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Comparison of orbital launch systems

Comparison of orbital launch systems


This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch
systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families.
Spacecraft propulsion[1] is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid
rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).[2]
Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All
current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some[3] have
used air-breathing engines on their first stage.[4]
Legend for orbit abbreviations in table:

GEO - Geostationary orbit


GSO - Geosynchronous orbit
GTO - Geostationary transfer orbit

Origin

Manufacturer

Russia

Khrunichev

1.2

Russia

Khrunichev

Russia

Khrunichev

A5

A7

4 40

4 40

4 40

4 42L

4 42L

4 42L

4 42P

HCO - Heliocentric orbit


HEO - High Earth orbit
LEO - Low Earth orbit

MEO - Medium Earth orbit


SSO - Sun-synchronous orbit
TLI - Trans Lunar Injection

Legend for launch system status in below table: [under development] [retired] [operational]

1.1

A3

Mass to

Mass to

Cost

Cost/kg

Cost/kg

LEO

other orbits

(Mil US$)

(LEO)

(GTO)

(kg)

(kg)

(US$)

(US$)

[]

Launches

Status

First flight

Last flight

Vehicle

Development

Angara 1.1

Development

Angara 1.2

Development

Angara A3

Development

Angara A5

Development

Angara A7

3,800

[]

14,600

Russia

Khrunichev

Russia

Khrunichev

2,4003,600 to

50

GTO

(US$70)

[]

24,500 (63)

[6][]

[6][]

[5]

41,000
Arospatiale

Europe

[]

1,400
1,830 to GTO

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

2,270 to GTO

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

Arospatiale

Europe

2,650 to GTO

[]

4,600

2,740 to SSO

[]

[]

Retired

1979

1986

Ariane 1

Retired

1986

1989

Ariane 2

Retired

1984

1989

Ariane 3

[]

Retired

1990

1993

Ariane 4 40

[]

Retired

1995

1995

Ariane 4 40

11

[]

11

[]

1,900 to GTO

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

2,020 to GTO

H10+

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

2,105 to GTO

[]

Retired

1995

1999

Ariane 4 40

H10-3

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

4,500 to SSO

[]

[]

Retired

1993

1993

Ariane 4 42L

[]

Retired

1994

1994

Ariane 4 42L

3,200 to GTO

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

[]

3,350 to GTO

H10+

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

[]

3,480 to GTO

11

[]

Retired

1995

2002

Ariane 4 42L
H10-3

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

6,000

[]

3,400 to SSO
2,600 to GTO

[]

Retired

1990

1992

Ariane 4 42P

Comparison of orbital launch systems

4 42P

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

2,740 to GTO

Retired

1992

1994

Ariane 4 42P

H10+

4 42P

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

2,930 to GTO

Retired

1994

2002

Ariane 4 42P

H10-3

4 44L

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

6,000 to SSO

11

[]

[]

Retired

1989

1992

Ariane 4 44L

Retired

1992

1994

Ariane 4 44L

4,200 to GTO

4 44L

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

[]

[]

4,460 to GTO

H10+

4 44L

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

[]

4,720 to GTO

24

[]

Retired

1995

2003

Ariane 4 44L
H10-3

4 44LP

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

[]

5,000 to SSO

Retired

1988

1993

44LP

3,700 to GTO

4 44LP

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

Ariane 4

[]
[]

[]

4,030 to GTO

Retired

1992

1995

Ariane 4

44LP H10+

4 44LP

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

7,000

[]

4,220 to GTO

13

[]

Retired

1995

2001

Ariane 4
44LP H10-3

4 44P

Arospatiale

Europe

[]

6,500

4,100 to SSO

[]

Retired

1991

1991

Ariane 4 44P

[]

Retired

1995

2001

Ariane 4 44P

[]

3,000 to GTO

4 44P

[]

Arospatiale

Europe

3,465 to GTO

H10-3

5ECA

[]

EADS Astrium

Europe

5ME

21,000

[]

10,050 to GTO

[]

EADS Astrium
21,000

[]

EADS Astrium

Europe

5G+

18,000

EADS Astrium

Europe

5GS

EADS Astrium

Europe

18,000[citation needed]

18,000[citation needed]

EADS Astrium

[]

8,000 to GTO

220

[]

6,900

[]

Operational

31

2002

[7]
0

Development

[]

10,476

[]

Operational

2008

[8]

1996

2003

Ariane 5G

[8]

2004

2004

Ariane 5G+

[8]

2005

2009

Ariane 5GS

16

[]

7,100 to GTO

[]

[]

[]

6,600 to GTO
6,800 to GTO

Europe
India

10,476

Ariane 5ME

11,200 to GTO

Europe

5G

[]

[]

EADS Astrium

Europe

5ES

220

[]

