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Name the four ores of iron with their chemical formula and

Ans: Different ores of iron

Ores of iron





(Fe3 O4)

72 % Fe




60% Fe



( FeCO3)

70 % Fe

40 to 45% Fe


State the charge / ingradients (raw material) added (fed) to blast

furnace for extraction of iron
Ans: Haematite ore (Fe2O3) Coke (C) and Limestone (CaCO3) are the ingradients
in the proportion 8:4:1 added to blast furnace for extraction of iron.


Name the products of blast furnace. Give one application of each.

The products of blast furnace are pig iron, slag and flue gases.

Pig iron: It is used for stoves, lamp posts, drainage covers, pipes,
railing etc
Slag: It is used for road building, cement manufacturing and as
Flue gases: Used as fuel


Define Following Terms.

Metallurgy: Metallurgy is the process of extraction of metal easily,
economically and profitably from their ores.
Ex: Iron is extracted from Hematite ore

Mineral: A naturally occurring substance present in earth crust which

contains metal in free state or in combined state is known as mineral.
Ex: Hematite (Fe2O3) , Galena (PbS), Limestone (CaCO3) .
Ore: A mineral from which a metal can be extracted economically & easily
is called as ore.
Ex: Hematite (Fe2O3) is ore of iron, Bauxite (Al2O3.H2O) is ore of

Gangue or Matrix: the unwanted impurities like sand, clay, rocks etc.
associated with the ores are called as gangue or matrix.
Ex: In Hematite (Fe2O3) ore, silica is gangue.
Flux: The substance used during extraction of metal to remove gangue is
known as flux.
Ex: For removal of gangue like silica (SiO2), calcium oxide (CaO) is used as

Slag: The fusible substance formed by combination of added flux & gangue
present in ore is known as slag.
SiO2 + CaO CaSiO3




Explain with justification coke and limestone are added during the
extraction of iron. OR What is function of coke and limestone in
extraction of iron by the blast furnace
During the extraction of iron from its ore smelting is done in blast furnace.
During the process of smelting coke is added as reducing agent and
limestone as flux to remove impurities. Coke reduces haematite ore to
metallic iron. Lime stone (CaCO3) decomposes to lime which combines
with impurities of silica to form calcium silicate which is removed as slag.

What are the different zones of blast furnace according to temperature.

Blast furnace is divided into three temperature zones


Zone of reduction 3000 C to to 8000 C

Zone of heat absorption- 8000 C to 12000 C
Zone of fusion 12000 C to 15000 C

Define metallurgy, mineral and ore.

Ans: Metallurgy: It is a process of extraction of metal from its ore economically and
Mineral is a naturally occurring substance present in earths crust which
contains metal in free state or combined state.
Ore is a mineral from which the metal can be extacted economically. All ores
are minerals but all minerals are not ore.

What are the commercial forms of iron.
Ans: Commercial forms of iron are
i) Pig iron or cast iron
ii) Wrought iron


Define steel. Write properties and applications of steel.

Ans: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, hence it is called plain carbon steel.
Properties of steel:

It is malleable and ductile

It is hard and soft
It has highest tensile strength
It can be magnetised permanently
It can be tempered as well as welded

Applications: Steel is used for making girders, bridges, machinery parts, bar
magnets, razors, springs and other constructional works etc.


Define alloy steel. Name different types of alloy steel

Ans. Steels which contains small quantity of chromium, nickel, carbon, vanadium,
tungsten, cobalt, molybdenum, manganese, silicon etc. to improve the desired
properties are known as alloy steels.
Alloy steel: Different types of alloy steels are as follows


Heat resisting steel

Magnetic steel
Stainless steel
Shock resistant steel
High speed steel
Tool steel

Name the two methods used for preparing steel.

Ans.1.Open hearth process or Siemens-Martins process

2.Basic oxygen steel (BOS) process L-D process


Write properties and applications of wrought iron. OR Name the purest

form of iron.

Ans: Wrought iron is the purest form of iron containing 0.12 to 0.25% carbon and
traces of S, P and Mn etc.


