# SCHEME OF WORK FOR SPN-21 (MATHEMATICS) YEAR 10 NORMAL TRACK (2 + 3

)
Content coverage
1. SYMMETRY (2 week) 1.1 Line Symmetry  Introduce the idea of symmetry of plane figures in general using practical examples like paper folding, mirror images, live examples from nature such as leaves and flowers, models, etc.  Recognise symmetrical figures, identify the lines of symmetry and determine the number of lines of symmetry.  Complete the missing part of a figure, given its line(s) of symmetry.  Guide students to discover that a circle has an infinite number of lines of symmetry. Use paper cuttings and foldings to demonstrate that certain shapes have lines of symmetry whereas others may not have any. Get students to use papers and scissors to design shapes that have one line of symmetry and others that have more lines of symmetry. Select students’ cut-outs and paste them on a chart showing the shapes and the number of lines of symmetry. http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bka 3.pdf has useful work on symmetry

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shape/symmetryr ev2.shtml has interactive demonstrations and information about symmetry

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1.2 Rotational Symmetry

 Introduce the idea of rotational symmetry.  Recognise figures which possess rotational symmetry and identify figures that have no rotational symmetry.  Determine the centre of rotation and state the order of rotational symmetry for given figures, shapes and logos.  Give examples of point of symmetry, noting that the centre of rotational symmetry is a point of symmetry if the order of rotational symmetry of the figure is a multiple of 2.  Discuss the symmetric properties of equilateral and isosceles triangles, square, rectangle, rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium and kite.

Introduce the idea of rotation by demonstration using a teaching aid. A rotational symmetry board can be made as follows: 1. Draw on a manila card: rectangle, equilateral triangle, square, rhombus, regular pentagon, parallelogram, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle and trapezium. 2. Draw the same figures on another manila card of different colour and cut out the figures. 3. Secure the cut-outs over their respective figures on the big card (Step 1) using pins through the centre of rotation. 4. Rotate the cut-outs one by one and explain the idea of rotational symmetry. Note the cut outs rotate about the fixed point called the centre of rotation.

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1.3 Symmetrical Properties of Regular Polygons

Scope and Development
 Discuss line symmetry and rotational symmetry properties of the regular polygons: equilateral triangle, square and other regular polygons.

Suggested Activities
Give materials to students to design shapes with specified number of lines of symmetry

Resources

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specified order of rotational symmetry

 Find the lines of symmetry, the centre and the order of rotational symmetry of the regular polygons.

An example is this figure with order of rotational symmetry = 6

1.4 Symmetry in Solids

 Introduce the idea of symmetry of solids in general using models such as cubes, cuboids, cylinders, cones and pyramids, etc.  Recognise symmetry with respect to a plane.  Explain the technique to identify an axis of rotational symmetry of a solid with its respective order of rotational symmetry.  Discuss solids with an infinite number of plane symmetry such as spheres, cylinders, etc.

Ask the students to construct the prisms to enable them to see the symmetry properties more easily. Cut the solids into two equal parts and identify the plane of symmetry. Give examples of solids with no plane symmetry such as irregular solids.

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2. PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES (4 weeks) 2.1 Symmetry Properties of Circles

Scope and Development

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Resources

 Identify the terms circumference, radius, diameter, chord, segment (major and minor), sector, arc and semicircle.  Use the following symmetry properties of circles to calculate unknown sides and angles and give simple explanations: (a) equal chords are equidistant from the centre, (b) the perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre, (c) a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius of the circle at point of contact, (d) two tangents from an external point to a circle are equal in length, (e) the angle between two tangents drawn from an external point to a circle is bisected by the line through the external point and the centre of the circle.  Identify and use the following angles properties of circles to calculate the unknown angles and give simple explanations: (a) angle at the centre is twice angle at the circumference, (b) angle in semicircle is equal to 90°, (c) angle in the same segment are equal, (d) angles in opposite segments (or opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral) add up to 180°, (e) external angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle, (f) angles in alternate segments are equal,

