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# SCHEME OF WORK FOR SPN-21 (MATHEMATICS)

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

1. MATRICES
(2 weeks)
1.1 Introduction and  Define matrix (plural matrices) as a Introduce matrix by displaying http://www.sosmath.c
Basic rectangular array of elements information in the form of matrices of om/matrix/matrix0/ma
Definition (usually numbers) arranged in rows different orders. trix0.html
and columns. For examples : has introduction to
a) The marks of two students in matrix algebra.
 Explain that a matrix with m rows English, Science and History:
and n columns is said to have order Student A obtained 70 marks for
m x n (read as m by n). English,
87 marks for Science and 56 marks
for History. Student B obtained 72
 Define the different types of marks for English, 80 marks for
matrices: row matrix, column matrix, Science and 70 marks for History.
square matrix, diagonal matrix, null

 7 80 57  6
matrix, identity matrix or unit matrix
and equal matrix.

  or
70 72 
 
 87 80 
 56 70 

 7 82 70  0
 

## b) The sales of a department store for

2 items on 2 successive days:
Thursday : 10 bags, 12 belts;
Friday : 8 bags, 5 belts.
10 12  10 8 

8 
 or 
12 5 

 5  
Explain briefly how the matrix is
formed and what each row and
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 1 of 27
column represent.

1.2 Matrix Addition,  Show the addition and subtraction of When doing subtraction, give strong
Subtraction and two matrices. emphasis that the minus sign should
Multiplication by a not be touched when multiplying the
Scalar scalar of the second matrix with the
 Show the multiplication of a matrix elements of that matrix. For example,
by a scalar quantity. 2 −3  −1 5 

4 
 − 2
  =
 1  1 −5 

2 −3  −2 10 

4 
 −
 
 1  2 −10 
A common mistake at this step is
 2 −3   2 −10 

4 
− 2 10 
 1  
Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 2 of 27
1.3 Matrix Multiplication  Explain the technique of the Use real life example to show the logic
multiplication of two matrices. of multiplying row with column. You
Emphasize that two matrices can may use the example stated above.
only be multiplied when the number That is considering the sales of a
of columns in the first matrix is the department store for the 2 items on 2
same as the number of rows in the successive days. In addition, let the
second matrix. price of the bag be \$8 per piece and
the belt at \$3 per piece.
Present the above information in
 Show the results that AB ≠ BA.
matrix form. Explain clearly how to
(except for multiplication by
calculate the total amount of money
identity matrix
received by the store for the two days
where IA = AI).
sales.
Explain how the row in the first matrix
is related to the column in the second
matrix so that it can be multiplied.
Hence, generalize the technique and
proceed to show the technique of
multiplication of two (2 x 2)
matrices and matrices of different
orders:
(a) Label the rows of the first matrix
R1, R2 etc and the columns of the
second matrix C1, C2 etc and then
calculate R1C1, R1C2 etc outside
the main step. After multiplying all
the rows and columns, write down
all the products follow the row and
column numbers in the resultant
matrix.
(b) Making summary “Row x Column”.
(c) Stress on the importance of
correct order for

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 3 of 27

1.4 Matrix Equations  Solve matrix equation where the
unknowns are elements.
 Solve matrix equation where the
unknown is a matrix.

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

1.5 Determinant and  Define the determinant of a matrix, if Caution students on the common
Inverse mistake of using “+” instead of “−”
a b
of a 2 x 2 Matrix A =
c  , then det A= when calculating determinant because
 d
 sometimes they can get mixed up with
A =ad −bc . the procedure in doing multiplication
 Calculate the determinant of a matrix. of matrices.
 Define non-singular matrix as matrix
whose determinant is non-zero and
singular matrix as matrix whose
determinant is zero and it has no
inverse.
 Show the method of finding the
inverse of a non- singular matrix.
1 d −b 
(A −1 =   ).
det A 
−c a 
 Solve problems with given value of
determinant and find the unknown
element in the matrix.
 Find unknown element in matrix which
has no inverse.