It is soft, fibrous, grey in colour, tough and having medium tensile strength
Its melting point is highest, 15000C
It can be magnetised but not permanently
It is very malleable and ductile and can also be forged, extruded and welded

Wrought iron is mostly used for making small size water pipes and fittings,
corrugated sheets, ornamental sheets, metal works, wires, anchors, chains, bolts,
nails etc.
It is also used in making cores of electromagnets and in making hard steel.


What is heat treatment? Write any two purposes of heat treatment.

Ans: Heat treatment: It is a process of heating the iron or steel to a certain high
temperature and then cooling at a suitable and controlled rate to change the
physical properties of it, without changing chemical properties.

To improve machinability
To improve hardness and strength
To change the grain size of steel
To increases the resistance to heat and corrosion
To remove the trapped gases
To change the structure of steel
To increase surface hardness

Define an alloy.
Ans: Alloy can be defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, out
of which at least one element must be metal.
Ex.: Steel (Fe+C), Brass (Cu+Zn),
Bronze (Cu+Sn) etc

What is binary alloy.
Ans: The alloy which contains only two components is known as binary alloy
Ex.: Brass- It contains only copper and zinc
Ex.: Bronze- It contains only copper and tin

Write the chemical reactions taking place in the zone of reduction.
Ans: Following reactions take place in the temperature range 3000-8000 C i.e. Zone of
1. At the top of the furnace the charge is heated between 3000C to 5000C, Fe2O3 is
converted into Fe2O4
3Fe2O3 +CO
2Fe3O4 + CO2 .
Ferroso ferric oxide (stable upto 6500C)

Ferric oxide

2. At temperature between 6500C- 7000C, Fe3O4 is converted into FeO

Fe3O4 + CO

3FeO + CO2

3. At temperature between 7000C- 8000C, FeO is converted to metallic iron

FeO + CO

Fe + CO2

4. At the same temperature 3000C 8000C, limestone is decomposed to lime.


CaO + CO2


Write the chemical reactions takes place in the zone of heat of absorption.

Ans: Zone of heat absorption has temperature range 800-12000C. In this temperature
zone following reactions takes place.
1. Any oxide of iron which is not reduced in the zone of reduction is reduced by
red hot carbon and also carbon dioxide is reduced by red hot carbon to carbon
monoxide by the absorption of heat.
Fe2O3 + 3C
CO2 + C

2Fe + 3CO + heat

2CO + 39 Kcal

2. The hot iron meets the carbon monoxide to form carbon which is absorbed by
hot iron.
CO2 + C
3. The lime obtained in the zone of reduction by decomposition of lime stone
combines with silica and forms calcium silicate i.e. slag.
CaO + SiO2


4. At about 12000C ,non metallic and metallic oxide are reduced by coke to
respective elements
SO2 + 2C

S + 2CO

P2O5 + 5C

2P + 5CO

MnO2 + 2C

Mn + 2CO

SiO2 + 2C

Si + 2CO


What is cast (Pig) iron? Why it is not directly used in industry?

OR Write composition, properties & uses of cast iron

Ans: Cast iron: The molten metal poured into moulds of desired shape and the iron
obtained is known as cast iron.
It is most impure form of iron containing highest percentage of carbon (2-5 %)
which makes it hard and brittle hence it is not used directly in industry
Composition of Pig iron (Cast iron)


92 to 95%
2.5 to 4.5%
0.7 to 3%
0.5 to 1%
0.2 to 1%
0.1 to 0.3%


It is very soft, weak and brittle

It has low tensile strength
Its melting point is about 12000C
It cannot be forged, rolled and welded
It does not rust easily

Uses: Cast iron is widely used in casting various types of articles like stoves,
radiators, toys, cooking ranges, water pipes, drain pipes, agricultural
instruments. It is also used in railway sleepers, lamp posts, drainage covers,
railing and fire gates. Mostly, it is used in manufacturing wrought iron and steel.


Write composition, properties & uses of slag.

Ans: Composition of slag.

30%, Al2O3



It is fusible chemical substance consisting of silicate of calcium and aluminium,
with small amounts of MgO, MnO, FeO and CaS.
1. It is used for road building, cement manufacturing and used as fertilizers
2. The slag is used as ballast (filler) for rail roads


Write composition, properties & uses of flue gases.