93

Ariane 5ES

Retired

Retired

Retired

Development

[9]

Ariane 6

1987

1994

ASLV

1995

2001

Athena I

ISRO

[10]

UnitedLockheed Martin

Retired

States

UnitedATK

Ic
States

II

Development

Athena Ic

Lockheed Martin

UnitedLockheed Martin

[12]

2,065[citation needed]

Retired[citation needed]

1998

1999

Athena II

States

UnitedATK

IIc
States

entaur

UnitedLockheed

8,618[citation needed]

States

Development

Athena IIc

3,833 to GTO[citation

148

Retired

1962

1983

Atlas-Centaur

[]

Retired

1984

1989

Atlas G

needed]

UnitedLockheed
States

Lockheed Martin

[]

5,900

2,222 to GTO
1,179 to HCO

[]

Comparison of orbital launch systems

/MSD

UnitedLockheed

Retired

1983

1987

Atlas H/MSD

[]

Retired

1990

1997

Atlas I

[]

Retired

1991

1998

Atlas II

[]

Retired

1992

2002

Atlas IIA

[]

Retired

1993

2004

Atlas IIAS

[]

Retired

2000

2004

Atlas IIIA

[]

Retired

2002

2002

Atlas

States

UnitedLockheed Martin

[]

5,900

[]

2,340

11

States

UnitedLockheed Martin

[]

6,780

States

[]

7,316

States

[]

8,618

States

UnitedLockheed Martin

23

[]

30

[]

3,833 to GTO

[]

8,686

4,060 to GTO
2,970 to HCO

UnitedLockheed Martin

[]

10,759

[]

4,609 to GTO

IIIB/DEC

States

UnitedLockheed Martin

[]

3,180 to GTO

2,680 to HCO

States

EC

10

2,160 to HCO

UnitedLockheed Martin

IA

[]

2,000 to HCO

UnitedLockheed Martin

AS

2,810 to GTO

[]

4,193 to GTO

[]

Retired

2003

2005

IIIB/SEC

States

401

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

9,050

States

411

[]

9,050

States

[]

9,050

States

125

[]

13,812

[]

[]

Operational

2002

Atlas V 401

[]

Operational

2006

Atlas V 411

[]

Operational

2007

Atlas V 421

[]

Operational

2005

Atlas V 431

[]

Operational

2010

Atlas V 501

[]

Operational

[]

Operational

2003

Atlas V 521

[]

Operational

2010

Atlas V 531

[]

Operational

[]

Operational

18

8,495 to SSO

[]

[]

[]

9,050 to SSO
7,000 to GTO

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

9,050

States

501

[]

6,075 to GTO

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

431

6,670 to SSO
4,950 to GTO

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

421

Atlas

9,050 to SSO
7,800 to GTO

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

8,250

States

5,945 to SSO

3,970 to GTO

[]

1,500 to GEO

511

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

10,950

States

7,820 to SSO

Atlas V 511

5,370 to GTO

[]

1,750 to GEO

521

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

13,300

States

9,585 to SSO

6,485 to GTO

[]

2,760 to GEO

531

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

15,300

States

11,160 to SSO

7,425 to GTO

[]

3,250 to GEO

541

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

17,100

States

12,435 to SSO

[]

223 (2013)

27,063

Atlas V 541

8,240 to GTO

[]

3,730 to GEO

551

Arrow

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

18,500

States

12,435 to SSO

2006

Atlas V 551

8,700 to GTO

[]

3,960 to GEO

UnitedRAE
Kingdom

73

Retired
1969

[13]

1971

Black Arrow

Comparison of orbital launch systems

rcial

UnitedMartin Marietta

4
4

Retired

1990

1992

Titan III

States

300

Commercial

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

700[citation needed]

370 to SSO[citation needed]

[]

[]

1972

1973

Delta 0300

Retired

States

900

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

1,300

[]

818 to SSO

[]

Retired

1972

1972

Delta 0900

[]

Retired

1975

1975

Delta 1410

[]

Retired

1972

1973

Delta 1604

[]

Retired

1973

1973

Delta 1900

[]

Retired

1975

1975

Delta 1910

[]

Retired

1973

1973

Delta 1913

[]

Retired

1972

1973

Delta 1914

[]

Retired

1974

1981

Delta 2310

[]

Retired

1974

1977

Delta 2313

[]

Retired

1975

1978

Delta 2910

[]

Retired

1975

1976

Delta 2913

[]

Retired

1974

1979

Delta 2914

[]

Retired

1980

1988

Delta 3910

Retired

1981

1981

Delta 3913

[]

Retired

1975

1987

Delta 3914

[]

Retired

1982

1989

Delta 3920

[]

Retired

1982

1984

Delta 3924

[]

