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BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299598 2 . .

BRITISH STANDARD

BS 7570: 1992

Code of practice for

Validation of arc w-elding


equipinent

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STANDARDS

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299599 4 Ill

BS 7570 : 1992

Committees responsible for this


British Standard
The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Welding
Standards Policy Committee (WEE/-) to Technical Committee WEE/6, upon
which the following bodies were represented:
British Cable Makers' Confederation
Electricity Association
Health and Safety Executive
Institution of Incorporated l:<~xecutive Engineers
National Association of Arc Welding Equipment Repairers
Power Generation Contractors' Association (BEAMA Ltd.)
Welding Institute
Welding Manufacturers' Association (BEAMA Ltd.)
Coopted members

This British Standard, having


been prepared under the
direction of the Welding
Standards Policy CommitteP,
was published under the
authority of the Standards
Board and comes into effect on
15 July 1992

Amendments issued since publication

Amel. No.

BS! 1992

The following BS! references


relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference WEE/6
Draft for comment 91170593 DC

----

ISBN 0 580 20713 7

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Date

Text affected

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299600 7 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Contents

Page
Inside front cover
3

Committees responsible
Foreword
Code of practice
0
Introduction
1
Scope
References
2
Definitions
3
Validation accuracies for the equipment classified as grade 1
4
(standard grade)
5
Validation accuracies for the equipment classified as grade 2
(precision grade)
5.1 Repeatability
5.2 Welding power sources
5. 3 Wire feed equipment
5.4 Instrumentation
6
Frequency of validation and calibration
Authorized
validators of the welding equipment
7
8
Validation techniques
8.1 General
8.2 The validation of current controls and current meters
8.3 The validation of voltage controls and voltage meters
8.4 Validation of wire feed speed controllers and wire feed speed meters
8.5 The validation of welding power source special current control
functions
9
Validation labels and certificates
9.1 Validation label
9.2 Invalidity label
9.3 Validation certificate

Annexes
A (normative) Practical details for the application of this standard
B (informative) The validation of ancillary components in a welding system
C (normative) The validation of tungsten inert-gas welding equipment
D (normative) The use and construction of loading devices for welding
power sources
E (normative) The validation of welding power source current controls and
current meters
F (normative) The validation of voltage controls and voltage meters on
welding power sources
G (normative) The validation of wire feeders
II (normative) The validation of special current controls

4
a.

6
6
7
8
8
8
8
8

8
g
g
g

g
12
13

15
16
16

16
16
17
17
18
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21
22

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BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299601 9 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Page
Thbles
1 Validation accuracies for grade 1 power sources
2 Validation accuracies for grade 1 instruments
3 Validation accuracies for grade 2 power sources
4 Validation accuracies for grade 2 wire feeders
5 Validation accuracies for grade 2 instrumentation
6 FTequency of validation
7 Loading devices for welding power sources
8 Current measming transducers
9 Current measuring instruments
10 Voltage measuring instruments
11 Wire feed speed measming instruments
12 Waveform measuring devices
13 Wavefonn measuring device instrument types

7
7
8
8
8
8

10
10
11

13
13
15
22

Figures
1
Welding equipment validation aid chart 1
23
2
Welding equipment validation aid chart 2
24
3
Welding equipment validation aid chait 3
25
Illustration of waveform terminology
4
26
Validation connections for current controls and current meters
5
27
6
Validation connections for voltage controls and voltage meters
28
Validation methods for wire feeders
29
7
Validation connections for special current controls
8
30
List of references
Inside back cover

2
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BSI BS*7570 92

1624669 0299602 _O

BS 7570 : 1992

Foreword

This standard was prepared under the direction of the Welding Standards Policy
Committee. The need for an improved specification for the calibration, validation
and accuracy of welding equipment was foreseen by the committee and this
voluntary code of practice has been written to fulfil that need.
It is well known that the maintenance of the required accuracy of outputs of
power sources and other equipment is vitai in the production of satisfactory
welds particularly with those processes where the welder does not manually
control the application of the arc,
The urgent need for guidance and standardization having been recognized, this
standard was produced after detailed consultations with users and
manufacturers of arc welding equipment. (It was considered that all other
aspects required to ensure the production of satisfactory welds were akeady
covered by compliance with existing process and procedure standards, codes of
practice, etc.) Many manufacturers of arc welding equipment realize the vital
role of the equipment and hence the need to test and maintain the performance
of their products. In the absence of any other guidance, they operate their own
quality control and maintenance schedules. In addition they build equipment
with accuracies of performance superior to those required by national and
international standards at present in general use,
This standard sets out to regularize the equipment calibration and validation
requirements for all arc welding processes ranging from the least demanding to
the most sophisticated. It is intended to serve all areas of the arc welding
industry and to simplify the preparation of quality assurance documentation.
Summarizing the functions of the code, it:
a) states the required accuracy of operation for a particular task;
b) shows how the equipment can be validated or checked to that accuracy;
c) shows how to record and label the equipment to prove it has been validated
or checked;
d) contains information about practical and economic means of achieving good
welding instrumentation.
BS 7570 is intended to serve all areas of industry that manufacture or use
welding equipment. It is expected to play a key part in quality assurance of
electric arc welding.
It is not intended to supersede the requirements of BS 638, IEC 974-1 or any
other relevant constrnction or safety standard for welding equipment.
The selection of the grade of validation and the implementation of validation
methods should always be entrusted to appropriately qualified and expelienced
staff.
As a code of practice, this British Standard takes the form of guidance and
recommendations. It should not be quoted as if it were a specification and
particular care should be taken to ensure that claims of compliance are not
misleading.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from
legal obligations.

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BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299603 2 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Code of practice
0 Introduction
0.1 The integrity and reliability of a weld is a
function of the materials and the equipment used
to make the weld. It can be demonstrated that the
variability in the output of the welding equipment
will directly affect the quality of the weld. The
maintenance of the accuracy and the consistency of
the performance of the welding equipment is a key
component in the final quality of the weld.
0.2 The primary standard for the production of
accurate and reliable welding equipment is the
appropriate national, European or international
standard. The relevant standard for the
construction of welding equipment referred to in
this standard is BS 638 : Part 10. It sets the
reference level for the accuracy and consistency of
the output of welding equipment in the United
Kingdom.

0. 3 The construction standard BS 638 : Part 10


derives its specification for performance accuracy
from the requirements of manual welding. In
manual welding the welderl) plays a key role in
adapting and adjusting the output of the
equipment to meet the requirements of the weld.
This adaptability allows equipment to be
constructed with a relaxed specification for
calibration of output.
0,4 Machine welding methods lack the skilled
adaptability of the manual welder and requires
precise control of all aspects of the welding
process. The control of the output of the welding
equipment is of particular importance.
Manufacturers have responded to this need by
producing equipment with an accuracy of output
control and calibration which far exceed the
requirements of BS 638 : Part 10, etc.
O. 5 In addition to the demands of machine
welding, manual welding methods have become
more refined and welding procedures often call for
the precise control of machine outputs to limit the
freedom of the manual welder in order to produce
particular results.
0.6 The improvement in equipment construction,
the adoption of machine welding, the introduction
of quality assurance programmes and the increased
understanding of the factors which control weld
quality have led to the demand for more rigorous
calibration and validation of welding machine
performance.

0. 7 This standard seeks to address this need by


considering the following:
a) the accuracy of calibration or validation for
each category of welding equipment (see
clauses 4 and 5);
b) the frequency of calibration or validation
necessary to maintain the standard of operation
of the equipment (see clause 6);
c) the authorities competent to calibrate and
validate welding equipment (see clause 7);
d) the calibrating and validating tests necessary
to maintain the standard of operation of the
equipment (see clause 8);
e) the documentation necessary to prove that the
recommended standard has been achieved (see
clause 9);
f) the practical means whereby the foregoing
recommendations can be realized (see annexes A
to H);
g) provision for the calibrator or validator with
the means to determine the optimum route,
relevant to the available resources, to achieve
the recommended standard (sec annexes A to H).
0.8 The term calibration has been used in the
foregoing text to introduce the general subject of
checking that the welding equipment output meets
the manufacturer's specification and is fit for the
purpose of making welds. This is a commonly
accepted term for this checking operation but it
does not meet the strict definition of the word
calibration.
Clause 3 of this document gives the definition of
calibration. The operation of calibration can be
applied only to determining and adjusting the
errors of a measuring instrument. A piece of
welding equipment is not a measuring instrument
though the meters fitted to the welding equipment
are and can be calibrated. The difficulty of
terminology and the checking task is further
compounded as many pieces of welding equipment
do not have calibrated outputs but are scaled in
arbitrary units. Again this is a function of the
manual welding usage in which the skill of the
manual welder is used to adjust and set the
welding variables. It is necessary to use an
alternative term to describe the operation of
verifying that the welding equipment is fit for the
intended purpose. The term selected is validation.

l) The term 'welder' is used in this context to distinguish the operator of manual welding equipment from the 'welding operator'
of mechanized welding equipment.

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BS! BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299604 4 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

0.9 Validation is the operation which verifies that


the welding equipment conforms to the operating
specification for that equipment. If the equipment
fails to conform to the specification then the
correction of the errors within the equipment is
outside the scope of this standard. That operation
is the province of the manufacturers or equipment
specialists.