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 4 of 27

1.6 Identity Matrix  Explain that an identity matrix, I is a
square matrix whose elements in the
principal diagonal are 1 and the
other elements are zero. e.g. I =
1 0 0 
1 0   
 
0 1  , 0 1 0  .
  0 0 1 
 
 Show using examples the properties
that
IA = AI = I, AA −1 = I and A −1 A =
I.
1.7 Application of  Show how to place data into matrix Recall the example given in section
Matrices form and interpret elements in a 1.3.
matrix as related to the given To interpret the result of multiplication
information. of two matrices, guide the students to
tell what is the quantity in the first
matrix (R1) and what is the quantity in
 Show how to solve the problems and
the second matrix (C1) and when
hence interpret the results.
these two quantities (R1 and C1) are
multiplied, what do we obtain?
Also in situations where there are
more than one element in each row of
the first matrix, what do we obtain
when the products are added (i.e.
R1C1+ R2 C2 etc)?
Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 5 of 27

2. TRANSFORMATIONS
(5 weeks)

2.1 Translation  Introduce translation as a Explain that transformations act upon http://www.bbc.co.uk/s
transformation that moves all object points would change them (in chools/gcsebitesize/m
objects through a fixed distance in a terms of position) into image points. aths/
fixed direction. When an object figure is transformed shape/transformations
 Show examples where students have into an image figure, there could be rev1.shtml
to find images of the figures when changes in the shape and size of the
given a translation in a diagram or image. The transformations of
description in words. translation, reflection and rotation are
isometric as they do not cause any
 Describe fully in words the changes in shape or size i.e. the
translation given in a diagram by objects and images are congruent.
h 
stating the translation vector 
k 
.
 
2.2 Reflection  Introduce reflection as a Relate reflection to study of reflection
transformation that reflects an of light in science as the same
object point in the line of reflection properties apply especially the
onto its image point. Discuss concept of lateral inversion.
properties of reflection in terms of
the object distance equals the image
distance and the line of reflection is
perpendicular to the line joining the
object point and the image point.
 Show examples where students have
to draw the images for individual
points when given a line of
This property is important as it helps
reflection. Focus on the x- and y-
students to distinguish between a
axes, lines parallel to the axes, y = x
reflection and a rotation when asked
and y = −x.
to describe a transformation.
 Extend the concept to figures and
show that if ∆ABC is labelled in the
clockwise direction, then the image,
∆A1B1C1 will be in the
anticlockwise direction and vice
versa.
 Given a point P and its image P1 on a

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 6 of 27

diagram, explain that the line of
reflection is actually the
perpendicular bisector of the line PP1.
and describe the reflection fully by
stating the equation of the line of
reflection.

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

2.3 Rotation  Introduce rotation as a Show that ∆ABC and its image
transformation that moves an object ∆A1B1C1 are labelled in the same
point through a fixed angle about a sense which distinguishes a rotation
centre of rotation in a certain from a reflection.
direction.
 Show examples where students have
to draw the images for figures under
a given rotation. Focus on rotations
of multiples of 90°.
 Given a diagram showing an object
and its image, explain that the
centre of rotation is the point of
intersection of the perpendicular
bisectors of two lines, each joining
one object point to its image point.
 Stress that a rotation must be
described fully by stating the centre
of rotation, the angle and direction
(except 180o rotation) it moves
through.

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 7 of 27

2.4 Enlargement  Introduce enlargement as a Introduce enlargement as a
transformation that changes the transformation that is not isometric
position of an object point from a and the size of the figure changes but
centre of enlargement by a scale the shape remains the shape. This
factor k. means that the object and image are
 Show that when k > 0, the image is on similar.
the same side of the centre as the
object and when k < 0, the object and Use the work on similar figures to link
image are on opposite sides. to enlargement.
 Draw images for objects given the Derive the ratio for similar triangles
description of the enlargement. and relate it to the scale factor of
 Show that when k > 1, the image is enlargement
enlarged and when k < 1, the
image is reduced and introduce the Show that an enlargement of scale
concept that factor k will produce an area
area of image enlargement of scale factor k 2 and
= (scale factor) 2 in volume scale factor of k 3.
area of object
relation to similar figures.
 Given a diagram showing an object
and its image, explain that the centre
of enlargement, C, is the point of
intersection of the two lines, each
joining one object point P to its image
point P1 and the scale factor,
CP1
k= .
CP
 Stress that an enlargement must be
described fully by stating the centre of
enlargement and its scale factor
(positive or negative).
Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 8 of 27

