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SPN 21

CHEMISTRY
CHEMISTRY
ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY RESOURCES
RESOURCES
Teacher’s Edition

OH SING SENG
GOH SIAH CHING
N RAZIMI HJ MUDA
ROSLENA HJ MUNEL
SRI YANI HEPNIE
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Contents Page

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY 3

KINETIC PARTICLE THEORY 4–8

CHEMICAL FORMULA 9

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS 10 – 25

STOICHIOMETRY AND MOLE CONCEPT 26 – 29

EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY 30 – 33

ACIDS, BASES AND NEUTRALIZATION 34 – 38

SALTS 39 – 46

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 47 – 55

METAL AND EXTRACTION 56 – 64

THE PERIODIC TABLE 65 – 66

ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS 67 – 70

ELECTROLYSIS 71 – 76

SPEED OF REACTIONS 77 – 83

REVERSIBLE REACTIONS 84 – 86

REDOX 87 – 88

ATMOSPHERE AND ENVIRONMENT 89

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 90 – 99

REFERENCES 100

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Activity 1.4

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
Aim: Use mnemonics to familiarize with name and symbol of first row of common transition
metals.

Example:
Use mnemonics to memorise the first row of the common transition metals.
Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc

Scary - Scandium
Tim - Titanium
Very - Vanadium
Crooked - Chromium
Man - Manganese
I - Iron
Call - Cobalt
Nick - Nickel
Corporal - Copper
Zee - Zinc

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Activity 2.2

KINETIC PARTICLE THEORY


Aim: Using role play to demonstrate the movement of particles in solid, liquid and gas.

Procedure:
1. A group of students (6- 9), stand at the front of the room acting as atoms.
2. Standing next to each other in 2 or 3 rows with arms linked they represent a solid- particles
closed together, moving slightly (vibrating) at their fixed position.
3. As heat energy is applied the students move further away from each other and eventually the
links break.
4. Allowing students to move randomly passing each other but still remain close together.
5. Further heating the students move freely away from each other at high speed.

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Activity 2.3

KINETIC PARTICLE THEORY


Aim: To determine the melting point of naphthalene using cooling curve.

Apparatus:
Thermometer Conical flask
Retort stand Bunsen burner
Boiling tube Stopwatch

Materials:
Solid naphthalene

Procedure:
1. Clamp boiling tube on retort stand.
2. Add 3 spatulas of powdered naphthalene into a boiling tube and insert a thermometer.
3. Heat the naphthalene until all has melted (about 85 C ).
4. Then, leave it to cool in a conical flask.
5. Record the temperature for every 20 seconds until it falls to about 60 C .
6. Record the results in a table.

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Results:
Cooling of naphthalene

Time (s) Temperature ( C ) Time (s) Temperature ( C )


0 160
20 180
40 200
60 220
80 240
100 260
120 280
140 300

Analysis of data:

1. Plot a graph of temperature against time for the cooling of naphthalene.


2. From the graph deduce the melting point of naphthalene.
3. The melting point of naphthalene is …………………… C

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Activity 2.4

KINETIC PARTICLE THEORY


Aim: To determine the purity of ethanol by determining its boiling point.

Apparatus:
Thermometer Tripod stand
Beaker 250 cm 3 Wire gauze
Retort stand Bunsen burner
Boiling tube Stopwatch
Stirrer or glass rod Porcelain chip

Materials:
Water
Ethanol sample (Caution: ethanol is flammable)

Procedure:
1. Quarter fill the boiling tube with your ethanol sample.
2. Add a porcelain chip to the boiling tube to ensure it does not ‘froth up’ too much on boiling.
3. Set up apparatus as shown below.

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4. Heat the water gently and stir continuously to ensure an even temperature around the boiling
tube.
5. Continue heating until the ethanol boil. This is when the bubbles start to appear from the
porcelain chip.

Results:

1. Record the highest reading on the thermometer. ……………….. C


2. Allow the ethanol to boil for one minute to see if the temperature change. Record this
temperature. ……………… C

Questions:
1. The boiling point of ethanol is 78 C . Is your ethanol sample pure?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. What effect does an impurity have on the boiling point of a substance?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Why must we heat the ethanol in a water bath and not heat it directly with a Bunsen flame?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Activity 5.1

CHEMICAL FORMULA
Aim: To work out the formula of ionic compound using card games.

Materials:
A set of cards representing common anions and cations. Each card has the symbol of the ion
written on it.

Procedure:
1. Group the students (2 to 3 students in a group).
2. Give each group a set of cards.
3. To get a correct formula, join the shapes to form a rectangle.
4. The formula can then be read or copied from the card.

For example, to find the formula of copper(II) chloride, a complete rectangle is formed by joining
one copper(II) ion card and two chloride ion cards (see below). Hence the formula of copper(II)
chloride is CuCl 2 .

Questions:
Now use the card to work out the chemical formulae of the following ionic compounds

(a) Potassium chloride (j) Iron(II) sulphide


(b) Zinc chloride (k) Sodium sulphate
(c) Copper(II) oxide (l) Iron(III) hydroxide
(d) Potassium sulphate (m) Ammonium nitrate
(e) Potassium manganate(VII) (n) Iron(II) nitrate
(f) Sodium hydrogencarbonate (o) Iron(II) sulphate
(g) Potassium dichromate(VI) (p) Iron(III) sulphate
(h) Magnesium hydroxide (q) Ammonium sulphate
(i) Sodium hydroxide

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Activity 6.2

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show relative reactivity of metals with water.

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack White tile
Pair of forceps Water trough (for sodium only)
Knife or scalpel

Materials:
Sodium (store in oil) – teacher’s demonstration
Calcium Copper
Magnesium Distilled water
Iron

Procedure:
1. Place distilled water in four test tubes to a depth of 5 cm.
2. Drop a piece of calcium into a test tube filled with water.
3. Observe the reaction carefully and answer the following questions:
(a) Does the metal float or sink in water?
(b) Does the metal react vigorously?
4. Test the gas given out using lighted splint
5. Dip a piece of red litmus to the solution in the test tube. Is there a colour change?
6. Repeat step 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the other metals.
7. Record all your observations in a table provided under the Results section.

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Results:
Observations
Effect on red
Element Vigorous or Lighted splint test
Float or Sink litmus paper
Not vigorous

Magnesium

Copper

Calcium

Sodium

Iron

From the results arranged the five metals in the order of decreasing reactivity.

Most reactive Least reactive

............................., .............................., ............................., ..............................., ..............................

Questions:
1. Which group of the Periodic Table does sodium belong?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
2. What is the common name for this group of metals?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3. Name the alkali formed when sodium reacts with water.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Name the gas produced when sodium reacts with water.
……………………………………………………………………………….....................................
5. Which other metals (listed above) will produce similar reaction with cold water?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
6. Name this type of reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
7. Write a balanced equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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Activity 6.3

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show reaction between metals with dilute hydrochloric acid (Reactivity Series of Metals)

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack

Chemicals:
Zinc foil Iron wire
Magnesium ribbon Dilute hydrochloric acid solution
Copper foil

Procedure:
1. Place dilute hydrochloric acid in a test tube to a depth of 2 cm.
2. Drop a piece of zinc into the test tube.
3. Test the gas given out using a lighted splint.
4. Repeat step 1, 2 and 3 for magnesium, copper and iron.
5. Record all your observations in a table provided in the Results section.

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Results:
Metals Observations Lighted splint test

Copper

Zinc

Magnesium

Iron

From the results arranged the four metals in the order of decreasing reactivity.

Most reactive Least reactive

....................................., ......................................, ....................................., .......................................

Questions:
1. Write the chemical formula for hydrochloric acid.
.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Name the gas given out when dilute acid reacts with a metal.
.................................................................................................................................................
3. Name the metals (listed above) other than zinc that produces similar reaction with acid.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. What would you expect the reaction to be if potassium is used instead of zinc in the above
reaction?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5. Although copper is a metal, it does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid. Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
6. Name the salt formed when zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
7. Name this type of reaction
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
8. Write a balanced equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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Activity 6.4

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show reaction of carbonates with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Apparatus:
Test tube with rack Delivery tube (or plastic syringe)
Boiling tube Spatula

Chemicals:
Calcium carbonate powder
Copper(II) carbonate powder
Dilute hydrochloric acid solution
Limewater

Procedure:
1. The test tube is filled with dilute hydrochloric acid to a depth of 3 cm.
2. One spatula of powdered calcium carbonate is added to the dilute hydrochloric acid.
3. Pass the gas given out into limewater.
4. Repeat step 1 and 3 for powdered copper(II) carbonate.
5. Record all your observations in the table provided.

