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ISTERS.

SALEEM PEERADINA

QUE:-1.Central idea of the poem:-

ANS:-1.The poem sisters deals with sibling rivalry and with the question of ones responce to injustice.
The elder daughter is expected to be docile, and submit to authority, and mould herself on the role of a
traditional female figure. but even at a young age, she is conscious of her rights as a child, and, by
rebelling against the authoritarian stance of her father, the elder daughter breaks out of the image of a
meek submissive girl child. She is capable of combating injustice by assertively taking a stand. This
defiance renders a note of celebration to the poem.

Parents are often not impartial in their attitude towards their children. It is quite possible that a boy in
the place behaved more aggressively; and perhaps the father would also have behaved differently
towards a boy-child.

INTRODUCTION:-

Sibling rivalry is a phenomena which manifests itself even in the early years of ones life. Quarrels
between brothers and sisters, or siblings are quite common. Sometimes the differences or issues raised
by their fights are harmless, sometimes these are serious. Parents are not always impartial when they
intervene in the quarrels of their children. The poem sisters written by Saleem peeradina, deals with
the differences of temperament and age between two sisters.

One, not quite ten

but ahead of the other, younger

whose five plus will never catch up

with the big ones lead

no matter how good she acts.

or how hard she cheats..

The narrator of the poem is the father of the two sisters. The elder daughter is less than ten years of
age, while the younger one is a little more than five years old. The younger child is aware that she would
never be able to bridge the difference of nearly five years gap between the two sisters. She feels that
neither good behaviour(how hard she cheats) will make up for the age difference. The father is aware
of the inner natures of his two children. He implies that the younger daughter can employ both fair and
foul means to have her way.

Like any disadvantaged species

she has turned the handicap

in her favour:shes bolder,

sneakier,sweeter than honey,

obeyer of commands, underminer of rules,

producer of tears, yeller,complete

The younger sister regards the age gap as a disadvantage. But she uses all kind of strategies to turn the
disadvantage or the handicap of being the younger one into an advantage.

the younger sister tries to utwit the elder one by her manipulative nature: the younger one is bolder as
well as shy by nature. Sometimes she uses sweet words and is obedient in order to impress her parents.
But she is also capable of subverting rules, and deliberately influencing elders by shedding tears and
shouting.

Turnaround. The older one gets

the tough end of it. Most times

blames end up in her sullen face.

Fighting back, she argues, attacks

me for talk her the way all parents

The father seems to be partial to the younger daughter. Even when the younger one is in the wrong, he
tries to teach the elder one to be more tolerant, accommodating and protective towards her young
sister.

The elder daughter often has to bear the brunt of the younger ones smart and manipulative behaviour.
The elder sibling responds to the unfair treatmentmeted out to her through the expression on her face.
She tries to fight against the injustice she receives by accusing her father of taking the wrong side.

At all times have tried explaining

to the elder child. living up

to her inheritance, she blazes back

at moralizing. On bad days

I shout her down, immediately

regretting my words.

The speaker of the poem, that is the father, tries to talk to the elder daughter in a pleasant manner,
placing the ones of all good behaviour on the elder child. But the elder daughter rebels against the
moralistic and unfair attitude of the father. Sometimes when the father is not in a good mood, he
suppresses the elder daughter by shouting at her; but deep down, he is a loving father, and , he
immediately regrets such behaviour on his part.

We find that although the father puts unfair pressure on the elder daughter by trying to make her
endure her younger sisters negative behaviour, he is good at heart. He admits to the reader that he is
unfair and moralizing.

But even as she retreats

into simmering silence, she stands her ground

knowing me to be unfair. Secretly,

I rejoice at the lesson never intended

but so well learnt: how to overcome

fathers, real and imaginary.

The impact of the fathers unfair shouting at the elder daughter is that she lapses into silence. But she is
not cowed into submission; the word simmering shows her quiet anger against the injustice that she
receives. The father is silently at the outcome, although he did not deliberatly intend to teach the elder
daughter what she has learnt instinctively. by standing her ground, and revolting against injustice, the
elder daughter demonstrates her ability to defy authoritative behaviour. The expression to overcome
father, real and imaginery, refers to standing up against authoritatrian figures in ones life.

HITTING DOWRY FOR A SIX..KALPANA SHARMA

QUE:-1.How is Nisha Sharmas case different from that of satyarani Chaddha? Give at least three
differences.

