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4.1

General

geocentric equipotential ellipsoid of revolution.

An equipotential

ellipsoid is simply an ellipsoid defined to be an equipotential surface,

i.e., a surface on which all values of the gravity potential are equal.

Given an ellipsoid of revolution, it can be made an equipotential surface

of a certain potential function, the theoretical (normal) gravity

potential (U).

This theoretical gravity potential can be uniquely

determined, independent of the density distribution within the ellipsoid,

by using any system of four independent constants as the defining

parameters of the ellipsoid. As noted earlier for the WGS 84 Ellipsoid

(Chapter 31, these are the semimajor axis (a), the normalized second

, the earth's angular

degree zonal gravitational coefficient (

2,o

velocity ( w ), and the earth's gravitational constant (GM).

To determine the theoretical gravity potential without resorting

to the use of a mass distribution model for the ellipsoid, U can be

expanded into a series of zonal ellipsoidal harmonics of linear

1/2

The coefficients in the series are

eccentricity in (a2 - b2)

determined by using the condition that the ellipsoid (Chapter 3) is an

equipotential surface

Uo

Constant

(4-1)

Since all the zonal ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients vanish, except the

two of degree zero and two, a closed finite expression is obtained for U

C4.1; pp 64-66].

Theoretical gravity ( y ) , the gradient of U, is given on (at) the

surface of the ellipsoid by the closed formula of Somigliana [4.1; p 701:

(a ye cos2 4

y =

+ b

+ b

sin m) 'I2

(4-2)

where

a, b

e' P

respectively

respectively

$J =

geodetic latitude.

Thus, the equipotential ellipsoid serves not only as the reference surface

or geometric figure of the earth, but leads to a closed formula for

theoretical gravity at the ellipsoidal surface.

4.2

4.2.1

Formulas

The closed gravity formula of Somigliana in the form C4.21

'f

= ye

(1

2

2 2 1/2

k sin ) ) / ( I - e sin $J)

Equation (4-3):

ez

In

Equation (4-3) was selected for use with WGS 84 in preference to Equation

(4-2)

since it cs more convenient for ~~jrn~rical-wputatj$ns

The

WGS

84

Ellipsoidal

Gravity

Formula,

expressed

numer i ca 1 ly, is

where

ye= 9.7803267714 rn s - ~

ye=

=

978032.67714

milligals.

In the preceding:

1 Gal

squared

1 milligal

centimeters/second squared.

4.2.2

Derivation

defining parameters of the WGS 84 Ellipsoid are needed in transforming the

analytical expression for the WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula, Equation

(4-3), to numerical form, Equation (4-5).

The fundamental derived

geometric constant is e2, which is related to the four defining parameters

Equation (3-24),

repeated

h e r e f o r convenience,

i s s o l v e d i t e r a t i v e l y f o r e2, t a k i n g i n t o account

e'

and t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e second e c c e n t r i c i t y ( e l 1:

(4-8)

With t h e d e r i v e d geometric c o n s t a n t e2 a v a i l a b l e , another needed geometric

constant,

t h e semiminor a x i s o f t h e e l l i p s o i d ( b ) ,

can be d e r i v e d u s i n g

t h e e x p r e s s i o n C4.21:

By v i s u a l l y

i n s p e c t i n g Equations (4-3)

and (4-41,

it i s

t h e values o f t h e o r e t i c a l g r a v i t y on ( a t ) t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e l l i p s o i d

Y ~ '

respectively.

e t e r s o f t h e WGS 84 E l l i p s o i d ,

e2,

and b a v a i l a b l e ,

Knowing t h e d e f i n i n g param-

and w i t h t h e d e r i v e d geometric c o n s t a n t s

Equations

(3-65),

(3-66),

qo, and m,

and t h e f o l l o w i n g

respectively:

(4-10)

numerical values f o r

The

Ellipsoidal

Gravity

ye

and y

and

(3-64)

t o obtain

ana l y t i c a 1

Formula

(3-63)

are

and

numerical

provided

4-4

in

forms

Table

of

4.1.

the

WGS

84

The WGS 84

Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula, numerical form, and the WGS 84 Ellipsoidrelated defining and derived parameters used in its determination are

For user convenience, values of theoretical

provided in Table 4.2.

gravity on the surface of the WGS 84 Ellipsoid are provided in Table 4.3

at lo intervals of geodetic latitude. These values, in milligal (mgal)

units, were computed using Equation (4-5).