Calcium carbonate powder

Boiling tube

Dilute hydrochloric acid

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Results:
Observations Limewater test

Calcium carbonate

Copper(II) carbonate

Questions:
Calcium carbonate
1. Name the gas given out in the reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2. Is calcium carbonate soluble in water?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3. Name the salt formed when calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Is this salt soluble in water?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5. Name this type of reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
6. Write a balanced equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Copper(II) carbonate
1. What is the colour of copper(II) carbonate?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………........
2. Is copper(II) carbonate soluble in water?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3. Name the gas given out in the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Write a balanced chemical reaction for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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Activity 6.5

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show precipitation reaction.

Apparatus:
Test tubes

Materials:
Potassium iodide solution Sodium sulphate solution
Lead(II) nitrate solution Barium chloride solution
Silver nitrate solution Dilute hydrochloric acid solution

Procedure:
1. Pour potassium iodide solution into a test tube (about 2 cm depth) and add an equal volume of
lead(II) nitrate solution and observe.
2. Leave the mixture to stand for a few minutes and observe.
3. Repeat step 1 and 2 for:
(a) silver nitrate and dilute hydrochloric acid solutions
(b) Sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions

Results:
Reaction Initial observations When left to stand

(a) Potassium iodide +


Lead(II) nitrate solution

(b) Silver nitrate + Dilute


hydrochloric acid

(c) Sodium sulphate + barium


chloride

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Questions:
1. Name the precipitate formed in experiment (a), (b) and (c).
Experiment (a): …………………………………..
Experiment (b): …………………………………..
Experiment (c): …………………………………..

2. Write the balanced chemical equations for experiment (a), (b) and (c).
Experiment (a): …………………………………………………………………………………………...
Experiment (b): …………………………………………………………………………………………...
Experiment (c): ……………………………………………………………………………………………

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Activity 6.6

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show displacement reaction between metals.

Apparatus:
Beaker 50 cm3 Sand paper
Measuring cylinder

Materials:
Magnesium ribbon Silver nitrate solution
Lead(II) nitrate solution Magnesium chloride solution
Zinc foil Copper foil
Copper(II) sulphate solution

Procedure:
1. Clean a strip of magnesium ribbon with a sand paper.

2. Pour about 20 cm3 of lead(II) nitrate solution into a beaker.


3. Immerse the magnesium ribbon in the lead(II) nitrate solution.
4. Leave the mixture aside for few minutes, and observe.
5. Repeat the above experiment using the following:
(i) Zinc foil and copper(II) sulphate solution,
(ii) Magnesium ribbon and silver nitrate solution,
(iii) Copper foil and magnesium chloride solution.

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Results:
Reaction Observations Conclusion

Magnesium
+
lead(II) nitrate solution

Zinc
+
copper(II) sulphate solution

Magnesium
+
silver nitrate solution

Copper
+
Magnesium chloride solution

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Activity 6.7

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show displacement reaction between halogens.

Apparatus:
Test tubes

Materials:
Chlorine water Potassium iodide solution
Bromine water Iodine
Sodium bromide solution Sodium chloride solution

Procedure:
1. Pour potassium iodide solution into a test tube (about 2 cm depth).
2. Add an equal volume of chlorine water and observe.
3. Record your observations in the table provided.
4. Repeat the experiment for the following reaction:
(i) Chlorine water and sodium bromide solution,
(ii) Bromine water and sodium chloride solution,
(iii) Bromine water and potassium iodide solution,
(iv) Iodine and sodium chloride solution,
(v) Iodine and sodium bromide solution.

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Results:
Halides
Halogen
NaCl (aq) NaBr (aq) KI (aq)

Chlorine

Bromine

Iodine

Questions:
1. From the results, arrange the three halogens in the order of decreasing reactivity.

Most reactive Least reactive

…………………………., …………………………., …………………………..

2. Write the balanced chemical equation for the following reactions:

(a) Chlorine and sodium bromide

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) Chlorine and potassium iodide

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(c) Bromine and potassium iodide

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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Activity 6.8

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show thermal decomposition of carbonates.

Apparatus:
Pyrex glass test tube Delivery tube (or plastic syringe)
Test tube with rack Bunsen burner
Test tube holder

Materials:
Copper(II) carbonate powder Limewater
Ammonium carbonate powder Zinc carbonate powder

Procedure:
1. Put some powdered copper(II) carbonate into a Pyrex test tube and heat it strongly.
2. Pass the gas given out through limewater and observe.
3. Record your observations in the table provided.
4. Repeat the experiment with ammonium carbonate and zinc carbonate.

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Results:
Reaction Observations Limewater test

(a) Copper(II) carbonate

(b) Zinc carbonate

(c) Ammonium carbonate

Questions:
1. What is the colour of the residue in experiment (a)?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. What is the colour of the residue in experiment (b)?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Do you see any residue in experiment (c)? Why?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Write the balanced chemical equation for all the reactions.

(i) Experiment (a): ……………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii) Experiment (b): ……………………………………………………………………………………..

(iii) Experiment (c): ……………………………………………………………………………………..

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Activity 6.9

TYPES OF COMMON CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Aim: To show direct reactions by heating

Part 1: Heating iron with sulphur

Apparatus:
Crucible Tong
Pipeclay triangle Spatula
Tripod stand Bunsen burner

Materials:
Iron filings
Sulphur powder

Procedure:
1. Mix one spatula full sulphur powder with an equal amount of iron filing in a crucible.
2. Heat the mixture strongly and observe.

Results:

Observation: …………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Questions:
1. Name the product of the reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Write the equation for the reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Part 2: Heating sulphur with air (oxygen)

Apparatus:
Crucible Tong
Pipeclay triangle Spatula
Tripod stand Bunsen burner

Materials:
Sulphur powder Strip filter paper
Blue litmus paper Acidified potassium dichromate(VI)

Procedure:
1. Add one spatula full sulphur powder into a crucible.
2. Then, heat strongly and observe.
3. Test the gas given out using moist blue litmus paper and acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
paper.
4. Record your observations in the table

Results:
Test Observations

Using moist blue litmus


paper

Using acidified potassium


dichromate(VI) paper

Questions:
1. Name the product of the reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Write the equation for the reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Activity 7.1

STOICHIOMETRY AND MOLE CONCEPT


Aim: To prepare standard solution of copper(II) sulphate.

Part 1:
Preparation of 0.1 mol dm 3 copper(II) sulphate solution

Apparatus:
Volumetric flask 250 cm3 Glass rod
Beaker
Balance

Materials:
Distilled water
Copper(II) sulphate crystals

Procedure:
1 Use the balance to weigh _______ g of copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate crystals.
2 Dissolve the copper(II) sulphate in distilled water inside a beaker.

3 Pour the solution into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask.


4 Add distilled water until the graduation mark on the neck of the graduated flask.

Results:
The solution prepared is 0.1 mol dm 3 copper(II) sulphate solution.

The solution contains …………………. mole CuSO 4 .5H2 O in 1 dm3 solution.

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Part 2:
Preparation of 0.01 mol dm 3 copper(II) sulphate solution from 0.1 mol dm 3 copper(II) sulphate
solution.

Procedure:
1 Pipette 25 cm3 of copper(II) sulphate solution from Part 1.

2 Pour the solution into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask.


3 Add distilled water until the graduated mark on the neck of the graduated flask.

Results:
The solution prepared is 0.01 mol dm 3 copper(II) sulphate solution.

The solution contains ……………… mole CuSO 4 .5H2 O in 1 dm3 solution.

Questions:

Dilution factor x Original concentrat ion  Final concentrat ion

1. Calculate the dilution factor from the above equation?

………………… X

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Activity 7.2

STOICHIOMETRY AND MOLE CONCEPT


Aim: To determine the percentage purity of sodium carbonate in a mixture of sodium carbonate
and ammonium carbonate.

Apparatus:
Bunsen burner with matches Pipeclay triangle
Tripod stand Tongs
Crucible Spatula

Materials:
Sample of impure sodium carbonate (sodium carbonate mixed with ammonium carbonate)

Procedure:
1. Weigh the mass of the crucible.
2. Then add in sample of impure sodium carbonate and weigh.
3. Place the crucible on the tripod stand, and heat it strongly for five minutes.
4. Leave the crucible to cool and weigh the content again.