Ans: Flue gases: Gases removed from blast furnace through flue are called flue
Composition of flue gases:
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide



It is hot, which has calorific value 750Kcal/m3
As it has considerable calorific value it is used as fuel


How steels are classified on the basis of percentage of carbon? Write two
properties and two applications of each of them.
Ans: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon therefore it is called as plain carbon steel.
Steels are classified on the basis of percentage of carbon as

1. Low carbon steel (0.05 to 0.3 %)

2. Medium carbon steel (0.3 to 0.6%)
3. High carbon steel (0.6 to 1.5%)

A) Low carbon steel (0.05 to 0.3% carbon): It is also called as mild steel (MS)

It is soft, malleable and ductile

It is suitable for welding
It has low tensile strength( 50 kg/ cm2)
It can be permanently magnetized
It is difficult to harden
It undergoes corrosion quickly

1. These are used for making nuts, nails, bolts, screws
2. These are used for soft wires, wires for ropes etc
3. These are also used for chains, tubes, fan blades etc

B) Medium carbon steel (0.3-0.6% carbon)


It is hard, tough, less malleable and ductile than mild steel

It is not easily weldable like mild steel
It has high tensile strength
They are highly resistant to shock


These are used in making rail roads

These are used in manufacturing of wheels, gears and axles
These are also used in hydraulic fittings like turbine rotors, crank shafts etc
These are also used in making agricultural tools

C) High carbon steels (0.6-1.5% carbon)


It has high tensile strength (65kg/cm2)

It has high hardness and tensile strength but less malleability& ductility
It is unweldable
It can be hardened by heat treatment

1. These are used for making wood working tools such as chisels, hammers,
saws, drills, punches etc
2. These are also used for making metal cutting tools for lathes, cutters, knives,
blades, razors etc

Define hardening. Describe hardening (Quenching) method. OR

Describe the method of heat treatment used to increase cutting ability of
Ans: Hardening (Quenching) : In this process, steel is heated to high temperature
(800-9000C) and then suddenly cooled by dipping or quenching in some suitable
The quenching medium used is either cold water or mineral or animal or
vegetable oil,4-6% caustic soda,6-20% sodium chloride solution
It is applied tools and some important machine parts made of alloy steel.
By this process steel become extremely hard and brittle.
The hardness depends upon 1) The rate of cooling and 2) The medium used for
Purposes of hardening:

To increase hardness
To increase the resistance to wear and abrasion
To improve the ability to cut other metals
To increase the strength


Define Annealing. Describe annealing method.

Ans: Annealing: It is the process of heating the steel at a temperature (760-9250C)

& cooling it slowly in the furnace at a controlled & slow rate.
Object obtained by casting, forging, extrusion etc. and also hard steel develop
internal stresses and strains making them weak, less tough, more brittle.
These defects are removed by annealing.
Due to annealing, steel becomes more soft, malleable and ductile
Purposes of annealing:

To soften the steel

To improve malleability and ductility
To refine the grain structure
To relieve internal stresses
To remove trapped gases

Define tempering. Describe tempering method. OR Why steel is tempered

after hardening? Describe tempering method

Ans: Tempering: Tempering is a process of heating the already hardened steel to a

temperature between 2000C 6000C and then cooling it at a suitable rate
The hardened steel becomes extra hard and also brittle and has unequally
distributed stress. The too high internal stress in steel is likely to cause
cracking, while in use. Therefore to minimize this defect ,steel is tempered after
Purposes of tempering:

To remove internal stresses

To reduce extra hardness produced during hardness
To improve ductility
To improve tensile strength
To reduce brittleness


Define Normalising. Describe normalizing method.