4.3

4.3.1

applications require an average value of theoretical gravity. The average

value of theoretical gravity for the WGS 84 Ellipsoid is

-Y =

979764.46561 milligals.

(4-11)

G, that symbol is not used here since it is already used to denote the

universal gravitational constant and also appears in GM.

4.3.2

7 (WGS 84 Ellipsoid)

Derivation of

theoretical gravity for the earth is

y = Ivds

S

IS I d s

where

y =

S

ds

=

=

surface of the earth

surface element.

=

I J Y RMRN

d + dA /

COS(

A 4

RMRN COS+

d + dA

(4-13)

A +

where

RM =

RN =

a

e

semimajor axis

first eccentricity.

(4-131, considering that neither they nor theoretical gravity ( y ) are a

function of longitude, and considering the symmetry of these functions

with respect to the equator, the expression for Y becomes C4.21:

expanded in a series and the resultant equation integrated term by term.

Inspecting the denominator of Equation (4-161,

"I2

I

cos+ d +

(I - eZsin2+)2

.rr/

(1 - e2sin2 +) -2

In series form:

(4-17)

(1

2

2 -2

2

2

4

4

6

6

8

8

e s i n 4)

= 1 + 2e s i n @ + 3e s i n @ + 4e s i n 4 + 5e s i n 4 +

(4- 18 1

...

.rr/ 2

(1

2

2

e sin

cosm ci+ = 1 + l e 2 + - Z e 4

+ 4 e6 + ? e8

...

value o f

theoretical

determined.

gravity,

Equation

(4-161,

i t s r e c i p r o c a l must be

The r e c i p r o c a l i s

7r/2

Y (1

2 -2

s i n 4)

cosm d +

0

i t i s necessary t o have a s e r i e s expansion f o r b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l g r a v i t y

2

2 -2

(y)and

( 1 - e sin41

Using t h e t r u n c a t e d s e r i e s expansion f o r

t h e o r e t i c a l g r a v i t y [4.21,

2

Y = y e l l + a2 s i n 4 + a

4

6

8

4 s i n 4 + a 6 s i n I$ + a8 s i n q~)

leads t o

d 2

(1

e2sin2m)-* cosm dm

. ( 1 + 2e 2s i n 24 + 3e4 s i n4 q~ + 4e 6 s i n 6 $ + 5e8 s i n8 +)

cosm d @

T h i s e x p r e s s i o n can be w r i t t e n as:

n/ 2

2

2

~ ( -1 e s i n

a/ 2

= Ye

+ (-

[l+

cosm dm

I-5

+ k) sin

105 6,

35 4

+e k ) s i n 6 (p + (-

16

35 e4

4

(+

e2k) s i n $

8

2

e8 + 105 e 6 k ) s i n 8 $1 cosm d$

Combining

++

128

the

16

expressions

denominator,

Equations (4-21)

and (4-20),

calculating

the

of

mean value

where y

e

, e2, and

k a r e d e f i n e d as before.

the

respectively,

theoretical

ellipsoid i s

for

gravity

numerator

and

the equation f o r

over

rotational

Table 4.1, the average value of theoretical gravity for the WGS 84

Ellipsoid was computed.

This value was provided earlier as Equation

(4-11).

