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What is MATLAB?

What are the applications of MATLAB?

State sampling theorem.

What is meant by Nyquist rate and Nyquist criteria?

Explain scaling and superposition properties of a system.

What is meant by linearity of a system and how it is related to scaling and

superposition?

What is impulse function?

What is meant by impulse response?

What is energy signal? How to calculate energy of a signal?

What is power signal? How to calculate power of a signal?

Differentiate between even and odd signals.

Explain time invariance property of a system with an example.

What is memory less system?

When a system is said to have memory?

What is meant by causality?

Explain linear convolution and circular convolution.

What is the length of linear and circular convolutions if the two sequences are

having the length n1 and n2?

What are Fourier series and Fourier transform?

What are the advantages and special applications of Fourier transform, Fourier

series, Z transform and Laplace transform?

Differentiate between DTFT and DFT. Why it is advantageous to use DFT in

computers rather than DTFT?

In DTFT, frequency appears to be continuous. But, in DFT, frequency is discrete.

This property is useful for computation in computers.

How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

If two signals x (n) and y (n) are of length n1 and n2, then the linear convoluted

output z (n) is of length n1+n2-1. Each of the input signals is padded with zeros to

make it of length n1+n2-1. Then circular convolution is done on zero padded

sequences to get the linear convolution of original input sequences x (n) and y (n).

What is meant by correlation?

Correlation is the measure of similarity between two signal/waveforms. It

compares the waveforms at different time instants.

What is auto-correlation?

It is a measure of similarity of similarity of a signal/waveform with itself.

What is cross-correlation?

What are the advantages of using autocorrelation and cross correlation properties in

signal processing fields?

How auto-correlation can be used to detect the presence of noise?

Differentiate between IIR filters and FIR filters.

Advantages

FIR

IIR

Stable

Highly precise

Finite duration impulse response

Excellent phase response

The word-size effect such as round-off

noise and coefficient quantization

errors are much less severe in FIR.

cost lesser

Faster computations

Less hardware, computations

Easier to design

Lower order required

Disadvantages

FIR

Require higher order

Increased hardware

More computations

Larger input and output

delays

Cost more

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IIR

Sensitive to data round off

and cutoff

Make become unstable

Poor phase response

What is the difference between Butterworth, Chebyshev I and Chebyshev II filters?

What are difference equations and differential equations?

What is non real time processing?

Collector

Raw

Data

Processor

Refined

Data

Signal

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Ability to collect, analyze, and modify signals in real-time

Real-Time: As these signals are occurring

We can analyze and process signals while collecting them, not at a later

time.

Real-Time

Signal

Processor

Signal

Refined

Data

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Microprocessor specifically designed to perform fast DSP operations (e.g., Fast

Fourier Transforms, inner products, Multiply & Accumulate)

Good at arithmetic operations (multiplication/division)

Mostly programmed with Assembly and C through Integrated

Development Environment (IDE)

Differentiate between RISC and CISC architectures.

RISC

Emphasis

on

software

Singleclock,

reduced

instructio

n only

large

code

size

Better C

compilers

CISC

Emphasis

on

hardware

Includes

multiclock

complex

instructio

ns

Small

code

sizes

Poor C

compilers

Processor

MPU are built for a range of general-purpose functions such as:

Data manipulation

Math calculations

Control systems

They run large blocks of software

They are used in real-time and in unreal-time systems

DSPs are single-minded, dedicated to:

Perform mathematical calculations

Small blocks of software

Have a predictable execution time

Real-time only

Could assist a general-purpose host MPU

Microprocessor

General purpose

Fixed internal format

Single memory access

General addressing mode

Very large external memory

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What is pipelining?

DSP

Arithmetic

Varying internal format

Multiple memory access

Special addressing mode

Very large internal memory

Pipeline

Description

Stage

PF

Read opcode

Decode instruction

E

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Execute instruction

What is MAC?

What is barrel shifter? Why it is advantageous to use it in DSP processor?

Differentiate between floating point DSP and fixed point DSP.

41. Fixed Point/Floating Point

fixed point processor are :

i. cheaper

ii. smaller

iii. less power consuming

iv. Harder to program

1. Watch for errors: truncation, overflow, rounding

v. Limited dynamic range

vi. Used in 95% of consumer products

floating point processors

i. have larger accuracy

ii. are much easier to program

iii. can access larger memory

iv. It is harder to create an efficient program in C on a fixed point

processors than on floating point processors

Floating Point

Applications

Modems

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Wireless Base stations

Digital Imaging

3D Graphics

Speech Recognition

Voice over IP

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Fixed Point

Applications

Portable Products

2G, 2.5G and 3G Cell Phones

Digital Audio Players

Digital Still Cameras

Voice Recognition

Headsets

Fingerprint Recognition

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44.

instructions and data

(PM) for

instructions, and a

data memory (DM)

for data

Reference: Digital signal processing by Dr. Ganesh Rao & Vineeta P. Gejji.

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