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Results:
(a) Mass of the empty crucible = ……………….. g

(b) Mass of the crucible + impure sample of sodium carbonate = ……………….. g

(c) Mass of impure sample of sodium carbonate [(b) – (a)] = ……………….. g

(d) Mass of crucible after heating = ……………….. g

(e) Mass of pure sodium carbonate [(d) – (a)] = ……………….. g

Formula to calculate percentage purity:

mass of pu re subs tan ce in samp le


percentage purity = × 100%
mass of sa mple

Questions:
Calculate the percentage purity of sodium carbonate.

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Activity 8.1

EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Aim: To obtain copper(II) sulphate crystals from a mixture of copper(II) sulphate and sand.

Apparatus:
250 cm3 beaker Stirring rod
Evaporating dish
250 cm3 conical flask Bunsen burner
Filter paper Tripod stand
Filter funnel

Materials:
A mixture of copper(II) sulphate with sand

Procedure:
1. Put the mixture in a beaker
2. Add water to the mixture
3. Stir with a glass rod to make sure that copper(II) sulphate dissolved.
4. Filter the mixture; collect the filtrate in a conical flask.
5. Wash the residue on the filter paper with water.
6. Evaporate the filtrate until saturated, and leave it to crystallize.

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Results:
1. The residue is …………………………………

The filtrate is ………………………………...

The solvent is …………………………………

2. Explain why the residue is washed with water.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Give an example of a mixture of two other substances that can be separated by this method.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Activity 8.5

EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Aim: To separate various dyes in food colouring and measure the R f values.

Apparatus:
Boiling tube Pair of scissors
Filter paper Distilled water
Ruler

Materials:
Mixture of food colouring

Procedure:
1. Cut a strip of filter paper such that it can fit neatly into a boiling tube. It should also be slightly
longer than the boiling tube.
2. Draw a baseline with a pencil, about 2 cm away from the bottom tip.
3. Mark a tiny spot on the middle of the baseline with food colouring.
4. Put about 1cm depth of distilled water into the boiling tube.
5. Mount the filter paper strip in the boiling tube.
6. Leave the apparatus to stand for a short while.
7. Observe the solvent front as the water travels up the paper.
8. Remove the piece of filter paper when the solvent front reaches just below (1cm) the top of the
paper. [DO NOT let the solvent front go beyond the top of the paper]
9. Allow the paper to dry.

spot
baseline

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Results:
Attach your chromatogram in the space below.

Questions:

1. What is the principle behind paper chromatography?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Calculate the R f for each colour.

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Activity 9.1

ACIDS, BASES AND NEUTRALIZATION


Aim: To neutralise hydrochloric acid by titrating with sodium hydroxide solution.

Apparatus:

Materials:
Solution P is dilute hydrochloric acid of unknown concentration
Solution Q is 0.1 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution
Methyl orange or screened methyl orange indicator.

Procedure:
1. Fill the burette with solution P until 0 mark. Make sure that no air bubbles are trapped at the tip
of the burette.

2. Pipette a 25.0 cm3 portion of Q into a conical flask. Add a few drops of either screened methyl
orange or methyl orange indicator.
3. Titrate the solution Q with the solution P from the burette and record the results in the table,
repeating the titration as many times as you consider necessary to achieve consistent results.

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Results:

Titration number 1 2 3

Final burette reading / cm3


Initial burette reading / cm3
Volume of P used / cm3
Best titration results ()

Summary:
Tick () the best titration results.

Using these results, the average volume of P required was …………………………. cm3 .

Volume of Q used was ……………….………… cm3


Hence,
…………. cm3 of NaOH required ................ cm3 of HCl

Questions:
1. Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide used in the titration.

2. Write a balanced equation for the neutralisation of HCl by NaOH.

3. How many moles of HCl would be used in neutralising NaOH in the titration?

4. Having known the number of moles of hydrochloric acid from (3) and also the volume of the
acid used in the titration, calculate the concentration in mol dm3 of the hydrochloric acid.

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Activity 9.2

ACIDS, BASES AND NEUTRALIZATION


Aim: To titrate sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid and to find percentage purity of sodium
carbonate.

Materials:
Solution P is 0.2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid
Solution Q is made by dissolving 28 g of a mixture of sodium chloride and sodium carbonate in
water and made up to 1 dm3 solution.

Procedure:
You are required to find the percentage purity of sodium carbonate in the mixture.

1. Put solution P in a burette.


2. Pipette a 25.0 cm3 portion of Q into a conical flask. Add a few drops of either screened methyl
orange or methyl orange indicator.
3. Titrate the solution Q with the solution P from the burette and record the results in the table,
repeating the titration as many times as you consider necessary to achieve consistent results.

Results:

Titration number 1 2 3

Final burette reading / cm3


Initial burette reading / cm3
Volume of P used / cm3
Best titration results ()

Summary:
In the above titration …………… cm3 of solution P is required to exactly neutralise
…………... cm3 of solution Q.

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Questions:
1. Write a chemical equation to show the reaction involved in the titration.

2. From the titration, calculate the concentration of sodium carbonate in solution Q in mol dm3 .

3. Given that the molecular mass of sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 is 106, calculate the
concentration of sodium carbonate in solution Q in g dm 3 .

4. Calculate the percentage purity by mass of sodium carbonate in the original mixture used in
the preparation of solution Q.

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Activity 9.3

ACIDS, BASES AND NEUTRALIZATION


Aim: To show reaction between sodium hydroxide and ammonium chloride

Apparatus:
Test tube with rack Bunsen burner
Test tube holder Spatula

Materials:
Sodium hydroxide solution
Solid ammonium chloride
Litmus paper

Procedure:
1. Put one spatula full solid ammonium chloride into a test tube and slowly pour in sodium
hydroxide solution. Smell the gas.
2. Warm the mixture gently by using a small Bunsen flame.
3. Test the gas by using moist red and blue litmus paper.

Results:

1. When aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to solid ammonium chloride and warmed gently a
gas is formed. Describe the smell of the gas.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Test the gas with moist blue litmus paper. Describe your observation.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Test the gas with moist red litmus paper. Describe your observation.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Conclusion:
1. When an ammonium salt reacts with an alkali …………………… gas is formed, which turn
moist ………….. litmus paper ………………. .
2. Write an equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and ammonium chloride.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Activity 10.1

SALTS
Aim: To prepare copper(II) sulphate crystals by reacting sulphuric acid with
copper(II) oxide or copper(II) carbonate

Apparatus:
Beaker Filter paper
Conical flask Evaporating basin
Stirrer Spatula
Filter funnel

Materials:
Dilute sulphuric acid
Copper(II) oxide or copper(II) carbonate

Procedure:
1. Put about 100 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid in a beaker and heat it gently.
2. Add copper(II) oxide or copper(II) carbonate to the hot sulphuric acid, a little at a time until in
excess.
3. Filter out the excess copper(II) oxide or copper(II) carbonate by using filter funnel and filter
paper.
4. Collect the filtrate in an evaporating basin and evaporate the filtrate until saturated.
5. Leave the saturated filtrate to cool and crystallise.

39
Questions:
1. Name the base or carbonate used in this reaction?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. What is the formula of this compound?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Is this compound soluble or insoluble?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. Name the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. Write chemical equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. Name the salt formed from the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. Name the filtrate.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. What is the residue left on the filter paper?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. Why must the copper(II) oxide be added in excess?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Can the above reaction be carried out using titration method? Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

40
Activity 10.2

SALTS
Aim: To prepare insoluble salts

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack

Materials:
Silver nitrate solution Dilute hydrochloric acid solution
Potassium iodide solution Dilute nitric acid solution

Procedure:
Carry out the following tests and record your observations in the table.

Test
Test observations
no.

1 (a) To a portion of silver nitrate solution,


add dilute hydrochloric acid until a
change is seen.

(b) Leave the mixture to stand for a few


minutes and observe.

2 (a) To a portion of potassium iodide


solution, add lead(II) nitrate solution
until a change is seen.

(b) Leave the mixture to stand for a few


minutes and observe.