4.4 Atmospheric Effects

4.4.1

Theoretical Considerations

(Section 3.21, it was stated that the reference ellipsoid "is defined to

enclose the whole mass of the Earth, including the atmosphere". This, of

course, results from the adoption of a GM value which includes the mass of

the atmosphere. As a result, the theoretical gravity formula derived for

WGS 84 is for an ellipsoid that includes the mass of the atmosphere. This

permits the theoretical gravity field to be computed at the ellipsoid

surface and in space without having to consider the variation in

atmospheric density.

Use of a GM value, in the development of the theoretical

gravity formula, that includes the mass of the atmosphere is a deviation

from what was done in the development of previous world geodetic system

ellipsoidal gravity formulas. Therefore, caution must be exercised when

using the WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula to ensure that it is

implemented correctly.

For those situations which require that

atmospheric effects be considered, this is done by applying corrections to

the measured values. Therefore, the burden of taking atmospheric effects

into account is transferred from the reference system to the gravity data

measurement/reduction process.

4.4.2. Atmos~heric Correction to Measured Gravitv

In the IAG publication on Geodetic Reference System 1967

[4.31, a detailed derivation is given of the correction to measured

gravity for the effect of the earth's atmosphere. The publication also

c o n t a i n s a t a b l e of atmospheric c o r r e c t i o n values,

6gA,

which a r e t o be

added t o measured g r a v i t y , when g r a v i t y anomalies a r e b e i n g formed. Three

s e t s o f BgA values a r e g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e :

Values c a l c u l a t e d t o 1 x

m s - ~o r 0.001 mgal),

Space Research (COSPAR) I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reference

u s i n g t h e Committee f o r

Atmosphere (CIRA 1961).

Values c a l c u l a t e d t o 1 x

( o r 0.001

mgal),

u s i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Standard Atmosphere.

( o r 0.01 mgal).

s e t i s a l s o recommended f o r

For consistency,

this

Table 4.4

f o r e l e v a t i o n s up t o 34 k i l o m e t e r s ,

increments

up

to

elevations.

10

These

kilometers

and

corrections

at

are

a t 0.5

larger

also

kilometer elevation

increments

depicted

at

higher

graphically

in

F i g u r e 4.1.

For

inconvenient

or

those

perhaps

c o r r e c t i o n values,

applications

cumbersome

for

where

use

estimating

of

Table

needed

4.4

is

atmospheric

t h e f o l l o w i n g e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d e q u a t i o n may be used

i n i t s p l a c e [4.41:

6gA = 0.87 e

I n Equation

20.0094

(4-23),

-0.116

1.047

mgal.

t o an RMS accuracy o f

i n kilometers.

Atmospheric

values by l e s s t h a n 0.01 mgal f o r e l e v a t i o n s

occurs when h = 15 kilometers.

As stated above, the atmospheric correction values are to

be added to measured gravity values when the latter are used along with

theoretical gravity (WGS 84 El 1 ipsoidal Gravity Formula) values to obtain

WGS 84 gravity anomalies. The relevant formula is

&gA- Yg4 + gravity reduction terms (4-24)

'gS4

~g~~

and of type corresponding to the gravity reduction

terms applied

surface (and referenced to the Internationa 1

Gravity Standardization Net 1971) C4.51

elevation above mean sea level of the gravity

station)

WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula

where

SgA

y84

applied (e.g., free-air, Bouguer, etc.).

4.5

4.5.1. Recommended Approach

When implementing WGS 84, gravity anomalies referenced to

gravity formulas (International 1930, GRS 67, GRS 80, etc. ), will need to

be referenced to the WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula. The recommended

approach is simply to replace the existing gravity anomalies with newly

computed WGS 84 grav ity anomalies. The latter can be formed using the

equation

+

(4-25)

This approach, Equation (4-251, has been used to reference the point

gravity anomaly files of the DoD Gravity Library to the WGS 84 Ellipsoidal

Gravity Formula.

