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1. ALGEBRA 3 ( 3 ½ weeks) 1.1 Factorisation of Quadratic Trinomials

( ax 2 +bx +c )

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Review factorisation by finding the highest common factors, grouping and difference of two squares.

Write a few algebraic expressions and arrange them according to the type of factorisation they belong to. Guide the students to recognise the pattern of quadratic trinomials. Show some expansions e.g. (x+3)( x +2) = x 2 + 5 x +6 (x – 3)( x – 2) = x 2 – 5x +6 (x +3)( x – 2) = x 2 + x – 6 (x – 3)( x +2) = x 2 – x – 6 Use the idea that expansion is the reverse of factorisation and guide the students to observe some important patterns. Trial and Error with Cross Multiplication is a more powerful method. For more able students, we should encourage them to

http://www.mathste acher.com.au/year1 0/ch10_factorisation /06_further_quadrati c_trinomials/furth.ht m

Introduce factorisation of ax2 + b x + c where a = 1. Proceed to cases where a ≠ 1. Writing the x-term as two terms, then perform factorisation by grouping e.g.

2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = 2 x 2 + 6 x − x − 3 = 2 x ( x + 3) −1( x + 3) = ( 2 x −1)( x + 3) .

http://www.coolmath.c om/algebra/algebrapracticeproblems.html

**Extend the concept to factorisation of ax2 + b x y + cy2.. Extend to situations where a < 1 (e.g. 8 + 2 x -3 x
**

2

)

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just write down the result of factorisation by inspection.

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1.2 Combined Factorisation

Discuss the method of doing combined factorisations e.g. 4y2 – 36 ; 2x2 + 6x - 20

Train the students to be alert to see whether a given expression can be factorised first by taking out the common factor. Show that the product of two factors being zero means that one of the factors must be zero is the reasoning behind the method of solution by factorisation. Emphasise that there are always two solutions for quadratic equation with special situations where the roots are repeated. Summarise the key steps: 1. Make one side of the equation to become ‘ 0 ‘ 2. Factorise the equation 3. Equate each factor to 0 and solve the two linear equations Summarise the different situations involving quadratic expression (e.g x 2 -3 x – 4) and quadratic equation (e.g. x 2 –3 x – 4 = 0). The final answer for x 2 –3x – 4 is (x –4)( x +1) whereas the final answers for x 2 –3 x– 4 = 0 are x = –1 or 4 Show the students the graph of y = x2−4x +3

http://www.coolmat h.com/algebra/Alge bra2//04_what.htm

1.3 Quadratic Equations (a) Solving by Factorisation

Explain that if a ×b = 0 , then either a = 0 or b = 0. Apply the concept to solve quadratic equations ax2 + b x = 0 and ax2 + b x + c =0 by factorisation. Extend to cases of (ax + b) 2 = c where c is not a perfect square.

http://www.purplemat h.com/modules/variant 1.htm

(b) Solving by Taking Square Root

Show that a quadratic equation of the form a 2 x 2 − b 2 = 0 can be solved by factorisation e. g.

9 x 2 − 4 = 0 gives (3 x + 2)( 3 x − 2) = 0 , x = −

2 3

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**2 or by taking square root on both sides. 3 eg 9 x 2 − 4 = 0 gives 9 x 2 = 4 then 4 2 x =± =± . 9 3 Extend to cases of (ax + b) 2 = c where c is a
**

or x = perfect square.

and that the solutions of the quadratic equation x2 − 4x + 3 = 0 are the values of x where the graph intersects the xaxis. [ solving graphically]

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SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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(c) Solving by using Quadratic Formula

Introduce the Quadratic Formula

x=

− b ± b 2 − 4ac to find solutions to 2a

Show an example of a quadratic equation that does not factorise e. g. x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 . Introduce the quadratic formula to solve the equation and remind students the need to identify a, b and c terms first and to be careful when b and c are negative numbers. Guide the students to know when this method is to be used. The clue is when the question asks for the answers to be given to a certain number of decimal places. This indicates that the expression cannot be factorised and thus have to be solved using the Quadratic Formula. Show clearly the correct way to write when b is negative. (e.g. if b = -3, then we have –(-3) and then (-3) 2 for b2 , not -32. Check carefully whether the students are able to use the calculator efficiently or not. If the question asks for answers to be rounded off to 2 decimal places, the working values should be rounded off to 3 or more decimal places.

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .

Solve equations involving use of the quadratic formula.

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SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

1.4 Algebraic Fractions (a) Addition and Subtraction

Go through the addition and subtraction of numeric fractions and stress on the need to find the LCM of the denominators. Perform addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions with numerical denominators and followed by algebraic denominators. Emphasise on putting brackets on denominators and numerators which are algebraic expressions before simplifying the numerator.