41
Questions:
1. Name the above reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Write the symbol and ionic equations for the reactions between silver nitrate and hydrochloric
acid.
(a) Symbol equation

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
(b) Ionic equation

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. Write the symbol and ionic equations for the reactions between potassium iodide and lead(II)
nitrate.
(a) Symbol equation

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
(b) Ionic equation

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

42
Activity 10.3

SALTS
Aim: To investigate solubility of salts in water

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack
Stoppers
Spatula

Materials:
Distilled Water
Solid salts:
Silver chloride Lead(II) sulphate
Sodium chloride Sodium carbonate
Lead(II) chloride Calcium carbonate
Barium sulphate Potassium nitrate
Copper(II) sulphate Silver nitrate

Procedure:
1. Add half a spatula of a salt to a test tube.
2. Half-fill the test tube with distilled water. Then stopper the tube and shake well.
3. Record your observation in the table provided.

Results:
Solubility
Salt
(soluble or insoluble)
Silver chloride
Sodium chloride
Lead(II) chloride
Barium sulphate
Copper(II) sulphate
Lead(II) sulphate
Sodium carbonate
Calcium carbonate
Potassium nitrate
Silver nitrate

43
Questions:
State whether you think the following substances are soluble or insoluble in water:
(a) Zinc nitrate ……………………………

(b) Potassium nitrate ……………………………

(c) Copper(II) carbonate ……………………………

(d) Sodium nitrate ……………………………

(e) Ammonium chloride ……………………………

44
Activity 10.4

SALTS
Aim: To determine the solubility of salts in g cm 3 .

Apparatus:
Beakers Filter funnel
Glass rod Filter paper
Spatula Measuring cylinder
Balance

Materials:
Water
Solid salts: sodium chloride and copper(II) sulphate

Procedure:
1. Label each beaker with the name of the salts. Measure 100 cm3 water into each beaker.
2. Record the mass of these beakers containing water.
3. Add a spatula of sodium chloride salt and stir till dissolved.

4. Repeat step 3 until no more salt can dissolve in the 100 cm3 of water.
5. Filter this salt solution and collect the filtrate.
6. Record the mass of this salt solution (filtrate).
7. Subtract this new mass with the previous mass.

8. The difference will represent the solubility of the salt in g 100cm 3 .

9. This solubility can then be converted to g dm 3 .


10. Repeat the experiment with copper(II) sulphate salt.
11. Record your results in the table.

45
Results:

Sodium chloride salt Copper(II) sulphate salt

Mass of beaker + 100 cm3 water / g (a)

Mass of salt solution (filtrate) / g (b)

Solubility in g 100cm 3 (a) – (b)

Solubility in g dm 3

Conclusion:

46
Activity 11.1

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Aim: To identify the following cations: Al3  , NH 4 , Ca 2  , Cu 2  , Fe 2  , Fe 3 and Zn 2 

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack
Test tube holder
Bunsen burner

Materials:
Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution
Aqueous ammonia solution

Aqueous solution of the following salts:


Aluminium sulphate – A Iron(II) sulphate – E
Ammonium chloride – B Iron(III) chloride – F
Calcium chloride – C Zinc nitrate – G
Copper(II) sulphate – D

Procedure:
A, B, C, D, E, F and G are unknown solutions containing different cations. Carry out the following
test and record your observations in the table. You should test and name, where possible, any
gases evolved.

Test
Test Observations
no.

1 (a) To a portion of A add aqueous sodium


hydroxide until a change is seen.

(b) Add an excess of aqueous sodium


hydroxide to the mixture from (a).

(c) To a portion of A add aqueous


ammonia until a change is seen.

(d) Add an excess of aqueous ammonia to


the mixture from (c).

47
Test
Test Observations
no.

2 (a) To a portion of B add equal volume of


aqueous sodium hydroxide.

(b) Then warm gently

(c) To a portion of B add equal volume of


aqueous ammonia.

3 (a) To a portion of C add aqueous sodium


hydroxide until a change is seen.

(b) Add an excess of aqueous sodium


hydroxide to the mixture from (a).

(c) To a portion of C add equal volume of


aqueous ammonia.

4 (a) To a portion of D add aqueous sodium


hydroxide until a change is seen.

(b) Add an excess of aqueous sodium


hydroxide to the mixture from (a).

(c) To a portion of D add aqueous


ammonia until a change is seen.

(d) Add an excess of aqueous ammonia to


the mixture from (c).

48
Test
Test Observations
no.

5 (a) To a portion of E add aqueous sodium


hydroxide until a change is seen.

(b) Add an excess of aqueous sodium


hydroxide to the mixture from (a).

(c) To a portion of E add aqueous


ammonia until a change is seen.

(d) Add an excess of aqueous ammonia to


the mixture from (c).

6 (a) To a portion of F add aqueous sodium


hydroxide until a change is seen.

(b) Add an excess of aqueous sodium


hydroxide to the mixture from (a).

(c) To a portion of F add aqueous


ammonia until a change is seen.

(d) Add an excess of aqueous ammonia to


the mixture from (c).

7 (a) To a portion of G add aqueous sodium


hydroxide until a change is seen.

(b) Add an excess of aqueous sodium


hydroxide to the mixture from (a).

(c) To a portion of G add aqueous


ammonia until a change is seen.

(d) Add an excess of aqueous ammonia to


the mixture from (c).

49
Questions:
Give the names and formulae of the cations present in:

Name Formula
Solution A
Solution B
Solution C
Solution D
Solution E
Solution F
Solution G

50
Activity 11.2

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Aim: To identify the following anions: CO 23 , Cl  , I , NO 3 and SO 24

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack
Test tube holder
Bunsen burner

Materials:
Aqueous solution of the anions above:
Sodium carbonate – A Aqueous barium chloride
Sodium chloride – B Aqueous lead(II) nitrate
Potassium iodide – C Aqueous sodium hydroxide
Silver nitrate – D Aluminum foil
Sodium sulphate - E Dilute nitric acid

Students are required to carry out tests to identify the anions in solutions A, B, C, D and E.

State either positive (  ) or negative ( X ) for each test using the reagents below
Solution NaOH + Al
Dilute nitric acid AgNO 3 (aq) BaCl 2 (aq) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)
and heat

51
Write the positive test for the anions A, B, C, D and E in the spaces provided
Reagent giving Anion
Solution Procedure Observations
positive test present

52
C

E
Activity 11.3

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Aim: To test for gases

Apparatus:
Bunsen burner Test tube holder
Litmus paper Plastic syringe
Spatula Test tubes with rack
Filter paper Wooden splint

Materials:
Acidified potassium dichromate (VI) Dilute hydrochloric acid
Distilled water Solid calcium hydroxide
Ammonium chloride solution Manganese(IV) oxide
Hydrogen peroxide solution Sodium sulphite
Bleach solution Calcium carbonate
Limewater Magnesium ribbon

Procedure:
1. Generate the gas as described in the table.

2. Note its colour and odour and record your observations in the table

3. Carry out specific tests described in column 3 and record your observations.

Note: Use a test tube holder when heating anything in a test tube.

53
Test
Gas observations Specific Test and observations
No.

1 Hydrogen Wooden splint test


Put one magnesium ribbon Insert a lighted wooden splint into the
into a test tube. mouth of the test tube.

Then add 2 – 3 cm 3 of
dilute hydrochloric acid into
the test tube.

2 Oxygen Wooden splint test


Put 2 – 3 cm 3 of hydrogen Insert a glowing wooden splint into the
peroxide into a test tube. mouth of the test tube.

Then add a small amount


of manganese(IV) oxide
into the test tube.

3 Carbon dioxide Limewater test


Put calcium carbonate into Collect the gas using plastic syringe then
a test tube. pass the gas into test tube containing
limewater then shake.
Then add 2 – 3 cm 3 of
dilute hydrochloric acid into
the test tube.

4 Sulphur dioxide Litmus test


Put sodium sulphite into a Hold moist blue litmus paper in the gas.
test tube.

Then add 2 – 3 cm 3 of Potassium dichromate(VI) test


dilute hydrochloric acid into Hold a piece of filter paper dipped in
the test tube and heat. acidified potassium dichromate(VI) in the
gas.

Potassium manganate(VII) test


Hold a piece of filter paper dipped in
acidified potassium manganate(VII) in the
gas.

54
Test
Gas observations Specific Test and observations
No.

5 Chlorine Litmus test


3
Add about 2 cm of dilute Hold moist blue litmus paper in the gas.
hydrochloric acid into a test
tube.
Then add about 2 cm 3 of
bleach solution.

6 Ammonia Litmus test


Put ammonium chloride Hold moist red litmus paper in the gas.
solution into a test tube.

