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For M. Tech.
Mechanical Engg.

Parlad Kumar
Assistant Professor
Department of Mech. Engg.

Tejpal Singh
Roll No.



The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can
automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data. It
is also called as Desktop manufacturing.
With the development of technologies, rapid prototyping has become more
popular. RP focuses on small quantities and complex geometries, and its application
on investment casting gives designers the freedom to rapidly modify and redesign a
product without a signicant increase of the total time and cost. It also reduces the
time and labour.
Methodology of Rapid Prototyping

Rapid Prototyping Technologies

Prototyping technologies

Base materials

Selective laser sintering

polycarbonate, nylon.

Fused deposition modelling

ABS, Polycarbonate.

Stereo lithography

Photosensitive resin.

3D printing

Starch, ceramic powder.

Laminated object manufacturing

Paper, plastic, cellulose.

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) was developed by Stratasys in Eden
Prairie, Minnesota. In this process, a plastic or wax material is extruded through a
nozzle that traces the part's cross sectional geometry layer by layer. The build material
is usually supplied in filament form, but some setups utilize plastic pellets fed from a
hopper instead.

In FDM process, a gantry robot-controlled extruder head moves in two

principal directions over a table, which can be raised and lowered as needed.

A thermoplastic filament is extruded through the small orifice of a heated die.

The initial layer is placed on a foam foundation by extruding the filament at a

constant rate while the extruder head follows a predetermined path.

When the first layer is completed, the table is lowered so that subsequent
layers can be superimposed

In some parts, the filament is required to support the slice where no material
exists beneath to support it.

The solution is to extrude a support material separately from the modelling

material. The use of such support structures allows all of the layers to be
supported by the material directly beneath them.

The support material is produced with a less dense filament spacing on a layer,
so it is weaker than the model material and can be broken off easily after the
part is completed.

The layers in an FDM model are determined by the extrusion-die diameter,

which typically ranges from 0.050 to 0.12mm. This thickness represents the
best achievable in the vertical direction.

Review of Literature
Kumar, P. et al. investigated structure for formulating a hybrid investment casting
process for industrial uses. For this purpose many controls and effects regarding to
process have been discussed to achieve the optimum mechanical and metallurgical
properties. The authors discussed the various steps of the FDM process. In addition to
this post processing of the process and factors related to properties were also
illustrated. It was concluded that this hybrid process can be used for various industrial
and biomedical applications.
Rao, A.S. et al. (2012) found experimentally the post processing techniques to
improve the surface finish of Fused deposition modelling parts. The Authors used the
chemicals through Design of Experiments and Annova technique with different
concentrations to find out the parameters regarding the surface finish. For this a
specimen was dipped in Acetone and methylethylketone chemicals to obtain optimum
results. It was concluded that in methylethylketone the initial parameters have
negligible effects as compare to Acetone.
Kumar, P. et al. (2012) discussed a review for the application of fused deposition
modelling for rapid investment casting. The authors presented information about the
using of FDM in investment casting and also collect and illustrate the data available
about the FDM materials, their properties, factors related to process, accuracy to
produce prototypes .For this difference between the investment casting and Rapid

have also been described. It was found that the material with high

strength and having low diffusion temperature are suitable for making IC patterns.
Khan, F.K. et al. (2006) investigated the effect of support structure thickness and slice
layer on the model regarding its surface roughness made by FDM technique. On both
sides of the model measurement of roughness was done perpendicular to the direction
of build layer. The authors concluded that the part of the model which is adjacent to
the top layer of the support has smoother structure than to the surface without support.
Bakar et al., 2010 found the effect of three process parameters such as layer thickness,
contour width and internal raster by using FDM technique. Experiment was conducted
on model that posses a number of geometrical shapes and sizes such as holes, cubes,
cylinders which are easily machined on plastic parts. It may be concluded that the

