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1. MATRICES

(2 weeks)

1.1 Introduction and Define matrix (plural matrices) as a Introduce matrix by displaying http://www.sosmath.c

Basic rectangular array of elements information in the form of matrices of om/matrix/matrix0/ma

Definition (usually numbers) arranged in rows different orders. trix0.html

and columns. For examples : has introduction to

a) The marks of two students in matrix algebra.

Explain that a matrix with m rows English, Science and History:

and n columns is said to have order Student A obtained 70 marks for

m x n (read as m by n). English,

87 marks for Science and 56 marks

for History. Student B obtained 72

Define the different types of marks for English, 80 marks for

matrices: row matrix, column matrix, Science and 70 marks for History.

square matrix, diagonal matrix, null

7 80 57 6

matrix, identity matrix or unit matrix

and equal matrix.

or

70 72

87 80

56 70

7 82 70 0

2 items on 2 successive days:

Thursday : 10 bags, 12 belts;

Friday : 8 bags, 5 belts.

10 12 10 8

8

or

12 5

5

Explain briefly how the matrix is

formed and what each row and

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 1 of 27

column represent.

1.2 Matrix Addition, Show the addition and subtraction of When doing subtraction, give strong

Subtraction and two matrices. emphasis that the minus sign should

Multiplication by a not be touched when multiplying the

Scalar scalar of the second matrix with the

Show the multiplication of a matrix elements of that matrix. For example,

by a scalar quantity. 2 −3 −1 5

4

− 2

=

1 1 −5

2 −3 −2 10

4

−

1 2 −10

A common mistake at this step is

2 −3 2 −10

4

− 2 10

1

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 2 of 27

1.3 Matrix Multiplication Explain the technique of the Use real life example to show the logic

multiplication of two matrices. of multiplying row with column. You

Emphasize that two matrices can may use the example stated above.

only be multiplied when the number That is considering the sales of a

of columns in the first matrix is the department store for the 2 items on 2

same as the number of rows in the successive days. In addition, let the

second matrix. price of the bag be $8 per piece and

the belt at $3 per piece.

Present the above information in

Show the results that AB ≠ BA.

matrix form. Explain clearly how to

(except for multiplication by

calculate the total amount of money

identity matrix

received by the store for the two days

where IA = AI).

sales.

Explain how the row in the first matrix

is related to the column in the second

matrix so that it can be multiplied.

Hence, generalize the technique and

proceed to show the technique of

multiplication of two (2 x 2)

matrices and matrices of different

orders:

(a) Label the rows of the first matrix

R1, R2 etc and the columns of the

second matrix C1, C2 etc and then

calculate R1C1, R1C2 etc outside

the main step. After multiplying all

the rows and columns, write down

all the products follow the row and

column numbers in the resultant

matrix.

(b) Making summary “Row x Column”.

(c) Stress on the importance of

correct order for

the answer.

1.4 Matrix Equations Solve matrix equation where the

unknowns are elements.

Solve matrix equation where the

unknown is a matrix.

1.5 Determinant and Define the determinant of a matrix, if Caution students on the common

Inverse mistake of using “+” instead of “−”

a b

of a 2 x 2 Matrix A =

c , then det A= when calculating determinant because

d

sometimes they can get mixed up with

A =ad −bc . the procedure in doing multiplication

Calculate the determinant of a matrix. of matrices.

Define non-singular matrix as matrix

whose determinant is non-zero and

singular matrix as matrix whose

determinant is zero and it has no

inverse.

Show the method of finding the

inverse of a non- singular matrix.

1 d −b

(A −1 = ).

det A

−c a

Solve problems with given value of

determinant and find the unknown

element in the matrix.

Find unknown element in matrix which

has no inverse.

1.6 Identity Matrix Explain that an identity matrix, I is a

square matrix whose elements in the

principal diagonal are 1 and the

other elements are zero. e.g. I =

1 0 0

1 0

0 1 , 0 1 0 .

0 0 1

Show using examples the properties

that

IA = AI = I, AA −1 = I and A −1 A =

I.

1.7 Application of Show how to place data into matrix Recall the example given in section

Matrices form and interpret elements in a 1.3.

matrix as related to the given To interpret the result of multiplication

information. of two matrices, guide the students to

tell what is the quantity in the first

matrix (R1) and what is the quantity in

Show how to solve the problems and

the second matrix (C1) and when

hence interpret the results.

these two quantities (R1 and C1) are

multiplied, what do we obtain?