0.10 It is implicit in the introduction of a more


dgorous standard of accmacy of control of output
for welding equipment that the scope of application
of that standard should be defined. This standard
defines two levels of accuracy, one delived directly
from BS 638 : Part 10 and this is called grade 1 or
standard grade. A higher level of accmacy for more
exacting welding applications is defined and called
grade 2 or precision grade; this is dependent upon
the welding application.
The use of grade 2 (precision grade) is determined
by one of the following:
a) the maker of the welding equipment;
b) the welding procedure requirements;
c) the weld quality standard or code;
d) the quality assurance programme.
Pre-eminent among these is the developer of the
welding procedure.
0.11 If the grade 2 accuracy is specified in a
welding procedure or a quality control document it
will be necessary for the user of the equipment
first to determine that the equipment can operate
to the required standard and then to validate the
operation of the equipment.
0.12 The items of welding equipment covered in
this standard have been selected as those with the
most significant effect on the quality of the weld.
Other items of equipment considered for inclusion
were weld head tractors, orbital welding heads,
robotic manipulators, arc length control devices,
rotators and gas flow controls. The production of a
weld, whether by manual welding or a complex
welding machine, should be regarded as a complete
operational system and care should be exercised
with maintenance and calibration of all parts. 'lb
assist in this operation some guidance on the
preparation and maintenance of equipment outside
the scope of this standard is given in annex B.
0.13 It is intended that the use of the calibration
and validation methods given in this standard
should follow a simple route.
a) Select the validation grade, using clause 1 and
figure 1, aided by the relevant notes in this
introduction.
b) Select the validation accuracy value, using
clauses 4 and 5.
c) Select the validation method, using clause 8
and figure 2 .

d) Select the measuring instl'uments appropriate


to the task and to the validator's resomces, using
clause 8 and figure 3 in conjunction with
annexes D, E, F, G and H. Also consult
annexes A, B, and C to ensure safe operation of
the equipment.
0.14 Welding power sources may supply direct or
alternating current or both. Tho general practice
has been to fit moving coil indicating, iri..stru..ments
on direct current power sources and moving iron
indicating instmments on alternating current
power sources.
Moving coil instruments measure the average or
mean value of the instantaneous current with
respect to time. Moving iron instruments measure
the r.m.s. value of current. The r.m.s. value is the
square root of the average or mean value of the
square of the instantaneous value of the current
with respect to time. The i~m.s. measurement is
proportional to the heating effect of the current.
The straightforward measurement of welding
current is complicated by the following factors.
a) The current waveform is usually complex, i.e.
the direct current has some fluctuating
component and the alternating current is not
sinusoidal.
b) There is a wider range of meters and sensing
devices in use now which enable more complex
measurements and instant operations and
computations on the measurement.
c) The purpose of the measurement may be
comparative in order to transfer a welding
procedure or absolute in order to make heat
input calculations. This may influence the
measuring method.
It is proposed that only three measudng terms be
used for descdbing the basic electrical measuring
techniques:
1) instantaneous value;
2) mean value;
3) r.m.s. value.
The type of measurement and meter will be
specified for the grade of accuracy and the type of
electlical output of the power source.
NarE. 'l'he r.m.s. value may be 'true' or 'indicated'. Some

meters measure r.m.s. directly ('true' i~m.s.) but many measure


the mean and indicate 1.11 times the mean to give an
equivalent to the r.m.s. value for a true sine wave.

0.15 The method and scope of the validation of


welding power sources will depend on the type of
welding power source. The type of welding power
source will determine the type of output control
and meters fitted to the power source. Welding
power sources may be characterized by the
following two classifications.
a) Constant current or drooping characteristic
power sources. This type of power source is used

for manual metal arc welding, TIG welding,


plasma welding, and, occasionally, submerged arc
5

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BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299605 6 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

welding. The welding output is usually adjusted


by a current control. The power source may or
may not be fitted with current and voltage
meters.
The current controls and the current and voltage
meters on constant current power sources can be
validated using this standard. Guidance for the
validator is given in 0.16.
b) Gori..stant voltage or flal characteri-stic power
sources. This type of power source is used for
MIG, MAG, MOG and submerged arc welding.
The welding output is usually adjusted by a
combination of a voltage control and the wire
feed speed control. The wire feed speed control
effectively regulates the current output of the
power source by the self-adjusting arc
mechanism. The power source may or may not
be fitted with current and voltage meters.
The voltage controls and the current and voltage
meters on constant voltage power sources may be
validated using this standard. The notes in 0.16
will guide the validator.
0.16 The welding equipment covered by this
standard will be fitted with controls intended to
regulate the output of the welding equipment. The
controls may be scaled in absolute units (amperes,
volts, metres per minute) or in arbitrary units
(numbers, letters, geometrical marks). The welding
equipment may be fitted with meters which
measure the output of the equipment. The
following points will guide the validator in the
validation of equipment.
a) Equipment with controls which are scaled
with recognized units of measurement that are
described in this standard can be validated.
b) Equipment with controls that are scaled in
arbitrary units cannot be validated using this
standard.
c) The meters on any equipment can be validated
using this standard.
d) The repeatability and consistency of any
control can be validated using this standard.
0.17 Equipment without controls scaled in
standard units or without fitted meters may be
fitted with measuring instruments covered in this
standard in order to gain a validation certificate.
The measuring instruments are covered in clause 8.
The measuring instrument appropriate to that
equipment may be selected from the full range
described in clause 8.
0.18 The use of meters and measming instrument
packages with welding equipment that is required
to produce welds of integrity and reliability is
strongly recommended.

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1 Scope
This B1itish Standard recommends validation grades
and validation methods for the following two
classes of arc welding power sources, equipment
and accessories:
a) equipment constructed, calibrated and used to
the accuracy specified in BS 638 : Part 10 : 1990;
this equipment classification is called grade 1

(standard grade);
b) equipment constructed in accordance with
BS 638 : Part 10 : 1990 but calibrated to a higher
standard of accuracy than required by ns 638 ;
Part 10 : 1990 and applied to tasks requiring
greater precision of operation; this classification
is called grade 2 (precision grade). The use of
grade 2 (precision grade) validation or calibration
is p1imarily determined by the requirements of
the welding procedure and is to be specified by
those responsible for the development or
application of the welding procedure.
The welding equipment covered in this standard
includes:
1) welding power sources;
2) wire feeders;
3) welding instrumentation.

2 References
2.1 Normative references
This British Standard incorporates, by reference,
provisions from specific editions of other
publications. These normative references arc cited
at the appropriate points in the text and the
publications are listed on the inside back cover.
Subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of
these publications apply to this British Standard
only when incorporated into it by updating or
revision.

2. 2 Informative references
This British Standard refers to other publications
that provide information or guidance. Editions of
these publications current at the time of issue of
this standard are listed on the inside back cover,
but reference should be made to the latest
editions.

3 Definitions
For the purposes of this British Standard, the
following definitions apply. For other technical
terms applicable to this standard the definitions
given in BS 499 : Part 1 : 1991 apply.

3.1 calibration
All the operations for the purpose of determining
the value of the errors of a measuring instrument
and if necessary to determine other metrological
properties.

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299606 8 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

3.2 validation
All the operations for the purpose of demonstrating
that an item of welding equipment or a welding
system conforms to the operating specification for
that welding equipment or system.
3.3 monitoring
The use of a measuring device to check, record or
indicate the output or performance of a welding
equipment or welding system.
3.4 accuracy
The closeness of an observed quantity to the
defined or tme value.
3. 5 arc length
The distance between the cathode and the anode
of the welding arc or the distance between the
welding electrode and the piece being welded
dming welding.
3. 6 arc voltage
The potential difference between the cathode and
the anode dming welding or the potential
difference between the welding electrode and the
piece being welded dming welding.
3. 7 p01table welding monitor ('brief case
monitor')
An assembly of measming instruments packaged in
a portable case used to measure, record and/or
analyse the welding equipment output.
3. 8 chart recorder
A measuring instrument which continuously
records the measured value in a graphical form on
a continuous roll or sheet of paper or similar
medium.
3.9 data logger
A device for recording the measured welding
variables in discrete steps on an electronic or
magnetic storage medium and reproducing the
measurements in numeiical or graphical form. The
device may be portable or transportable.
3.10 wire feed speed
The rate of delivery of a consumable welding
electrode or the rate of delivery of a separate filler
wire to the welding arc.
3.11 repeatability test
A test to determine the error of the equipment
output when the relevant control on the equipment
is set to a position, altered and returned to the
same apparent position.
NarF:. A repeatability validation certificate can be issued when
the error between the two output readings is less than the

accuracy figures given in clauses 4 and 5 for each point in the


validation range selected for that control.

3.12 MOG welding


Arc welding using a consumable flux-cored wire
electrode without shielding gas from an external
somce.
3.13 class
A designation according to the accmacy of a
measuring instrument conforming to BS 89 :
Part 1 : 1990, BS 89 : Part 2 : 1990 or
~ct

("\f\

~I"\,..,.~

Di:) t:IU : HUO.