Then add one spatula of


solid calcium hydroxide and
warm gently.

7 Water vapour Hold a piece of blue cobalt chloride paper


One third fill a boiling tube in the gas.
with water

Then heat gently.

8 Nitrogen dioxide Litmus test


(N 2006, P 3) Hold moist blue litmus paper in the gas.

Put one spatula of sodium


nitrite in a test tube.

Then add about 2 cm3 of


dilute hydrochloric acid.

55
Activity 12.1

METALS AND EXTRACTION


Aim: To compare the reactivity of metals by displacement reaction.

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack
Sandpaper
Spatula

Materials:
Magnesium ribbon 1 mol dm3 Zinc sulphate solution
Zinc foils
Iron fillings 1 mol dm3 Iron (II) sulphate solution
Copper foils 1 mol dm3 Copper (II) sulphate solution
3
1 mol dm Magnesium sulphate solution

Procedure:
1. Clean a strip of magnesium ribbon with sandpaper.
2. Half fill a test tube with zinc sulphate solution.
3. Immerse the magnesium ribbon in the zinc sulphate solution.
4. Leave the mixture aside for a few minutes, and observe.
5. Repeat the experiment above using the materials stated in the table.

56
Results:
Observations with
Magnesium Zinc Iron Copper

Magnesium
sulphate solution

Zinc sulphate
solution

Iron(II) sulphate
solution

Copper(II) sulphate
solution

Questions:

1. From your results arrange the four metals in order of decreasing reactivity.
Most reactive Least reactive
................................... , ................................... , ................................... , ................................... .
2. Complete these displacement equations:

CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) 


 __________ + _________

FeSO4 (aq) + Zn (s) 


 __________ + _________

ZnSO4 (aq) + Mg (s) 


 __________ + _________

3. Aluminium is more reactive than zinc but less reactive than magnesium. Will aluminium
displace iron from a solution of iron (II) salt? Explain.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

57
Activity 12.2

METALS AND EXTRACTION


Aim: To show Thermit reaction (reduction of metal oxide) – demonstration only.

Apparatus:
Sand bath
Paper cone made from filter paper
Spatula

Materials:
Iron(III) oxide Magnesium ribbon
Aluminium powder Barium peroxide (or potassium chlorate)
Magnesium powder

Procedure:
1. Mix a few grams of iron(III) oxide powder with an equal amount of aluminium powder and put
the mixture in a paper cone mounted on a sand bath as shown in the diagram.
2. Mix a little barium peroxide or potassium chlorate with magnesium powder and pour the
mixture into the paper cone containing the mixture of iron(II) oxide and aluminium powder. This
mixture is to set off a preliminary reaction.
3. Using a long piece of clean magnesium ribbon as a fuse, stick one end into the base of the
paper cone and burn the other end.
[Caution: Immediately move far away from the burning magnesium ribbon.]

Magnesium ribbon
Mixture of barium peroxide and as fuse
magnesium powder
Paper cone
Mixture of
iron(III) oxide and
aluminium powder

Sand bath

58
Results:

1. Describe the reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Write the equation to show the reaction between iron(III) oxide and aluminium.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

59
Activity 12.3

METALS AND EXTRACTION


Aim: To show the action of heat on the carbonates.

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack Bunsen burner
Test tube holders Plastic syringe (or delivery tube)

Materials:
Zinc carbonate
Copper(II) carbonate
Lime water

Procedure:
1. Put some powdered zinc carbonate into a test-tube and heat it strongly.
2. Pass the gas given out through lime water and observe for the formation of a new substance.
3. Repeat the experiment using copper(II) carbonate and observe for the colour change and the
formation of a new substance.

Results:
(a) Zinc carbonate is …………………… (colour). When strongly heated zinc carbonate gives out a
…………………… (colour) gas which turns lime water ……………………
(b) The residue is …………………… (colour) when hot and ……………………(colour) when cold.
(c) The gas is …………………… and the residue is ……………………
(d) Write word equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(e) Write symbol equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(f) Copper(II) carbonate is ……………………(colour). When strongly heated copper(II) carbonate
gives out a ……………………(colour) gas which turns lime water ……………………
(g) The residue is ……………………(colour)
(h) The gas is …………………… and the residue is ……………………
(i) Write word equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(j) Write symbol equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
60
Activity 12.4

METALS AND EXTRACTION


Aim: To determine the conditions for rusting

Apparatus:
Boiling tubes
Test tube rack

Materials:
Iron nails Cooking oil
Boiled water Tap water

Procedure:
1. Prepare four boiling tubes in a rack, labelled them as A, B, C and D.
2. Into each boiling tube place a clean iron nail.
3. Pour water from the tap into boiling tube A until the nail is fully submerged.
4. Pour some hot water into boiling tube B until the nail is fully submerged and pour a layer of
cooking oil to cover the surface of the water.
5. Place a little anhydrous cobalt chloride into boiling tube C and cork the mouth of the boiling
tube with a rubber bung.
6. Pour some cooking oil into boiling tube D until the nail is fully submerged.
7. Leave the four boiling tubes in the rack for a few days and then observe.

Results:
(a) Does the tap water in boiling tube A contain air? Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) Does the water in boiling tube B contain air? Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(c) Does the air in the boiling tube C contain water? Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(d) Does boiling tube D contain any air or water?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(e) Which iron nail becomes rusty?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(f) Why does the iron nail become rusty?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
61
Activity 12.5

METALS AND EXTRACTION


Aim: To show sacrificial protection of metal.
Apparatus:
3 Petri dishes
Cotton wool

Materials:
Salt solution
Iron nails
Magnesium ribbon
Copper foil

Procedure:
1. Fill the three Petri dishes with some salt solution and then make a cushion of cotton wool and
place it in each Petri dish so that it is soaked in the salt solution.
2. Label the Petri dishes as A, B, and C.
3. In Petri dish A, place a clean iron nail on the cushion of cotton wool. In Petri dish B, place a
clean iron nail wound with magnesium ribbon and in Petri dish C, place a clean iron nail wound
with copper strip.
4. Leave the three Petri dishes for a few days and then observe.

cotton wool soaked


in salt solution

A B C
Magnesium ribbon Copper foil

62
Results:
1. What happen to the iron nail in A?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

2. Which iron nail shows no rusting? Why?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. What is the difference between iron nail in A from that in C?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Explain your observation in 3.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

63
Activity 12.6

METALS AND EXTRACTION


Aim: To reduce lead(II) oxide by carbon.

Apparatus:
Bunsen burner
Blow pipe

Materials:
Lead(II) oxide
Carbon block

Procedure:
1. Wet the middle of carbon block using tap water.
2. Place a little amount of lead(II) oxide on a carbon block.
3. Heat and blow air using blow pipe over the oxide.
4. Observe any changes on the carbon block.

lead(II) oxide
carbon block

blow pipe

Bunsen burner

Observations:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

64
Activity 13.1

THE PERIODIC TABLE


Aim: To show reactivity of Group I metals with water.
Apparatus:
Beaker Pair of forceps
Scalpel White tile

Materials:
Lithium Litmus paper
Potassium Phenolphthalein
Sodium

Procedure:
1. Put a few drops of phenolphthalein in a 250 cm3 beaker containing water.
2. Cut a very small piece of lithium and drop it in water, and observe.
3. Repeat the above experiment with the following metals: sodium and potassium.
4. Record your observations in the table.

Lithium or sodium
or potassium

White tile

Lumps of lithium
or sodium or
potassium
Results:

Effect on
Effect of solution on
Metal Observations phenolphthalein
red litmus paper
indicator

Lithium

Sodium

Potassium

65
Questions:

1. Place the three metals in the order of decreasing reactivity.

Most reactive Least reactive

…………………………… , …………………………… , ……………………………

From the results, it shows that when a metal reacts with water, the solution formed is

……………………………. The compound formed is an …………………………….

The gas given off in the reaction is ……………………………

2. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between lithium and water.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between sodium and water.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between potassium and water.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

66
Activity 14.1

ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS


Aim: To find  H using 0.1 mol dm3 HCl and 0.1 mol dm3 NaOH solutions.

Apparatus:
Two 100 cm3 measuring cylinders Thermometer
Plastic cup
250 cm3 beakers

Materials:
0.1 mol dm3 HCl – solution Q
0.1 mol dm3 NaOH – solution P

Procedure:
In this question you are required to determine the heat of neutralisation between a strong acid HY
and a strong alkali MOH.
You are provided with the following.