Retired

1989

1990

Delta 4925

[]

Retired

1989

1989

Delta 5920

[]

Retired

1990

1992

Delta II 6920

Retired

1989

1992

Delta II 6925

States

410

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

604

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

900

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

1,800

States

910

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

913

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

914

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

310

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

313

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

910

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

1,887

States

913

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

2,000

[]

700 to GTO

States

914

[]

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

724 to GTO

30

States

910

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

2,494

States

913

1,154 to GTO with

[]

10

PAM-D

[]

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

States

914

[]

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

954 to GTO

13

States

920

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

3,452

States

924

1,284 to GTO with

[]

10

PAM-D

[]

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

1,104 to GTO

States

925

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

3,400

[]

1,312 to GTO

States

920

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

3,848

States
6920

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas

[]

3,983

States
6925

UnitedMcDonnell Douglas
States

[]

1,447 to GTO

14

[]

Comparison of orbital launch systems

7320

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[14][]

2,865

[14][]

1,651 to SSO

10

[]

Retired

1999

2011

Delta II 7320

States
7326

UnitedBoeing IDS

[]

934 to GTO

States

Retired

Delta II 7326

1998[citation

needed]

636 to TLI

[14][]

629 to HCO

7420

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[14][]

3,185

[14][]

1,966 to SSO

[]

Retired

1998

2010

Delta II 7420

[]

Retired

1998

2002

Delta II 7425

[]

Retired

1999

1999

Delta II 7426

[]

Operational

1998

2011

Delta II 7920

[]

Retired

1990

2009

Delta II 7925

Retired

2003

2011

Delta II-H

13

States
7425

UnitedBoeing IDS

1,100 to GTO

States

7426

[14][]

804 to HCO

UnitedBoeing IDS

1,058 to GTO

States

734 to TLI

[14][]

711 to HCO

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

7920

[14][]

5,030

[14][]

3,123 to SSO

27

States
7925

UnitedBoeing IDS
States

[14][]

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[14][]

[]

6,097

7920H

States

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

2,171 to GTO

States

UnitedBoeing IDS

[]

8,292

2003

Operational

1,508 to

[citation

HCO

needed]

[14][]

I 8930

2007

Delta II-H
7925H

[15]

[]

[]

3,810 to GTO

Retired

1998

Operational

2004

[]

Retired

2003

[]

Operational

2002

2000

Delta III 8930

States

V-H

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[]

22,950

12,980 to GTO

[]

[16]

300(220)

States

V-M

5,4)

1,177 to TLI

HCO

-H

5,2)

69

1,265 to

-H

4,2)

1,819 to GTO

13,072[citation

Delta IV-H

needed]

UnitedBoeing IDS

[]

8,120

States

4,210 to GTO

2006

Delta IV-M

[]

2,722 to HCO

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[17]

11,750

[17]

5,740 to GTO

Delta

IV-M+(4,2)

States

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[17]

10,250

[17]

[]

4,590 to GTO

Operational

Delta

IV-M+(5,2)

States

UnitedUnited Launch Alliance

[17]

13,500

[17]

[]

6,470 to GTO

Operational

2009

[18]

Delta
IV-M+(5,4)

States

France

SEREB

Ukraine

Yuzhmash

[]

[5]

3,700

14(10)

3,784[citation

12

Retired

1965

1975

Diamant

16

Operational

1999

Retired

1987

1987

Energia

Retired

1988

1988

Energia-Buran

Dnepr-1

needed]

[19]

Soviet NPO Energia

[]

100,000

Union

-Buran

1
States

[20]

240

[]

32,000 to TLI

Soviet NPO Energia (Launcher)


Union

[]
[]

20,000 to GTO

NPO Molniya (Orbiter)

[]
[21]

30,000

Japan IHI Aerospace[]

1,200

[]

UnitedSpaceX

670[citation needed]

[]

Epsilon

Development

7[citation needed]

[]

5
Retired

2006

2009

Falcon 1

Comparison of orbital launch systems

1e

UnitedSpaceX

6
10.9

1,010[citation needed]

10,792[citation

States

9 v1.0

UnitedSpaceX

[][][]

10,450

[]

4,680 to GTO

[]

5,359[citation

56

States

9 v1.1

[]

Falcon 1e

Retired

needed]

[22]

2010

2013

Falcon 9 v1.0

Retired

needed]

UnitedSpaceX

[]

16,625

[]

5,760 to GTO

[]

56

[23]

Development

[23]

Development

2013

Falcon 9 v1.1

4,109

States

Heavy

UnitedSpaceX

[][]

53,000

States

[]
[]

12,000 to GTO

[]

83128

Falcon Heavy

2,200

16,000 to TLI

India

[24][25]