NCITE. Fbr example class 2.5 refers to 2.5 % full scale


deflection.

4 Validation accuracies for the


equipment classified as grade 1
(standard g1ade)
4.1 Repeatability
It is recognized that the repeatability of the
equipment is important and in clause 8 tests for
repeatability are shown. The same value as is given
there should be used in this test unless an
alternative is given.
4.2 Welding power somces
The validation accuracies for grade 1 power sources
should conform to table 1.
Tuble 1. Validation accuracies for grade 1
power sources
Quantity

Accuracy

Current

10 %1)

Rated no-load voltage

5%

No-load voltage (MIG/MAG/MOG)2)

10 %

This value is valid unless the maximum output current


exceeds 10 times the minimum output current, in which case
the accuracy at minimum current should be Imax. /Imin. %
and the accuracy at maximum current should be 10 %,
with the accuracy varying linearly between these two values.
2l The conventional load voltage U at the output terminals of
2
the power source is given by the following equation, in which
12 is the conventional welding current in amperes:
U2 = (14 + 0.05 12) V
up to 44 Vat 600 A, after which U2 remains constant. (See
BS 638 : Part 10 : 1990.)
I)

4.3 Instrumentation
The welding equipment may be fitted with
indicating meters. The measming equipment should
be validated to the standard shown for grade 1
welding equipment, as given in table 2.
Tuble 2. Validation accuracies for grade 1
instruments
Quantity

Accuracy

Indicating instruments conforming to Class 2.5


BS 89 : Part 1 : 1990 and BS 89 :
Part 2: 1990

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BS 7570 : 1992

5 Validation accuracies for the


equipment classified as grade 2
(precision grade)
5.1 Repeatability
It is recognized that the repeatability of the
equipment is important and in clause 8 tests for
repeatability are shown. The same percentage
value should be used in this test unless an
alternative is given.
5. 2 Welding power sources
The validation accuracies for grade 2 power sources
should conform to table 3.
'lhble 3. Validation accuracies for grade 2
power sources
Quantity

Accuracy

Current

2.5 %1)

not necessary. However to ensure the consistency


and repeatability of MIG/MAG/MOG welding, the
wire feed rate should conform to the accuracy
given in table 4.
Thble 4. Validation accuracies for grade 2 wire
feeders

IAccuracy

Quantity

I 2.5 %

I Wire feed speed

5.4 Instrumentation
The equipment may be fitted with indicating
meters, recording meters or instruments, data
loggers and connections for the use of external
instrumentation. The validation accuracy for
grade 2 instruments should conform to table 5.
Thble 5. Validation accuracies for grade 2
instrumentation
Quantity

Accuracy

Indicating instruments conforming to Class 1


BS 89 : Part 1 : 1990 and BS 89 :
Part 2 : 1990

Time (pulse width2))

5%

Slope up/down time 3 l

5%

Rated no-load voltage

5%

BS 90 : 1975

No-load voltage (MIG/MAG/MOG)4)

5 %

Data loggers

Chart recorders conforming to

The current control should be validated for a range of


values as specified in the welding procedure, by the
equipment manufacturer or by the equipment user.
(See 8.2.5.9.)

Class 1

I)

2l

The term pulse width covers any variable voltage or current


transient for which an individual control is provided, e.g. time
at peak current, time at background current, total cycle time.
In most cases the measured interval will he from the start of
the change of the variable to the end of the change of the
variable though this may present problems in some cases. (See
clause 8 and figure 4.)
3l

Sometimes called ramp up and ramp down or crater out.

4l The conventional load voltage U at the output terminals of


2

the power source is given by the following equaLion, in which


12 is the conventional welding current in amperes:
U2

(14 + 0.05 12 ) V

up to 44 Vat 600 A, after which U2 remains constant. (See


BS 638 : Part 10 : 1990.)

5.3 Wire feed equipment


Wire feed equipment includes all systems designed
to feed filler wire or consumable continuous
electrodes. It is recognized that in MIG/MAG and
allied self-adjusting arc systems in which the wire
feed rate is linked to a function of the welding
power, an absolute calibration of wire feed rate is

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6 Frequency of validation and


calibration
The welding equipment should be validated or
recalibrated at the intervals shown in table 6.
Where there is a proven record of repeatability and
reliability the frequency of validation may be
reduced.
It may be necessary to validate or recalibrate at
more frequent intervals, depending upon the
recommendation of the manufacturer, the
requirements of the user, or where there is reason
to believe that the performance of the equipment
may have deteriorated. In the case of grade 2
equipment, calibration should always be carried out
after any repair or operation liable to affecL the
calibration.
Thble 6. Frequency of validation
Grade

FIequency
years

1 (standard)
2 (precision)

1
0.5

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BS 7570 : 1992

7 Authorized validators of the welding


equipment
The welding equipment should be validated in
accordance with this standard by one of the
following:
a) the manufacturer;
b) the user;
c) a recognized equipment repairer or validation
and calibration agent;
d) a calibration house (e.g. British Standard
Calibration House);
e) an organization with the appropriate traceable
standards.
In all cases, the equipment used to validate the
welding equipment should have a calibration
traceable to the relevant national standards.

8 Validation techniques
8.1 General
It is recognized that the manufacturers of welding
equipment have developed many specialized
methods of calibrating their welding equipment
which may require detailed knowledge of the
construction of the machine or access to the
interior of the machine. The validation methods
described in this standard are intended to enable
the user to check that the equipment is fit for the
intended purpose without the manufacturer's
specialist knowledge of the machine. The methods
of measurement described may require some
specialist knowledge or apparatus.
The measurement and validation methods have
been designed to give, where possible, a choice of
techniques so that the user may assemble a
validation package appropriate to the application
and/or the available resources.

8. 2 The validation of current cont1:ols and


cmrent meters
8.2.1 Current measurement

Current can be expressed in one of the three


following ways.
a) The term 'instantaneous current' is used to
describe the measurement of the magnitude of
the current at any moment.
b) The term 'average or mean cunent' is used to
describe the value of current derived by
calculating or indicating the average magnitude
of the instantaneous values of current over a
period of time.
c) The term 'r.m.s. current' is used to describe
the value of current derived by calculating or
indicating the square root of the average
magnitude of the squares of the instantaneous
values of the current over a period of time.

Definitions and explanations of these standard


engineering terms may be found in appropriate
electrical engineering textbool<S.
The following devices may be used to measure the
current:
1) analogue meter;
2) digital meter;
3) recording meter;
4) portable welding monitor;
5) data logger;
6) computer based measuring system.
The standard methods of measurement are as
follows.
i) Direct current welding supplies are measured
with averaging techniques.
ii) Alternating current supplies are measured
with root mean square methods using true r:m.s.
meters or using indicated r.m.s. meters (i.e
assuming pure sinusoidal form).
iii) Complex methods of measurement and
analysis are used where the operator of the
equipment has special needs and the resources to
support the measurement, validation and
calibration.
Figure 5 shows the general arrangements for the
measurement of cunent from the welding power
source.
The following items should be used:
- a device to load the power source;
- a current measming device.
8.2.2 Power source loads
The power source may be loaded with one of the
devices shown in table 7. (See also annexes D
and E.)
8.2.3 The construction of loading devices
Commercial resistive devices exist to load welding
power sources for testing pmposes but, if
necessary in order to simulate particular loads,
special load resistors may be constructed. Annex D
describes a number of practical methods of making
load resistors.

9
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BSI BS*7570 92 Ill 1624669 0299609 3 Ill

BS 7570 : 1992

'Thble 7. Loading devices for welding power sources


No.

Type

Value

Grades

Resistor

R = 0.1 Q

1and2

Resistor

R = [(10 -'- 12)

+ 0.04]

(for TIG power source)

1and2

Resistor

R = [(20 -:- I2)

+ 0.04]

Q (for MMA power source)

1and2

Resistor

R = 0.05 Q to 0.5 Q (for MIG power source)

1and2

Resistor

R = [(Uarc -'- I2) +Rel

1and2

where
Uarc is the arc voltage drop;
Re is the resistance of the welding supply and return cables

Diode

Urlrop = (10 + 0.04I2) V (for TIG power source)

1and2

Arc
Arc
Short circuit

Mechanized TIG systems


Meter validation

1and2
1and2

8
g

8.2.4 Current instrumentation


The measuring devices may be selected from
table 8. (See also annex E.)
Thble 8. Current measuring transducers
No.

Transducer

Accuracy

Grade

Shunt

0.1
0.2

% or
%

1and2

Shunt

1.0

Hall effect device

Up to
3.0 %

A.C. devices
Current
transformer (needs
matching meter)

1and2

The current transducer output should be connected


to an instrument or measuring device to complete
the circuit to make the measurement. Thble 9 gives
measuring devices suitable for connection to the
approved transducers.

10
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:11 1999

8.2.5 Methods of validation of the power source


current controls and current measuring meters
8.2.5.1 The method of power source and meter
validation wil1 depend on the type of power source,
i.e. whether it is a flat (constant voltage) or
drooping (constant current) characteristic power
source. 0.15 to 0.17 should he studied before using
the remainder of this clause.
The welding power source for validation should be
connected to the loading device and the measuring
equipment as shown in figure 5.
The load should be selected from table 7.
The current measming instrument should be
selected from tables 8 and 9.
The validator should use annex E for further help
in selecting the correct cmTent measuring
instrument.
8.2.5.2 The ambient temperature should be
measured to ensure that it is within the power
source and test instrumentation rating. The
ambient temperature should be recorded on the
validation certificate.