2.5 Shear  Stack up some books (same height)) http://www.mathsisfun
Introduce shear as a transformation on the table. Use a ruler and apply a .com/definitions/trans
that moves an object point parallel horizontal shear force to the books. formation.html
to a line called the invariant line (x- Indicate the three obvious effects:
axis or y-axis). http://www.bbc.co.uk/s
(i) the book on the table does not
 chools/gcsebitesize/m
move. Use this effect to explain
Stress that points on invariant line aths/shape/transforma
the meaning of invariant line.
do not move under a shear. tionsrev1.shtml
 (ii) all the books’ movement are
Give the definition of shear factor parallel to the table top. Use this
and show how to apply the definition effect to explain that a shear
to locate the position of the image moves points parallel to the
point. invariant line.
(Caution on situations where the (iii) The higher the books’ height,
object point is the more it moves. Use this
on the negative region of the effect to explain the definition of
invariant line and shear factor.
also where the shear factor is
negative). To show that size does not change
 under a shear, apply the formula for
Given a shear and a figure (e.g. area of triangle (1/2 × base
triangle), draw and label the image × height) on both the object and
of the figure. image (this is a good revision to find
 the area of a triangle when it is drawn
Recognise a shear by its properties, on a grid).
i.e. changing in shape but not in
size.

Given an object figure and its image
figure, describe a shear completely
(the description must include the
word shear, the invariant line and
the shear factor).

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 9 of 27

http://mathworld.wolfr
2.6 Stretch  Use a geoboard and rubber bands to
am.com/Stretch.html
Introduce stretch as a show a stretch. Indicate the three
transformation that moves an object effects:
point perpendicular to a line called (i) All points on the invariant line
the invariant line (x-axis or y-axis). do not move,

Stress that points on the invariant (ii) every point moves
line do not move under a stretch. perpendicular to the invariant
 line,
Give the definition of stretch factor (iii) the amount of movement of
and show how to apply the definition any point depends on its
to locate the position of the image distance from the invariant line.
point.

Given a stretch and a figure (e.g.
triangle), draw and label the image.

Recognize a stretch by its
properties. A stretch changes both
the shape and size (the object can
become bigger or smaller) of the
object.

Given an object figure and its image
figure, describe a stretch completely
(the description must include the
word stretch, the invariant line and
the stretch factor).
Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources
2.7 Combined 
Transformation Explain the notation used for single
transformation (e.g. T(A) is the
image of A under the Translation, T).

Explain the notation used for
combined transformation (e.g. ET(A)
is the image of point A under the
translation ,T followed by the
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 10 of 27
Enlargement, E).

Given an object figure and a
combined transformation, either
expressed in notation or in words,
draw and label the image figure.

## 2.8 Use of Matrix in  Review the method of multiplying two http://www.math.lsu.e

Transformations Use the idea that a transformation matrices. du/~verrill/teaching/lin
maps an object to an image to earalgebra/linal
establish the quantitative http://www.uz.ac.zw/sc
relationship (Matrix)× (Object) = ience/maths/zimaths/7
3/sheila.html
(Image), except for Translation is
(Matrix) + (Object)= (Image). /linalg5.html
 http://www.mathsfiles.
Represent the object as a matrix com/excel/MatrixTrans
with x-coordinates as the Notes1.htm
elements in the first row and y-
coordinates as the elements in the http://www.uz.ac.zw/sc
second row. ience/maths/zimaths/7
 3/sheila.html
Use the results of the multiplication
of (Matrix) × (Object) to indicate
the coordinates of the various image
points corresponding to each object
Extend the idea of (Matrix) × (Object)
point. 1 0 
= (Image) and the idea of M  0 1  
  
Given a transformation represented = M to show that the matrix
by a matrix and a figure, find the representing a given transformation
coordinates of the image points and can be obtained by mapping the point
draw and label the image. (1, 0) and (0, 1) to their respective
 images under that transformation. The
Write down a matrix which elements of the matrix are the
represents a given transformation. coordinates of the images in that
order.