Retired

2001

2001

GSLV

ISRO

Mk.I(a)

India

ISRO

Retired

2004

2007[citation
needed]

GSLV
Mk.I(b)

[27]
India

ISRO

1[citation needed]

Operational

2010

GSLV
Mk.I(c)

India

Mk.II

Mk.III

India

[29]

ISRO

Operational

2010

GSLV Mk.II

2,500

[30]

ISRO

Mitsubishi Heavy

Japan
Industries
United

10,000[citation needed]

3,200[citation needed]

[]

Development

GSLV Mk.III

Retired

1986

1992

H-I

[][31]

Retired

1994

1998

H-II

[]

Operational

2001

[]

Operational

2006

2006

H-IIA 204

[]

Retired

2005

2007

H-IIA 2022

[]

Retired

2002

2008

H-IIA 2024

[32]

Operational

2009

[]

Retired

1995

1995

H-II/SSB

[33][]

Retired

1999

1999

H-IIS

0(+1)

Retired

1996

1996

J-I

Operational

2002

5,000

1,100 to GTO[citation
needed]

States

Japan

Mitsubishi Heavy
5
Industries

02

Japan

[]

Mitsubishi Heavy
10,000

[]

3,800 to GTO

H-IIA 202

Industries

04

Japan

[]

Mitsubishi Heavy
5,800 to GTO

Industries

022

Japan

[]

Mitsubishi Heavy
4,200

Industries

024

Japan

Mitsubishi Heavy
7
Industries

04

Japan

[]

Mitsubishi Heavy
16,500

[]

8,000

Wikipedia:Link

H-IIB 304

Industries
rot

Japan

Mitsubishi Heavy
1
Industries

Japan

Mitsubishi Heavy
1
Industries

Japan IHI Corporation


[]
Nissan Motors

he-1

China

CALT

2003[citation

Kaituozhe-1

needed]

s-3M

Soviet NPO Polyot


Union

[5]

1,500
12 million

442[citation needed]

Operational[citation
needed]

Russia

1967

2010[citation
needed]

Kosmos-3M

a 4S

March 1

March

March

March

March

March

March

March

Comparison of orbital launch systems


Japan Nissan Motors[]

China

CALT

China

China

March

March 5

March 6

March 7

1969

1971[citation

0(+3)

Operational[citation

1995

[35]

2002

Lambda 4S

Long March 1

China

CALT

Retired

32

1974

1974[citation

Operational

CALT

14

Operational

CALT

7[citation needed]

Retired

Long March

1992[citation

1990

2D

1995[citation
needed]

China

China

CALT

CALT

Operational

Operational

2A

2C

needed]

China

Long March

Long March

1975[citation
needed]

China

Long March
1D

needed]

Long March
2E

Long March

1999 [citation
needed]

2F

2011

Long March
2F/G

CALT

March

[34]

Retired

CALT

China

March

1970[citation

needed]

March

March

1966

300[citation needed]

CALT

CALT

March

Retired

needed]

China

March

26

needed]

March 3

March

[]

14

[36]

2,650 to GTO

23[citation needed]

Retired

1984

Long March 3

Operational

1994

Long March
3A

China

[][]

CALT

10[citation needed]

[source needs

11,200

Operational

1996

Long March
3B

translation]

China

CALT
5,500 to GTO

[]

Operational

Long March

2007[citation

3B/E

needed]

China

CALT

Long March

Development[citation

3B(A)

needed]

China

CALT
3,700

[]

Operational

2008

Long March
3C

[citation needed]

China

CALT

Retired

1988

1990[citation

[citation needed]

China

CALT

[37]

4,200

18

[37]

needed]

Operational
1999

[37]

Long March
4A

Long March
4B

China

CALT

Operational

2007[citation
needed]

China

CALT
25,000

[]

14,000 to GTO

[]

Development[citation

Long March
4C

Long March 5

needed]

China

CALT

Development[citation

Long March 6

needed]

since 2009

China

CALT

Development
[citation

since 2009
needed]

Long March 7

Comparison of orbital launch systems

March 9

China

[38]

CALT

8
0

Development

Long March 9

Retired

1997

2006

M-V

Operational

2000

2011

Minotaur I

130,000

Japan Nissan Motors[]

[]

(-2000)

1,800 - 1,850

[]

IHI AEROSPACE
(-2006)

ur I

UnitedOrbital

[]

580

10

[]

States

ur IV

[39]

UnitedOrbital

Operational

3(+2)

2010

[39]

2011

[39]

Minotaur IV

States

ur V

UnitedOrbital

Operational

2013

[39]

Minotaur V

447 to TLI

States

[39]

640 to GTO

Soviet RSC Energia

24

[40]

Retired

1960
1965

[40]