Also in situations where there are

more than one element in each row of

the first matrix, what do we obtain

when the products are added (i.e.

R1C1+ R2 C2 etc)?

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

2. TRANSFORMATIONS

(5 weeks)

2.1 Translation Introduce translation as a Explain that transformations act upon http://www.bbc.co.uk/s

transformation that moves all object points would change them (in chools/gcsebitesize/m

objects through a fixed distance in a terms of position) into image points. aths/

fixed direction. When an object figure is transformed shape/transformations

Show examples where students have into an image figure, there could be rev1.shtml

to find images of the figures when changes in the shape and size of the

given a translation in a diagram or image. The transformations of

description in words. translation, reflection and rotation are

isometric as they do not cause any

Describe fully in words the changes in shape or size i.e. the

translation given in a diagram by objects and images are congruent.

h

stating the translation vector

k

.

2.2 Reflection Introduce reflection as a Relate reflection to study of reflection

transformation that reflects an of light in science as the same

object point in the line of reflection properties apply especially the

onto its image point. Discuss concept of lateral inversion.

properties of reflection in terms of

the object distance equals the image

distance and the line of reflection is

perpendicular to the line joining the

object point and the image point.

Show examples where students have

to draw the images for individual

points when given a line of

This property is important as it helps

reflection. Focus on the x- and y-

students to distinguish between a

axes, lines parallel to the axes, y = x

reflection and a rotation when asked

and y = −x.

to describe a transformation.

Extend the concept to figures and

show that if ∆ABC is labelled in the

clockwise direction, then the image,

∆A1B1C1 will be in the

anticlockwise direction and vice

versa.

Given a point P and its image P1 on a

diagram, explain that the line of

reflection is actually the

perpendicular bisector of the line PP1.

and describe the reflection fully by

stating the equation of the line of

reflection.

2.3 Rotation Introduce rotation as a Show that ∆ABC and its image

transformation that moves an object ∆A1B1C1 are labelled in the same

point through a fixed angle about a sense which distinguishes a rotation

centre of rotation in a certain from a reflection.

direction.

Show examples where students have

to draw the images for figures under

a given rotation. Focus on rotations

of multiples of 90°.

Given a diagram showing an object

and its image, explain that the

centre of rotation is the point of

intersection of the perpendicular

bisectors of two lines, each joining

one object point to its image point.

Stress that a rotation must be

described fully by stating the centre

of rotation, the angle and direction

(except 180o rotation) it moves

through.

2.4 Enlargement Introduce enlargement as a Introduce enlargement as a

transformation that changes the transformation that is not isometric

position of an object point from a and the size of the figure changes but

centre of enlargement by a scale the shape remains the shape. This

factor k. means that the object and image are

Show that when k > 0, the image is on similar.

the same side of the centre as the

object and when k < 0, the object and Use the work on similar figures to link

image are on opposite sides. to enlargement.

Draw images for objects given the Derive the ratio for similar triangles

description of the enlargement. and relate it to the scale factor of

Show that when k > 1, the image is enlargement

enlarged and when k < 1, the

image is reduced and introduce the Show that an enlargement of scale

concept that factor k will produce an area

area of image enlargement of scale factor k 2 and

= (scale factor) 2 in volume scale factor of k 3.

area of object

relation to similar figures.

Given a diagram showing an object

and its image, explain that the centre

of enlargement, C, is the point of

intersection of the two lines, each

joining one object point P to its image

point P1 and the scale factor,

CP1

k= .

CP

Stress that an enlargement must be

described fully by stating the centre of

enlargement and its scale factor

(positive or negative).

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

2.5 Shear Stack up some books (same height)) http://www.mathsisfun

Introduce shear as a transformation on the table. Use a ruler and apply a .com/definitions/trans

that moves an object point parallel horizontal shear force to the books. formation.html

to a line called the invariant line (x- Indicate the three obvious effects:

axis or y-axis). http://www.bbc.co.uk/s

(i) the book on the table does not

chools/gcsebitesize/m

move. Use this effect to explain

Stress that points on invariant line aths/shape/transforma

the meaning of invariant line.

do not move under a shear. tionsrev1.shtml

(ii) all the books’ movement are

Give the definition of shear factor parallel to the table top. Use this

and show how to apply the definition effect to explain that a shear

to locate the position of the image moves points parallel to the

point. invariant line.