ANS:-1.Both Nisha Sharma and Satyarani Chaddha raised the banner against the evils system of dowry
but there are differences between the two cases. Firstly Satyarani Chaddha is not a victim herself as
Nisha is. In Satyaranis case it was her daughter who lost her life to his system. Secondly in Nishas case
the diaster is adverted in turn due to Nishas courage and her parents support. In Satyaranis case
however, her daughter loses her life as she is tortured and killed by her in laws. Thirdly, one major
difference between the two cases is that while Nishas parents stand by her and support her in her stand
against such a marriage, Satyarani, being a parent, has yet gone along with dowry demands and acts
only after she loses her daughter. nishas case teaches us to act in time.

QUE:-2.What do protests like those by Nisha and satyarani teach us?

ANS:-2.Protests like those by Nisha and Satyarani teach us that an individuals actions can have far
reaching repurcussions. we should never think that because we are alone something that we believe in
we should act on our belifs and the rest will follow.

QUE:-3.The writer says that we need to ask some hard questions with regard to Nishas case. What are
these questions?

ANS:-3.The hard questions point at the fault that lie within all those people who go along with dowry
demands. Though Nisha recieves parental support when she decides that the cash demand had become
too much, yet till that time both she and her parents had gone along with unreasonable demands. This
leads to further questions whether any demands can be reasonable and why should there be any
demand at all.

QUE:-4.What is the central issue?

ANS:-4.The central issue is the social mind set that considers a woman to be a burden first in her
parental home and then in her marital home. The belief that dowry is given and accepted so that a
woman is not considered a burden in her marital home results from this mentality. We need to change
this mentality or else individuals efforts like those of Nisha and Satyarani will be forgotten very soon.

QUE:-5.According to the author what is the biggest advantage girls have in their fight against dowry?

ANS:-5.The girls biggest advantage in their fight against dowry is that they have the numbers on their
side. There are less number of girls than boys in our country. So it is the girls who should be playing hard
to get. They should not give in so easily.

QUE:-6.Bend it like Beckham was an English film about a British-Indian girl who wanted to play
professional football while her family was completely against it. In the sentence of this essay the
metaphor from another sport. Which sport? Explain the metaphor.

ANS:-6.The other metaphor has been taken from the world of cricket. In cricket if a ball is hit for a
six(meaning six runs with one shot) then the ball goes flying out of the boundary without once hitting
the ground. The same is being used in the metaphorical sense by the writer here. The field is our society
and the boundary is that of our social customs. The ball is being used to represent dowry and is being hit
for a six and is being sent out flying from our social system. The writer says that if girls have confidence
in themselves and if they receive parental support they can certainly hit dowry for a six.

QUE:-7.Centrel idea of artical:-

ANS:-7.The artical probes the issue deeply and from various perspectives. It concludes by saying that
laws alone cannot help in changing the mindsets of people. Girls have to be determined(submissive is a
opposite) not to give in to dowry demands and their parents have to be supportive only then we can
deal with the menace of dowry.

GIRLS.MRINAL PANDE

QUE:-1.Who is the narrator of the piece? What details can gather about her from the story?

ANS:-1.The narrator in this story is a little girl, the middle daughter of lali. Her anguish and complaint
against the elders is that they hold a girl inferior to a son. Secondly, they scold and ill treat a girl child.
Millis mother thinks all her daughters are a problem a nuisance. Milli is a naughty but intelligent girl.
She examines the elders critically and wishes she were a bird or a magician to escape from the world of
human being.

QUE:-2.In a story with so many characters, only the servants seems to have names. What does this tell
us about the society depicted in the story?

ANS:-2.In our society the children are not allowed to know the names of the elders. They cannot address
their elders by the name but this rule does not apply to servants. So the story writer has not given
names to maamis, naani or maamas. The servsnts are treated as inferiors.

QUE:-3.Why are we not told the names of the major characters in the story? Is it because

(i) the story is told from the point of view of a child and children in India are not expected to know the
names of their elders?

(ii) the story deals with the games of power played out in most families, so individuals are not
important?

(iii) the story is about family relationships, and so kinship terms like naani, maasi, maama, ma and so on,
are emphasized?

ANS:-3.(iii) the story is about family relationships, and so kinship terms like naani, maasi, maama, ma
and so on, are emphasized.