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 11 of 27
3. VECTORS Use 3.1 and 3.2 to explain the basic
(2½ weeks) concepts on vectors. Then apply
these basic concepts in the three
types of questions with reference to http://www.bbc.co.uk/s
sections 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5. chools/gcsebitesize/m
3.1 Representation of  Define a vector as a quantity which aths/datahandlingfi/pr
Vectors has both magnitude and direction. Explain why it is important to include obabilityrev1.shtml
direction when stating a quantity. For
example, when directing a tourist to http://standards.nctm.
the taxi station which is about 50m to org/document/exampl
the right of the junction. es/chap7/7.1/part2.ht
m has interactive work
Link vector to some vector quantities about vectors sums.
 Show the representation of vectors in Physics like velocity, acceleration,
in diagram and how to write and force etc. Go to
name a vector. Students are http://www.standards.
expected to write vector a by Draw a few vectors and use the nctm.org/and click the
underlining, a . diagrams to guide the students to search button to find
write down and say out each vector resources on other
correctly. topics from site.
→ →
AB = BA but
A B≠
Explain that http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci
BA
mt/mepres/allgcse/bkc
→ 19.pdf is a chapter
Stress that should be read as
vector AB and not merely AB .
Similarly, p or p should be read as
vector p and not merely p.
Tell the students that p and p are the
same and it is easier to write p as p
 Show the representation of the in their work. Check that they do not
‘value’ of a vector using column write p as vector p.
x → x
vectors, a = y or AB =y. When finding the column vector
   
representing a vector drawn on a grid,
Describe what each element in the
it is important to stress on the
column vector represents.
systematic procedure, i.e. from the
 Show how to draw the vector on a initial point, move left or right first
grid when given a column vector and followed by up or down to reach the
vice versa. final point so that the two values will

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 12 of 27

be written at the correct positions.

##  Show how to write a vector, in terms

of the given vector, which is parallel
(a) and equal (equivalent vector),
(b) but not equal,
(c) but opposite.

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 13 of 27

3.2 Vector Addition and  Explain how to express a vector as Use the idea of routes for an effective
Scalar Multiplication the addition and subtraction explanation on vector addition.
of Vectors (equivalent to addition of negative For example, to go from A to B is
vector) of two or more vectors. the same as from A to C and
then from C to B. So
→ → →
Explain triangle law and parallelogram C
AB = AC + CB .
law.

A B

## Extend this using any other

intermediate points.
For example, to go from A to D,
→ → → →
AD = AB + BC + CD or
→ → →
AD = AC + CD
B C

A D

## As Vector Addition is a very important

concept, it is important to train
the students to be able to write
down the statement correctly.
One way to achieve this is to
give a few complete statements
and guide the students to
observe the pattern. Then
prepare a set of partially
complete statements and have
the students complete them.
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 14 of 27
2
Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

## A very common mistake when finding

vector using vector addition is to
write the statement under the
influence of the vectors given.

For example, to find BC with
→ →
and AC given, some
AB
students may write

→ → →
BC = AB + AC .

## One way to cut down the chance of

making this mistake is to leave
the intermediate letter

## blank first , i.e. BC = B + C,.

then look at the question to
search for the other relevant
letter. In this case, it is A. This
will lead to the correct statement
→ → →
BC = BA+ AC . Use the idea of
→ →
negative vector, i.e.
BA = − AB to
obtain the next statement
→ → →
BC = − AB + AC .

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 15 of 27

3.3 Column Vector  Derive and use the formula for the
magnitude of a column vector and
explain the symbol used to
represent the magnitude.
 Derive and use the formula for the
gradient of the line represented by
a column vector.
 Explain and discuss how to use the
relationship between the elements
of two column vectors which are
parallel
 Use Vector Addition together with
negative vector if necessary to find
unknown column vector

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

3.4 Position Vectors  Explain that if P is the position of a Stress that position vector must start
point with respect to the origin, O in from the origin.
a Cartesian plane, then the vector Make generalization that for questions
OP is known as the position vector on vector, if coordinates of points are
of P. involved, then the idea of position
 Explain that given P(x, y), then the vectors have to be applied.
position vector P with respect to O is
x
OP =  y
 and vice versa.
 