2.2 Angles Properties of Circles

Let the students explore the properties of chords and tangents by drawing diagrams and cut out. Measure the lengths and angles to see the relationships and hence generalize the properties. (Use the properties of isosceles triangles, congruent triangle and the exterior angle to a triangle, etc.) Have students paste all the cut out circles onto their note books. Explain the term tangent as the line which touches the circle at only one point. Make students practise drawing tangents.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapes/circles2hir ev10.shtml Sections 3.8 and 3.9 of http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bka 3.pdf There are interactive investigations about the angle properties at http://teachers.henrico .k12.va.us/math/rd03/ GeometryActs/CircleA ngle01.html Discovering Mathematics 3A, Unit 6.

Let students explore the angles properties of circles by using diagrams. Require students to measure the angles or use paper cut out to compare the angle size and their relationship. Hence generalize the properties. Caution: for the correct pair on angle at the centre, angle at the circumference and angle in the same segment,

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both angles must be subtended by the same chord (usually the chord is not drawn). Emphasize that in cyclic quadrilateral all the four vertices of the quadrilateral touches the circumference of the circle.

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3. TRIGONOMETRY (6 weeks) 3.1 Solutions of Rightangled Triangles 3. 2 Sine Rule

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Review trigonometric ratios of sine, cosine and tangent (SOH, CAH, TOA) and Pythagoras’ theorem and use them to find the unknown angles or sides in a given right-angled triangle. State the sine rule. Use the sine rule to solve non right-angled triangles. Draw triangle ABC with AB = 6 cm, BC = 7 cm and CA= 8 cm. Measure angles A, B and C. Calculate (i)

http://www.mathsnet.n et/asa2/2004/c2.html# 4

AB BC , (ii) and (iii) sin C sin A CA . sin B
Repeat the above activity using AB= 10.6 cm, BC = 7.2 cm and CA = 9.3 cm.

http://www.waldomath s.com/SinRule1NL.jsp

3.3 Cosine Rule

State the cosine rule.

Use the cosine rule to solve non right-angled triangles.

Draw triangle ABC with a = 8 cm, b = 6 cm and c = 7 cm. Measure ∠ . C Calculate (i) Cos C and

http://www.sailingissu es.com/navcourse4.ht ml Maps from around the world at http://www.theodora.c om/maps/abc_world_m aps.html
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Point out the situations when sine rule and cosine rule should be used.

a 2 + b2 − c2 (ii) . Repeat 2ab
the above activity using a = 6.5 cm, b = 8.5 cm and

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c = 10 cm.

3.4 Area of Triangle

 State the formula of the area of triangle =
1 ab sin C . 2

 Use the formula to solve related problems.
3.5 Bearings

 Find the bearing of a point from another point
(always measure clockwise from the north line and the bearing must be stated in three digits).  Recall the angle properties of parallel lines, angles at a point and angle properties of triangle and use these properties to solve problems on bearings.  Solve trigonometric problems (include problems incorporating speed, distance and time).

Identify places according to their bearings and distances from a given place, or according to their bearings from two different places.

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3.6 Three Dimensional Problems

Scope and Development
Identify right angles in diagrams of 3-D objects (e.g. prisms, pyramids, wedges etc).  From the 3-D diagram, draw right-angled triangles using horizontal and vertical lines instead of slant lines as seen from the 3-D diagram.  Use the right-angled triangles drawn to solve the problems.  Solve problems involving angle of elevation and angle of depression, stressing that these are angles between the line of sight and the horizontal. Include problems on finding the

Suggested Activities
Include cases where sine / cosine rule may be used to solve 3 –D problems

Resources
Various problems at http://nrch.maths.org/ public/leg.php

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greatest angle of elevation.

