aramed 438 gamoviwere, da Sevdrkebi sakuTari qmedebis arasan
doobaze. SeSinebas male gaumarTleblad vcnob; me xom axla ar var ufro Raribi, vidre
manamde. Tumca karga xani miwevs imaze fiqri, Tu romelma zegavlenam daarRvia aq Cemi
pirveladi, Cemi cnobierebisTvis gacxadebis gareSe. Tavidan araswor gzebs vadgebi,
msurs orive ricxvi, 380 da 483 erTmaneTisgan ganvacalkevo, magram ar vici, ra vuyo am
gansxvavebas. bolos da bolos, uecari mosazreba miCvenebs namdvil urTierTkavSirs _
438 xom 4380 kronis mTliani angariSis aT procents Seesabameba! 10 % fasdakleba ki wig
nis gamyidvelTan gvaqvs. maxsendeba, rom ramdenime dRis win samedicino nawarmoebebis
garkveuli raodenoba, romelTa mimarTac interesi davkarge, gamovarCie, raTa isini
wignebis gamyidvelisaTvis SemeTavazebina 300 kronad. mas moTxovna zedmetad Zvirad
eCvena da dampirda, rom Semdeg dReebSi saboloo pasuxs metyoda. Tu SeTavazebas mi
iRebs, maSin swored im Tanxas aminazRaurebs, romelic avadmyofisaTvis unda gavce. ar
unda uarvyoT, rom es gacema mamwuxrebs. Cemi Secdomis gaazrebisas CarTuli afeqti
imis SiSiT ufro kargad aixsneba, aseTi xelgaSlilobiT ar gavRaribebuliyavi. magram
orive, am fulis gacemis Taobaze Relva da gaRaribebis masTan dakavSirebuli SiSi Cemi
cnobierebisaTvis sruliad ucxoa; es wuxili ar migrZvnia, roca am Tanxas Sevpirdi,
da amis motivacia sasacilod momeCveneboda. sakuTari TavisTvis aseTi sulieri moZ
raobis miweras verc ki gavbedavdi, pacientebTan fsiqoanalizis praqtikis meSveobiT
sulieri cxovrebis gandevnil momentebSi sakmaod Caxeduli rom ar vyofiliyavi, da
ramdenime dRis win sizmari rom ar menaxa, romelic aseTive axsnas moiTxovda. 25
5) v. Stekelis mixedviT vaxden Semdegi SemTxvevis citirebas, romlis auTenturo
baze Tavad vageb pasuxs: `mcdarwerisa da mcdarkiTxvis lamis daujerebeli magaliTi