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 16 of 27

3.5 Problem on Vectors  Apply Vector Addition, Negative
Represented by Vector and Parallel Vectors to find
Letters unknown vectors.

##  Explain that if the point A, B and C

→ →
are collinear, then = kBC or
AB
→ → → →
AB = hAC or AC = nBC . Train the students to handle situations
involving collinear vectors.
 Discuss situations where a vector is
2
divided into two or more sections Eg. (a) If AC = CB , then AC : CB
(collinear vectors) 3
2 = 2 :3.
(E.g. AC = AB ; AC = 2CB ; AB :
3 2 3
CB = 2 : 3)

A C B

## This means AC = 2 parts and CB = 3

parts and AB = 5 parts. Thus AC =
2 →
,
5 AB
→ → 3
CB = 5 AB etc

##  Brief discussion on vector equation 2

like ap + bq = mp + nq, if p
(b) If AC = AB, then AC : AB =
3
and q are non-zeros and not parallel, 2 : 3.
then a = m and b = n.
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 17 of 27
 Apply the ideas on vector to solve
problem related to area of triangle 2 1

A C B

## This means AC = 2 parts, AB = 3

parts and CB = 1 part. Then AC =
→ → → 1
2 2CB , CB = 3 AB etc.

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 18 of 27

4. SET LANGUAGE
AND NOTATION
(2 ½ weeks)

4.1 Basic Concepts  Define set as a collection of similar Require students to group sets of http://assets.cambridg
objects. similar objects, for examples, a set of e.org/0521539021/sa
stationery = {pen, pencil, eraser, mple/0521539021WS.
 Use set language and set notation to ruler}, a set of boys = {Ali, Ahmad, pdf
describe sets and represent John}, etc. Then introduce the term
relationships between sets as set, element and the number of http://www.mathworld.
follows: elements. wolfram.com/VennDia
For examples: Give examples of sets where the gram.html
A = { x : x is a natural number} different set notations are used –
B = { (x, y) : y = mx + c} using lists of numbers or alphabets.

## C = { x : a ≤ x ≤ b} Familiarize the students with

examples of writing sets using the set
D = { a, b, c….}
builder notation and also by listing the
 Define the terms finite and infinite elements.
sets, empty/null set, equal sets,
subsets, universal sets and
complement of a set.
 Understand and use the following
notations:
“...is an element of...” or
“ … belongs to…” ∈
“….is not an element of…..” or
“… does not belong to …) ∉
Number of elements in set A n(A)
The empty/null set ∅
Universal set ξ
Complement of set A A’
A is a subset of B A
⊆B
A is a proper subset of B A

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 19 of 27

⊂B
A is not a subset of B A
⊄B
A is not a proper subset of B A
⊄B

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 20 of 27

4.2 Intersection and  Define the terms intersection and
Union of Sets union of sets by listing the elements
and introduce the symbols used :
Intersection of A and B A∩
B
Union of A and B A∪
B Illustrate clearly, using examples on
the correct way to write the answers.
 Give examples on finding the
1) If finding a set, the element(s)
complement sets and its number of
must be enclosed with the
elements.
brackets.
2) In finding the number of
elements, the answer should be
just a number without any
bracket.
(common mistakes : n(A) = {3}; B =
0)
When doing set operations, it is better
to list all the elements in each set in
the operation first.