dimensions which are best suited for parts to be made by FDM technique is 2mm or
above. Furthermore, the authors have suggested using suitable values of contour
width and internal raster.
Galantucci, L.M. et al. (2009) explored the effect of machining parameters on the
model made by ABS material. The surface finish has been measured by using contact
and non contact type optical system. Non contact has been adopted due to its better
results. Square specimens were manufactured by using different values of input
variables. After that chemical treatment was applied using Dimethylketone and water
solution. The author concluded that the slice height and raster width are the machining
parameters which affect the surface finish as compare to the tip diameter running
either parallel or perpendicular.
Galantucci, L.M. et al. (2010) related the mechanical and surface qualities of treated
and untreated parts. In addition to this tensile and bending properties have been
discussed by taking central composite Design of experiments by taking an FDM
marine turbine blade. After that chemical

treatment was applied using

Dimethylketone and water solution. The treatment improved a surface finish and
flexural strength with minor reduction in tensile strength with no loss of mechanical
Vasudevarao, B. et al. (2000) investigated the effect of parameters such as layer
thickness, road width, air gap and model temperature on the surface of the model
made by FDM. The experiments were conducted using fractional design with two
levels for each factor. The layer thickness posses the height of stair step and the
factors road width, air gap determine the roughness value at low inclinations. The
authors concluded that layer thickness and part orientation proved to be important
factors computing the surface quality whereas the remaining parameters like model
temperature, air gap and road width did not play important role on the surface finish
of the part.
Winker, R. (2009) discussed the review of investment casting with FDM step by step
along with advantages, applications and range of costs. The author investigated that
FDM saves a lot of time and money. Strength can be increased by using ABS
material. The first consideration is that the ABS material does not expand during the
burnout cycle which causes the shell to crack and does not melt like wax. Secondly,

no modification to build parameters. After removing support material the pattern is

allowed to dried in an oven. In addition to this shelling process is also important. It
was concluded that investment casting is suitable for low volume production.
Winker, R. (2010) illustrated the phenomenon of electroplating with FDM masters. It
is the last step of investment casting. Depositing a thin layer of alloys such as Cr, Ni
increases the strength of the material and gives the appearance to production metal.
Repeat the sand steps and sealing until the part is free from defects. For electroplating
the guidelines regarding the thickness of various solution has also been discussed. At
last, it was included that electroplating not only enhances the appearance but also
increases the wear resistant and mechanical properties.
Thrimurthulu, K. et al. (2003) discussed the methods to determine suitable part
deposition orientation for different objectives like accuracy, buildtime, support
structure. The first objective is maximized the surface accuracy by minimizing
average weighed cusp height. Second is to reduce the build time by minimizing the
number of slices. In addition to this parameters relating to surface roughness, adaptive
slicing were also evaluated. It was concluded that the term adaptive slicing affects the
surface finish and build time.
Sood, A.K. et al. (2009) Conducted the experiment for the study of the effect of
parameters such as layer thickness, orientation, raster angle, raster width and air gap
on the variables such tensile, flexural and impact strength. Experiments are conducted
on central composite design and Annova to reduce the errors. It was concluded that
increasing number of layers results in high temperature gradient which is responsible
for layer thickness. Smaller raster angle offers more resistance in turn strength will
improve. Zero air gap will improve the diffusion bonding and decrease the heat
Ippolito, R. et al. (1995) evaluate the results by comparing the dimensional accuracy
and surface finish of various rapid prototyping techniques. The surface of RP models
were detected by scanning electron microscope. The author found that there are some
cracks in the part made by fused deposition modeling which are the proofs of the
improper placement of one layer with the next. It was concluded that the final result
was depend upon the material chosen and skillfulness or ability of the operator.