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299610 T . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Tuble 9. Current measul'ing instruments


No.

Meter

Current form

Accuracy

Grade

Digital voltmeter
Use with shunt 1 or 2 or transducer 3

d.c., true i:m.s.,


indicated i:m.s

0.1 %

1and2

Analogue meter moving coil


Use with shunt 1 or 2

d.c., indicated r.m.s.

Class 0.1 of BS 89 :
Part 1 : 1990 and
BS 89 : Part 2 : 1990

Analogue meter moving iron


Use with current transformer

true r.m.s

Class 0.5 of BS 89 :
Part 1 : 1990 and
BS 89 : Part 2 : 1990

Chart recorder
Use with shunt or current transformer

Class 1 of BS 90 :
1975

Data logger
Use manufacturer's advice

0.1 %

1and2

Pmtable welding monitor


Equipped with transducers

Up to 3.0 %

Analogue clip-on meter

3.0 %

Digital clip-on meter

3.0 %

NarE. The use of a portable welding monitor or data logging package specially developed for welding is allowable providing the
calibration of the unit or the appropriate units of the monitor are traceable to an appropriate national standard. See annex E.

8.2.5.3 The mains input voltage should be


measured to ensure that it is within the value
specified for power source. The result of this
measurement should be recorded on the validation
certificate.
8.2.5.4 The power source should not be loaded in
excess of that shown on the rating plate.
8.2.5.5 The validator should check that the
earthing and safety recommendations desclibed in
annex A have been implemented.
8.2.5.6 Switch on the power source 30 min before
any calibration measurements.
8.2.5. 7 Energize and stabilize the power source
output for 10 s at the selected current setting.

8.2.5.8 Measure the current three times at each


setting.
8.2.5.9 The validation current range of the current
control or the current meter fitted to the power
source should be selected as follows:
a) the full range of the machine or meter; or
b) some part of the current range; or
c) selected points on the current range; or
d) power source meters may be checked at the
maximum and minimum rated outputs of the
power source and at least three other settings
equally spaced between the maximum and
minimum points.

11

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Wed Mar 03 09:24:12 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299611 1 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Items b), c) and d) should be agreed by the


manufacturer or user or customer and the validator
in advance of the validation procedure.
If all or part of the range is selected, validate the
range at 15 % or 15 amp steps, whichever is the
greater. If, due to the design of the power source
controls, only discrete stepped outputs are possible
then the nearest point to the specified point should
be chosen.
If validation at a particular current is required, but
the nature of the load does not permit that cmTent
at the load voltage to be achieved, then points
above and below the desired values should be
taken and the required value calculated.
8.2.5.10 At each validation point selected in
accordance with 8.2.5.9, record the following:
a) the current control setting; or
b) the power source meter reading;
c) the measurement of current flowing in the
loading circuit using the measuring instrument
selected from tables 8 and 9.
Record the results in accordance with annex A or
directly on to the validation certificate in
accordance with 9.3.
If the repeatability of the control is to be tested at
the selected range, use the following procedure.
After each reading a) and c), turn the control to
the minimum position and then restore it to the
original setting. Repeat readings a) and c).
8.2.5.11 If the tests show that the current control
or the meter conforms to the recommended
accuracy for the validation grade for the power
source, the power source or the power source
meter should be marked as validated in accordance
with 9.1. A validation certificate should be issued
conforming to 9.3.
A repeatability validation ce1tificate can be issued
when the error between the two output readings at
each selected point is less than the accuracy figures
given in clauses 4 and 5 for each point in the
validation range selected for that control.
If the power source current control or the power
source does not meet the accuracy given for the
validation grade then mark the current control or
meter as invalid in accordance with 9.2. A
validation results certificate should be issued
conforming to 9.3.

8.3 The validation of voltage controls and


voltage meters
8. 3.1 General
It may be necessary to load the power source for
these tests. In this case, the validator should follow
the guidance given in 0.15 to 0.17 and should
comply with annex F. If loading is necessary then
the loads given in table 7 should be used. The
measuring instrument can be selected from
table 10.

12
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:12 1999

8.3.2 Methods of validating welding power


source voltage controls and voltage meters
8.3.2.1 The welding power source for validation
should be connected to the voltage measuring
equipment as shown in figure 6.
The voltage measuring instrument should be
selected from table 10.
The validators should use annex F for further help
in this selection.
8.3.2.2 The ambient temperature should be
measured to ensure that it is within the power
source and the instrumentation rating. The
ambient temperature should be recorded on the
validation certificate.
8.3.2.3 The mains input voltage should be
measured to ensure that it is within the power
l:lource specification. The result of this
measurement should be recorded on the validation
ce1tificate.
8.3.2.4 The power source should not be loaded in
excess of that shown in the rating plate.
8.3.2.5 The validator should check that the

earthing and safety recommendations described in


annex A have been implemented.
8.3.2.6 Switch on the power source 30 min before
any calibration measurements are made.

8.3.2. 7 Energize and stabilize the power source


output for 10 s at the selected voltage setting.
8.3.2.8 Measure the voltage three times at each
setting.
8.3.2.9 The validation voltage range of the voltage
control or the voltage meter fitted to the power
source should be selected as follows:
a) the full range of the machine; or
b) some part of the voltage range; or
c) selected point.'! on the voltage range; or
d) power source meters may be checked at the
maximum and minimum range of the meter and
at least three other settings equally spaced
between the maximum and minimum points.
Items b), c) and d) should be agreed by the
manufacturer or user or customer and the validator
in advance of the calibration procedure.
If all or part of the range is selected, validate the
range at 15 % or 5 volt steps, whichever is the
greater. If due to the design of the power source
controls only discrete stepped outputs are possible
then these points should be chosen.
If validation at a particular voltage is required, but
the nature of the load does not permit that voltage
at the load current to be achieved, then points .
above and below the desired voltage should be
taken and the required value calculated.

BS! BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299612 3 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Table 10. Voltage measming instruments


No.

Instrument

Voltage form

Accuracy

Grade

Digital voltmeter

d.c., true r.m.s., _


indicated r.m.s

0.1 %

1and2

Moving coil meter

d.c., indicated r.m.s.

Class 0.2 of BS 89 :
Part 1 : 1990 and
BS 89 : Part 2 : 1990

1and2

Moving iron meter

true r.m.s

Class 0.5 of BS 89 :
Part 1 : 1990 and
BS 89 : Part 2 : 1990

1and2

Data logger

0.1 %

1and2

Chait recorder

Class 1 of BS 90 : 1975

Portable welding monitor

Up to 3,0 %

8.3.2.10 At each validation point selected


in 8.3.2.9, record the following:
a) voltage control setting; or
b) the power source meter reading;
c) the measurement of voltage at the output
terminals using the measming instrument
selected from table 10.
Record the results in accordance with annex A or
directly on to the validation certificate in
accordance with 9.3.
If the repeatability of the control is to be tested at
the selected range, use the following procedure.
After each reading a) and c), turn the control to
the minimum position and then restore it to the
01iginal setting. Repeat readings a) and c).
8.3.2.11 If the voltage control or the meter
confo1ms to the accuracy given for the validation
grade for the power source, the power source or
the power source meter should be marked as
validated in accordance with 9.1. A validation
certificate should be issued conforming to 9.3.
A repeatability validation certificate can be issued
when the error between the two output readings at
each selected point is less than the accuracy figures
given in clauses 4 and 5 for each point in the
validation range selected for that control.

If the power source voltage control or the meter

does not meet the accuracy given for the validation


grade then mark the voltage control or meter as
invalid in accordance with 9.2. A validation
certificate should be issued conforming to 9.3.
8.4 Validation of wire feed speed contrnllers
and wh'e feed speed meters
8.4.1 Measuring instruments for wire feed speed
validation
The accuracies for relevant measuring instruments
for wire feed speed validation should conform to
those given in table 11. (See also annex G.)
Tuble 11. Wire feed speed measuring
instruments
No.

'l'ype

1
2

Rule and stopwatch


Tuchogenerator

Accmacy

Grade

1%

2
2

8.4.2 Method of validating wire feed speed

controllers
8.4.2.l The wire feed unit for validation should be
connected to the source of power supply normally
used dming welding. (See annex G.) Figure 7
shows the two methods of validating wire feeders
and wire feed speed meters.

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Wed Mar 03 09:24:13 1999

BS! BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299613 5 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

The wire feed rate measuring method should be


selected from table 11.
The validator should use annex G for further help
in selecting the correct wire feed rate measuring
method.