Caution on the common sign mistakes when expanding bracket with a “– “ before the bracket. (e.g. for – 2(x +3), some students may give as –2x + 6 Emphasise on the appropriate way to write the expression. E.g. (x – 4)2 should be written as 2(x – 4). Similarly, (2x)(4y) should be simplified to 8xy. Use the numerical fractions to recall the main idea, focussing on cancellation between numerators and denominators. For letter with powers, encourage the students to use the rules of indices. Do not encourage the students to expand brackets as brackets will help in final simplification. Guide students to transfer the techniques to multiplying and dividing algebraic fractions that require no factorisation. Multiply and divide algebraic fractions that require factorisation of the numerator and or the denominator.

(b) Multiplication and Division

Revise multiplication and division of arithmetic fractions. Explain the method of multiplying algebraic fractions. Explain the method of division involving algebraic fractions.

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1.5 Word Problems

Revise solving simple algebraic equations e. g. 3 – 2x = 7. Identify key words and use key words to translate word problems into an algebraic expression or equation e. g. “is” (means “=” ), older than, increase, twice, etc. Introduce symbols/letters to represent the unknown quantities and translate word problems into quadratic equations or algebraic fractional equations, algebraic expression or equation.

Start with situations which are easier for students to visualise. For e.g. the comparison of the ages of some people (common key words: older than, younger than etc). Introduce key words like twice, half, total, average, three times etc in each situation. Some students may find it hard to stop at situation like x +3. Very common to find this to be ‘simplified’ to 3x (Teachers must then stress that in Maths x +3 is a possible answers, so is x – 3 etc). Begin with problems involving quadratic equations, then introduce algebraic equations with numerical denominators and with three terms or less that are reducible to linear equations in one unknown, e. g.

Solve the algebraic equations and interpret the solutions obtained. For examples, refer to Past ‘O’ level Questions : Jun. 2002/Paper2/Qs.10, Nov.2000/Paper2/Qs.11, Nov.2002/Paper2/Qs.7.

⇒ 3 – x = 12

3x +1 5 x − =1 4 6

Provide examples with a variety of simple fractional equations. Proceed with examples where the denominator is in algebraic form and are reducible to linear

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equations in one unknown or to quadratic equations, e.g. 2 x −1 3x − =4 x −1 3x

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SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

2. VARIATIONS (1 week) 2.1 Direct Variation

Define direct variation as the relationship whereby one quantity increases as the other quantity increases in direct proportion and vice versa. Express a direct variation in the form of an equation involving two variables and use the equation to find unknown quantities.

Begin work on variation by using an example such as the price of a piece of cloth, c being proportional to its length, l, ie. c ∝ l . Show that the variables are in direct proportion, i.e.

c1 l1 = = k , constant of c2 l2

proportionality). Show how to form the equation connecting the variables: c = kl. Relate the equation to y = mx and explain that the graph of c against l is a straight line passing through the origin.

Explanations and examples of word problems involving direct and inverse variations at http://regentsprep.org/ regents/math/variation /pracdirect.htm http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bkc 15.pdf section 15.5 onwards

2.2 Inverse Variation

Define inverse variation as the relationship whereby one quantity increases as the other quantity decreases and vice versa. Explain that the two quantities are inversely proportional to each other. Express an inverse variation in the form of an equation involving two variables and use the equation to find unknown quantities.

Give an example that relates to the ‘Less men, more share” concept such as ‘If 12 men were to complete a job in 10 days, how long will it take to complete the job if 6 men work on it?’ Show that the variables are in inverse proportion, i.e. while

n1 12 2 = = n2 6 1

d1 10 1 = = . d 2 20 2

Explain that the product n x d is a constant. Show that if n varies

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 11 of 37

inversely as d, in notation,

n∝

1 k , then n = , d d

where k is a constant.

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3. COORDINATE GEOMETRY 2 (REVISIT) (1½ weeks) 3.1 Formulae for Distance, Mid-point and Gradient

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

http://www.mathsisfun .com/equation_of_line. html

Review formulae for distance, mid-point and gradient and solve problems that require the use of these formulae including finding one end-point of a line segment given the midpoint and one other end-point. [Remark : Covered in Topic 7 in Year 2]

http://www.mathsnet.n et/asa2/2004/c2.html# 2

3.2 Gradient and Parallel Lines

Solve problems on finding the gradient of a straight line and of lines parallel to a given straight line.

3.3 Equation of a Straight Line

Find the equation of the line when given - the gradient and the y-intercept, - one point and the gradient, - two points, - one point and the equation of a parallel line, - a diagram of a triangle or quadrilateral.

Introduce the use of y − y1 = m( x − x1) where ( x1 , y1 ) is any point on the line and m is the gradient.