4.3 Venn Diagram  Present the set operations using Use Venn diagram to show the
Venn diagrams and shade the relationship between the sets and
defined region and vice versa. discuss the meaning of the different
regions of the diagram.
 Describe set notations in words.
Caution students on correct use of
terms and the necessity to write
statements in detail especially in
cases involving the ∪ and ⊂ symbols
e.g. If M = {set of students studying
mathematics} and P = {set of
students studying physics},
(i) M ∪ P is the set of students
studying mathematics or physics
or both mathematics and physics,
(ii) P ⊂ M means all students
studying physics also study
mathematics.
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 21 of 27
4.4 Problem Solving  Interpret key words like ‘both’, ‘and’, Introduce the study of set as a tool for
‘either’, ‘or’, ‘neither’, ‘nor’ and problem solving.
‘not’.
 Solve word problems using Venn
diagrams to find the number of
elements in a set.
 Solve word problems involving
finding the maximum and minimum
possible value.

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

5. STATISTICS 2
(3 weeks)

5.1 Data Collection and  Review how to organize Discuss examples where the diagrams http://www.geohive.co
Data statistical data and represent it in give misleading information e.g. bar m
Presentation different ways such as bar charts, charts that do not start from the origin
histograms, pie charts and and pictograms that show a 3-D object http://www.mathsisfun
pictograms. enlarged with a factor of 2 to .com /data.html
represent twice a given quantity.
 Present ungrouped data using
frequency tables and histograms.

5.2 Mean, Mode and  Review the term mean, mode Use statistics to compare the weather http://www.mathforum
Median and median. in different parts of the world, e.g. to .org/trscavo/statistics/
investigate which place has the comtents.html
 Revise the method of finding the largest mean temperature difference
mean, mode and median for between summer and winter. http://www.nytimes.co
ungrouped data m/learning/teachers/le
 Extend the idea to the finding of ssons/20061128tuesd
mean, mode and median from ay.html
frequency tables and bar charts

5.3 Frequency  Present grouped data by using Use a simple example to show how
Distribution Table for frequency tables and histograms discrete data can be grouped into
Grouped Data with equal intervals equal classes e.g. investigate the
Including Frequency length of words used in two different
Polygons  Show a frequency polygon newspapers and present the findings
derived from a histogram by joining using statistical diagrams.
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 22 of 27
the midpoints of upper side of
horizontal rectangles of the
histogram.

##  Explain that for grouped data,

the class with the highest frequency
is the modal class, the class where
the median lies is identified by
finding where the middle position is
and the mean can be calculated
∑ fx
using the formula x= where
∑f
f is the frequency and x is the value
of the variable.

## Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources

http://www.waldomath
5.4 Histogram With  Explain that for histograms with s. com/Hist1N.jsp
Unequal Class unequal widths, ‘frequency density’ is
Widths/Intervals used as the vertical axis instead of
frequency where frequency density =
frequency
and that it is the area of
class width
rectangle that represents the
frequency of each class.
 Explain that the mean calculated
∑ fx
using the formula x= is only
∑f
an estimate as x is the mid-value or
midpoint of the interval, taken to
represent all values in that interval.
Stress the point that the modal class for
SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 23 of 27
the histogram with unequal intervals is
not the class with the highest frequency
from the frequency table but the class
with the tallest bar (highest frequency
density on the histogram).

## 5.5 Cumulative  Construct and interpret a Explain that a cumulative frequency

Frequency Table cumulative frequency table from curve shows the number of variables
andCumulative given raw data or from a grouped with a particular value or less.
Frequency Curve frequency table.
 Complete a grouped frequency
table given a cumulativefrequency
table.
 Plot, draw and interpret cumulative
frequency curve.

5.6 Percentiles,  Introduce the term percentile and its Use a cumulative frequency curve to
Quartiles and meaning. explain percentiles and show how to
Interquartile Range  Use a cumulative frequency curve estimate these from graphs
to explain percentiles (introduce the
25th, 50th, 75th percentiles) and show
how to estimate these from a graph.
 Explain that the median is the 50th
percentile, the lower quartile is the
25th percentile, the upper quartile is The words “more than” or “less than” in
the 75th percentile. the question indicates whether the
 Show how to find the median, answer is on the top portion or bottom
quartiles, percentiles and inter portion of the vertical axis (cumulative
quartile range from a cumulative frequency)
frequency curve.
 Show how to find the frequency for
a given range of values