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Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

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4. MENSURATION (3 weeks) 4.1 Perimeter and Area (a) Perimeter and Area of Common Figures  Review formulae for perimeter and area of squares, rectangles, triangles, the area of parallelograms and trapeziums, circumference and area of circles. Revise, using straightforward examples, how to calculate the perimeter and area of squares, rectangles and triangles, the area of parallelograms and trapeziums. It may be helpful to show students how the area formulae for parallelograms and trapeziums may be obtained by splitting them into two triangles. Also, revise the calculation of circumference and area of a circle, then, by using the concept of direct proportion, show how to derive the formula for arc length and sector area. For perimeter of a composite figure, start from any point at the edge of the figure, go around the figure along the edge until the starting point is reached. The perimeter is the sum of all the sides. For area of a composite figure, draw dotted lines to subdivide the composite figure into common figures. Find the area of each common figure. Add the area of all common figures in the filled (usually shaded) region and subtract
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(b) Arc Length and Area of Sector

 Review parts of a circle – chord, arc, sectors and segments.  Show the relation between arc length and circumference.  Show the relation between the area of sector and area of circle.  Solve problems involving the perimeter and area of common figures including the arc length and the area of sector of a circle.

Background about the formulae for area and circumference, and π may be found at http://www-gap.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/His tTopics/Pi through the ages.html Revision site for arcs and sectors at http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapeih/circlesan glesarcsandsectorsrev 3.shtml

(c) Perimeter and Area of Composite Figures

 Solve problems involving the perimeter and area of composite figures including finding the area of a segment.

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all those which are ‘holes’ (usually unshaded).

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Scope and Development

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4.2 Surface Area and Volume. (a) Total Surface Area and Volume of Common Solids (b) Total Surface Area and Volume of Pyramids, Cones and Spheres  Review formulae for surface area and volume of cubes, cuboids, prisms and cylinders.  Introduce total surface area and volume of pyramids, cones and spheres.  Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of cubes, cuboids, prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres (formulae will be given for pyramid, cone and sphere). Draw the nets of some prisms and construct the prisms. This activity could be set as a task to design a storage container, leading to the discussion of surface area and volume. Show by using sand/coloured water the relation between volume of pyramids and prisms of the same base area. Using the same method to show that volume of cone is 1/3 of that of a cylinder of the same base. For composite solids, subdivide it into common solids and find the volume of each of them. Then add or subtract accordingly. http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shapeih/index.sht ml

 Solve problems involving surface area and
(c) Total Surface Area and Volume of Composite Solids volume of various composite solids including problems on the mass of an object using the relation that mass = density × volume.

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5. SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIONS AND LOCI (3 weeks) 14.1 Simple Constructions

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

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 

Construct simple geometrical figures such as triangle or quadrilateral from given data. Construct angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors and parallel lines.

Revise on constructing triangles from different data, given three sides, a side and two angles, or two sides and an angle. Include also construction of some other geometrical figures, such as some quadrilaterals.Give further practice in constructing perpendicular and angle bisectors.

http://www.mathforum .org/library/topics/cons tructions has links for teachers about constructions, giving background and ideas

5.2 Scale Drawing

Apply the construction skills to making scale drawings, using simple scales only. Draw various situations to scale and interpret results, for example, draw a plan of a room to scale and use it to determine the area of carpet needed to cover the floor.

http://www.ex.ac.uk/ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bka 3.pdf has work on scale drawings at section 3.7

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5.3 Locus

Use the following loci and the method of intersecting loci: (a) sets of points in two or three dimensions (i) which are at a given distance from a given point, (ii) which are at a given distance from a given straight line, (iii) which are equidistant from two given points. (b) sets of points in two dimensions which are equidistant from two given intersecting straight lines.