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3.4 Miscellan eous Problems

Solve miscellaneous problems including finding coordinates of intersection points, the unknown x and y-coordinates, area of a triangle, etc.

Ensure that the students are able to state that the coordinates of the xintercept of a line is (x, 0) and y-intercept of a line is (0, y).

Content coverage

4. GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS (2 weeks) 4. 1 Constructing a table of values and drawing a smooth curve

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

** Construct tables of values for functions of the
**

form y = a x where n = −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3. Calculate the unknown y-value in the table of values for a given equation Explain the techniques of drawing graphs, stressing the importance of using the given scale and to plot points accurately, then draw a smooth curve through all the points. Get students to recognise the basic shapes of these graphs and sketch them. Interpret graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, reciprocal and exponential functions.

n

Begin with n = 0, 1 and show that they are straight lines. Proceed to n = 2 for the parabola, then n = 3 for the cubic function before n = −1 for the hyperbola and n = −2. Discuss the basic properties of the graphs for the different values of n. Advise students to memorise the basic shapes so that they can sketch the graphs easily. Explain that any function in the form y = a x n + c has a y-intercept of c as it is a translation of the graph of y = a x n upwards by c units. The x-intercept can be found by solving y = 0.

http://www.coolmath.c om/algebra/PreCalc/01 MoreGraphing/01_love graphs.htm

http://www.coolmath.c om/algebra/Algebra1/1 1Quadratics/07_introgr aphing.htm

http://www.mathsisfun .com/graph/index.html

4. 2 Finding the values of variables from a graph

** Determine from the graph the value of y, given
**

the value of x and vice versa, including maximum and minimum values.

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4. 3 Gradient of a curve

Estimate the gradient of a curve by drawing a tangent to the curve at the given point and explain that a tangent to a curve is a line that just touches the graph at that given point.

4. 4 Solve equations by graphical method 4.5 Graphs in practical situations

** Solve the equations of the form (i) f(x) = g(x),
**

(ii) f(x) = a (where a is a constant), using the graph drawn. Extend the skill in graph drawing to some practical situations (E.g. between height and time, profit and numbers of book printed etc)

Solve related problem using the graph drawn.

Content coverage

5. INEQUALITIES (1 ½ weeks) 5.1 Meaning and symbols

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Define the symbols used in inequalities : ‘<’ means less than, ‘>’ means greater than, ‘ ≤ ’ means less than or equal to and ‘ ≥ ’ means greater than or equal to. Compare the size of two numbers using the symbols ‘<’ and ‘>’.

Use the number line to aid in the understanding of the inequality symbols. Get students to read, e.g. x > 3 as x is greater than 3.

http://home.xnet.com/ ~fidler/triton/math/rev iew/mat085/linIneqone /ineql.htm

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5.2 Solve Linear Inequality

List the values of a linear inequality such as x ≥1 , x ≤ 2 , −2 < x ≤ 3 .

Represent the linear inequality on a number line and vice versa. (Emphasize that for < or > use a circle or dotted vertical line to mark the end point whereas for ≤ or ≥ use a dot or solid vertical line to mark the end point). Solve linear inequalities in one variable. Solve simultaneous linear inequalities in one variable. Determine the possible solutions or solution set of a given inequality under various conditions. Find the least and greatest sum, difference, product and quotient of two variables given in two separate inequalities. (include their squares)

Caution students about finding the greatest or least values of x2 where x is given as a range that stretches from negative to positive e.g. −5 ≤ x ≤ 3 .The greatest value of x2 is 25

and not 9 and the least value is 0.

Also for − 5 ≤ x ≤ −3 , the inequality for x2 is 9 ≤ x 2 ≤ 25 . 5.3 Graphical Representation of Inequalities Review sketching of straight lines and writing equations for lines in a given diagram. Remind students about the convention in using solid and dotted lines and indicate by a sketch, the region defined by an inequality (usually by shading the unwanted region). Write the inequalities which define a region (usually unshaded) where the equations of the boundary lines are given or not given. Explain how to obtain the region defined by a system of linear inequalities. Determine the maximum or minimum of ax +by for a defined region by evaluating the expression at the vertices of the polygon formed by the region.

http://www.coolmath.c om/ algebra/Algebra1/08Sy stem2x2/06_inequaliti es.htm

Caution the students to read the questions carefully as it is not always right to shade the unwanted region – sometimes the wanted region should be shaded.

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6. LIMITS OF ACCURACY (½ week) 6. 1 Significant Figures, Decimal Places and Estimation (Revisit) 6. 2 Upper and Lower Bounds

Review the technique of rounding off numbers to the required accuracies.