(Caution on situations where the (iii) The higher the books’ height,

object point is the more it moves. Use this

on the negative region of the effect to explain the definition of

invariant line and shear factor.

also where the shear factor is

negative). To show that size does not change

under a shear, apply the formula for

Given a shear and a figure (e.g. area of triangle (1/2 × base

triangle), draw and label the image × height) on both the object and

of the figure. image (this is a good revision to find

the area of a triangle when it is drawn

Recognise a shear by its properties, on a grid).

i.e. changing in shape but not in

size.

Given an object figure and its image

figure, describe a shear completely

(the description must include the

word shear, the invariant line and

the shear factor).

http://mathworld.wolfr

2.6 Stretch Use a geoboard and rubber bands to

am.com/Stretch.html

Introduce stretch as a show a stretch. Indicate the three

transformation that moves an object effects:

point perpendicular to a line called (i) All points on the invariant line

the invariant line (x-axis or y-axis). do not move,

Stress that points on the invariant (ii) every point moves

line do not move under a stretch. perpendicular to the invariant

line,

Give the definition of stretch factor (iii) the amount of movement of

and show how to apply the definition any point depends on its

to locate the position of the image distance from the invariant line.

point.

Given a stretch and a figure (e.g.

triangle), draw and label the image.

Recognize a stretch by its

properties. A stretch changes both

the shape and size (the object can

become bigger or smaller) of the

object.

Given an object figure and its image

figure, describe a stretch completely

(the description must include the

word stretch, the invariant line and

the stretch factor).

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

2.7 Combined

Transformation Explain the notation used for single

transformation (e.g. T(A) is the

image of A under the Translation, T).

Explain the notation used for

combined transformation (e.g. ET(A)

is the image of point A under the

translation ,T followed by the

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 10 of 27

Enlargement, E).

Given an object figure and a

combined transformation, either

expressed in notation or in words,

draw and label the image figure.

Transformations Use the idea that a transformation matrices. du/~verrill/teaching/lin

maps an object to an image to earalgebra/linal

establish the quantitative http://www.uz.ac.zw/sc

relationship (Matrix)× (Object) = ience/maths/zimaths/7

3/sheila.html

(Image), except for Translation is

(Matrix) + (Object)= (Image). /linalg5.html

http://www.mathsfiles.

Represent the object as a matrix com/excel/MatrixTrans

with x-coordinates as the Notes1.htm

elements in the first row and y-

coordinates as the elements in the http://www.uz.ac.zw/sc

second row. ience/maths/zimaths/7

3/sheila.html

Use the results of the multiplication

of (Matrix) × (Object) to indicate

the coordinates of the various image

points corresponding to each object

Extend the idea of (Matrix) × (Object)

point. 1 0

= (Image) and the idea of M 0 1

Given a transformation represented = M to show that the matrix

by a matrix and a figure, find the representing a given transformation

coordinates of the image points and can be obtained by mapping the point

draw and label the image. (1, 0) and (0, 1) to their respective

images under that transformation. The

Write down a matrix which elements of the matrix are the

represents a given transformation. coordinates of the images in that

order.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 11 of 27

3. VECTORS Use 3.1 and 3.2 to explain the basic

(2½ weeks) concepts on vectors. Then apply

these basic concepts in the three

types of questions with reference to http://www.bbc.co.uk/s

sections 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5. chools/gcsebitesize/m

3.1 Representation of Define a vector as a quantity which aths/datahandlingfi/pr

Vectors has both magnitude and direction. Explain why it is important to include obabilityrev1.shtml

direction when stating a quantity. For

example, when directing a tourist to http://standards.nctm.

the taxi station which is about 50m to org/document/exampl

the right of the junction. es/chap7/7.1/part2.ht

m has interactive work

Link vector to some vector quantities about vectors sums.

Show the representation of vectors in Physics like velocity, acceleration,

in diagram and how to write and force etc. Go to

name a vector. Students are http://www.standards.

expected to write vector a by Draw a few vectors and use the nctm.org/and click the

underlining, a . diagrams to guide the students to search button to find

write down and say out each vector resources on other

correctly. topics from site.

→ →

AB = BA but

A B≠

Explain that http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci

BA

mt/mepres/allgcse/bkc

→ 19.pdf is a chapter

Stress that should be read as

AB about vectors

vector AB and not merely AB .

Similarly, p or p should be read as

vector p and not merely p.