8.4.2,2 The ambient temperature should be


measured to ensure that it is within the wire
feeder and test instrumentation rating. The
ambient temperature should be recorded on the
validation certificate.
8.4.2.3 The input voltage should be measured to
ensure that it is within the value specified for wire
feeder. The result of this measurement should be
recorded on the validation certificate.
8.4.2.4 The wire feeder should be correctly
assembled and adjusted according to the
manufacturer's instructions. The wire feeder
should not be driven at speeds or loaded with filler
wire diameters in excess of that shown on the
rating plate or recommended by the manufacturer.
8.4.2.5 The validator should check that the
earthing and safety recommendations described in
annex A have been implemented if the wire feeder
is being validated in conjunction with a welding
power source and an arc.
8.4.2.6 Switch on the wire feeder 30 min before
any calibration measurements.
8.4.2. 7 Energize and stabilize the wire feeder

output for 5 s at the selected wire feed speed


setting.
8.4.2.8 Measure the wire feed rate two times at
each setting.
8.4.2.9 The validation wire feed speed range of
the wire feed speed control or the wire feed speed
meter fitted to the wire feeder should be selected
as follows:
a) the full range of the machine; or
b) some part of the wire feed speed range; or
c) selected points on the wire feed speed range;
or
d) wire feed speed meters may be checked at the
maximum and minimum range of the meter and
at least three other settings equally spaced
between the maximum and minimum points.
Items b), c) and d) should be agreed by the
manufacturer or user or customer and the validator
in advance of the calibration procedure.
If all or part of the range is selected, validate the
range at 15 % or 0.2 m/min steps, whichever is the
greater. If, due to the design of the wire feeder
controls, only discrete stepped outputs are possible
then these points should be chosen.

14
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:14 1999

8.4. 2.10 At each validation point selected


in 8.4.2.9, record the following:
a) wire feeder speed control setting; or
b) the wire feed speed meter reading;
c) the measurement of wire feed speed using the
measuring instrument selected from table 11.
Record the results in accordance with annex A or
directly on to the validation certificate in
accordance with 9.3.
If the repeatability of the control is to be tested at
the selected range, use the following procedure.
After each reading a) and c), turn the control to
the minimum position and then restore it to the
original setting. Repeat readings a) and c).
The validator may validate the wire feed speed
control or the wire feed speed meter using the
following methods.
1) Method 1. Measuring instruments type 1 in

table 11
Measure the time in seconds for approximately
1 m of wire to be delivered from the welding
torch or nozzle with a stopwatch or an electronic
timer at the validation points selected in
accordance with 8.4.2.9. Measure the wire
length with a steel rule to 1 mm. Calculate
the speed from:
wire length
time
This gives the wire feed speed, e.g. in
millimetres per second.
2) Method 2. Measuring instrument type 2 'in
table 11
Use a rotary transducer or tachogenerator, type 2
in table 11, that can clip onto or press against
the filler wire and measure the wire feed speed
directly in conjunction with an indicating
instrument to validate the wire feed speed by
direct comparison. Make and record the
measurements in accordance with 8.4. 2. 9 and
this subclause.
8.4.2.11 If the wire feed speed control or the
meter conforms to the accuracy given for the
validation grade for the wire feeder or the wire
feed speed meter, it should be marked as validated
in accordance with 9.1. A validation certificate
should be issued conforming to 9.3.
A repeatability validation certificate should be
issued when the error between the two output
readings at each selected point is less than the
accuracy figures given in clauses 4 and 5 for each
point in the validation range selected for that
control.
If the wire feed speed control or the meter does
not meet the accuracy specified for the validation
grade, mark the speed control or meter as invalid
as in accordance with 9. 2. A validation certificate
should be issued conforming to 9.3.

BSI BS*7570 92

1624669 02996147

-:

BS 7570 : 1992

8. 5 The validation of welding power source


special current control functions
8. 5.1 Measuring instruments for special current

control functions
This subclause gives recommendations for the
validation of the following special current control
functions:
a) slope up and slope down controls (see
figure 4);
b) current pulsing controls.
Thblc 12 gives types of special current control
measuring instruments.
Tuble 12. Waveform measuring devices
Type

Accumcy

Grade

Chart recorder

Class 1 of
BS 90: 1975

Oscilloscope
(storage of
photographic
record)

Up to 3 %
Pmtable welding
monitor (waveform
capture type)

No.

NarE. See annex H.

8. 5. 2 Methods of validating special cuITent


functions

8.5.2.1 The welding power source for validation


should be connected to the loading device and the
measuring equipment as shown in figure 8. The
load should be selected from table 7.
The current measuring instrument should be
selected from table 12.
The validator should use annex H for further help
in selecting the correct current measuring
instrument.
8. 5.2.2 The ambient temperature should be
measured to ensure that it is within the power
source and test instrumentation rating. The
ambient temperature should be recorded on the
validation certificate.
8.5.2.3 The mains input voltage should be
measured to ensure that it is within the power
source specification. The result of this
measurement should be recorded on the validation
certificate.
8.5.2.4 The power source should not be loaded in
excess of that shown on the rating plate.

8.5.2.5 The validator should check that the


earthing and safety recommendations described in
annex A have been implemented.
8.5.2.6 The power source is switched on 30 min
before any calibration measurements.
8.5.2, 7 Energize and stabilize the power source
output for 5 s for pulsed current validation.
A period of load current stabilization is not
applicable to slope up validation.
8.5.2.8 Measure the current waveform two times
at each setting.
8.5.2.9 Validate the slope up and slope down
control at the following selected points of the
control range at designated points on the current
control range:
a) the full range of the slope control; or
b) some part of the slope range; or
c) selected points on the slope range.
Items a), b) and c) and the designated current
control points should be agreed by the
manufacturer or user or customer and the validator
in advance of the calibration procedure. In the
absence of any agreement the validation will take
place at the mid-point of the current control range
at the mid-point of the slope up or slope down
control range.
Validate the current pulse control at points selected
by the following:
1) the welding procedure developer;
2) the validator;
3} the equipment use1:
In the absence of any stipulation of validation
points by 1), 2) or 3), the pulse control should be
validated at the following points on the pulse shape
control ranges:
Peak current
Background current
Peak current on time
Background current on
time

midrange
midrange
minimum and
maximum
midrange

The specificatfon and validation of the full range of


the pulse shape controls should be the province of
the equipment manufacturer.
8.5.2.10 At each validation point selected
ih 8.5.2.9, record the following:
a) the pulse control settings;
b) the measurement of current flowing in the
loading circuit using the measuring instrument
selected from table 12.

15
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:15 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299615 9 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

The measuring instrument selected will record the


current pulse shape electronically or graphically.
The record can be measured to determine the
magnitude and duration of the current pulses in
the power source output circuit. The waveform is
often not a true square wave and care should be
taken in determining the peal< and background
periods. It is advisable to consult the equipment
manufacturers.
Average the results of the two measurements and
record the results in accordance with annex A or
directly on to the validation certificate in
accordance with clause 9.
If the repeatability of the control is to be tested at
the selected range, use the following procedure.
After each reading a) and b) above, turn the
control to the minimum position and then restore it
to the original setting. Repeat the readings a)
and b).
8.5.2.11 If the current pulse control conforms to
the accuracy given for the validation grade for the
power source the power source pulse control
should be marked as validated in accordance with
9.1. A validation results certificate should be
issued conforming to 9.3.
A repeatability validation certificate should be
issued when the error between the two output
readings at each selected setting is less than the
accuracy figure given in clauses 4 and 5 for each
point in the validation range selected for that
control.
If the power source current pulse control does not
meet the accuracy given for the validation grade,
then mark the current pulse control as invalid in
accordance with 9.2. A validation results certificate
should be issued conforming to 9.3.

9 Validation labels and certificates


9.1 Validation label
If the tests given in clause 8 demonstrate that the
equipment meets the accuracy stated, then the
equipment should be marked with a label with the
following information:
a) the statement 'The equipment is validated';
. b) the date the label is valid;
c) the date of expiry of the validation;
d) the name of the authority issuing the label;
e) the make, model and serial number of the
equipment.

16
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:16 1999

9.2 Invalidity label


If the equipment does not meet the validation

standard then a label should be attached bearing


the following information:
a) the statement 'The equipment is not
validated';
b) the date the label was issued;
c) the name of the authority issuing the label;
d) the make, model and serial number of the
equipment.
9.3 Validation certificate
The validation certificate should contain the
following information:
a) the name and address of the validating
authority;
b) the type of equipment under test;
c) the model and make of equipment under test;
d) the serial number of the equipment under
test;
e) the ambient temperature;
f) the supply voltage;
g) the equipment function under test, e.g.
current control;
h) the method of validation, e.g load resistor
type, meter type;
i) the grade of validation, i.e. standard or
precision;
j) the type of validation, i.e. accuracy or
repeatability;
k) the range of the function under validation;
1) the results of the memmrements on the
function under validation, tabulated in columnar
form compaiing the equipment readings with
validation meter readings;
m) the result of the validation, i.e. passed or
failed;
n) the date of validation;
o) the signature or mark of the validating
authority.

BSI BS*7570 92 .. 1624669 0299616 0 ..


BS 7570 : 1992

Annexes
Annex A (normative)
Practical details for the application of
this standard
A.1 The general rule for the selection of
measuring instruments for use in validation tasks is
that they should conform to the following.
a) They should be in good condition.
b) They should be calibrated by a recognized
calibrator with standards traceable to a national
standard.
c) In general, they should be five times more
accurate than the validation accuracy. The
accuracies given for the measuring instruments
in clause 7 in most cases conform to this.

power sources, may produce different results


depending upon the type of meter being used.
Conventional averaging meters (see table 9, types 1
and 2) will produce satisfactory results,
NarE. The performance of portable welding monitors is being
reviewed in.this respect.