250

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

moxda erTi gavrcelebuli sakvirao gazeTis redaqciaSi. mis xelmZRvanelobas saja


rod uwodes `mosyidvadi~; axla saWiroa, amis gasaqarwylebeli da TavdacviTi statia
daiweros. asec moxda _ Tanac udidesi mxurvalebiTa da paTosiT. gazeTis mTavarma
redaqtorma waikiTxa statia, damwermac, ra Tqma unda, mravaljer _ TviTon xelnawer
Si, mere kidev erTxel _ koreqturaSi, yvela Zalzed kmayofili iyo. uceb koreqtori
Cndeba da erT patara Secdomaze miuTiTebs, romelic yvelas gamoparvoda. iq garkveviT
ewera: `Cvens mkiTxvelebs mxolod imis Tqma SeuZliaT, rom Cven yovelTvis angarebiT
vibrZodiT sayovelTao keTildReobisaTvis.~ ra Tqma unda, `uangarod~ unda eweros.
magram namdvilma fiqrebma elementaruli ZaliT gamoaRwies am paTetikur sityvaSi.
vundti im advilad dadasturebadi faqtis aRsaniSnav dasabuTebas iZleva, rom Cven
ufro iolad mogvdis mcdarwera, vidre mcdarTqma. `Cveulebrivi saubris dros neba
Si arsebuli damTrgunavi funqcia gamudmebiT imazea mimarTuli, rom warmodgenebis
mdinareba da artikulaciis moZraoba erTmaneTis SesatyvisobaSi moiyvanos. Tu war
modgenebs moyolili gamoxatvis moZraoba meqanikuri mizezebiT Seneldeba, rogorc
werisas, maSin amgvari anticipaciebi gansakuTrebiT iolad gveufleba.~
im viTarebebze dakvirveba, romlebSiac mcdarkiTxva warmoiSoba, erTi eWvis safuZ
vels gvaZlevs, romelic ar minda uxsenebeli davtovo, radgan igi, Cemi azriT, Zalian
nayofieri gamokvlevis amosaval wertilad SeiZleba gamodges. yvelasTvis cnobilia,
Tu ra xSirad tovebs xmamaRla kiTxvisas mkiTxvelis yuradReba teqsts da sakuTar az
rebTan midis. yuradRebis am gadacdenis Sedegi arc Tu iSviaTad isaa Tu kiTxvas Seaw
yvetinebT da gamokiTxavT, is saerTod ver getyviT, ras kiTxulobda, irkveva, rom is
avtomaturad, magram TiTqmis yovelTvis sworad kiTxulobda. ara mgonia, rom kiTx
vis Secdomebi aseT viTarebebSi gansakuTrebulad izrdebodes. raRac funqciebigan
miCveulni varT imis varauds, rom avtomaturad, e.i. lamis aranairi cnobieri yurad
Rebis gareSe, isini yvelaze zustad xorcieldeba. aqedan TiTqos gamomdinareobs, rom
metyvelebis, kiTxvisa da weris Secdomebis dros yuradRebis pirobebi sxvadasxvanai
rad unda ganisazRvros, vidre es mocemuli gvaqvs vundtan (yuradRebis gamoTiSva an
minebeba). is magaliTebi, romlebic gavaanalizeT, ar gvaZleven imis uflebas, rom yu
radRebis kvantitatiuri Semcireba vivaraudoT; Cven aRmovaCineT (rac albaT ar aris
igive) yuradRebis darRveva ucxo, pretenziis mqone azris meSveobiT.

251

zigmund froidi

1. es aris is zogadi gza, dafaruli warmosaxvis elementebis cnobierebaSi amosativtiveblad.


Sdr. Cemi `sizmris axsna~ (3. gamocema, gv. 71) (sruli Txz. tomi II/III).
2. am patara analizma didi yuradReba gamoiwvia literaturaSi da gacxovelebuli diskus
iebi mohyva mas. e. bloileri cdilobda swored amiT maTematikurad aexsna fsiqoanali
zuri axsna-ganmartebebis damajerebloba da daaskvna, rom am patara analizs ufro meti
damajerebloba aqvs, vidre aTasobiT arasadavo samedicino `miRwevebs~ da rom igi Tavis
gansakuTrebul adgils mxolod imis wyalobiT daimkvidrebs, rom jer kidev daCveuli ar
arian mecnierebaSi angariSi gauwion fsiqologiur sinamdviles (egocentristul-mouwes
rigebeli azrovneba medicinaSi da misi gadalaxva. berlini. 1919).
3. ufro zusti dakvirveba odnav amcirebs kontrasts `siniorelisa~ da aliquis analizs
Soris CanacvlebiT gaxsenebasTan mimarTebaSi. aqac, rogorc Cans, daviwyebas Tan axlavs
sanacvlos warmoqmna. roca me Cems partniors damatebiT davusvi SekiTxva, daviwyebuli
sityvis sanacvlod raime sxva sityva xom ar gaxsendeba-meTqi mipasuxa, rom Tavdapirvelad
cduneba vigrZeni leqsSi CamerTo ab: nostris ab ossibus (albaT a liquis msgavsad), da Sem
deg, exoriare gansakuTrebiT mkafiod da jiutad amekviatao. rogorc skeptikosma, daamata:
albaT imitom, rom es leqsis pirveli sityva iyoo. roca me mas vTxove, mainc miaqcieT yur
adReba exoriare-s asociacias meTqi, eqsorcizmi daasaxela. aqedan gamomdinare, advilad
SemiZlia vifiqro, rom exoriare-s gaZlierebas reproduqciaSi msgavsi CanacvlebiTi war
moqmnis mniSvneloba hqonda. igive moyveboda asociacias: eqsorcizmi wmindanTa saxelebi
dan gamomdinareobs. am dros es aris is wvrilmani niuansebi, rasac mniSvneloba ar unda
mivaniWoT (P. Wilson: The impereceptible Obvious Revista de Psiquiatria, lima ianvari, 1922,
ki xazgasmiT aRiniSnavs, rom exoriare-s gaZlierebas sakmaod didi ganmartebiTi mniSvnelo
ba eniWeba, radgan eqsorcizmi saukeTeso simboluri Canacvleba iqneboda abortis gziT
arasasurveli bavSvis gaCenis moSorebis fiqris sanacvlod. me am Sesworebas madlierebiT
miviReb, rac arafriT zians ar ayenebs analizis savaldebulobas). Tumca, SesaZlebelia,
rom raime sanacvlo gaxseneba warmoadgendes tendenciuri, SeviwroebiT motivirebuli
daviwyebis mudmiv, iqneb mxolod damaxasiaTebel da gamamJRavnebel niSans. am Canacvlebis
warmoqmnas adgili aqvs iqac, sadac ar xdeba araswori sanacvlo saxelebis amotivtiveba, im
elementis gasaZliereblad, romelic daviwyebulis mezoblad imyofeba. `siniorelis~ Sem
TxvevaSi magaliTad, vidre mxatvris gvari CemTvis miuwvdomeli iyo, freskebis ciklis da
suraTis kuTxeSi datanebuli avtoportretis vizualuri gaxseneba Zalze mniSvnelovania,
yovel SemTxvevaSi, ufro intensiuri, vidre vizualuri gaxsenebis sxva kvali, sxva SemTx
veva, romelic aseve miTiTebulia 1898 wlis statiaSi, erT-erT qalaqSi usiamovno viziti
mqonda. damaviwyda quCis saxeli, saxlis nomeri ki SesaniSnavad maxsovda, maSin, rodesac
cifrebis damaxsovreba CemTvis udides sirTulesTanaa dakavSirebuli.