QUE:-4.Why is it so important for the narrators mother to have a boy this time? Is her treatment of
her daughter somehow related to this desire?

ANS:-4.In our society, sons are preferred to girls. The birth of a female child casts a gloom all over the
house. the birth of a son is heralded with pride and celebrated with a party, yes of course her treatment
with her daughter somehow related to this desire.

QUE:-5.Do you think that the narrator is really a naughty child? Examine some of the situation in which
she is scolded and decide what her faults are.

ANS:-5.The narrator, Milli is a naughty child, is obstinate and she is fairly intelligent as well. She is
obstinate and she is often scolded and smacked by her mother. She is branded as a problem, a nuisance,
a bitch. in the train compartment she stricks out her tongue at everyone. She gets two slaps when she
overhears her maasis complaint and asks Ma the meaning of word endure. She refuses to move out of
the way of Haris Ma. She feels like swallowing the burning comphor to end her life. She pinches
maamas son.

QUE:-6.What is the attitude of the driver, the dai and the elderly neighbour towards the little girl?

ANS:-6.The middle daughter of Lali ia an eyesore for her mother. But the driver is amused when the girls
scream. Everytime he presses the horn, the girls scream together. The dai, Haris Ma also does not scold
the narrator when she stands in her way. She only laughs as she complains. The elderly neighbour, also
saves the little girl from thrashing when Ma moves towards her with her clenched fist.

QUE:-7.How is the narrators elder sister different from her? What makes her more acceptable to the
family?

ANS:-7.The narrators elder sister is very sensible and loving. the narrator knows that the elder sister
alone in the family loves her truly. She warms that if she persists, She might be beaten to death. The
elder sister is vastly different from the younger one. She doesnt harass Ma. She doesnot tease Haris
Ma. She is never smacked.

QUE:-8.The little girl, the narrator, asks three question it the story. The first time she poses a question,
she is sternly told not to argue with her elders. The second time she is sternly told not to argue with her
elders. The second time she is given a slap and the third time she can barely choke back her tears. What
is so disturbing about the question she asks?

ANS:-8.The narrator, though a little girl, is very active and naughty. She wants to overhear wht the
elders women are talkinh about. She asks Baabu if she can ever turn into a boy. She asks her Ma what
her Maasi is enduring in her house. She questions naani and others why they treat girls as Goddesses
only on Ashtami day when actually no body loves the girls. Her questions embarass the elders. They are
irritated and they very often smack the little girl. Her questions are pointed and disturbing.

QUE:-9.There is a great deal of suppressed violence in the story. The narrator is constantly being
threatened and has to be rescued from getting a beating more than once by the maami or the
neighbour; Chhoti Maasi cries in suppressed tones because she doesnt get as much respect as a dog
does in that house; the narrator is herself violent towards the maamas son and other childern, and ends
by letting out a scream so loud that it is like a bullet being fired. Do you think that women are only at
the receiving end of his violence or do they also perpetrate it? How do you explain the contradiction?

ANS:-Girls, taken in totality, are at the receiving end of violence in out of male-dominated society. they
are subjected to all sorts of indignity and shame, physical and mental torture and so on. They are
discriminated against. A girl child is considered inferior to a male child. They are paid less than men folk.
Crimes against women in increasing not only in India but in all parts of the world. Chiefly because they
are a weaker sex and disorgainsed.

Women themselves, I must say, are the swarch enemies of their class and sex. They persecute women,
and subject them to inhuman viloence. It is really a strange and inexplicable phenomenon. Every woman

has a preference for a son. The birth of a male child is celebrated and announced with the beating of
metal tray. He is taken extra case of the girls live all their life under the domination of parents, brothers,
and the state administration. Any improvement in their condition will depend on a change in the
mindset ot the women themselves first and then of men folk.

QUE:-10.I dont want to be a Goddess. What does this tell us about the way women are treated in our
society?

ANS:-10.The narrator of this story laments the lot of girls and women folk in the Indians society. Her cry
of pain is, in fact, the cry of the female species. Society is prejudiced against women, treats them as
domestic help, as sex pots, as a commodity. And all this is tolereted by men folk who adore women also
as deities or symbol of power. Women are worshipped as Durga or Chandi who once killed the demons.
The narrators resentment is real and justified. though her revolt remains weak and ineffective, she
justly demands a fair treatment at home from her mother, and other elderly women. She wants to be
treated just like a human being, not as a Goddess on a certain day in the year. Her cry is loud and clear,
only the society is deaf to that. The narrator, though a little girl, longs for an escape from her torture
cell. She wishes she were a bird to fly away, or had that magic betel nut to become invisible. So
desperate is she that she thinks of ending her life by swallowing the burning comphor.