(a) Solution P is 0.1 mol dm3 alkali MOH.

(b) Solution Q is 0.1 mol dm3 acid HY.


1. Using a measuring cylinder measure 100 cm3 of Q into a plastic cup and then measure the
temperature.
2. Using another measuring cylinder measure 100 cm3 of P into a 250 cm3 beaker and similarly
measure the temperature.
3. Record the temperature of the two solutions and calculate the mean temperature.
4. Slowly pour the solution Q into the beaker containing solution P.
5. Stir the mixture with the thermometer and record the maximum temperature reached.

67
Results:
Initial temperature of the acid Q = …………...... (a)

Initial temperature of the alkali P = …………….. ( b)

Mean initial temperature [ (a  b)  2 ] = …………….. (c )

Maximum final temperature of mixture = …………….. (d)

Temperature increase [d – c] = …………….. (e )

(Assume that the density of HCl and NaOH is 1 g cm 3 )

Questions:
1. Write an equation to show the neutralisation between P and Q.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Write an ionic equation for the above reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Ignoring the heat lost to the plastic container and the beaker, calculate the heat given out by
the reaction. (The specific heat of solution is 4.2 J g °C).
[Hint: Use the formula H = m x c x θ]
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. Calculate the number of mole of the acid HY or the alkali MOH involved in the reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. Calculate the heat of neutralisation,  H, between MOH and HY.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

68
Activity 14.2

ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS


Aim: To investigate heat of solution of salts.

Apparatus:
Plastic cup
Thermometer
Spatula

Materials:
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium chloride

Procedure:
1. Measure out 50 cm3 of water in a measuring cylinder and pour it into a plastic cup.
2. Measure the initial temperature of the water.
3. Add a spatula full of solid sodium hydroxide into the water in the cup.
4. Stir to dissolve the solid.
5. Record the highest temperature obtained.
6. Repeat step 1- 4 with ammonium chloride and for step 5 record the lowest temperature
obtained.
[Repeat with other salts; nitrates, sulphates, carbonates etc.]

Result:
Exothermic
Initial Final Change in
Reaction or
temperature/ C temperature/ C temperature/ C
Endothermic

Sodium hydroxide +
water

Ammonium chloride +
water

Conclusion:

69
Activity 14.3

ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS


Aim: To set up Daniel cell.

Apparatus:
Beaker
Voltmeter

Materials:
Copper plate 1.0 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution
Zinc plate
Voltmeter
1.0 mol dm3 zinc sulphate solution Connecting wires

Procedure:
1. Set up copper metal as the positive terminal and zinc metal as the negative terminal.
2. Immerse the zinc metal in zinc sulphate solution and the copper metal in copper(II) sulphate
solution.
3. Connect the two solutions using a salt bridge as shown.

salt bridge

copper plate zinc plate

copper(II) sulphate zinc sulphate


solution solution

voltmeter

Or connect the two solutions using a porous pot as shown below.

zinc

zinc plate copper plate

porous pot copper can


zinc sulphate
solution copper(II)
zinc sulphate copper(II) sulphate sulphate solution
solution solution porous pot

Results:
The electrode potential of Daniel cell is ………………. V
70
Activity 15.1

ELECTROLYSIS
Aim: To demonstrate electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide.

Apparatus:
Crucible Crocodile clips
Spatula Tripod stand
Graphite electrodes Clay pipe triangle
Power pack Bunsen burner

Materials:
Lead(II) bromide

Procedure:
1. A crucible is half filled with lead(II) bromide solid.
2. The solid lead(II) bromide is heated until it melts to a molten state.
3. Two carbon electrodes are dipped in the molten lead(II) bromide and are then connected to
power pack using crocodile clips.
4. Electric current is allowed to flow through for 15 minutes and the changes that occur at the
cathode and anode are recorded.

Results:
Observations Inference

At the anode

At the cathode

71
Activity 15.2

ELECTROLYSIS
Aim: To demonstrate electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride solution.

Apparatus:
Power pack 100 cm3 beaker
Carbon electrodes
Crocodile clips

Materials:
Aqueous 0.5 mol dm3 sodium chloride solution

Procedure:
1. Aqueous sodium chloride is put into a beaker
2. Insert two carbon electrodes into the aqueous sodium chloride and connect them to the power
pack.
3. The switch is turned on and electric current is allowed to flow for 15 minutes and observe.
4. Collect the gas and test.
5. Record your observations in the table.

carbon electrodes
aqueous sodium chloride

Results:
Electrolyte Observations Test for the gas
At the cathode: Splint test

Dilute sodium
chloride solution At the anode: Splint test

72
Activity 15.3

ELECTROLYSIS
Title: To Demonstrate electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution.

Apparatus:
Power pack 100 cm3 beaker
Carbon electrodes
Crocodile clips

Materials:
Concentrated sodium chloride solution (1 mol dm 3 )

Procedure:
1. Concentrated sodium chloride is put into a beaker.
2. Insert two carbon electrodes into the concentrated sodium chloride solution and connect them
to the power pack.
3. The switch is turned on and electric current is allowed to flow for 15 minutes and observe.
4. Collect the gas and test.
5. Record your observations in the table.

carbon electrodes
concentrated sodium
chloride solution

Results:
Electrolyte Observations Test for the gas
At the cathode: Splint test

concentrated sodium
chloride solution At the anode: Litmus test

73
Activity 15.4

ELECTROLYSIS
Aim: To demonstrate electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate using carbon electrodes.

Apparatus:
Power pack 100 cm3 beaker
Carbon electrodes
Crocodile clips

Materials:
Aqueous 0.5 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution

Procedure:
1. Copper(II) sulphate solution is put into a beaker.
2. Insert two carbon electrodes into the copper(II) sulphate solution and connect them to the
power pack.
3. The switch is turned on and electric current is allowed to flow for 15 minutes and observe.
4. Record your observations in the table.

Results:
Electrolyte Observations
At the cathode:

Copper(II) sulphate
solution At the anode:

Questions:
1. What would you expect the colour of the copper(II) sulphate solution to be if the electrolysis is
carried out for a long period? Why?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Describe a test for the product formed at the anode.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
74
Activity 15.5

ELECTROLYSIS
Aim: To demonstrate electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate using copper electrodes.

Apparatus:
Power pack 100 cm3 beaker
Copper electrodes
Crocodile clips

Materials:
Aqueous 1.0 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution

Procedure:
1. Copper(II) sulphate solution is put into a beaker.
2. Insert copper electrodes into the copper(II) sulphate solution and connect them to the power
pack.
3. The switch is turned on and electric current is allowed to flow for 15 minutes and observe.
4. Record your observations in the table.

Results:

Electrode Observations
At the cathode:

Copper(II) sulphate
solution At the anode:

Questions:
1. What would you expect the colour of the copper(II) sulphate solution to be if the electrolysis is
carried out for a long period? Why?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Activity 15.6

ELECTROLYSIS
Aim: To demonstrate electroplating of spatula with copper.

Apparatus:
Power pack 1.0 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate
3
Beaker 250 cm Copper plate
Crocodile clips Metal spatula

Materials:
1.0 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate

Procedure:
1. Pour about 200 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution into a beaker.
2. A piece of copper plate is connected to the positive terminal. This plate act as the anode.
3. The metal spatula is connected to the negative terminal. This metal spatula acts as the
cathode.
4. Immerse both the metal spatula and the copper plate in the copper(II) sulphate solution. (Make
sure that they do not come into contact)
5. The solution is electrolysed for 30 minutes using a small current (0.5 A ).

Results:
Observations Half-equations
At the cathode: At the cathode:

At the anode: At the anode:

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Activity 16.1

SPEED OF REACTIONS
Aim: To show the effect of concentration on the speed of reaction.

Apparatus:
Beaker Filter paper marked “X”
Stop-watch Measuring cylinders

Materials:
2.0 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid
0.25 mol dm3 sodium thiosulphate, Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution
Distilled water

Procedure
1. Measure 5 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate solution into a 250 cm3 beaker and add 45 cm3 of
distilled water.
2. Place the beaker over the filter paper marked “X”.