4.5.2

Alternative Approach

approach must be replaced by a different conversion process. The general

formula for converting gravity anomalies from an in-use ellipsoidal

gravity formula to the WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula has the form

where

~g~~

6y

Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula

ellipsoidal gravity formula

Yold

Y84

(in-use) ellipsoidal gravity formula

Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula.

in forming ngold have been corrected for atmospheric effects (Section 4.4,

above). Also, it is apparent from Equation (4-26) that an existing file

of gravity anomalies can be referenced to WGS 84, provided an appropriate

expression is available for 6y

International System (SI) units, has the form C4.61:

expansion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the 6y conversion from

7' 2 to yg4, using the WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula expressed in

the form of a truncated series C4.41.

Operating with this truncated

series and Equation (4-281, the following equation was developed for use

in Equation (4-26) to convert WGS 72 gravity anomalies to WGS 84 gravity

anomalies:

6~

- 0.1234 sin6@ - 0.0007 sin8$1 x 10%

(4-29)

(4-29).

Equation (4-29) is listed in Table 4.5 along with

analogous expressions for converting gravity anomalies related to the

GRS 67, GRS 80, and International 1930 Gravity Formulas to the WGS 84

E l l i p s o i d a l G r a v i t y Formula.

forming

the

original

SgA a p p l i e d ,

this

conversion-to-WGS

g r a v i t y anomalies

correction

84 process.

When u s i n g E q u a t i o n (4-301,

(4-23),

i s a f u n c t i o n of

must

had t h e atmospheric

now

be

applied

as

correction

part

of

the

The r e l e v a n t e q u a t i o n i s :

i t ' s important t o r e c a l l t h a t

gravity station

6gA,

Equation

(measurement) e l e v a t i o n above

mean sea l e v e l .

4.6

Comments

As i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n 4.5.1,

t h e p o i n t g r a v i t y anomaly f i l e s o f

G r a v i t y Formula and w i l l be o f f i c i a l l y m a i n t a i n e d on t h a t f o r m u l a .

The

g r a v i t y o b s e r v a t i o n s ( g ) i n t h e DoD G r a v i t y L i b r a r y F i l e s i n t h e manner

p r e s c r i b e d by E q u a t i o n (4-25).

DoD G r a v i t y L i b r a r y f i l e s .

Although t h e f i l e s o f t h e DoD G r a v i t y L i b r a r y

w i l l be r e f e r e n c e d t o t h e WGS 84 E l l i p s o i d a l G r a v i t y Formula,

DMA w i l l

m a i n t a i n t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e r e q u e s t e r s w i t h p o i n t and mean g r a v i t y

anomalies r e f e r r e d t o any o f t h e E l l i p s o i d a l G r a v i t y Formulas i d e n t i f i e d

i n Table 4.5.

KEFERENCES

4.1

Heiskanen,

W.

and H. M o r i t z ;

A.

P h y s i c a l Geodesy;

W.

Freeman and

H.

4.2

Moritz,

H. ; " G e o d e t i c

4.3

Geodetic

Reference

System

1967;

Special

Publication

No.

3;

4.4

Dimitrijevich,

I.J.;

Anomaly C o n v e r s i o n E q u a t i o n s ;

S e r v i c e s Branch;

Pamphlet;

Department o f Defense G r a v i t y

Louis,

M i s s o u r i ; 1 August 1987.

4.5

Morelli,

(IGSN 7 1 ) ;

C.;

The

International

Gravity

S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No.