Introduce the idea of locus by using examples in the classroom. ‘I want to stay 1 m from this chair/ from this wall. Where can I go?’ or ask students to imagine a point marked at the end of a blade of the ceiling fan and follow its path as the fan moves. Generalise the method to memorise: One point implies circle, Two points implies perpendicular bisector, One line implies parallel lines, Two intersecting lines implies angle bisectors. Progress using pencil and paper to draw accurate scale drawings to represent loci in two dimensions. Include examples of intersecting loci, for example, given a diagram showing the positions of villages A and B: ‘Ali lives less than 4 km from village A. He lives nearer to village B than to village A. Shade the region where Ali lives.’

http://www.ex.ac.uk./ci mt/mepres/allgcse/bkc 14.pdf

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6. MATRICES (3 weeks) 6.1 Introduction and Basic Definition 

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

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Define matrix (plural matrices) as a rectangular array of elements (usually numbers) arranged in rows and columns. Explain that a matrix with m rows and n columns is said to have order m x n (read as m by n). Define the different types of matrices: row

 

Introduce matrix by displaying information in the form of matrices of different orders. For examples : a) The marks of two students in English, Science and History:

http://www.sosmath.c om/matrix/matrix0/ma trix0.html has introduction to matrix algebra.

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matrix, column matrix, square matrix, diagonal matrix, null matrix, identity matrix or unit matrix and equal matrix.

Student A obtained 70 marks for English, 87 marks for Science and 56 marks for History. Student B obtained 72 marks for English, 80 marks for Science and 70 marks for History.

 7 80 57  6    7 82 70  0
70 72     87 80   56 70   

or

b) The sales of a department store for 2 items on 2 successive days: Thursday : 10 bags, 12 belts; Friday : 8 bags, 5 belts.

10  8 
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12   or 5 

10  12 

8  5 
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Explain briefly how the

matrix is formed and what each row and column represent.

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Scope and Development

Suggested Activities
When doing subtraction, give strong emphasis that the minus sign should not be touched when multiplying the scalar of the second matrix with the elements of that matrix. For example,

Resources

Subtraction and Multiplication by a Scalar

Show the addition and subtraction of two matrices. Show the multiplication of a matrix by a scalar quantity.

2  4 
2  4 

− 3  −1 −2   1 1  
−  − 3 2  − 1  2  

5   = − 5 

10   −10  

A common mistake at this step is −10   2 −3   2   4   − 2 10   1    6.3 Matrix Multiplication

Explain the technique of the multiplication of two matrices. Emphasize that two matrices can only be multiplied when the number of columns in the first matrix is the same as the number of rows in the second matrix. Show the results that AB ≠ BA. (except for multiplication by identity matrix where IA = AI).

Use real life example to show the logic of multiplying row with column. You may use the example stated above. That is considering the sales of a department store for the 2 items on 2 successive days. In addition, let the price of the bag be \$8 per piece and the belt at \$3 per piece.
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Present the above information in matrix form. Explain clearly how to calculate the total amount of money received by the store for the two days sales. Explain how the row in the first matrix is related to the column in the second matrix so that it can be multiplied.

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Scope and Development

Suggested Activities
Hence, generalize the technique and proceed to show the technique of multiplication of two (2 x 2) matrices and matrices of different orders: (a) Label the rows of the first matrix R1, R2 etc and the columns of the second matrix C1, C2 etc and then calculate R1C1, R1C2 etc outside the main step. After multiplying all the rows and columns, write down all the products follow the row and column numbers in the resultant matrix. (b) Making summary “Row x Column”. (c) Stress on the importance of correct order for the answer.

Resources

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6.4 Matrix Equations

 

Solve matrix equation where the unknowns are elements. Solve matrix equation where the unknown is a matrix.
Define the determinant of a matrix, if A =  

6.5 Determinant and Inverse of a 2 x 2 Matrix

 

a c

b , d 

d b then det A= A =a − c . Calculate the determinant of a matrix. Define non-singular matrix as matrix whose determinant is non-zero and singular matrix as matrix whose determinant is zero and it has no inverse. Show the method of finding the inverse of a nonsingular matrix.

Caution students on the common mistake of using “+” instead of “−” when calculating determinant because sometimes they can get mixed up with the procedure in doing multiplication of matrices.

(A  

− 1

=

1 d  det A  − c 

−b   ). a  

Solve problems with given value of determinant and find the unknown element in the matrix. Find unknown element in matrix which has no inverse.