Molniya

Union

a-M

Soviet RSC Energia

275

Retired

1964

2010

Molniya-M

[]

Retired

1974

1979

Mu-3C

[]

Retired

1977

1978

Mu-3H

[]

Retired

1980

Union

Russia
Japan Nissan Motors[]

195

Japan Nissan Motors[]

300

Japan Nissan Motors[]

300

1984[citation

Mu-3S

needed]

Japan Nissan Motors[]

770

[]

Retired

1985

1995

Mu-3SII

Japan Nissan Motors[]

180

[]

Retired

1971

1972

Mu-4S

Soviet NPO Energia

95,000

Retired

1969

1972

N1

Retired

1975

[][41][42][43]

Union

[]

Mitsubishi Heavy

Japan
Industries
United

1982[citation

N-I

needed]

States
Mitsubishi Heavy

Japan
Industries
United

Retired

1981

1987[citation

N-II

needed]

States

South

KARI/Khrunichev

Retired

2009

2013

Retired

1998

1998

Operational

1990

Naro-1

Korea

Russia

an

North KCST
Korea

UnitedOrbital

443
41

[44]

2012

[44]

Pegasus

States
II

UnitedOrbital

[]

6,120

[]

Development

Pegasus II

2,000 to GTO

States

Soviet RSC Energia

1,400

Retired

1963

Union

1964[citation

Polyot

needed]

Soviet Khrunichev
Union

19,760[citation needed]

4,930[citation needed] to
GTO

Russia

311

[45]

Retired

1965

2012[citation
needed]

Proton-K

Comparison of orbital launch systems

[]

Soviet Khrunichev

[]

21,600

6,150 to GTO

9
[]

85

[]

4,302

61

[45]

Operational

Union

Proton-M

2001[citation
needed]

Russia
India

[]

ISRO

11

1,600 to SSO

3,200

Operational

[]

needed]

1,050 to GTO

CA

XL

India

ISRO

India

ISRO

[]

[]

2,800

PSLV

1993[citation

Operational

2007

PSLV-CA

Operational

2008

PSLV-XL

Development

1,100 to SSO

[]

1,750 to SSO

3,800

[]

1,300 to GTO

HP

India

[]

ISRO

1,900 to SSO

4,000

PSLV-HP

[]

1,440 to GTO

Russia

Khrunichev

[]

1,950

7,179[citation

14

14

[]

Operational

1990

Operational

2008

needed]

Iran

Iranian Space Agency

2012[citation

Safir

needed]

UnitedChrysler (S-I)
States

10

UnitedChrysler (S-IB)

Retired

1961
1965

[46]

Saturn I

[47]

20,412[citation needed]

Retired

1966

1975

Saturn IB

Retired

1967

1973

Saturn V

125

Retired

1961

1994

Scout

Operational

1988

2010

Shavit

Operational

1998

Douglas (S-IVB)

States

[46]

Douglas (S-IV)

[]

UnitedBoeing (S-IC)

118,000

North American(S-II)

States

[]

47,000 to TLI

185 (1.16 billion

9,915[citation

in 2013)

needed]

[]

13

[48][49][50]

Douglas(S-IVB)

UnitedUS Air Force/NASA

150

States

Israel

IAE

160

15

Russia

Makeyev

160 - 430

2006[citation

Shtil'

Simorgh

IranIranian

[][51]

60-100

Space

needed]

Agency

ock 1

[]

UnitedAlliant
States

Development

SLS Block 1

Development

SLS Block 2

70,000

Techsystems(SRBs)

[52]

Boeing(proposed)

ock 2

[]

UnitedAlliant
States

130,000

Techsystems(SRBs)

[53]

Soviet RSC Energia

6,450

30

Retired

1966

1975

Soyuz

Soviet RSC Energia

5,500

Retired

1970

1971

Soyuz-L

Soviet RSC Energia

6,600

Retired

1971

1976

Soyuz-M

Soviet TsSKB-Progress

6,2006,700kg from

727

Operational

1973

92

Retired

1982

Union

Union

M
Union

U
Union

Soyuz-U

Plesetsk)

Russia

6590-6950 from

[54]

Baikonour

U2

Soviet TsSKB-Progress
Union

Russia

ISRO

India

40[citation needed]

4[citation
needed]

Boeing(proposed)

SLV

1995

Soyuz-U2

1979

1983[citation
needed]

Comparison of orbital launch systems

FG

Russia

TsSKB-Progress

Russia

TsSKB-Progress

2.1b

Russia

TsSKB-Progress

2.1v

Russia

TsSKB-Progress

2.1a

huttle

10

[55]

29

Operational

7(+1)

Operational

2001

Soyuz-FG

6,7907130kg

2004

UnitedAlliant Techsystems

2,850

[21]