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yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
fsiqopaTologiis Sesaxeb

4. `siniorelis~ SemTxvevaSi orive azrobriv wreSi Sinagani urTierTkavSiris ararsebobas


sruli dajerebulobiT ver davuwyeb mtkicebas, sikvdilis da sqesobrivi cxovrebis Te
maze gaZevebuli fiqrebis ufro detaluri dakvirvebisas vawydebiT ideas, romelic axlo
SexebaSi modis orvietos freskebis TemasTan.
5. pativiT Sexvdebian ki mis mosvlas,

axla, roca yovel dRes raRac axali moaqvs?

radgan TviTon warmarTia da misianebic,

eseni ki qristianebi arian da monaTlulnic. (germ.)

6. pativiT ki Sexvdebian mis mosvlas,


Tu Zvirad ar daujda es wyaloba. (germ.)

7.

axlad aRmocenebas iwyebs rwmena,

da xSirad am dros siyvaruli da erTguleba,

borot sarevelasaviT iZirkveba. (germ.)

8.

kargad daakvirdi,

xval ukve WaRara iqneba. (germ.)

Cemma kolegam leqsis am mSvenier adgils aramarto sityvaTmimdevroba Seucvala, aramed


azrobrivi gamoyenebac. gogona ase mimarTavs Tavis saqmros:

Meine Kette hab ich dir gegeben:


Deine Locke nehm ich mit mir fort.
Sieh sie an genau!
Morgen bist du grau,
Und nur braun erscheinst du wieder dort.

(Cemi yelsabami Sen gisaxsovre:

Sens kululs SoreTSi Tan waviReb me.

kargad daakvirdi mas!

xval Sen ukve TmaWaRara iqnebi,

iq ki kvlav Zveli ieriT momevlinebi.)

9. dgas fiWvis xe eulad da sxv.


10. Zili ereva. (germ.)
11. TeTri saburveliT. (germ.)
12. amas vamtkiceb Cems mierve Sekrebili ramdenime monacemis safuZvelze.
13. vinc dainteresebulia bavSvobis adreuli wlebis mSvinvieri cxovrebiT, advilad mixvdeba
ufrosi Zmis misamarTiT wayenebuli moTxovnis Rrma pirobiTobas. sam wlamde asakis bavS
vic ki mixvda, rom cotaxnis win gaCenili patara da dedis mucelSi gaizarda. am Semomate
bas is sulac ar eTanxmeba da eWvi awuxebs, rom dedis mucelSi SeiZleba kidev imalebodnen
sxva bavSvebi. yuTi Tu karada misTvis dedis mucelTan asocirdeba. anu is moiTxovs, Caaxe
don yuTSi da am moTxovnas Tavis ufros YZmas uyenebs. rogorc sxva masalidan irkveva, mamis
nacvlad Yes Zma iqca ojaxis axali wevris metoqed. swored amis gamo, garda dasabuTebuli