Tell the students that p and p are the

same and it is easier to write p as p

Show the representation of the in their work. Check that they do not

‘value’ of a vector using column write p as vector p.

x → x

vectors, a = y or AB =y. When finding the column vector

representing a vector drawn on a grid,

Describe what each element in the

it is important to stress on the

column vector represents.

systematic procedure, i.e. from the

Show how to draw the vector on a initial point, move left or right first

grid when given a column vector and followed by up or down to reach the

vice versa. final point so that the two values will

be written at the correct positions.

of the given vector, which is parallel

(a) and equal (equivalent vector),

(b) but not equal,

(c) but opposite.

3.2 Vector Addition and Explain how to express a vector as Use the idea of routes for an effective

Scalar Multiplication the addition and subtraction explanation on vector addition.

of Vectors (equivalent to addition of negative For example, to go from A to B is

vector) of two or more vectors. the same as from A to C and

then from C to B. So

→ → →

Explain triangle law and parallelogram C

AB = AC + CB .

law.

A B

intermediate points.

For example, to go from A to D,

→ → → →

AD = AB + BC + CD or

→ → →

AD = AC + CD

B C

A D

concept, it is important to train

the students to be able to write

down the statement correctly.

One way to achieve this is to

give a few complete statements

and guide the students to

observe the pattern. Then

prepare a set of partially

complete statements and have

the students complete them.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 14 of 27

2

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

vector using vector addition is to

write the statement under the

influence of the vectors given.

→

For example, to find BC with

→ →

and AC given, some

AB

students may write

→ → →

BC = AB + AC .

making this mistake is to leave

the intermediate letter

then look at the question to

search for the other relevant

letter. In this case, it is A. This

will lead to the correct statement

→ → →

BC = BA+ AC . Use the idea of

→ →

negative vector, i.e.

BA = − AB to

obtain the next statement

→ → →

BC = − AB + AC .

3.3 Column Vector Derive and use the formula for the

magnitude of a column vector and

explain the symbol used to

represent the magnitude.

Derive and use the formula for the

gradient of the line represented by

a column vector.

Explain and discuss how to use the

relationship between the elements

of two column vectors which are

parallel

Use Vector Addition together with

negative vector if necessary to find

unknown column vector

3.4 Position Vectors Explain that if P is the position of a Stress that position vector must start

point with respect to the origin, O in from the origin.

a Cartesian plane, then the vector Make generalization that for questions

OP is known as the position vector on vector, if coordinates of points are

of P. involved, then the idea of position

Explain that given P(x, y), then the vectors have to be applied.

position vector P with respect to O is

x

OP = y

and vice versa.

3.5 Problem on Vectors Apply Vector Addition, Negative

Represented by Vector and Parallel Vectors to find

Letters unknown vectors.

→ →

are collinear, then = kBC or

AB

→ → → →

AB = hAC or AC = nBC . Train the students to handle situations

involving collinear vectors.

Discuss situations where a vector is

2

divided into two or more sections Eg. (a) If AC = CB , then AC : CB

(collinear vectors) 3

2 = 2 :3.

(E.g. AC = AB ; AC = 2CB ; AB :

3 2 3

CB = 2 : 3)

A C B

→

parts and AB = 5 parts. Thus AC =

2 →

,

5 AB

→ → 3

CB = 5 AB etc

like ap + bq = mp + nq, if p

(b) If AC = AB, then AC : AB =

3

and q are non-zeros and not parallel, 2 : 3.

then a = m and b = n.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 17 of 27

Apply the ideas on vector to solve

problem related to area of triangle 2 1

A C B

→

parts and CB = 1 part. Then AC =

→ → → 1

2 2CB , CB = 3 AB etc.

4. SET LANGUAGE

AND NOTATION

(2 ½ weeks)

4.1 Basic Concepts Define set as a collection of similar Require students to group sets of http://assets.cambridg

objects. similar objects, for examples, a set of e.org/0521539021/sa

stationery = {pen, pencil, eraser, mple/0521539021WS.

Use set language and set notation to ruler}, a set of boys = {Ali, Ahmad, pdf

describe sets and represent John}, etc. Then introduce the term

relationships between sets as set, element and the number of http://www.mathworld.

follows: elements. wolfram.com/VennDia

For examples: Give examples of sets where the gram.html

A = { x : x is a natural number} different set notations are used –

B = { (x, y) : y = mx + c} using lists of numbers or alphabets.

examples of writing sets using the set

D = { a, b, c….}

builder notation and also by listing the

Define the terms finite and infinite elements.

sets, empty/null set, equal sets,

subsets, universal sets and

complement of a set.