A TEN DAY FASTHARI SHANKARPARSAI

QUE:-1.Baba Sankidas is a master strategist. He uses a variety of agencies like media, caste,religion,
musclemen and public opinion in setting up the issue. Explain the role of each briefly.

ANS:-1.Baba Sankidas is makes use of all possible agencies and tricks to gain his end. He is a master of
that art. He first writes the declaration of principles justifying Bannus love for savitri. He uses fast unto
death as a magic stick that purifies every issue. He turns bannus personal cause into a public cause. He
get a fake statement of some at Radhika Babus house, at the houses of Brahmins and the Kayasthas.

Thus he makes use of caste feeling and musclemen to turn public opinion in Bannus favour. He put ads
in the press and takes delegation to the prime minister.

QUE:-2.Why do these agencies/people cooperate with him? What do you think are their interest?

ANS:-2.The press and the politicians are always in search of a sensational issue, to organise agitation and
get publicity. The press highlights a minor event as a major world shaking earthquake in order to sell the
paper. The common people are ignorant color given to any person or cause. Prayers, temples and public
platforms all come handy for the organisers of unrest. All this part of a big power game and vote
catching exercise on democracy.

QUE:-3.The issue behind Bannus fast begins by wanting to spit on him, then tries to tie a rakhi on him
and finally tries to commit suicide. What does this tell us about the status of issues on which strikes,
bandhs and dharnas place so much value?

ANS:-3.Bannu harasses a housewife Savitri for sixteen years. He even dares to drag her away, and gets
roughed up. Savitri spits on him and hates to see face. She is furious when he sits on fast unto death.
She goes to Baba to protest but all in vain. She is afraid of bearing a social stigma, of getting a bad name.
She even agrees to tie a rakhi on Bannus wrist to end the fast. But nothing works so much as strategy of
Baba sankidas, irresponsible press and stupid mass appeal. Finally she attempts to commit sucide but is
saved.

The story is a satire on the actual working of democracy and the so-called public opinion in our country.
the state, the law and even the judiciary-all find themselves helpless against the fury of the mob, the
strikes, bandhs and dharnas.

QUE:-4.Can you think of dharna/bandh/strike organised in the last 4-5 years which was as silly as
Bannus fast for Savitri?

ANS:-4.Almost everyday such dharnas/bandh or strikes are organised in one state of the other.
Organisers are not just individuals but also the state, government and the political parties. The agitation
often turns violent. The farmers demand free power or electricity. A section of people demand a
separate independent Nagaland or Khalistan or Telengana.

QUE:-5.Fasting was originally a religious act. It was given political overtones by Mahatma Gandhi when
he used it as a means of non-vilont protest against the British. Do you think that the
fasts/strikes/bandhs/dharnas organised today are non-violent?

ANS:-5.Fasting as advised by our religious texts, is a medical prescription for good health. It cleanses the
body. It is a lesson in self-discipline. In Jainism, long fasts are a way to attain spiritual heights and
communion with God. But Gandhi ji used it as a political non-violent weapon to secure political freedom
but today such forms of protests are aimed at creating disorder,to defame the government and to gain
publicity. The factory workers demand higher wages, sit on dharnas and burn public transport buses.
They turn violent and the police resorts to lathi charge to control the mad mob.

QUE:-6. What is the centrel idea of A Ten Day Fast by Harishankar parsai?

ANS:-6. we have already had an understanding of the meaning and use of satire in a piece of literary
writing. Trough satire, an absurd situation is highlighted: one man is steered by well-wishers and
experts to go on a fst unto death so that he can procure another mans wife. The aim of the stirist
Harishankar Parsai is to expose te loopholes in a democratic system, whereby a handful of people with
vested interests can manipulate a situation and subvert political ideology.

Troughout A Ten Day fast, ideas and means reminiscents of Indias satirically to achieve unworthy
goals. we see how various kinds of people and agencies such as media, common mans religious
sentiments, the opinion of masses, the caste system and social miscreants can be manipulated to
achieve petty personal gains.

GO KISS THE WORLD.. SUBROTO BAGCHI

QUE:-1.Describe in your own words, Koraput as remembered by Bagchi.