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6.6 Identity Matrix

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Explain that an identity matrix, I is a square matrix whose elements in the principal diagonal are 1 and the other elements are zero. e.g. I = 1 0 0   1 0    0 1  , 0 1 0  .    0 0 1    Show using examples the properties that 1 1 IA = AI = I, AA − = I and A − A = I.
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SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10 Normal Track (2 + 3)

6.7 Application of Matrices

Show how to place data into matrix form and interpret elements in a matrix as related to the given information. Show how to solve the problems and hence interpret the results.

Recall the example given in section 1.3. To interpret the result of multiplication of two matrices, guide the students to tell what is the quantity in the first matrix (R1) and what is the quantity in the second matrix (C1) and when these two quantities (R1 and C1) are multiplied, what do we obtain? Also in situations where there are more than one element in each row of the first matrix, what do we obtain when the products are added (i.e. R1C1+ R2 C2 etc)?

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7. TRANSFORMATIONS (7 weeks) 7.1 Translation 

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Introduce translation as a transformation that

Explain that

http://www.bbc.co.uk/s
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 

moves all objects through a fixed distance in a fixed direction. Show examples where students have to find images of the figures when given a translation in a diagram or description in words. Describe fully in words the translation given in a h  diagram by stating the translation vector   . k   

transformations act upon object points would change them (in terms of position) into image points. When an object figure is transformed into an image figure, there could be changes in the shape and size of the image. The transformations of translation, reflection and rotation are isometric as they do not cause any changes in shape or size i.e. the objects and images are congruent. Relate reflection to study of reflection of light in science as the same properties apply especially the concept of lateral inversion.

chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/ shape/transformations rev1.shtml

7.2 Reflection

Introduce reflection as a transformation that reflects an object point in the line of reflection onto its image point. Discuss properties of reflection in terms of the object distance equals the image distance and the line of reflection is perpendicular to the line joining the object point and the image point. Show examples where students have to draw the images for individual points when given a line of reflection. Focus on the x- and y-axes, lines parallel to the axes, y = x and y = −x. Extend the concept to figures and show that if ∆ ABC is labelled in the clockwise direction, A then the image, ∆ 1B1C1 will be in the anticlockwise direction and vice versa. Given a point P and its image P1 on a diagram, explain that the line of reflection is actually the perpendicular bisector of the line PP1. and describe the reflection fully by stating the equation of the line of reflection.

This property is important as it helps students to distinguish between a reflection and a rotation when asked to describe a transformation.

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7.3 Rotation

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

  

Introduce rotation as a transformation that moves an object point through a fixed angle about a centre of rotation in a certain direction. Show examples where students have to draw the images for figures under a given rotation. Focus on rotations of multiples of 90°. Given a diagram showing an object and its image, explain that the centre of rotation is the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of two lines, each joining one object point to its image point. Stress that a rotation must be described fully by stating the centre of rotation, the angle and direction (except 180o rotation) it moves through.
Introduce enlargement as a transformation that changes the position of an object point from a centre of enlargement by a scale factor k. Show that when k > 0, the image is on the same side of the centre as the object and when k < 0, the object and image are on opposite sides. Draw images for objects given the description of the enlargement. Show that when k > 1, the image is enlarged k < 1, the image is reduced and and when introduce the concept that area of image = (scale factor) 2 in relation to

ABC and its Show that ∆ A image ∆ 1B1C1 are labelled in the same sense which distinguishes a rotation from a reflection.

7.4 Enlargement

Introduce enlargement as a transformation that is not isometric and the size of the figure changes but the shape remains the shape. This means that the object and image are similar. Use the work on similar figures to link to enlargement. Derive the ratio for similar triangles and relate it to the scale factor of enlargement Show that an enlargement of scale factor k will produce an area enlargement of scale factor
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area of object

similar figures.

Given a diagram showing an object and its image, explain that the centre of enlargement, C, is the point of intersection of the two lines, each joining one object point P to its image point P1 and the

SPN-21 (Interim Stage) Year 10 Normal Track (2 + 3)

scale factor, 

CP k= 1 CP

.

k 2 and volume scale factor of k 3.