3. By using a separate measuring cylinder, add 10 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm3 HCl and at once start the
stop-watch.
4. Swirl the beaker a few times and then put the beaker back on the paper over the mark “X”.
5. Observe the mark “X” from above through the solution mixture in the beaker.
6. As more precipitate is formed the mark “X” will eventually disappears from sight.
7. Stop the stop-watch when the mark “X” just disappears from sight. Record the time taken in the
table below.
8. Repeat the experiment by changing the volume of sodium thiosulphate and distilled water.
9. Record the time taken in the table provided.

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Results:
Volume of sodium Volume of distilled Volume of
thiosulphate solution, water hydrochloric acid Reaction time
s
cm3 cm3 cm3

10

15

20

25

Draw the graph of volume of sodium thiosulphate in cm3 against time in seconds.

Conclusion:
As the concentration of sodium thiosulphate increases …………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

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Activity 16.2

SPEED OF REACTIONS
Aim: To show the effect of temperature on the speed of reaction.

Apparatus:
Beaker Measuring cylinder
Stop-watch Thermometer
Filter paper marked “X”

Materials:
2.0 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid
Distilled water
0.25 mol dm3 sodium thiosulphate, Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution

Procedure:
1. Measure 20 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate solution into a beaker and add 60 cm3 of distilled
water. Record the temperature of the solution mixture.
2. Place the beaker over the filter paper marked “X”.

3. Add 20 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm3 HCl and at once start the stop-watch.
4. Swirl the beaker a few times and put the beaker back on the filter paper over the mark “X”.
5. Observe the mark “X” through the solution mixture.
6. Stop the stop-watch when the mark “X” just disappears from sight. Record the time taken in the
table provided.

7. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures by heating the mixtures of 20 cm3 of sodium

thiosulphate and 60 cm3 of distilled water to 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C.

79
Results:

Temperature Reaction time in seconds Rate ( 1 t )

Room temperature

40°C

50°C

60°C

70°C

Draw the graph of rate against temperature.

Conclusion:
As the temperature increases ………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

80
Activity 16.3

SPEED OF REACTIONS
Aim: To show the effect of particle size using calcium carbonate (lump and powder) with
hydrochloric acid.

Apparatus:
Conical flask connected to gas syringe
Stop-clock
Electronic balance
Measuring cylinder 50 cm3

Materials:
Hydrochloric acid 0.25 mol dm3
Calcium carbonate (powder and lump forms)

Procedure:
1. Use an electronic balance to weigh exactly 0.5 g of marble chips and put them in a conical
flask connected to a gas syringe.

2. Use a measuring cylinder to measure exactly 30.0 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid and
pour into the conical flask containing the marble chips.
3. Immediately cork the conical flask to the gas syringe and at the same time start the stop-clock.
4. Read the volume of the carbon dioxide collected in the gas syringe for every 10 seconds until
the reaction stops.
5. Create your own table to tabulate the readings.
6. Repeat the above experiment by using marble chips of (a) smaller size and (b) powdered
calcium carbonate.
7. Draw on the same graph paper the volume of carbon dioxide gas against time for the three
experiments.

Result:

Conclusion:
As the particle size increases ………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…
81
Activity 16.4

SPEED OF REACTIONS
Aim: To show the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using manganese(IV) oxide.

Apparatus:
50 cm3 measuring cylinder Delivery tube
Clock Rubber bung
Spatula Rubber tubing connector
Conical flask Retort stand and clamp
Gas syringe

Materials:
0.2 mol dm3 or ‘2 volume’ hydrogen peroxide (20 volume diluted 10 x)
Powdered manganese(IV) oxide

Procedure:
1. Set up the apparatus shown in the diagram.

hydrogen peroxide
solution

manganese(IV) oxide

2. Measure 50 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution in the conical flask.


3. Add a little amount of manganese (IV) oxide into the hydrogen peroxide solution.
4. Immediately cork rubber bung to the conical flask and start timing.
5. Gently swirl the flask while recording the volume of gas collected in the gas syringe every
minute. Do this for 10 minutes or until the gas syringe is full. Take care not to undo the rubber
tube connector.
6. Record your results in table provided.

82
Results:
Time/min 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Volume
of gas
/cm3

Plot a graph of volume of gas evolved (vertical axis) against time.

Conclusion:

83
Activity 17.1

REVERSIBLE REACTIONS
Aim: To show reversible reactions.

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack

Materials:
Potassium chromate(VI) solution
Aqueous sodium hydroxide
Aqueous copper (II) sulphate
Concentrated hydrochloric acid
Concentrated ammonium hydroxide
Dilute sulphuric acid

Procedure:
1. (a) Pour potassium chromate(VI) solution in a test-tube until it is about one-fifth full and
slowly adds dilute sulphuric acid until a change is seen.
Observation:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Write ionic equation for the reaction in (a).
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) To the mixture from (a) slowly add dilute sodium hydroxide solution and observe the
change.
Observation:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
.……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Explain in terms of reversibility the observation in the experiment (b).
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

84
2. (a) Pour copper (II) sulphate solution into a test-tube until it is about one-fifth full and slowly
add concentrated hydrochloric acid until a change is seen.
Observation:
…………………….………………………………………………………………………………….
..………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Write the ionic equation for the reaction in (a).
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
(b) To the mixture from (a) add concentrated ammonia solution a little at a time until a change
is seen.
Observation:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. State Le Chatelier’s principle.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………......
......................................................................................................................................................

85
Activity 17.2

REVERSIBLE REACTIONS
Aim: To prepare fertilizer using nitric acid (The manufacture of fertilizer from ammonia).

Apparatus:
Burette Evaporating dish
Pipette Bunsen burner
Pipette filler Tripod stand and wire gauze
2 conical flasks White tile
Retort stand

Materials:
Dilute nitric acid
Aqueous ammonium hydroxide
Methyl orange indicator

Procedure:
1. Place nitric acid in burette.
2. Pipette 25.0 cm3 of aqueous ammonium hydroxide into a conical flask. Add a few drops of the
indicator.
3. Titrate the acid with the alkali until neutralise.
4. Repeat titration, this time without the indicator.
5. Heat the mixture (ammonium nitrate solution) until it is saturated.
6. Transfer some mixture into an evaporating dish and leave to crystallise.

Conclusion:

86
Activity 18.1

REDOX
Aim: To show the colour change in oxidizing agents - acidified potassium manganate(VII) and
acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution.

Apparatus:
Measuring cylinder Test-tube
Beaker Burette
Conical flask

Material:
Potassium manganate(VII) solution Dilute sulphuric acid
Potassium dichromate(VI) solution Sodium sulphite solution

Procedure:
1. Measure 20 cm3 of potassium manganate(VII) solution into a conical flask and add about 5

cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid.


2. From the burette, slowly add sodium sulphite solution (Na2SO3) into the conical flask until the
purple colour of potassium manganate(VII) disappears.
3. Repeat the experiment above using potassium dichromate(VI) solution.

Observations:

(a) Potassium manganate (VII) solution is …………………… (colour) due to the presence of
…………………… ions.
(b) As sodium sulphite solution is added, the colour changes to …………………… (colour) due to
the formation of …………………… ion.
(c) Potassium dichromate(VI) solution is …………………… (colour) due to the presence of
…………………… ions.
(d) As sodium sulphite solution is added the colour changes to …………………… (colour) due to
the formation of …………………… ion.

Conclusion:
Potassium manganate(VII) and potassium dichromate(VI) are oxidizing agents. They are
…………………… by the reducing agent, sodium sulphite.

87
Activity 18.2

REDOX
Aim: To show the colour change of iodide ion in redox reaction.

Apparatus:
Boiling tube
Test tube

Materials:
Hydrogen peroxide ‘20-volume’,
1.0 mol dm3 potassium iodide solution
Starch solution

Procedure:
1. Pour about 5 cm3 of potassium iodide solution into a boiling tube and slowly add equal volume
of ‘20-volume’ hydrogen peroxide, and observe.
2. Leave the mixture for a few minutes and observe for the formation of any solid substance.
3. Transfer some solution from the boiling tube into a test tube and add a few drops of starch
solution.

Results:
(a) Potassium iodide solution changed from ……………………………. (colour) to
……………………………. (colour) when added with hydrogen peroxide.
(b) When left to stand for a few minutes a ……………………………. (colour) solid substance was
seen at the bottom of the boiling tube.
(c) When starch was added, the solution turned ……………………………. (colour) showing that
……………………………. was formed.