Introduce the concept of absolute error as

1× 2

smallest division of a measuring instrument, and so a measurement x is written as (x ± absolute error) where (x – absolute error) is the lower bound and (x + absolute error) is the upper bound. Give appropriate upper and lower bounds for data given to specified accuracy (e.g. measured lengths). Discuss the ideas of greatest and least values of sum, difference, product and quotient. Introduce the idea of lower bound and upper bound of a basic quantity from various types of statements. For example, (a) 8.6 cm measured correct to the nearest 0.1 cm, (b) 8300 correct to the nearest hundred Show the common ways of expressing all possible values of the given quantity ( l = 8.60 ± 0.05 cm or 8.55 cm ≤ l < 8.65 cm) and the method of obtaining the lower bound and upper bound from these expressions. Apply lower bound or upper bound of basic quantities to find the least possible and the greatest possible perimeter, area, volume, etc.

Use straight forward examples to determine upper and lower bounds of data. For example, a length, l, measured using an ordinary ruler as 3 cm (to the nearest millimetre) has an absolute error of

1× 2

0.1 cm = 0.05

cm. This gives a measurement of (3.00 ± 0.05) cm which has a lower bound of 2.95 cm and an upper bound of 3.05 cm. Show that this information can be written using inequality signs e.g. 2.95 cm ≤ l < 3.05 cm.

Investigate upper and lower bounds for quantities calculated from given formulae by specifying the accuracy of the input data. Discuss further examples on lower and upper bound which includes: 5.62 correct to 3 sig. figures,

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SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

24.9 correct to 1 decimal place. In each example, prompt the students to state any possible value which gives the stated value after rounding off according to the accuracy stated. Lead them to arrive at the lowest possible value (lower bound) and the largest possible value (upper bound).

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7. TRAVEL GRAPHS (1 ½ weeks) 7. 1 Distance-time graph

** Draw and interpret qualitatively distance-time
**

graphs (horizontal line – stationary, sloping line – uniform speed, convex curve – speed is decreasing and concave curve – speed is increasing). State that the gradient of the graph is the rate of change of the distance with respect to time, i.e. speed. Use the formula Average Speed =

**Total distance travelled . Total time taken
**

Solve problems involving distance – time graphs. 7. 2 Graph Speed- time

Present a distance-time graph and have students to create their own story describing the journey represented by the graph. Proceed to introduce the terms constant or uniform speed, stationary, forward journey and returned journey. Extend to distance-time graph with non-uniform speed, which is a curve. Discuss that if the rate is constant, the speed-time graph will be a straight line whose gradient is: - positive, when the speed is increasing (accelerating) uniformly, - negative, when the speed is decreasing (retarding) uniformly, - zero, when the speed is constant (i.e. no acceleration).

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/ph ysics/forces_and_moti on/representing_motio nrev5.shtml http://www.regentspre p.org/Regents/physics/ phys-topic.cfm? Course=PHYS&Topchi cCode=01a

** Draw and interpret qualitatively speed-time
**

graphs (horizontal line – constant speed, sloping line – uniform acceleration or retardation, curve – non-uniform acceleration or retardation). State that the gradient of the graph is the rate of change of the speed with respect to time, i.e. acceleration (positive gradient) or retardation (negative gradient).

** State that the distance travelled is equal to the
**

area under a speed-time graph and use it to solve related problems. Solve problems on the speed-time graph including finding the speed at a particular time. Sketch the distance-time or acceleration-time graph from the given speed-time graph.

**Extend the discussion to the speed-time graph which accelerate or decelerate
**

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with non-uniform speeds. In this case the graph shows a curve.

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8. FUNCTION NOTATION (1 week) 8.1 Introduction of Function and Evaluation of f(x)

Explain the meaning of a function as a relationship that maps an element of one set onto one and only one element in another set. Explain that for an object x, the image of x under function f is f(x) and introduce the domain as the set of objects and the range as the set of images. Emphasize that there are two ways to indicate the function notation i. e. f(x) = 3x – 5 read as “f of x is equal to 3x – 5” and f : x 3x – 5 as “f maps x onto 3x – 5”. Find the image of a function by evaluating f(x).

Introduce a function, using diagrams, as a one-one mapping or many-one mapping. Show that a function has a one-to-one mapping or many-to-one mapping (i.e. it has exactly one image only). Evaluate f(x) for specific values of x, describing the functions using f(x) notation and mapping notation.

Connect this to y = 3x – 5. Here we say that y is the function of x and f(x) = 3x – 5 is the same as y = 3x – 5.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ education/asguru/mat hs/13pure/02functions /index.shtml has some work on inverse functions. Also search for functions at http://www.learn.co.uk /

8.2 Finding and Evaluating Inverse Function

Explain the meaning of an inverse function and the notation used to represent an inverse function. Explain the method of finding an expression for the inverse function and evaluate the inverse function at a given value of x. Explain the method of evaluating an inverse function without having to find the expression for the inverse function first 1 e. g. To find f − ( 4) given the function f(x) = 3x – 5, we let 1 f − ( 4) = x. The solution can then be found by solving f(x) = 4, giving 3x – 5 = 4 , then x = 3.