6. PROBABILITY
(2½ weeks)

## 6.1 Definition of  Understand the meaning of Introduce elementary ideas of http://www.bbc.co.uk/s

Probability and probability. probability using familiar context for chools/gcsebitesize/m
Sample Space example the probability of obtaining aths/datahandlingfi/pr
 Explain the terms experiment, event, an odd number when a dice is rolled, obabilityrev1.shtml
outcomes and sample space, S, obtaining a red ball when a ball is
used in probability. chosen from a bag without looking, or http://www.mathgoodi
a weather forecaster saying there is a es.com/lessons/vol6/in
20% chance of rain today. tro_probability.hmtl is
an introductory lesson
Discuss probabilities of 0 (event will on probability
never occur) and 1 (event will
definitely occur), leading to the http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci
outcome that a probability lies mt/mepres/allgcse/bka
between these two values. 5.pdf is a chapter on
probability, suitable
sections include 5.1
6.2 Simple Probability  Define the probability of an Students do an experiment, for
and 5.2
event A occurring as: example throwing a coin, say 50
times. Ask them to tabulate the
number of outcomes favourable to eventresults.
A www.mathgoodies.co
Compare their results and
m/lessons/toc_vol6.ht
total number of all possible outcomes then pool them to obtain larger ml
samples. Go on to calculate the
n( A) probability of getting a ‘head’ and the
i.e. P ( A) = and calculate the http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci
n( S ) probability of getting a ‘tail’.
mt/mepres/allgcse/bka
probability of a single event as 5.pdf
either a fraction or a decimal (not a
ratio). Various problems
involving probability at
http://www.nrich.math
 Explain that an event A not Collect examples of mutually exclusive s.org/publc/leg.php
occurring is denoted by A’ and the outcomes. Establish and use the fact
probability of A’ is P(A’ ) = 1 – that the sum of probabilities of all the
P(A). outcomes is 1. For example, raining or
not raining, late or not late, win or not
win.

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 25 of 27

Content coverage Scope and Development Suggested activities Resources
6.3 Probability of  Draw a possibility diagram to Start with a simple event such as the
Combined illustrate the outcomes for score on a spinner; ask for the
Events combined events and represent probability of the total score being a
outcomes as points on a grid. certain number when the spinner is
spun twice. List the outcomes and
then explain that each combined
outcome can be written as an ordered
pair (x, y) and so can be marked as
points on a grid as a possibility
diagram.
 Draw a tree diagram to
illustrate the outcomes for
To introduce tree diagrams, use an
combined events where the
example such as choosing balls at
outcomes will be written at the end
random from a bag, when there are
of branches and probabilities by the
different numbers of balls of different
side of the branches.
colours. First, do an example where
the first ball is replaced before a
second ball chosen (independent
 Calculate the probability of events). Later, do an example where
combined events using a possibility the first ball is not replaced
diagram or a tree diagram, explain (dependent events).
the concept of addition by relating
to the term “or ” as in union of sets
and multiplication by relating to the
term “and” as in intersection of
sets.
6.4 Problems on  Show examples of how
Probability probability may be applied in
different situations including solving
probability involving areas and
obtaining information from
frequency tables.

## SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10Fast Track (2 + 2) Page 26 of 27

7. NUMBER  Continue a given number sequence. Define a sequence of numbers. Work Various problems
PATTERNS with simple sequence of even, odd, involving sequences of
AND SEQUENCES  Recognise patterns within and across square, triangle or Fibonacci numbers, numbers at
( 1 ½ weeks) different sequences and generalise to etc. http://nrich.maths.org/
simple algebraic statements public/leg.php
(including expressions for the nth Find the term-to-term rule for a
term) relating to such sequences. sequence, e.g. the nth term in the
http://www.coolmath.c
sequence 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, . . . .is 6n
om/algebra/Algebra2/0
 Extend the concept to patterns of – 3.
9SequencesSeries/01_
shapes. Discuss as a class activity the what.htm
following problem: Square tables are
placed in a row so that 6 people can http://www.waldomath
sit around 3 tables, and so on. How s.com/Linseq1NL.jsp
many people can sit around n tables?