24,400

300

[]

10,416

[]

Operational

Development

[]

[56]

Soyuz-2.1a

2011

Soyuz-2.1b

Soyuz-2.1v

Retired

1981

2011

Space Shuttle

Retired

1957

1957

Sputnik

135

(SRBs)

States

Martin Marietta (ET)


Rockwell International
(Orbiter)

Soviet RSC Energia

500

8K71PS

Union
8A91

Soviet RSC Energia

1,327

Retired

1958

Operational

1993

1958

Sputnik 8A91

Union

Russia

MITT

532[citation needed]

167 to SSO[citation needed]

7[citation needed]

2006[citation

Start-1

needed]

aunch

UnitedStratolaunch Systems

[]

[]

6,100

Development

2016

[]

StratoLaunch

States

Russia

Khrunichev

1,700
5 million.

[5]

Operational[citation

2003

2003

Strela

needed]

Haas

ARCA

Romania

UnitedOrbital

2,600

Development

1,320[citation needed]

9[citation needed]

[57]

Super Haas

1994

Operational

States

2011[citation

Taurus

needed]

UnitedOrbital

[]

[]

Operational

2013

2013

Antares

UnitedMartin Marietta

11(+1)

Retired

1964

1966

Titan II GLV

UnitedMartin Marietta

13

Retired

1988

2003

Titan II(23)G

Retired

1964

1965

Titan IIIA

6,000

1,900 to GTO

States
GLV
States

(23)G
States

IA

UnitedMartin Marietta
States

IB

UnitedMartin Marietta

70

Retired

1966

1987

Titan IIIB

UnitedMartin Marietta

36

Retired

1965

1982

Titan IIIC

UnitedMartin Marietta

22

Retired

1971

1982

Titan IIID

UnitedMartin Marietta

Retired

1974

1977

Titan IIID

UnitedMartin Marietta

15

Retired

1982

1989

Titan 34D

[58]

Retired

1989

1998

Titan IVA

[58]

Retired

1997

2005

Titan IVB

States

IC
States

ID
States

IE
States

4D
States

VA

UnitedMartin Marietta

22

States

VB

UnitedLockheed Martin
States

[]

21,682

5,761 to GTO

[]

432

13,836[citation
needed]

(9,000 with upper


stage)

17

Comparison of orbital launch systems

or II

CONAE
Argentina

n-2A

Soviet Yuzhmash

[59]

Tronador 2.0

Retired

1967

[60]

Retired

1969

[61]

Retired

1969

Tsyklon-2A

Soviet Yuzhmash

106

2006

[60]

Tsyklon-2

[61]

Tsyklon-3

Union

Ukraine

n-3

Soviet Yuzhmash

1977

122

2009

Union

Ukraine

n-4

Yuzhmash

[]

Ukraine

5,500

North KCST

100[citation needed]

1,700 to GTO

[]

Development

2[citation needed]

Operational[citation

Korea

Tsyklon-4

2006

2009[citation

needed]

UnitedMartin

rd

23[citation needed]

11(+1)

Retired

Operational

Unha

needed]

1957

1959

Vanguard

States
ESA/ASI

1,500

Europe

23.5

[62]

15,600[citation

Brazil

AEB, INPE

Russia

Makeyev

Vega

2012

[63]

needed]

[64]

380

Operational

1997

2003

VLS-1

2005

Volna

2
100

1(+5)[A]

Operational[citation

1995

[65]

needed]

Soviet RSC Energia

306

Retired

1963

1976

Voskhod

Soviet RSC Energia

Retired

1960

1960

Vostok-L

Soviet RSC Energia

16

Retired

1960

Union

L
Union

K
Union

45

Retired

1962

Union

Vostok-K

1967[citation

Vostok-2

needed]

Soviet RSC Energia

93[citation needed]

Retired

1964

Union

Vostok

1964[citation
needed]

Soviet RSC Energia

2M

1991[citation

Vostok-2M

needed]

Soviet RSC Energia

Retired

1965

Union

1966[citation

Soyuz/Vostok

needed]

[66]

Soviet Yuzhnoye

13,740

37

[32]

Retired

1985
2004

[67]

Zenit-2

Union

Ukraine
[66]

Yuzhnoye

Ukraine

Operational

2007

Zenit-2M

13,920

(2SLB)

UkraineYuzhnoye[68]

SL

UkraineYuzhmash

SLB

Development

Union

n-2

11

RKK Energia

UkraineYuzhmash
RKK Energia

[69]

[68]

6,000 to GTO

[]

3,750 to GTO[citation
needed]

[]

Operational

2011

Zenit-3F

30

Operational

1999

Zenit-3SL

Operational

2008

Zenit-3SLB

100

4[citation needed]