**Introduce the inverse function as an operation which ‘undoes’ the effect of a function i.e. when f : x y, then f −1 : y →x or when f( x) =
**

1 y, then f − ( y ) = x . Point out that only one-toone function has an inverse.

Evaluate simple inverse functions for specific values, describing the functions using f -1(x) notation and mapping notation.

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8.3 Solving Equations Involving Functions

Solve equations involving functions using given information e.g. given f(x) = 4, f(x) = g(x) , etc.

Content coverage

9. ARITHMETIC (3 weeks) 9.1 More on H.C.F. and L.C.M.

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Review common factors and common multiples. Give students practice on word problems involving HCF / LCM, for example, refer to past ‘O’ level questions : Nov.1998/Paper1/Qs.5 , Nov.1999/Paper1/Qs.10.

9.2 Squares, square roots, cubes and cube roots of numbers

**Evaluating without using calculator, square root for perfect squares and non-perfect squares.
**

Example 1 Find (a) Example 2 Given [ 3.2 =1.8 8 , 7 0 evaluate (i)

2

1 , (b) 4

0.0009 , (c)

12100

.

**32 .7 =5.718 , 0.00327
**

.

3270 , (ii)

Find the cube root for cubic numbers.

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9.3 Directed numbers

** Use directed numbers in practical situations such
**

as in temperature change and tide levels.

Use number line to aid addition and subtraction of positive and negative numbers. Illustrate by using practical examples, e.g. temperature change and tide levels. Stress that when finding difference or change, always take the higher value subtract the lower value.

http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bkb 10.pdf has work on directed numbers. Weather statistics for over 16000 cities at http://www.weatherba se.com/

9.4 Time

Calculate time in terms of the 12-hour and 24hour clock: read clocks, dials and timetables. Convert between hours, minutes and seconds.

Find the sum and differences of times.

Let students practise in finding information from time schedules. Calculate time difference, departure time, arrival time and time taken for a plane/train to travel from one place to another. Suggestion: Instead of thinking of a clock as a round thing, it is easier to see the relationship of starting time, duration of time and finishing time if we think of it as a straight line. This is especially useful in situation where the finishing time is on the next day. Ensure that the students are able to convert between hours, minutes and seconds before finding the sum and difference of times.

Use locally-published timetables e.g. for buses. Practice using timetables is at http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bkb 8.pdf.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/ph ysics/forces_and_moti on/representing_motio nrev2.shtml

Explain the idea on local time and the terms used, (e.g. BSB is 8 hours ahead of

Caution

the

students

to

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SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

London) and the method of finding local time.

write the final answer for time correctly (e.g. arrival time is 13 45 and not 13 hours 45 minutes. Flight time is 8 hours 30 minutes and not 08 30).

9.5

Financial Transaction and Percentage

Solve word problems involving financial transactions (review cost price, selling price, discounts, profit, loss, hire purchase, simple interest and commissions). Examples of ‘O’ Level questions : Nov 2000/P2/Q1,Nov 2002/P2/Q6 Solve word problems involving percentages – calculate a given percentage of a quantity; express one quantity as a percentage of another; percentage increase or decrease; calculations involving reverse percentages.

http://www.financefrea k.com/

Content coverage

10. CONGRUENCE AND SIMILARITY (2 weeks) 10.1 Congruence

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

http://www.coolmath.c om/ congruent.html http://regentsprep.org/ Regents/math/congrue n/Ttriangles.htm http://www.gcseguide. co.uk/

** Meaning of congruent figures.
**

Understand and apply the tests for congruent triangles (SSS, SAS, ASA or AAS and RHS) Solve problems and give simple explanations involving congruent triangles.

Discuss the conditions for congruent triangles.

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10.2 Similarity

** Meaning of similar figures. Understand and apply the tests for similar
**

triangles. Test 1: Two pairs of corresponding angles are equal. Test 2: Corresponding sides are in proportion. Test 3: Two pairs of sides are in the same ratio and their included angles are equal. Solve problems and give simple explanations involving similarity.

Use the fact that corresponding sides are in the same ratio to calculate the length of an unknown side.

similar_triangles.htm http://regentsprep.org/ Regents/math/similar/ Lstrategy.htm http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/ mepres/book9/y9s14o s.pdf http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/ mepres/book9/y9s14o s.pdf http://www.bbc.co.uk/ schools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapeih/areaandv olumerev1shtml

10.3 Areas of Similar Plane Figures

** When two figures are similar, the ratio of the
**

areas = (the ratio of the corresponding lengths)2 i.e.