4;

Standardization

C e n t r a l Bureau,

Net

1971

International

4.6

Seppelin,

T.O.;

Technical

Paper;

Headquarters,

Washington,

Table 4.1

WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula

Y =

Numerical Form

9.7803267714 1 + 0.00193185138639 sin2+

(1 - 0.00669437999013 sinZ$) 'lE

Y =

re

s-2

Analytical Form

2

2

2 1/2

(1 + k sin +)/(l - e sin 4)

Definitions

=

=

=

El lipsoid

WGS 84 geodetic latitude

Theoretical gravity at the equator ( $=oO ) on the surface

of the WGS 84 Ellipsoid

bvp/aue

- 1

= 0.00193185138639

= Semimajor axis of the WGS 84 Ellipsoid

= 6378137 meters

= Semiminor axis of the WGS 84 Ellipsoid

= 6356752.3142 meters

= Theoretical gravity at the poles ( @ = goU,

the surface of the WGS 84 Ellipsoid

= (

Gal*

$ =

-goU ) on

squared

= 1/1000th of a Gal

milligal

milligal

= An acceleration due to gravity of 1 x

centimeters per

second squared

Unit of acceleration named in honor of Galileo Galilei

=

Table 4.2

The WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula and the

Defining and Derived Parameters Used in its Derivation

WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Gravity Formula

y

9.7803267714

1 + 0.00193185138639 sin2$

(1 - 0.00669437999013 sin2@)

Parameters

Symbo 1 s

m s-*

Numerical Values

Semimajor axis

Normalized second degree zonal

gravitational coefficient

Earth's angular velocity

(mass of earth's atmosphere

included)

Semiminor axis

First eccentricity squared

Second eccentricity squared

I b

I1

e2

el2

90' = 3(1 + l/e'2).[1 - (l/el)

arctan ell - 1

'lo'

m = u2a2b/~~

Theoretical gravity at

the equator

Theoretical gravity at the poles

k =

(byp/aue) - 1

Table 4.3

Values of Theoretical Gravity

- Surface of WGS 8 4 Ellipsoid

;eodet ic

Theoretical

Gravity

-at itude

(Degrees) (Mi lligals)

Theoretical

Seodet ic

Gravity

Latitude

(Degrees) (Mi 1 1 igals)

Theoretical

Geodetic

Latitude

Gravity

(Degrees) (Milligals)

Table 4.4

Atmospheric Corrections for Measured Gravity

(When Forming WGS 84 Gravity Anomalies)

Elevation

Above Mean

Sea Level (km)

Correction

6gA(mga 1 )

Elevation

Above Mean

Sea Level (km)

Correction

6gA(mgal

elevations greater than approximately 9 kilometers (km) above mean sea

level are primarily of academic interest. However, some of the higher

elevation tkjA values may be of practical value in the future if

advances in at-altitude gravity measurement technology continue.

Table 4.5

Equations f o r C o n v e r t i n g G r a v i t y Anomalies t o t h e WGS 84 E l l i p s o i d a l G r a v i t y Formula

From

Wor l d Geodetic

System 1972

Geodetic Reference

System 1980

Geodetic Reference

System 1967

International

1930

Conversion Equations

6y = (0.5929

0.1234

0.0432 s i n

6

sin 9

++

6y = (-0.8271

+-

0.6138 mgal

= 68")

(at

s i n 2 @ + 0.0000098 s i n 4 +

++

0.1860 s i n

0.9127 mgal

(at

= 90")

m s - ~

+ 0.3214 s i n 4 +

8

0.0007 s i n @ ) x

0.000018 mgal

(at

= 45")

sin8@) x

8

0.0007 s i n + ) x

13.8426 s i n

0.1234 s i n

Maximum D i f f e r e n c e

0.1475 s i n

0.1234 s i n

d y = (16.3229

0.1851 s i n

s i n 6 @ - 0.0000293

0.0000196

0.0007 s i n + ) x 1 0 ' ~m

6y = ~0.0000100 + 0.0000196

(Sy)

16.3229 mgal

( a t @ = 0")

These c o n v e r s i o n e q u a t i o n s do n o t i n c l u d e atmospheric e f f e c t s .

**

(See S e c t i o n 4.5.2. )

**

Figure 4.1.

Atmospheric Correction for Measured Gravity (When Forming WGS 84 Gravity Anomalies)

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