A.2 The terminals, cables and wires used to


connect the welding equipment during validation
should be of high quality and all joints soundly
made. Crimped and soldered joints should be free
from any signs of overheating.
The current rating of validation welding cables
should exceed by a factor of two the maximum
current flowing in the welding circuits except
where the welding system is being validated with
specific welding cable or circuit assembly
characte1istics.

The shape of the waveform may affect the


accuracy of the measurement if the waveshape
contains hlg_her frequency components, e.g TIG
square wave pulses, and the measming equipment
has an inductive component, e.g some types of
shunts (see table 8, types 1 and 2). This may be
limited by using non-inductive shunts.
The shape of the cmrent and voltage waveform for
a.c. power sources is assumed to be sinusoidal
(see 0.14). Errors will result if the waveform
departs significantly from the sinusoidal, especially
when using digital meters and portable welding
monitors. For example, this is the case with arc
voltage which is nearer a square wave than a sine
wave.
The shape of the waveform may be examined using'
the measurement methods described in 8. 5.
ill all cases where the validator is in doubt about
the shape. of the waveform anc;l the effect an the
validation then specialist advice should.be sought
from the manufacturer of the equipment or a
similar specialist.

A.3 The validator should observe all normal


welding safety precautions. If the welding
equipment is being validated using a welding arc as
a power source load, use protective clothing, use
eye protection.

Annex B (informative)
The validation of ancillary components
in a welding system

A.4 The validator should pay particular attention


to the safety earthing recommendations in BS 638 :
Pait 7 : 1984 and BS 7418 : 1991. Special attention
should be given to the connection of measuring
instruments and the welding cmrent circuit to
prevent high current passing through the
instruments.
A. 5 The results of measurements should be
systematically recorded either using a notebook
with numbered pages or numbered record sheets or
directly on to the validation ce1tificate.
A.6 The output of recording instruments should
be identified with the validation task identity and
stored in a systematic manner:
A. 7 The shape of the waveform of the welding
current can affect the accuracy of the
measurement with a.c and d.c power sources.
Appendix A of BS 638 : Part 1 : 1979, appendix A
of BS 638 : Part 2 : 1979 and appendix A of
BS 638 : Part 3 : 1979 define the percentage ripple
of the current waveform for d.c. power supplies.
The measurement of current from the output of
power sources with a large ripple content,
especially some types of inverter direct current

B.1 A welding system may consist of a single

power source or a complex assembly of


components. This standard recommends the means
to ensure that the key components of the most
widely used welding systems conform to the
required accuracy of control of output .. Other
components in the welding system will affect the
quality of the welded product and need care and
maintenance to ensure correct operation.
B.2 Welding manipulators, welding_ rotators,
orbital welding rotation drives and robotic
manipulation devices control the welding speed
and therefore influence the heat input to the weld
and metallurgical and mechanical properties of the
weld. The speed control on these machines should
be checked at intervals compatible with other
maintenance and validation tasks on the welding
equipment to ensure that it conforms to the
manufacturer's specification.
Three factors need to be checked:
a) the absolute accuracy of the speed control
calibration;
b) the repeatability of the speed control
calibration;
c) the consistency of the speed control during
operation.

17
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:17 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299617 2 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

A number of devices are available to assist the user


of welding equipment to check the speed control.
The simplest of these is the stopwatch and
measuring rule; these instruments will enable most
rotary and linear devices to be checked.
Electrical transducers are available from the
manufacturers of the portable welding monitors. A
rubber-tyred wheel runs on the moving component
and this wheel drives a tachogenerator which gives
an output proportional to the speed.
More complex electromechanical transducers arc
available to fit on to welding equipment to measure
welding speed and displacement. Equipment
manufacturers should be consulted about these
devices.

B.3 Arc voltage control devices are feedback


control systems. A control to set the desired arc
voltage is normally part of the system. This may be
a scaled control or an unscaled control with a
digital or analogue meter showing the set arc
voltage.
'l'he simplest way to check the arc voltage control
is to do so with an arc running. The welding setup
should be arranged so that the arc runs with the
minimum of variation. Compare the set voltage
with the actual arc voltage over the desired
operating range. To measure the arc voltage, use a
meter with a calibrated accuracy of 0.5 or better
comforming to BS 89 : Part 1 : 1990 and BS 89 :
Part 2 : 1990.
WARNING. Do not start TIG arcs with high voltage
high frequency initiators with the meter connected
across the output terminals. (See annex C.)
Validation of an arc voltage control device without
an arc is more difficult and specialist knowledge
should be sought.
B.4 The most widely-used gas flow control device
is the bobbin flow meter.
The easiest way to check the operation of these
meters is by direct comparison with a similar meter
of known accuracy. Such gauges can be obtained
from the manufacturers with a traceable
calibration. This will rarely be better than 2 %.
The gauge to be checked should be connected in
se1ies with the standard gauge using short lengths
of pipework of the largest practical diameter. The
system should be connected to a supply of the
appropriate gas and the flow readings compared at
the desired gauge readings.
Electronic flow gauges are available and the
validation of these devices should be entrusted to
specialists. A calibrated electronic flow device can
be used to validate production flow gauges.

18
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:18 1999

Annex C (normative)
The validation of tungsten inert-gas
welding equipment
The validation of tungsten inert-gas welding power
sources may involve the operation of the
equipment vvith a welding arc. It may also be
necessary to connect electrical measuring
instruments directly to the output terminals of the
welding power source (see clause 8 and figure 6).
Few measuring instruments are protected against
the high voltage high frequency arc initiation
discharges used in many TIG welding systems.
These discharges may be of the order of 5000 V at
a frequency of 1 MHz. The discharge will damage
or destroy the measuring instrument. The validator
should take precautions, such as the following,
against this damage.
a) The simplest method of protection is to
connect the measuring instrument after the arc
has been initiated. This involves some risl< as the
arc may fail and automatically restrike.
b) The meter may be connected inside the power
source on the low voltage side or safe side of the
power source internal protection circuits. The
safe connection points may be identified from
the power source meter circuits.
c) The measuring instrument may be protected
by a filter circuit similar to that provided in the
power source.
d) The measuring instrument may be protected
by an automatic disconnection circuit.
e) The high voltage initiation circuit may be
disconnected and the arc initiated by a tungsten
electrode touch start or a carbon rod drawn
between the tungsten electrode and the
workpiece.

Annex D (normative)
The use and construction of loading
devices for welding power sources
D.1 The power source should be loaded with one

of the following devices (see table 7).


Load type 1. A resistor of 0 .1 Q will produce
load voltages equal to the product of the current
and the resistance. So at 100 A the load voltage
will be 10 V which is typical of TIG welding but
low for MMA welding and most other processes.
The load voltage will increase with the increased
current.

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299618 4 . .


BS 7570 : 1992

and voltage. The current and voltage will vary


load types 2 and 3 are derived from the load
considerably during a typical manual metal arc or
voltage equations given in BS 638 : Part 10 :
MIG weld despite the skill of the welder. For this
1990. These are the equations used by- the reason the use of the arc has been restricted to
equipment manufacturers to set the output
grade 1 validation tasks for all welding processes
current control calibration on constant current
except mechanized TIG welding. Mechanized .TIG
(drooping characteristic) welding power sources.
welding is sufficiently stable to permit accurate
The use of these equations is necessary to
current and voltage measurements in grade 2
validate the calibration of the current control on
validation tasks.
drooping characteristic power sources.
Load type 9. The constant current (drooping
Calculation of the load voltage from these
characteristic) power source may be short
equations gives load voltages which tend to be
circuited without damage. The resulting current
higher than normally found, as in the following
may be used to validate current meters to
examples.
grade 1 and 2 accuracy. Some drooping
At 100 A in TIG welding the equation yields a
characteristic power sources have internal
load voltage of 10 + 0.04 x 100 = 14 V. A
current control devices which limit operation at
load resistor of 0.14 Q would produce this
shmt circuit. A load is necessary to validate
result.
these power sources.
At 200 A in TIG welding the equation yields a
Commercial resistive devices. These devices exist
load voltage of 10 + 0.04 x 200 = 18 V. A
to load welding power sources for testing purposes
load resistor of 0.09 Q would produce this
and are constructed with a range of resistances and
result.
load ratings. Many are constructed to give -a range
The results can be compared with the load
of load currents when connected across standard
voltages which would occur in a practical
drooping characteristic power sources.
welding situation. The typical voltage drop across D.2 When necessary in order to simulate
a 100 A TIG arc in argon would be 10 V
particular loads, special load resistors may be
approximately. The voltage drop along, say 5 m
constructed. D.1 describes the range of loads that
of 25 mm2 welding cable, i.e. 10 m supply and
can be used for loading a power source. This
return, would be 0. 75 V. This yields a total load
subclause describes some methods of making some
of these special loads.
voltage of 10. 75 V, lower than the conventional
load voltage calculation. For this reason an
alternative method of determining the load
A resistive load for a welding power source needs
resistor has been devised to simulate the
to operate without overheating so that the load
resistance remains constant.
practical situation. This is shown as load type 5.
Load type 4. The output current of a flat
Exampw 1
characteristic MIG power source is controlled by
It is required to calibrate a 300 A TIG welding
the wire feed speed setting which is set on the
power source. The load type 2 in table 7 will have
wire feeder control panel. The current varies
a resistance R of:
automatically to regulate the burn off rate of the
R = (10 -:- 12) + 0.04
consumable electrode. See clause 5 on wire feed
rate consistency and validate the wire feeder if
(10 -=- 300) + 0.04
necessary.
= 0.073 Q
However the meters on a MIG power source do
where
need validation and the power source will need
J2 is the current (in A).
to be loaded for this purpose. Load type 4 can be
used for this task. The method of calculating the
The power W to be dissipated in this resistor will
be:
resistance for this task is given in annex E.
Load type 6. The forward voltage drop of a diode
W = VI2
can be used to create a load for a power source.
22 x 300
Modern diodes are made with a wide range of
= 6600 W
current carrying capacities and this is an
where
effective method of constructing a compact load
for precision validation tasks on TIG power
Vis the voltage (in V).
sources. Example 2 of D.2 describes construction _ A number of options are available to realize a load
details for a diode load.
resistor of this size.
Load types 7 and 8. The welding arc is one of
The simplest solution is to purchase a commercial
the simplest methods of loading the power source resistor constructed from an open mesh resistance
for validation purposes. The problem is to
materjal. These devices have a range of tappings to
achieve a steady state condition in order to make give different resistances. They tend to be rather
a stable and accurate measurement of current
bulky.