ANS:-1.Koraput, was a small town in Orissa and Bagchi calls it a back of the beyond place. By this he
means that it was a background place almost primitive and he remembers that there was no electricity
and no primary school there. There was no piped water-supply and therefore no taps. Water was
probably available only through lakes, ponds or wells.

QUE:-2.Why do you think that the children in the Bagchi household were not allowed to call the driver
The Driver?

ANS:-2.The children in the Bagchi household were not allowed to call the driver the driver but had to
use the suffix dada. this was in order to give him respect because Bagchis parents belived that it is
important to respect your subordinates. It is necessary to treat small people with more respect than you
treat big people.

QUE:-3.Bagchi learnt a number of lessons from his parents. List the three lessons that he associates with
his father and the three that he associates with his mother.

ANS:-3.The three lessons that he associates with his father are:

(i) One should never misuse official privileges.

(ii) One should be sensitive to small people and remember that it is more important to respect your
subordinates than your superiors.

(iii)One should show consideration to others.

The three lessons that he associates with his mother are:

(i) Success is not about what you creat for yourself, it is what you leave behind that defines success.

(ii)Success is about a sense of independence. It is not about seeing the world but seeing the light.

(iii)Success is about vision. It is the ability to rise above the immediacy of pain.

QUE:-4.Listed below are a number of insights that Bagchi gained from his parents. give at least one
example of each from your own experiences(and not taken from the essay) so that its meaning becomes
clear.

(i) Showing sensitivity to small people.

(ii) Showing consideration to others.

(iii) Seeing the light.

(iv) Lesson in governance.

(v) Imagination is everything.

(vi) Having a larger vision.

(vii) Having personal tenacity.

ANS:-4. (i) Showing sensitivity to small people: means being considerate not only to their needs but also
their feelings.

(ii) Lesson in governance: means to learn to be honest in life,and not misuse the power and the
privileges given to you.

(iii) Seeing the light:means being hopeful and optimistic.

(v) Imagination is everything:means to imagination helps you think about the future and shape it too.

(vi) having a larger vision: means to not be limited to just inclusive and be connected to the larger world.

(vii) Having personal tenacity:means having the ability to persevere in your efforts against all odds. To
sticks to your goal.

QUE:-5.Go Kiss the World are the last words of Bagchis mother to him. What do you think she means?

ANS:-5.By asking the writer to Go Kiss the World his mother is in fact asking hin to stay connected to a
larger world existence. She is asking him to not limit his vision to just his personal world but to rise
above it and connect to the large world outside.

QUE:-6.How did the reading out of English newspaper prove useful to Bagchi?

ANS:-6.The narrator was called upon to read out the statesmen to father at tea time. He benefited
greatly from that practice. He realised that the world was a larger place. He also got good command
over Enhlish.

QUE:-7.What was Bagchis father? Who had he married?

ANS:-7.Bagchis father was a district employment officer. He married a refugee girl, who had been
brought up by a widow from East Bengal.

QUE:-8.What childhood lesson in governance did Bagchi learn from his father?

Ans:-8.Bagchis father was a man of principles. He had official jeep to tour the interior parts of the
district. He never used it for personal comfort. He allowed his children to sit inside only when it was not
in motion. That was his style of governance.

QUE:-9.Bagchi children made two demands from their father. Were they fulfilled? Why/Why not?

ANS:-9.The narrator and his brother requested father to buy them a transistor radio to build a house of
their own. But father politely turned both the demads down.

QUE:-10.How didi bagchi think of doing something foe his nation at the University?

ANS:-10.India fought a war with Pakistan in 1951 Lal Bahadur Shastri called upon the people to defend
the country with all their might. The narrator used to read out newspaper to his mother. He realised
that he should also do his bit for the nation. He went near the Universitys water tank to catch hold of
same pakistani spy.

QUE:-11.How does Mr. Bagchi define success?

ANS:-Success to Subroto Bagchi, is a matter of farsight or imagination respect for even small people, of
being considerate to the needy of staying connected with the larger world, of giving back more to life
than what one takes out of it.

English speaking course-http://www.bmconsultantsindia.com/

English Grammer-http://www.edufind.com/english/grammar/grammar_topics.php
Learn English online-http://www.ego4u.com/

English (Hon)To motherhttp://careers.icbse.com/ba-hons-english-for-literature/

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