Stress that an enlargement must be described fully by stating the centre of enlargement and its scale factor (positive or negative).

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7.5 Shear

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities
Stack up some books (same height)) on the table. Use a ruler and apply a horizontal shear force to the books. Indicate the three obvious effects: (i) the book on the table does not move. Use this effect to explain the meaning of invariant line. (ii) all the books’ movement are parallel to the table top. Use this effect to explain that a shear moves points parallel to the invariant line. (iii) The higher the books’ height, the more it moves. Use this effect to explain the definition of shear factor. To show that size does not change under a shear,

Resources
http://www.mathsisfun .com/definitions/trans formation.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/s chools/gcsebitesize/m aths/shape/transforma tionsrev1.shtml

Introduce shear as a transformation that moves an object point parallel to a line called the invariant line (xaxis or y-axis).  Stress that points on invariant line do not move under a shear.  Give the definition of shear factor and show how to apply the definition to locate the position of the image point. (Caution on situations where the object point is on the negative region of the invariant line and also where the shear factor is negative).  Given a shear and a figure (e.g. triangle), draw and label the image of the figure.  Recognise a shear by its properties, i.e. changing in shape but not in size.  Given an object figure and its image figure, describe a shear completely (the description must include the word shear, the invariant line and the shear factor).

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apply the formula for area of triangle (1/2 × base height) on both the object and image (this is a good revision to find the area of a triangle when it is drawn on a grid).

×

7.6 Stretch

Introduce stretch as a transformation that moves an object point perpendicular to a line called the invariant line (x-axis or y-axis).  Stress that points on the invariant line do not move under a stretch.  Give the definition of stretch factor and show how to apply the definition to locate the position of the image point.  Given a stretch and a figure (e.g. triangle), draw and label the image.  Recognize a stretch by its properties. A stretch changes

Use a geoboard and rubber bands to show a stretch. Indicate the three effects: (i) All points on the invariant line do not move, every point moves perpendicular to the invariant line,

http://mathworld.wolfr am.com/Stretch.html

(ii)

(iii) the amount of movement of any point depends on its distance from the invariant line.

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both the shape and size (the object can become bigger or smaller) of the object.  Given an object figure and its image figure, describe a stretch completely (the description must include the word stretch, the invariant line and the stretch factor).

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7.7 Combined Transformation

Scope and Development

Suggested Activities

Resources

Explain the notation used for single transformation (e.g. T(A) is the image of A under the Translation, T).  Explain the notation used for combined transformation (e.g. ET(A) is the image of point A under the translation ,T followed by the Enlargement, E).  Given an object figure and a combined transformation, either expressed in notation or in words, draw and label the image figure.

7.8 Use of Matrix in Transformations

Use the idea that a transformation maps an object to an image to establish the quantitative relationship (Matrix) (Object) = (Image), except for Translation is (Matrix) + (Object)= (Image).  Represent the object as a matrix with x-coordinates as the elements in the first row and y-coordinates as the elements in the second row.  Use the results of the multiplication of (Matrix) ×

Review the method of multiplying two matrices.

×

http://www.math.lsu.e du/~verrill/teaching/lin earalgebra/linal http://www.uz.ac.zw/sc ience/maths/zimaths/7 3/sheila.html /linalg5.html http://www.mathsfiles. com/excel/MatrixTrans Notes1.htm
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(Object) to indicate the coordinates of the various image points corresponding to each object point.  Given a transformation represented by a matrix and a figure, find the coordinates of the image points and draw and label the image.  Write down a matrix which represents a given transformation.

Extend the idea of (Matrix) × (Object) = (Image) and the idea of M 1 0   0 1  = M to show that    the matrix representing a given transformation can be obtained by mapping the point (1, 0) and (0, 1) to their respective images under that transformation. The elements of the matrix are the coordinates of the images in that order.

http://www.uz.ac.zw/sc ience/maths/zimaths/7 3/sheila.html

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