Load types 2 and 3. The expressions shown for

19
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:19 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299619 6 . .


BS 7570 : 1992

A lower cost approach is to construct a resistance


from steel strip and mount it in an air-cooled
frame. For example, a resistance of 0.073 Q could
be constructed from 10 m of mild steel
strip 25 mm x 1 mm or 2.5 m of 18/8 stainless
strip. This load would require fan cooling.
Another option would be to use steel tube with
water cooling. For example 4 m of stainless steel
tube, of outside diameter 12 mm and wall
thickness 1 mm, would form a suitable resistance.
A standard closed circuit welding type water cooler
could be connected to this tube. The cooler should
be capable of dissipating the 6600 W (6.6 kW).
Another simple arrangement is to use a length of
welding cable. For example 100 m of 25 nun 2
copper welding cable could be used at 300 A for
short periods (at 30 % duty cycle).

Example2
Diode loads. The voltage drop across a diode may
be used to develop the appropriate load. Diodes of
a suitable current rating can be connected together
in series and connected across the power source
output to load the machine. The combined voltage
rating of the diodes has to be capable of
withstanding the open circuit voltage of the
welding power source. Diodes are readily available
with current ratings up to 240 A from electronics
stockists. Above this rating specialist advice may be
necessary.
It is implicit in all tests of this type that the high
voltage arc starting mechanism of a TIG welding
power source is disabled. For example, to create a
load of 200 A TIG welding power source, the
conventional load voltage drop should be calculated
using the equation given in BS 638 : Part 10 :
1990.
U2

(10 + 0.0412)
10 + (0.04 x 200)

(1)

= 18 v
If a stud mounting diode of 240 A continuous
rating is selected this will have a peak forward
voltage drop of 1.4 V. The number of diodes, n, in
series will be given by the equation:
n = arc voltage + diode voltage drop
(2)
= 18 7 1.4 = 12.8
Rounding up, this gives 13 diodes.
These diodes should be connected in series,
mounted on the appropriate heat sink, and
connected into the validation circuit shown in
figure 5. Equation (2) can be used to calculate the
number of diodes needed to make a load to
produce the voltage drop more normally found in
TIG welding, by substituting the normal TIG
welding voltage, say 10 V.

20
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:20 1999

Annex E (normative)
The validation of welding power source
current controls and current meters
NarE. This annex should be used in conjunction with 8.2.5.

E.1 Figure 5 is a generalized drawing of the


connections necessary to prepare a welding power
source for validation of the current control and/or
the current rneasuring rr1eter on the power source.
The detailed connections will vary depending upon
the type of the power source as will the selection
of the load resistor and the current measming
instruments.
E.2 Welding power sources can be classified as
follows:
a) a.c. power sources with constant current
(drooping characteristic);
b) d.c. power sources with constant current
(drooping characteristic);
c) d.c. power sources with constant voltage (flat
characteristic).
E.3 Constant current a.c. power sources for MMA
and TIG welding should he validated using the
following instrumentation and load types.
Instrumentation types. Thble 8, no. 4 and
table 9, nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Load types. Thble 7, nos. 1, 3, 7, 8 and 9.
Most alternating current power sources will fall
into grade 1 validation dass for MMA welding
applications. The current control can be validated
at conventional load voltages using load type 3 and
any of the instrumentation listed above. The
exception is TIG a.c. welding power sources which
will need load type 2 for validation of the current
control at conventional load voltages. The full
range of load and instrumentation combinations
can be used for instrumentation validations.
E.4 Constant current d.c. power sources for MMA
welding should be validated using the following
instrumentation and load types.
Instrumentation types. Thble 8, nos. 1, 2, and 3
and table 9, nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Load types. Thble 7, nos. 1, 3, 7, 8 and 9.
A wide range of instrumentation is available for the
measurement of direct currents. It is necessary to
use load type 3 for validation of the current control
at conventional load voltages.
E.5 Constant current d.c. power sources for TIG
welding should be validated using the following
instrumentation and load types.
Instrumentation types. Table 8, nos. 1, 2, and 3
table 9, nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Load types. Thble 7, nos. 1, 2, 7, 8 and 9.

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299620 2 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

It is necessary to use load type 2 for validation of

the cun-ent control at conventional load voltages.


TIG welding power sources are used in complex
TIG welding systems and it may be required to
validate the system with load conditions which
closely duplicate the arc load conditions. Load
type 5 can be used for this purpose. The resistance
of load type is calculated for a specific welding
condition using the welding current and the arc
voltage at that current. The welding conditions
could be taken from the welding procedure.

F.2 Welding power sources can be classified as


follows:
a) a.c. power sources with constant current
(drooping characteristic);
b) d.c. power sources with constant current
(drooping characte1istic);
c) d.c. power sources with constant voltage (flat
characteiistic),

F.3 Constant current power sources do not have


voltage controls, except for some special types and
it is necessary to validate only the no-load voltage.
This can be done without the use of a load resisto1~
Connect the voltage meter as shown in figure 6.
The following instrumentation types should be
used.
Instrumentation types. Tuble 10, types 1 to 7,
depending on validation grade.

E.6 Constant voltage d.c. power sources for MIG


welding should be validated using the following
instrumentation and load types.
Instrumentation types. Tublc 8, nos. 1, 2 and 3
and table 9, nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Load types. Tuble 7, nos. 4, 7 and 8.
CAUTION. Do not short circuit the power source
F. 4 The voltage controls on constant voltage type
for these tests as a very high current will flow; use
power sources may or may not be scaled. If the
a load resistor.
controls are not scaled validation is not feasible. If
The output cmTent of a flat characteristic MIG
the controls are scaled then they should be
welding power source is controlled by the wire feed validated with the power source loaded.
speed setting which is set on the wire feeder
The procedure for voltage validation on constant
control panel. The current varies automatically to
_voltage power supplies is given in 8.3.
regulate the bmn off rate of the consumable
Calculate the load resistor values from the voltage
electrode. See clause 5 on wire feed rate
values and the worldng welding cmrents at those
consistency and validate the wire feeder if
points.
necessary.
Exampw
Load type 4 can be used for the validation of
instruments on a constant voltage (MIG) power
It is required to validate at 18, 20, 22 and 24 V and
source.
at 120 A welding current.
The load resistors should be selected to give the
The load resistors will be 18 7 120 = 0.15 Q,
necessary currents to validate the instruments over 20 7 120 == 0.16 Q, 22 7 120 = 0.18 Q and
the specified instrument range. Calculate the value 24 7 120 = 0.20 Q.
of the load resistor using the equation:
The circuit will be assembled in accordance with
figure 6,

R = Uo
h
The following instrumentation types should be
used.
where
Instrumentation types. Tuble 10, types 1 to 6,
Uo is the no-load voltage of the power source;
depending upon the validation grade.
12 is the required validation current.

Annex F (normative)
The validation of voltage controls and
voltage meters on welding power
sources
N<JI'E. This annex should be used in conjunction with 8.3.

F. l Figme 6 is a generalized drawing of the


connections necessary to prepare a welding power
source for validation of the voltage control and/or
the voltage measuring meter on the power source.
The detailed connections will vary depending upon
the type of power source as will the selection of
the load resistor and the voltage measming
instruments.

Annex G (normative)
The validation of wire feeders
N<JI'E. This annex should be used in conjunction. with 8.4,

G.l The following two basic types of wire feeders


are used in welding:
a) wire feeders for consumable electrode
processes, e.g. MIG welding, submerged arc
welding;
b) wire feeders for additional filler wire, e.g.
cold wire TIG welding, hot wire TIG welding.
G.2 The type of wire feeder affects the validation
.requirements.