Understand and use the following

notations:

“...is an element of...” or

“ … belongs to…” ∈

“….is not an element of…..” or

“… does not belong to …) ∉

Number of elements in set A n(A)

The empty/null set ∅

Universal set ξ

Complement of set A A’

A is a subset of B A

⊆B

A is a proper subset of B A

⊂B

A is not a subset of B A

⊄B

A is not a proper subset of B A

⊄B

4.2 Intersection and Define the terms intersection and

Union of Sets union of sets by listing the elements

and introduce the symbols used :

Intersection of A and B A∩

B

Union of A and B A∪

B Illustrate clearly, using examples on

the correct way to write the answers.

Give examples on finding the

1) If finding a set, the element(s)

complement sets and its number of

must be enclosed with the

elements.

brackets.

2) In finding the number of

elements, the answer should be

just a number without any

bracket.

(common mistakes : n(A) = {3}; B =

0)

When doing set operations, it is better

to list all the elements in each set in

the operation first.

4.3 Venn Diagram Present the set operations using Use Venn diagram to show the

Venn diagrams and shade the relationship between the sets and

defined region and vice versa. discuss the meaning of the different

regions of the diagram.

Describe set notations in words.

Caution students on correct use of

terms and the necessity to write

statements in detail especially in

cases involving the ∪ and ⊂ symbols

e.g. If M = {set of students studying

mathematics} and P = {set of

students studying physics},

(i) M ∪ P is the set of students

studying mathematics or physics

or both mathematics and physics,

(ii) P ⊂ M means all students

studying physics also study

mathematics.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 21 of 27

4.4 Problem Solving Interpret key words like ‘both’, ‘and’, Introduce the study of set as a tool for

‘either’, ‘or’, ‘neither’, ‘nor’ and problem solving.

‘not’.

Solve word problems using Venn

diagrams to find the number of

elements in a set.

Solve word problems involving

finding the maximum and minimum

possible value.

5. STATISTICS 2

(3 weeks)

5.1 Data Collection and Review how to organize Discuss examples where the diagrams http://www.geohive.co

Data statistical data and represent it in give misleading information e.g. bar m

Presentation different ways such as bar charts, charts that do not start from the origin

histograms, pie charts and and pictograms that show a 3-D object http://www.mathsisfun

pictograms. enlarged with a factor of 2 to .com /data.html

represent twice a given quantity.

Present ungrouped data using

frequency tables and histograms.

5.2 Mean, Mode and Review the term mean, mode Use statistics to compare the weather http://www.mathforum

Median and median. in different parts of the world, e.g. to .org/trscavo/statistics/

investigate which place has the comtents.html

Revise the method of finding the largest mean temperature difference

mean, mode and median for between summer and winter. http://www.nytimes.co

ungrouped data m/learning/teachers/le

Extend the idea to the finding of ssons/20061128tuesd

mean, mode and median from ay.html

frequency tables and bar charts

5.3 Frequency Present grouped data by using Use a simple example to show how

Distribution Table for frequency tables and histograms discrete data can be grouped into

Grouped Data with equal intervals equal classes e.g. investigate the

Including Frequency length of words used in two different

Polygons Show a frequency polygon newspapers and present the findings

derived from a histogram by joining using statistical diagrams.

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 22 of 27

the midpoints of upper side of

horizontal rectangles of the

histogram.

the class with the highest frequency

is the modal class, the class where

the median lies is identified by

finding where the middle position is

and the mean can be calculated

∑ fx

using the formula x= where

∑f

f is the frequency and x is the value

of the variable.

http://www.waldomath

5.4 Histogram With Explain that for histograms with s. com/Hist1N.jsp

Unequal Class unequal widths, ‘frequency density’ is

Widths/Intervals used as the vertical axis instead of

frequency where frequency density =

frequency

and that it is the area of

class width

rectangle that represents the

frequency of each class.

Explain that the mean calculated

∑ fx

using the formula x= is only

∑f

an estimate as x is the mid-value or

midpoint of the interval, taken to

represent all values in that interval.

Stress the point that the modal class for

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 23 of 27

the histogram with unequal intervals is

not the class with the highest frequency

from the frequency table but the class

with the tallest bar (highest frequency

density on the histogram).

Frequency Table cumulative frequency table from curve shows the number of variables

andCumulative given raw data or from a grouped with a particular value or less.

Frequency Curve frequency table.

Complete a grouped frequency

table given a cumulativefrequency

table.

Plot, draw and interpret cumulative

frequency curve.