McCullough, E.J. and Yadavalli, V.K. et al. (2013) discussed a variable method to
modify the surface of ABS fused deposition modeling with micro structured features
to make them water impermeable, hydrophilic and biocompatible. The author
describes an acetone sealing method that has minor effect on the surface roughness
and structural fidelity. In addition to this grafting of polyethylene glycol on the ABS
part can minimize the protein and other bimolecular adhesion and modify the surface
hydrophilicity. Moreover author also illustrates the contact angle which makes the
surface either hydrophobic or hydrophilic. It was concluded that there is a little
change in surface roughness and the contact angle.
Problem Formulation
From review of literature it has been found that in FDM, due to the extrusion of a
semi molten plastic, surfaces exhibit a rougher finish. But, the mould duplicates
whatever kind of surface condition the master pattern presents. Therefore, there is a
need to improve surface finish. But, to improve the surface finish there are a number
of methods.

Some methods are related to parameter setting for FDM machine,

whereas some methods are used after making the FDM pattern. These methods are
known as post treatment methods. The commonly used post processing methods
includes the use of Sand paper, Wax coating, Burnishing machine or Chemical
dipping. From review of literature it is found that less work has been done on the post
treatment methods and there is a need to find the best method.
The following objectives have been set for the present study:
1. To find the suitability of different post processing methods for decreasing the
surface roughness of FDM patterns.
2. To find the most suitable method to improve the surface finishing.

A part of industrial importance would be selected. The sample patterns for that piece
would be prepared by using an FDM machine. The surface roughness of that patterns
would be measured. Different post treatment methods would be applied to different
patterns. After that, investment casting would be done by using these patterns. The

surface roughness of the different castings prepared by differently treated patterns

would be measured and compared within the group and with the untreated pattern.
Tentative Chapter Scheme

Review of literature
Problem formulation
Analysis of results



Rao, A.S., Dharap, M.S. and Ojha, D. (2012) Investigation of post processing
techniques to reduce the surface roughness of fused deposition modeled parts,
International Journal Of Mechanical Engineering And Technology, Vol. 3(3),


Kumar, P., Ahuja, I.P.S. and Singh, R. (2012) Application of fusion

deposition modelling for rapid investment casting a review, Int. J. Materials
Engineering Innovation, Vol. 3, Nos. 3/4, pp.204227.


Galantucci, L.M., and Lavecchia, F.and Percoco, G. (2009) Experimental

study aiming to enhance the surface finish of fused deposition modeled parts,
CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp.189192.


Galantucci., L.M. Lavecchia, F. and Percoco, G. (2010) Quantitative analysis

of a chemicaltreatment to reduce roughness of parts fabricated using fused
deposition modeling, CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 59,
No. 1, pp. 247250.


Khan, F.K., Salleh, A.F. Sharif, S. Mohamad, Z. Rashid, Z.A. and Murad,
N.M. (2006) A preliminary study on FDM prototype surface roughness, In:
Proceeding of Malaysian Technical Universities Conference Engineering and
Technology , Kolej University Technology.


Vasudevarao, B., Natarajan, D.P., Henderson, M. and Razdan, A. (2000)

Sensitivity of

RP surface finish to process parameter variation, Solid

freeform fabrication proceedings Symposium, Austin, pp.251-258


Kumar, P., Singh, R. and Ahuja, I.P.S. (2013) A framework for developing a
hybrid investment casting process, Accept for Publication-Asian Review of
Mechanical Engineering, No. 2, Vol. 2.


Ippolito, R., Luliano, L. and Torino, P.D. (1995) Benchmarking of Rapid

Prototyping Techniques in Terms of Dimensional Accuracy and Surface
Finish, Universita di Ancona / Italy, Vol. 44/1, pp.157-160.

10. McCullough, E.J., Yadavalli, V.K. (2013) Surface modification

deposition modeling ABS to enable rapid prototyping





microdevices, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 213 pp.947-954.

11. Sood, A.K., Ohdar, R.K. and Mahapatra, S.S. (2010)
mechanical property of fused
and Design, 31

Parametric appraisal of

deposition modeling processed parts Materials


12. Thrimurthulu, K., Pandey, P.M and Reddy N.V. (2003) Optimum part deposition
orientation in fused deposition
Tools & Manfacture,

modeling International Journal of Machine

44 pp.584-597.