Comparison of orbital launch systems

Proposed and design concepts


Non-rocket spacelaunch

Notes
[1] There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research.
However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de
Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
[2] The first medieval rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Arabs, in
warfare as early as the 13th century.
[3] Such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne.
[4] Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and
some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western
geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical
rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.
[5] European Space Directory 2006. Referenced in: Brian Harvey, The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program. p.296.
[6] - (http:/ / www. khrunichev. ru/ main. php?id=44), date unknown, Retrieved 2010-08-09.
[7] A full listing of the Ariane 5 launch history is in its main article.
[8] Flight V193 was the seventh Ariane 5 launch of 2009 and used the last of the GS version of the launcher. (http:/ / www. esa. int/ esaCP/
SEM5TFAK73G_index_0. html)
[9] (http:/ / www. isro. org/ Launchvehicles/ launchvehicles. aspx#ASLV)
[10] Encyclopedia Astronautica, Athena 1 (http:/ / www. astronautix. com/ lvs/ athena1. htm)
[11] Lockheed Martin and ATK Announce 2nd Generation Athena Launch Vehicles (http:/ / www. lockheedmartin. com/ news/ press_releases/
2010/ 0325_ss_athena. html)
[12] Encyclopedia Astronautica, Athena 2 (http:/ / www. astronautix. com/ lvs/ athena2. htm)
[13] Suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
[14] With 9.5 foot (2.9 metre) fairing
[15] No flights planned, but 5 unsold heavies could be used.
[17] Space launch report -Delta4 (http:/ / www. spacelaunchreport. com/ delta4. html)
[18] New communications craft launched for U.S. military (http:/ / www. spaceflightnow. com/ delta/ d346/ ), Spaceflight Now, 5 Dec 2009
[19] Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
[20] Encyclopedia Astronautica quotes Energia's "flyaway unit cost" at "$764 million in 1985 dollars". However the realistic exchange rate of
Soviet currency was drastically different from the official conversion rate which had been set by decree at 0.8 Soviet rubles per US$1.
Unofficially one US dollar in 1980s was in terms of purchasing power roughly equivalent to four Soviet rubles.
[21] The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable
spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the
spaceplanes themselves.
[23] Upgraded Spacex Falcon 9.1.1 will launch 25% more than old Falcon 9 and bring price down to $4109 per kilogram to LEO (http:/ /
nextbigfuture. com/ 2013/ 03/ upgraded-spacex-falcon-911-will-launch. html), NextBigFuture, 22 Mar 2013.
[24] (http:/ / www. isro. org/ gslv-d1/ gslv-d1. aspx)
[25] (http:/ / www. isro. org/ gslv-d2/ gslv-d2. aspx)
[26] (http:/ / www. isro. org/ gslv-f01/ gslv-f01. aspx)
[27] (http:/ / www. isro. org/ gslv-f04/ gslv-f04. aspx)
[28] (http:/ / www. isro. org/ gslv-d3/ gslv-d3. aspx)
[29] ISRO GSLV Mark I & Mark II (http:/ / www. isro. org/ Launchvehicles/ GSLV/ gslv. aspx), Indian Space Research Organisation, 2008,
accessed 2010-12-26.
[30] Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III, ISRO (http:/ / www. isro. gov. in/ Launchvehicles/ GSLVMARKIII/ mark3. aspx)
[31] Not including two launches made using the H-II/SSB and H-IIS configurations
[32] Space launch report - launch success rates (http:/ / www. spacelaunchreport. com/ log2011. html#rate)
[33] Only launch failed to achieve orbit
[34] Long March 1 (http:/ / astronautix. com/ lvs/ cz1. htm)
[35] Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
[36] (http:/ / war. news. 163. com/ 11/ 1029/ 18/ 7HI8TGRJ00014J0G. html),
.
[37] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau_det/ cz-4b. htm
[38] http:/ / www. americaspace. com/ ?p=22881
[39] http:/ / www. orbital. com/ SpaceLaunch/ Minotaur/ History/ minotaur_history. shtml
[40] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau/ molniya. htm