5.6 Percentiles, Introduce the term percentile and its Use a cumulative frequency curve to

Quartiles and meaning. explain percentiles and show how to

Interquartile Range Use a cumulative frequency curve estimate these from graphs

to explain percentiles (introduce the

25th, 50th, 75th percentiles) and show

how to estimate these from a graph.

Explain that the median is the 50th

percentile, the lower quartile is the

25th percentile, the upper quartile is The words “more than” or “less than” in

the 75th percentile. the question indicates whether the

Show how to find the median, answer is on the top portion or bottom

quartiles, percentiles and inter portion of the vertical axis (cumulative

quartile range from a cumulative frequency)

frequency curve.

Show how to find the frequency for

a given range of values

6. PROBABILITY

(2½ weeks)

Probability and probability. probability using familiar context for chools/gcsebitesize/m

Sample Space example the probability of obtaining aths/datahandlingfi/pr

Explain the terms experiment, event, an odd number when a dice is rolled, obabilityrev1.shtml

outcomes and sample space, S, obtaining a red ball when a ball is

used in probability. chosen from a bag without looking, or http://www.mathgoodi

a weather forecaster saying there is a es.com/lessons/vol6/in

20% chance of rain today. tro_probability.hmtl is

an introductory lesson

Discuss probabilities of 0 (event will on probability

never occur) and 1 (event will

definitely occur), leading to the http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci

outcome that a probability lies mt/mepres/allgcse/bka

between these two values. 5.pdf is a chapter on

probability, suitable

sections include 5.1

6.2 Simple Probability Define the probability of an Students do an experiment, for

and 5.2

event A occurring as: example throwing a coin, say 50

times. Ask them to tabulate the

number of outcomes favourable to eventresults.

A www.mathgoodies.co

Compare their results and

m/lessons/toc_vol6.ht

total number of all possible outcomes then pool them to obtain larger ml

samples. Go on to calculate the

n( A) probability of getting a ‘head’ and the

i.e. P ( A) = and calculate the http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci

n( S ) probability of getting a ‘tail’.

mt/mepres/allgcse/bka

probability of a single event as 5.pdf

either a fraction or a decimal (not a

ratio). Various problems

involving probability at

http://www.nrich.math

Explain that an event A not Collect examples of mutually exclusive s.org/publc/leg.php

occurring is denoted by A’ and the outcomes. Establish and use the fact

probability of A’ is P(A’ ) = 1 – that the sum of probabilities of all the

P(A). outcomes is 1. For example, raining or

not raining, late or not late, win or not

win.

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

6.3 Probability of Draw a possibility diagram to Start with a simple event such as the

Combined illustrate the outcomes for score on a spinner; ask for the

Events combined events and represent probability of the total score being a

outcomes as points on a grid. certain number when the spinner is

spun twice. List the outcomes and

then explain that each combined

outcome can be written as an ordered

pair (x, y) and so can be marked as

points on a grid as a possibility

diagram.

Draw a tree diagram to

illustrate the outcomes for

To introduce tree diagrams, use an

combined events where the

example such as choosing balls at

outcomes will be written at the end

random from a bag, when there are

of branches and probabilities by the

different numbers of balls of different

side of the branches.

colours. First, do an example where

the first ball is replaced before a

second ball chosen (independent

Calculate the probability of events). Later, do an example where

combined events using a possibility the first ball is not replaced

diagram or a tree diagram, explain (dependent events).

the concept of addition by relating

to the term “or ” as in union of sets

and multiplication by relating to the

term “and” as in intersection of

sets.

6.4 Problems on Show examples of how

Probability probability may be applied in

different situations including solving

probability involving areas and

obtaining information from

frequency tables.

7. NUMBER Continue a given number sequence. Define a sequence of numbers. Work Various problems

PATTERNS with simple sequence of even, odd, involving sequences of

AND SEQUENCES Recognise patterns within and across square, triangle or Fibonacci numbers, numbers at

( 1 ½ weeks) different sequences and generalise to etc. http://nrich.maths.org/

simple algebraic statements public/leg.php

(including expressions for the nth Find the term-to-term rule for a

term) relating to such sequences. sequence, e.g. the nth term in the

http://www.coolmath.c

sequence 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, . . . .is 6n

om/algebra/Algebra2/0

Extend the concept to patterns of – 3.

9SequencesSeries/01_

shapes. Discuss as a class activity the what.htm

following problem: Square tables are

placed in a row so that 6 people can http://www.waldomath

sit around 3 tables, and so on. How s.com/Linseq1NL.jsp

many people can sit around n tables?

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