A1 l1 = . A2 l 2

2

Note that other then corresponding length, the corresponding height, or sides can also be used.

** Use this relationship to solve problems on
**

areas of similar plane figures. 10.4 Surface Areas and Volumes of Similar Solids

** For two geometrically similar solids,
**

Ratio of the surface area = (ratio of the corresponding lengths)2 i.e.

SA1 l1 = SA2 l 2

.

3

2

Ratio of the volumes = (ratio of the

**l V corresponding lengths) i.e. 1 = 1 . V2 l 2
**

3

** Use these relationships to solve problems on
**

surface areas and volumes of geometrically similar solids.

Find in terms of π the surface area and volume of spheres of radius 1 cm and 2 cm and compare the results. Try with 3 cm and 5 cm radii and compare the results of these two circles with the circle of radius 1cm. Show how to relate some situations to length or area or volume. E.g. Price of drink in a container is proportional to the volume of the drink. Cost of painting the surface of a container is proportional to its area etc.

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10.5 Scales and Map problems

Interpret the scale 1 : n as 1 cm on the map is equivalent to n cm on the ground. Calculate the actual distance between two places on a map, given its scale. Explain the ideas of linear scale, area scale and volume scale and the method of obtaining one scale from the other. the ratio of the areas = (the ratio of the corresponding lengths)

2

Measure the dimensions of the classroom, including doors and windows. Use a suitable scale, draw a plan of the classroom on paper. Then calculate the area of the classroom floor and the volume of the classroom. Require students to bring their atlas or geography book and apply their knowledge on maps and scales to find the actual distance between towns.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/ge ography/geogskills/ge ogskillsmapsrev1.shtm l

A l i.e. 1 = 1 , A2 l 2 SA1 l1 = SA2 l 2 ,

3 2

2

Ratio of the surface area = (ratio of the corresponding lengths)2 i.e.

Ratio of the volumes = (ratio of the

**l V corresponding lengths) i.e. 1 = 1 . V2 l 2
**

3

e.g. Linear scale is 1cm : 5 km, Area scale is 1cm 2 : 25 km 2 and ∴ volume scale is 1cm 3 :125 km 3 . Explain the method of changing units (linear, area and volume units). Calculate the distance on a map given the scale and actual distance.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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Content coverage

11. SYMMETRY (1 week) 11.1 Line Symmetry

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Introduce the idea of symmetry of plane figures in general using practical examples like paper folding, mirror images, live examples from nature such as leaves and flowers, models, etc. Recognise symmetrical figures, identify the lines of symmetry and determine the number of lines of symmetry. Complete the missing part of a figure, given its line(s) of symmetry. Guide students to discover that a circle has an infinite number of lines of symmetry.

Use paper cuttings and foldings to demonstrate that certain shapes have lines of symmetry whereas others may not have any. Get students to use papers and scissors to design shapes that have one line of symmetry and others that have more lines of symmetry. Select students’ cut-outs and paste them on a chart showing the shapes and the number of lines of symmetry.

http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bka 3.pdf has useful work on symmetry

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shape/symmetryr ev2.shtml has interactive demonstrations and

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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11.2 Rotational Symmetry

Introduce the idea of rotational symmetry. Recognise figures which possess rotational symmetry and identify figures that have no rotational symmetry. Determine the centre of rotation and state the order of rotational symmetry for given figures, shapes and logos. Give examples of point of symmetry, noting that the centre of rotational symmetry is a point of symmetry if the order of rotational symmetry of the figure is a multiple of 2. Discuss the symmetric properties of equilateral and isosceles triangles, square, rectangle, rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium and kite.

Introduce the idea of rotation by demonstration using a teaching aid. A rotational symmetry board can be made as follows: 1. Draw on a manila card: rectangle, equilateral triangle, square, rhombus, regular pentagon, parallelogram, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle and trapezium. 2. Draw the same figures on another manila card of different colour and cut out the figures. 3. Secure the cut-outs over their respective figures on the big card (Step 1) using pins through the centre of rotation. 4. Rotate the cut-outs one by one and explain the idea of rotational symmetry. Note the cut outs rotate about the fixed point called the centre of rotation.

information about symmetry

Content coverage

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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11.3 Symmetrical Properties of Regular Polygons

Discuss line symmetry and rotational symmetry properties of the regular polygons: equilateral triangle, square and other regular polygons.

Give materials to students to design shapes with specified number of lines of symmetry specified order of rotational symmetry

Find the lines of symmetry, the centre and the order of rotational symmetry of the regular polygons.

An example is this figure with order of rotational symmetry =6

11.4 Symmetry in Solids

Introduce the idea of symmetry of solids in general using models such as cubes, cuboids, cylinders, cones and pyramids, etc. Recognise symmetry with respect to a plane. Explain the technique to identify an axis of rotational symmetry of a solid with its respective order of rotational symmetry. Discuss solids with an infinite number of plane symmetry such as spheres, cylinders, etc.