Questions:
1. Write an ionic equation to show oxidation of iodide ion.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Write an ionic equation for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Write ionic equation to show redox reaction between potassium iodide and hydrogen peroxide.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

88
Activity 19.2

ATMOSPHERE AND ENVIRONMENT


Aim: To demonstrate water treatment using alum (Potassium aluminium sulphate).

Apparatus:
500 cm3 beakers
Spatula

Materials:
Sample of muddy water
Alum

Procedure:
1. Fill two beakers with muddy water until three quarter full.
2. Add a spoonful of alum in one but not the other.
3. Leave the two beakers for about 10 minutes and compare the appearance of the water in the
two beakers.

alum

muddy water

Observations:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

89
Activity 20.1

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Aim: To show incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon.

Apparatus:
Bunsen burner Evaporating dish
Wooden splint

Materials:
Benzene
Toluene
Kerosene

Procedure:
1. Place a little of each hydrocarbon into an evaporating dish.
2. Burn the hydrocarbon with a lighted wooden splint and observe for the products. (Note:
Burning should be carried out outside the lab as its burning will produce dense smoke and
carbon monoxide).
3. Observe the colour of the flame and record it in the table below

Lighted
wooden splint

Evaporating dish

Benzene

Results:

Hydrocarbon Formula Mr % of carbon Colour of the flame


Benzene C 6H 6
Toluene C 6H 5 CH 3
Kerosene C15H 32

90
Questions:
1. Do you think these hydrocarbons make good fuel? Explain.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Which of the three hydrocarbons produces the least smoke? Relate your observations in terms
of percentage of carbon in the compound.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

91
Activity 20.3

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Aim: To test for alkenes with bromine

Apparatus:
Test tube

Materials:
Liquid bromine
Hexene

Procedure:
1. Add about 2 cm 3 of liquid bromine in a test tube.

2. Then, add about 2 cm 3 of hexene to the liquid bromine.


3. Shake the mixture gently.
4. Observe the colour changes that take place in the test tube.

Results:
1. The brown colour of liquid bromine is ……………………………...

2. State the molecular formula of hexene: …………………………….

3. Write the equation for the addition of bromine to hexene.


………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Name the product of addition of bromine to hexene.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

92
Activity 20.4

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Aim: To compare the flammability and the colour of the flame produced by different alcohols and
to show the variation of physical properties of the first four alcohols.

Apparatus:
Evaporating dishes Bunsen burner
Wooden splint

Materials:
Methanol Butanol
Ethanol Cobalt(II) chloride paper
Propanol

Procedure:
1. Pour a little of each of the following alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) into
four different evaporating dishes.
2. Burn the alcohols with the lighted wooden splint.
3. Compare the colour of the flame and the ease of it burning.
4. Observe what is left on the evaporating dishes. Test it with blue cobalt(II) chloride paper.

Lighted Lighted
wooden splint wooden splint

Evaporating dish Evaporating dish

Methanol Ethanol

Lighted Lighted
wooden splint wooden splint

Evaporating dish Evaporating dish

Propanol Butanol

93
Questions:
1. Note the differences of the colour of the flames from the burning of methanol to butanol.

Explain this variation.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Which alcohol is the most flammable?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Work out the molecular masses of the four alcohols.

Alcohol Molecular mass


Methanol
Ethanol
Propanol
Butanol

4. How is the flammability of the alcohols related to their molecular masses?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

94
Activity 20.5

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Aim: To compare fluidity of the alcohols.

Apparatus:
Test tubes with rack

Materials:
Methanol Propanol
Ethanol Butanol

Procedure:
1. Half fill the four test tubes with four different alcohols and compare their fluidity.
2. Place the order of fluidity among the four alcohols.

Results:
most fluid least fluid
1 2 3 4

Questions:
As the molecular mass increases the alcohols become ………………………………. fluid.

95
Activity 20.6

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Aim: To show oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid.

Apparatus:
Bunsen burner Retort stand with clamp
Boiling tube Beaker
Test tube Delivery tube

Materials:
Ethanol Cold water
Potassium dichromate(VI) solution Blue litmus paper
Dilute sulphuric acid

Procedure:
1. The boiling tube is filled with approximately 5 cm3 of potassium dichromate(VI) solution.
2. About 5 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid is added to the potassium dichromate(VI) solution.

3. About 5 cm3 of ethanol is added to the acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution.


4. A rubber stopper fitted with a delivery tube is inserted into the boiling tube. The delivery tube is
inserted into a test tube placed in a beaker half-filled with cold water.
5. The mixture of ethanol and acidified potassium dichromate(VI) is boiled slowly. The distillate is
collected in the test tube.
6. Observe the colour change of acidified potassium dichromate(VI) to show that oxidation of
ethanol to ethanoic acid has taken place.
7. The colour and the odour of the distillate are recorded.
8. The distillate is tested with a piece of blue litmus paper.

Boiling tube Test tube

Mixture of ethanol and


acidified potassium Distillate
dichromate(VI)
Cold water

96
Results:
Test on the distillate Observations
Colour
Smell
Action on blue litmus paper

Questions:
1. When ethanol is boiled with acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution, it is oxidised to
ethanoic acid which has the smell of ……………………………..
2. The colour of acidified potassium dichromate changes from ……………………………. to
………………………………..

97
Activity 20.7

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Aim: To show acidic properties of carboxylic acid.

Apparatus:
Evaporating dish Wooden splints
Tripod stand Test tubes
Bunsen burner Glass rod
Spatula Delivery tube

Materials:
Ethanoic acid Magnesium ribbon
Aqueous sodium hydroxide Limewater
Sodium carbonate powder Red litmus paper

Procedure:

(a) Reaction of ethanoic acid with sodium hydroxide


1. About 10 cm3 of ethanoic acid is poured into an evaporating dish.
2. Drop a piece of red litmus paper into the evaporating dish to act as indicator.
3. Slowly add sodium hydroxide solution to the ethanoic acid until the red litmus paper just turns
blue.
4. Remove the litmus paper and heat the solution mixture until dryness.

Observations:

Describe the product left behind the evaporating dish after the solution mixture is evaporated to
dryness.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

.............................................................................................................................................................

98
(b) Reaction between ethanoic acid with magnesium ribbon
1. The test tube is filled with about 5 cm3 of ethanoic acid.
2. A piece of magnesium ribbon (about 3 cm long) is added to ethanoic acid.
3. Test the gas given off with the lighted wooden splint.

Observations:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(c) Reaction between ethanoic acid with sodium carbonate


1. About 5 cm3 of ethanoic acid is added to a test tube.
2. A spatula of sodium carbonate powder is added to the ethanoic acid.
3. The gas released is passed into limewater.

Observations:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

99
REFERENCES:

1. T.Y. Toon, L.W. Leng & T.O Tin. Success Chemistry SPM. Selangor Darul Ehsan: Oxford
Fajar Sdn. Bhd, 2007.
2. Practical Chemsitry For ‘O’ Level. Singapore: Dyna Publisher Pte. Ltd.
3. C.N. Prescott. Chemistry A Course for ‘O’ Level. Practical Workbook. Volume 1. Singapore:
Federal Publications (S) Pte Ltd, 1994.
4. C.N. Prescott. Chemistry A Course for ‘O’ Level. Practical Workbook. Volume 2. Singapore:
Federal Publications (S) Pte Ltd, 1994.
5. L.J. Rasanayagam. Practical Chemistry. A course for ‘O’ Level. Volume 1. Singapore: Federal
Publications (S) Pte Ltd, 1981.
6. L.J. Rasanayagam. Practical Chemistry. A course for ‘O’ Level. Volume 2. Singapore: Federal
Publications (S) Pte Ltd, 1981.
7. J.G.R. Briggs. Chemistry ‘O’ Level Practical. Volume 1 (2nd Ed.). Singapore: Pearson
Education Asia Pte Ltd, 1998.
8. J.G.R. Briggs. Chemistry ‘O’ Level Practical. Volume 2 (2nd Ed.). Singapore: Pearson
Education Asia Pte Ltd, 1998.
9. T.Y. Toon & C.L. Kwong. Chemistry Matters for GCE ‘O’ Level. Practical Workbook.
Singapore: Times Media Private Limited, 2002.
10. L.J. Rasanayagam & R.M. Kok. GCE ‘O’ Level Chemistry Matters. Practical Book. Singapore:
Marshall Cavendish Education, 2007.
11. R.M. Heyworth & J.G.R. Briggs. Chemistry Insights ‘O’ Level (2nd Ed.) Practical Workbook.
Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd, 2007.

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