12

Comparison of orbital launch systems


[41] Astronautix.com about N1-L3 (http:/ / www. astronautix. com/ craft/ l3. htm)
[42] S.P.Korolev RSC Energia about N1-L3 components (http:/ / www. energia. ru/ en/ history/ systems/ vehicles/ vehicle_n1-l3_c. html)
[43] The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to
increase the payload capacity to 9095 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
[44] http:/ / www. orbital. com/ SpaceLaunch/ Pegasus/ pegasus_history. shtml
[45] Encyclopedia Astronautica - Proton (http:/ / www. astronautix. com/ lvs/ proton. htm)
[46] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau/ saturn-1. htm
[48] Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin, Saturn (http:/ / www. apogeespacebooks. com/ Books/ Saturn. html), 2005 (paperback, Apogee Books
Space Series, 2010), ISBN 1-894959-19-1
[49] John Duncan, Saturn V Flight History (http:/ / www. apollosaturn. com/ satvhist. htm) (1999), web page (accessed 20 August 2010)
[50] The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which
had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight
History (1968) (http:/ / history. msfc. nasa. gov/ saturn_apollo/ documents/ Flight_History. pdf). For more information, see the Saturn V
article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and
did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn (http:/ / www. apogeespacebooks. com/ Books/ Saturn. html), but
the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with
the Skylab.
[52] http:/ / www. nasa. gov/ pdf/ 594163main_2011-SLS_Industry_Day_Final_Public1-1_rev2. pdf
[53] http:/ / www. nasa. gov/ pdf/ 594163main_2011-SLS_Industry_Day_Final_Public1-1_rev2. pdf
[54] "Soyuz-U" launch vehicle (http:/ / www. samspace. ru/ ENG/ RN/ souz_u. htm) State Research and Production Space-Rocket Center
"TsSKB-Progress"
[55] "Soyuz-FG" launch vehicle (http:/ / www. samspace. ru/ ENG/ RN/ souz_fg. htm) State Research and Production Space-Rocket Center
"TsSKB-Progress"
[56] Suborbital test flight in 2004, first orbital launch in 2006
[57] http:/ / www. orbital. com/ spacelaunch/ taurus/
[58] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau/ titan-4. htm
[59] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau_det/ tsiklon-2a. htm
[60] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau_det/ tsiklon-2. htm
[61] http:/ / space. skyrocket. de/ doc_lau_det/ tsiklon-3. htm
[62] Space Launch Report (http:/ / www. spacelaunchreport. com/ vega. html)
[63] ESA Website (http:/ / www. esa. int/ esaMI/ Launchers_Access_to_Space/ ASEKMU0TCNC_0. html)
[64] A third rocket exploded before launch
[65] First orbital launch attempt in 2005
[66] Space launch report -zenit (http:/ / www. spacelaunchreport. com/ zenit. html)
[67] Zenit launch log (http:/ / www. russianspaceweb. com/ zenit. html)
[68] Operated by Land Launch
[69] Operated by Sea Launch

References

13

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Comparison of orbital launch systems Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=571922074 Contributors: 32alpha4tango, 84user, AAM2, Aflafla1, Ajh1492, Alereon, Alexchris,
Alinor, Alogrin, Alvez3, Angusmclellan, Anomie, Aremisasling, Art Navsegda, Avmich, Beaucouplusneutre, Bgwhite, BladeStopper, BlatantHeroics, CASfan, ChiZeroOne, Chris the speller,
Cobbaut, ColdCase, CommonsDelinker, Craigboy, CyrilleDunant, Daveduv, Denvercoder9, Derek R Bullamore, Dragos muresan, Drbreznjev, Driftwoodzebulin, Duk, Edetic, ElanKeene,
Enemenemu, F-j123, F.branz, Ffejmopp, Fl295, FlyAkwa, Fotaun, Full Shunyata, Geoffrey.landis, Glloq, GrampaScience, Gwano, Hartze11, Heilme, Hektor, Hevertonfreitas, Hibernian,
Hoeksas, IanOsgood, Indian1985, JCDenton2052, Jasiu Szt, Jeffsapko, Jessemarc, Jim10701, Jklamo, John of Reading, Johnxxx9, Jparenti, Kbob ru, Kelphin, Kitch, Kjramesh, Kylegordon,
Laurent Simon, LilHelpa, Lostart, Lsorin, MBK004, Markstencel, Martin451, Michael Zimmermann, Midgetgiant, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mith06, Mjabb, Mnw2000, MoJo37C, Monarchbala,
Monty669, N2e, Nanobear, NorsemanII, Nova77, Odubhain, Op47, Ospalh, Otommod, Potatoswatter, Prodego, R.Schuster, Reallpw, Rebbargynnep, Reddi, Redrose64, Rich Farmbrough, Rillian,
Rjwilmsi, Rpapo, Rwboa22, SBaker43, Sahrin, Savemaxim, SchuminWeb, Scjessey, Sdsds, Shen333, Shooter6947, Spunking, Statue2, StuffOfInterest, Tarlneustaedter, Teaktl17, TeslaBoy,
TestPilot, The PIPE, Thorenn, Timjones0674, Tom Paine, Trickedouttraxxas, Vedant, Vedranf, Vitall, WDGraham, WDGraham (public), WatcherZero, Wavesonics, Wilee, Wwoods, Xarqi,
Xixi57, Ysangkok, Zundark, 190 anonymous edits

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