Ask the students to construct the prisms to enable them to see the symmetry properties more easily. Cut the solids into two equal parts and identify the plane of symmetry. Give examples of solids with no plane symmetry such as irregular solids.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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Content coverage

12. PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES (2½ weeks) 12.1 Symmetry Properties of Circles

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Identify the terms circumference, radius, diameter, chord, segment (major and minor), sector, arc and semicircle. Use the following symmetry properties of circles to calculate unknown sides and angles and give simple explanations: (a) equal chords are equidistant from the centre, (b) the perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre, (c) a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius of the circle at point of contact, (d) two tangents from an external point to a circle are equal in length, (e) the angle between two tangents drawn from an external point to a circle is bisected by the line through the external point and the centre of the circle. Identify and use the following angles properties of circles to calculate the unknown angles and give simple explanations: (a) angle at the centre is twice angle at the circumference, (b) angle in semicircle is equal to 90°, (c) angle in the same segment are equal, (d) angles in opposite segments (or opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral) add up to 180°, (e) external angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle, (f) angles in alternate segments are equal,

12.2

Angles Properties of Circles

Let the students explore the properties of chords and tangents by drawing diagrams and cut out. Measure the lengths and angles to see the relationships and hence generalize the properties. (Use the properties of isosceles triangles, congruent triangle and the exterior angle to a triangle, etc.) Have students paste all the cut out circles onto their note books. Explain the term tangent as the line which touches the circle at only one point. Make students practise drawing tangents.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapes/circles2hir ev10.shtml Sections 3.8 and 3.9 of http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bka 3.pdf There are interactive investigations about the angle properties at http://teachers.henrico .k12.va.us/math/rd03/ GeometryActs/CircleA ngle01.html Discovering Mathematics 3A, Unit 6.

Let students explore the angles properties of circles by using diagrams. Require students to measure the angles or use paper cut out to compare the angle size and their relationship. Hence generalize the properties. Caution: for the correct pair on angle at the centre, angle at the circumference and angle in the same segment, both angles must be

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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subtended by the same chord (usually the chord is not drawn). Emphasize that in cyclic quadrilateral all the four vertices of the quadrilateral touches the circumference of the circle.

Content coverage

13. TRIGONOMETRY (4 weeks) 13.1 Solutions of Rightangled Triangles 13.2 Sine Rule

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Review trigonometric ratios of sine, cosine and tangent (SOH, CAH, TOA) and Pythagoras’ theorem and use them to find the unknown angles or sides in a given right-angled triangle. State the sine rule. Use the sine rule to solve non right-angled triangles. Draw triangle ABC with AB = 6 cm, BC = 7 cm and CA= 8 cm. Measure angles A, B and C. Calculate (i)

http://www.mathsnet.n et/asa2/2004/c2.html# 4

**AB BC , (ii) and (iii) sin C sin A CA . sin B
**

Repeat the above activity using AB= 10.6 cm, BC = 7.2 cm and CA = 9.3 cm.

http://www.waldomath s.com/SinRule1NL.jsp

13.3 Cosine Rule

State the cosine rule.

Use the cosine rule to solve non right-angled triangles.

Draw triangle ABC with a = 8 cm, b = 6 cm and c = 7 cm. Measure ∠ . C Calculate (i) Cos C and

http://www.sailingissu es.com/navcourse4.ht ml Maps from around the world at http://www.theodora.c om/maps/abc_world_m aps.html

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Point out the situations when sine rule and cosine rule should be used.

a 2 + b2 − c2 (ii) . Repeat 2ab

the above activity using a = 6.5 cm, b = 8.5 cm and

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

c = 10 cm.

13.4 Area of Triangle

** State the formula of the area of triangle =
**

1 ab sin C . 2

** Use the formula to solve related problems.
**

13.5 Bearings

** Find the bearing of a point from another point
**

(always measure clockwise from the north line and the bearing must be stated in three digits). Recall the angle properties of parallel lines, angles at a point and angle properties of triangle and use these properties to solve problems on bearings. Solve trigonometric problems (include problems incorporating speed, distance and time).

Identify places according to their bearings and distances from a given place, or according to their bearings from two different places.

Content coverage

13.6 Three Dimensional Problems

**Scope and Development
**

Identify right angles in diagrams of 3-D objects (e.g. prisms, pyramids, wedges etc). From the 3-D diagram, draw right-angled triangles using horizontal and vertical lines instead of slant lines as seen from the 3-D diagram. Use the right-angled triangles drawn to solve the problems. Solve problems involving angle of elevation and angle of depression, stressing that these are angles between the line of sight and the

Suggested Activities

Include cases where sine / cosine rule may be used to solve 3 –D problems

Resources

Various problems at http://nrch.maths.org/ public/leg.php

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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horizontal. Include problems on finding the greatest angle of elevation.