21
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:21 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299621 4 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

G.3 On wire feeders for the consumable electrode


processes, the speed control may or may not be
calibrated in units of wire feed speed. For example,
in MIG welding the wire feed speed may be
adjusted to give a specific welding current with the
speed control scale in arbitrary units. It is not
necessary to validate the speed control on such a
wire feede1:

H.2 TIG welding pulse controls are calibrated in


several different ways, for example:

G.4 In some cases the speed control may be scaled


with arbitrary units and the wire feeder fitted with
a wire feed speed mete1:
The meter should be validated in this case.
G.5 On a few wire feeders the speed control may
be calibrated in absolute units in which case the
control should be validated in accordance with 8.4.
G.6 On mechanized MIG systems, e.g. robotics
systems, repeatability of the wire feed speed
control may be important; in this case the
validation procedure may be used to validate the
repeatability of the control as follows.
Modify the validation procedure to repeat each
individual step given in 8.4.2.9 after the control
had been adjusted to zero and then back to the
validation setting.
G. 7 Some MIG welding wire feeders may be
interlocked with the power source preventing
normal wire feed operation without an arc. If the
interlock cannot be overridden then the power
source has to be energized with an arc to validate
the wire feeder. In this case the validation has to
be made with meter type 2 of table 11, the
tachogenerator.
G.8 The speed controls on wire feeders for filler
wire are often scaled in wire feed speed units.
These units can be validated. If the unit is scaled in
arbitrary units the validation procedure can be
used to compile a calibration chart for the wire
feede1: Filler wire feeders with wire speed meters
should be validated in accordance with 8.4.
G.9 The measuring instruments for wire feed
speed control and meter validation are
straightforward. The type 2 meter can be obtained
as part of a portable welding monitor or an
individual unit.

Annex H (normative)
The validation of special current
controls
NOTE. This annex should be used in conjunction with 8.5.

H. l

Slope up and slope down controls on TIG


welding power sources are calibrated in one of the
following ways:
a) as a variable time (in seconds) for the current
to increase or decay between two different
levels;
b) as a rate of change of current (in amps per
second) between two levels of current.
22

Copyright by the British Standards Institution


Wed Mar 03 09:24:21 1999

Peak current pulse height


Background current height
Peak current duration
Background current duration

amps
amps
seconds
seconds

Peak current pulse height


Background current height
Mark space time
Mark space ratio

amps
amps
seconds
number of
percentage

NCJrE. On or off time is expressed as a fraction or a percentage


of the total cycle time.

H.3 The validation of slope up and slope down


controls is straightforward as the rate of change of
current is slow. It is recommended that instrument
types 1 and 3 given in table 13 are used for this
validation task.
H.4 The validation of TIG welding pulse controls is
an important contribution to the quality of pulsed
TIG welding. It is a more difficult task than the
validation of slope controls. It requires equipment
with a faster response than is necessary for the
validation of slope controls. An instrument
response of at least four times that of the
maximum pulse frequency of the power source is
recommended.
The instrument types given in table 13 are suitable.
Table 13. Waveform measul'ing device
instrument types
Instrument
type

Waveform measuring device

Chart recorder, ink jet or UV type,


fitted with 1 kHz galvanometers

Oscilloscope fitted with photographic


recording equipment or with digital
waveform storage devices

Portable welding monitor fitted with


welding waveform storage and
analysis circuits

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299622 6 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Does the welding procedure


code
customer
quality control
require any of the following parameters
to be controlled to a tolerance equal to
or better than the following ?
(See dause 4 1
Current
10 %
Voltage . . . .

10 %

Does the welding procedure


code
customer
quality control
require any of the following parameters
to be controlled to a tolerance equal to
or better than the following ?
(See clause 5 J
Current . . . .
Voltage . . . .
Wired feed speed
Pulsed current .
Pulsed time . . .

Do not validate

2.5 %
5 %
:!: 5_%

Validate the
specified
parameters
to grade 1
(standard grade)

2.5 %
5%

:!:

Validate the specified parameters


to grade 2 ( precision grade J
Chait 1 shows which validation grade to select.
Figme 1. Welding equipment validation aid chart 1

23
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:22 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 .. 1624669 0299623 8 . .


BS 7570 : 1992

Is the validation active ?


(See clause 9 )
If yes, take no action

Has the equipment been


validated before ? Does
it carry a validation
label? ( See clause 9 )

Is the machine fitted with


controls for the parameters
recommended for validation
(See chart 1 ) scaled in
real units: amperes, volts,
metres per minute ?

1--------1

No

You cannot validate


the controls
You can val id ate
the controls for
repeatability
You can validate any
meters fitted to the
equipment

You can validate the controls


Is the equipment
fitted with meters
scaled in real units:
amperes, vol ts, metres
per minute ?
You can

validate the meters

See chart 3
You cannot validate
You can fit an external
meter package using
data
from clause 8.
You can validate the
meter for repeatability

Chart 2 provides further help for the user to decide whether an item of welding equipment
should be validated.
Figure 2. Welding equipment validation aid chart 2

24
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:23 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299624 T . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Is your welding power


source used for manual
metal arc welding ?

It is a drooping characteristic
weld_ing power source

You can validate the


current contra ls , current
and voltage meters on
your power source

No
See 8,2 and 0.3
Is your welding power
source used for tungsten
inert gas welding (TIG) ?

Is your welding power


source used for :
metal inert gas welding (MIG)
metal active gas welding (MAG)
metal ohne (without l gas
welding ( MOG l or
submerged arc welding?

It is -a flat characteristic
welding power source

You can validate the


current and voltage meters
and the wire feed speed
control

See 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4

Chart 3 provides help for the user to decide how to validate the welding power source.
Figure 3. Welding equipment validation aid chart 3

25
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:24 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299625 1 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Peak current

Peok t;mo

"E
GJ

LJ

I
I
j

<...
<...
:J

II

""kground

Background
current
Slope up

Slope down

Time

Time

i= instantaneous current
Average or mean current =

Figure 4. Illustration of waveform terminology

26
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:25 1999

BSI BS*7570

~2

. . 1624669 0299626 3 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Power source

Digital meter

J 1i

H.s j

transducer

Analogue
meter
Load
Chart
recorder
Resistive
load
types
1,2,3,4,5

Diode
load
type 6

D
D

Current
transformer

Data
logger

Arc load types 7, B

&--=--4

Clip-on meter
Figure 5. Validation connections for cuueut controls and cul'rent meters

27
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Wed Mar 03 09:24:25 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299627 5 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Power source

Digital

meter

Chart recorder

Load

Portable

welding

monitor

Figure 6. Validation connections for voltage controls and voltage meters

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Wed Mar 03 09:24:26 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299628 7 ..

BS 7570 : 1992

Digital meter

. Speed transducer or tachogenerator

Wire feeder

Stopwatch

FigUl'e 7. Validation methods for wire feeders

1m

t
29

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Wed Mar 03 09:24:27 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299629 9 . .

BS 7570 : 1992

Power source

Chart recorder

,,

D
Load

.____ _ __,,I/

Osei l loscope with

recording or storage

/J-HHU-~----l
0

@=JJ) 0
Portable welding monitor

Figure 8. Validation connections for special current controls

30

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Wed Mar 03 09:24:28 1999

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299630 5 . .

List of references

BS 7570 : 1992

(see clause 2)

Normative references
BSI standards publications
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION, London

ns 89:
BS 89 : Part l : 1990
BS 89 : Part 2 : 1990
BS 90 : 1975
BS 499:
BS 499 : Part 1 : 1991
BS 638:
BS 638 : Part 1 : 1979

BS 638 : Part 2 : 1979


BS 638 : Part 3 : 1979
BS 638 : Part 7 : 1984
BS 638 : Part 10 : 1990
BS 7418 : 1991

Direct act'ing indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments


and their accessories
Specificationfor definitions and general requirements common to
all Parts
Specification for special requirements for ammeters and voltmeters
Specification for direct-acting electrical recording instruments and
their accessories
Welding terms and symbols
Glossary for welding, brazing and thermal cutting
Arc welding power sources, equipment and accessories
Specification for oil cooled power sources for manual,
semi-automatic and automatic metal-arc welding and for TIG
welding
Specification for air cooled power sources for manual metal-arc
welding with covered electrodes and for TIG welding
Specification for air cooled power sources for semi-automatic and
automatic metal-arc welding
Specifimtion for safety requirements for installation and use
Specification for safety requirmnents for arc welding equipment:
welding power sources
Code of practice for isolation of the welding circuit in arc welding
plant

Informative references
ISO and IEC publications
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) and INTERNATIONAL ELECTRCYI'ECHNICAL COMMISSION
(IEC), Geneva. (All publications are available from BSI Sales.)

!EC 974:
IEC 974 : Part 1 : 1989Il

ll

Referred to in the foreword only.

Copyright by the British Standards Institution


Wed Mar 03 09:24:28 1999

Safety requirements for arc welding equipment


Welding power sources

BSI BS*7570 92 . . 1624669 0299631 7 . .

BS 7570 : 1992
-

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Wed Mar 03 09:24:29 1999

WEE 6