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zigmund froidi
eWvisa, rom gauCinarebuli ZiZa swored man gamoketa yuTSi, misken aris mimarTuli kidev
erTi eWvi, rom axladmovlenili pataris dedis mucelSi `moxvedraSic~ swored am YZmas
unda erios xeli. imedgacruebis afeqti, romelic carieli yuTis danaxvas mohyveba, bavS
vuri moTxovnilebis zedapiruli motivaciiTaa ganpirobebuli. ufro Rrma miswrafebi
sTvis sxva adgilis SerCevaaa saWiro (?).samagierod ukandabrunebuli dedis sigamxdriT
gamowveuli udidesi kmayofileba mxolod am ufro Rrma Sridan xdeba srulad gasagebi.
14. gamoyofilia Cem mier (avt. Sen.)
15. gamoyofilia Cem mier (avt. Sen.)
16. kerZod, igi, rogorc gairkva, orsulobisa da fexmZimobisgan Tavdacvis qvecnobieri azris
zegvlenis qveS imyofeboda. sityvebiT: `dakecili rogorc jibis dana~, rac man sruliad
ganzrax rogorc Civili warmosTqva, mas surda dedis mucelSi bavSvis mdgomareoba aRe
wera. Cem mier naTqvamma sityvam `Ernst~ mas kerntnerStraseze cnobili venuri firmis saxe
li (S. Ernst) gaaxsena, romelic dafexmZimebis sawinaaRmdego damcavi saSualebebiT savaWro
dawesebulebad acxadebs Tavs.
17. germanulad `kaufmani~, Kaufmann vaWars niSnavs.
18. gamoiTqmis rogorc `klaperSlange~
19. `jer kidev veZeb naSuadRevis, ukacravad, SuadRemdel samuSaos.~
20. `polaki~ germanulenovan samyaroSi polonelis damamcirebeli saxelia.
21. `ase gavicani erTi Zalian lamazi da patiosani qali maRali sazogadoebidan, romelmac,
samoqalaqo SvebulebaSi myof, karze omis saqmeebSi CarTul erT keTilSobil mamakacTan
saubrisas, mas uTxra: `gavige, rom mefem im qveyanaSi y... xidi aafeTqebina.~ mas surda eTqva
`yvela~. warmoidgineT, cota xnis win qmarTan mwoliares, an da sayvarelze mfiqrals, mas
es sityva jer kidev enaze edga; da is keTilSobili kaci misi siyvaruliT ainTo am sityvis
gamo.~

`erTi sxva nacnobi qalbatoni, romelic masze ufros meore qalbatons emaslaaTeboda da
mis mSvenierebas uqebda da udidebda, Semdeg eubneba: `ara, madam, amas ar geubnebiT pir
meZaobiT~ - pirmoTneobis Tqmis surviliT, rogorc SeniRba mere: warmoidgineT, fiqrobda,
rom qmrisTvis eRalata da emeZava.~

22. Ogermanuli saxelwodeba baltiis zRvisTvis.


23. SeadareT Tundac `iulius keisaridan~ Semdegi adgili, III, 3:

cina: swored getyviT, me cina mqvian.

moqalaqe: Sua gavglijoT, movklaT, es moRalatea!

cina: me poeti cina var! (...) me SeTqmuli cina ar var. (...)

moqalaqe: eg sul erTia, cina xom gqvian. gulidan saxeli amovglijoT da ise

gavuSvaT.

24. am SemTxvevaSi xelis wacdenis gagebiT.


25. es swored is sizmaria, romelic mokle statiaSi: `sizmris Sesaxeb~, (no. VIII nervuli da sul
ieri cxovrebis sasazRvro sakiTxebi~, liovenfeldisa da kurelas mier gamocemuli, 1901.
- es sruli gamocemis mesame tomSia Sesuli) paradigmad aviRe.

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