Content coverage

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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14. MENSURATION (2 weeks) 14.1 Perimeter and Area (a) Perimeter and Area of Common Figures Review formulae for perimeter and area of squares, rectangles, triangles, the area of parallelograms and trapeziums, circumference and area of circles. Revise, using straightforward examples, how to calculate the perimeter and area of squares, rectangles and triangles, the area of parallelograms and trapeziums. It may be helpful to show students how the area formulae for parallelograms and trapeziums may be obtained by splitting them into two triangles. Also, revise the calculation of circumference and area of a circle, then, by using the concept of direct proportion, show how to derive the formula for arc length and sector area. For perimeter of a composite figure, start from any point at the edge of the figure, go around the figure along the edge until the starting point is reached. The perimeter is the sum of all the sides. For area of a composite figure, draw dotted lines to subdivide the composite figure into common figures. Find the area of each common figure. Add the area of all common figures in the filled (usually

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(b) Arc Length and Area of Sector

Review parts of a circle – chord, arc, sectors and segments. Show the relation between arc length and circumference. Show the relation between the area of sector and area of circle. Solve problems involving the perimeter and area of common figures including the arc length and the area of sector of a circle.

Background about the formulae for area and circumference, and π may be found at http://www-gap.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/His tTopics/Pi through the ages.html Revision site for arcs and sectors at http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapeih/circlesan glesarcsandsectorsrev 3.shtml

(c) Perimeter and Area of Composite Figures

Solve problems involving the perimeter and area of composite figures including finding the area of a segment.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

shaded) region and subtract all those which are ‘holes’ (usually unshaded).

Content coverage

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Page 34 of 37

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

14.2 Surface Area and Volume. (a) Total Surface Area and Volume of Common Solids (b) Total Surface Area and Volume of Pyramids, Cones and Spheres Review formulae for surface area and volume of cubes, cuboids, prisms and cylinders. Introduce total surface area and volume of pyramids, cones and spheres. Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of cubes, cuboids, prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres (formulae will be given for pyramid, cone and sphere). Draw the nets of some prisms and construct the prisms. This activity could be set as a task to design a storage container, leading to the discussion of surface area and volume. Show by using sand/coloured water the relation between volume of pyramids and prisms of the same base area. Using the same method to show that volume of cone is 1/3 of that of a cylinder of the same base. For composite solids, subdivide it into common solids and find the volume of each of them. Then add or subtract accordingly. http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapeih/index.sht ml

** Solve problems involving surface area and
**

(c) Total Surface Area and Volume of Composite Solids volume of various composite solids including problems on the mass of an object using the relation that mass = density × volume.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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Content coverage

15. SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIONS AND LOCI (2 weeks) 15.1 Simple Constructions

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Construct simple geometrical figures such as triangle or quadrilateral from given data. Construct angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors and parallel lines.

Revise on constructing triangles from different data, given three sides, a side and two angles, or two sides and an angle. Include also construction of some other geometrical figures, such as some quadrilaterals.Give further practice in constructing perpendicular and angle bisectors.

http://www.mathforum .org/library/topics/cons tructions has links for teachers about constructions, giving background and ideas

15.2 Scale Drawing

Read and make scale drawings.

Apply the construction skills to making scale drawings, using simple scales only. Draw various situations to scale and interpret results, for example, draw a plan of a room to scale and use it to determine the area of carpet needed to cover the floor.

http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bka 3.pdf has work on scale drawings at section 3.7

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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15.3 Locus

Use the following loci and the method of intersecting loci: (a) sets of points in two or three dimensions (i) which are at a given distance from a given point, (ii) which are at a given distance from a given straight line, (iii) which are equidistant from two given points. (b) sets of points in two dimensions which are equidistant from two given intersecting straight lines.

Introduce the idea of locus by using examples in the classroom. ‘I want to stay 1 m from this chair/ from this wall. Where can I go?’ or ask students to imagine a point marked at the end of a blade of the ceiling fan and follow its path as the fan moves. Generalise the method to memorise: One point implies circle, Two points implies perpendicular bisector, One line implies parallel lines, Two intersecting lines implies angle bisectors. Progress using pencil and paper to draw accurate scale drawings to represent loci in two dimensions. Include examples of intersecting loci, for example, given a diagram showing the positions of villages A and B: ‘Ali lives less than 4 km from village A. He lives nearer to village B than to village A. Shade the region where Ali lives.’

http://www.ex.ac.uk./ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bkc 14.pdf

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 9 Fast Track (2 + 2)

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