Ans: Normalising:It is the process of heating the steel at a temperature of 500C

above the critical temperature (7250C) & cooling it freely in air at a rate
50C/sec. By this method, steel becomes homogeneous and more soft

Purposes of normalizing:

To remove internal stress

To eliminate coarse- grained structure
To improve mechanical properties of steel
To increases ductility and toughness
To produce uniform structure

Advantages of normalizing:


It takes less time and is more convenient and economical

It requires less consumption of fuel or electric power
Cooling rate of steel is high as cooling is freely in air
Mechanical properties will be improved

Distinguish between Normalising and Annealing

1 It is the process of heating the steel at a
temperature (760-9250C)& cooling it
slowly in the furnace at a
controlled & slow rate.
2 Due to annealing, steel have less
hardness, tensile strength and
3 Internal stresses are least

It is the process of heating the steel at
a temperature of 500C above the
critical temperature (7250C) &
cooling it freely in air at a rate 50C/sec.
Due to normalising steel have slightly
more hardness, tensile strength and
Internal stresses are slightly more

4 It takes more time.

It takes less time

5 Fuel consumption or electric power for Fuel consumption or electric power for
heating is more
heating is less.


State the effects of addition of following alloying elements on steelCr, Ni, W, V, Si, C,Mo.

a) Addition of chromium (Cr)
1. Cr forms hard carbide and increases hardness and improves resistance to
wear and abrasion
2. It increases oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of steel

Addition of Nickel(Ni)
It increases tensile strength of steel as well as ductility
It lowers critical temperature of steel
It improves corrosion and heat resistance, elasticity, toughness etc


Addition of tungsten (W)

It increases hardness, toughness, abrasion at high temperature
It increases wear resistance and creep resistance
It increases shock resistance and heat resistance

d) Addition of Vanadium(V)
1. It is powerful deoxidizer and degasifier
2. Up to 0.2% V in steel increases tensile strength, hardness, wear and shock
3. It is very strong carbide former
4. It increases air-hardening and cutting quality

Addition of silicon(Si)
It acts as deoxidizer
It increases high electrical resistance
It improves heat resistance and acid resistance of steel

f) Addition of carbon( C)
1. Carbon increases tensile strength and hardness of steel
2. It decreases ductility and malleability of steel


g) Addition of molybdenum(Mo)
It improves corrosion and abrasion resistance and strength even at elevated

Describe basic oxygen process for preparation of steel from pig iron.
Ans: Basic oxygen process for manufacturing of steel:
The process occurs in a furnace which is a specially designed steel vessel that
may be rotated through 360 in a vertical plane.
The vessels are lined with heat resistant (refractory) materials e.g.Dolomite
(MgCO3/CaCO3) and magnetite (entirely MgCO3).

1. Scrap steel is placed in the vessel followed by molten iron directly from a
blast furnace.
2. The vessel is stood upright and a water-cooled lance is lowered from above
and oxygen is blown onto the surface at high speed. Carbon in the iron is
oxidized to CO and CO2
C(S) + O2 (g)
CO2 (g)

CO2 (g) + C(S)

2CO (g) + O2 (g)

2CO (g)
2CO2 (g)

3. After a few minutes the oxygen is stopped. A flux of calcium fluoride

(fluorspar, CaF2) and burnt lime (CaO) is then added.
Then calcium oxide (Burnt lime) is formed by heating calcium carbonate
until it decomposes:
CaO(s) + CO2(g)
This is introduced as a method of removing unwanted Si and P
4P + 5O2
6CaO + P4O10
Si + O2
CaO + SiO2


This produces a slag.

Manganese is oxidised but remains in the iron, sulphur dissolves in the slag
and is removed.
4. Then the lance is lowered again for another blow of oxygen, the vessel
contents are analysed to see whether step 3 should be repeated.
5. Then the vessel is tilted and the steel is tapped off below the slag level.
6. Then the slag is removed by tilting the vessel in the opposite direction.
The whole cycle takes about 45 minutes


Q. Differentiate between cast iron,wrought iron and steel

Cast iron
Carbon 2.5 - 4.5%
It is very hard and brittle

Wrought iron
Carbon 0.25 - 0.5%
It is soft

It has high tensile strength It has medium tensile

It cannot be forged
It can be forged easily
It is neither malleable nor
Melting point is lowest

It is malleable and ductile

Melting point is highest
about 15000C

Carbon 0.05 - 1.5%
Harder than wrought iron
and brittle
Highest tensile strength
It can be forged but not
Malleable and ductile
when % of carbon is low
Between 12000-15000C

Draw a labelled diagram of blast furnace for extratiom of pig iron



Chapter 2


Define corrosion.

Ans: Any process of chemical or electrochemical decay (destruction) of a metal

due to the action of its surrounding medium is called as corrosion.
Example:1. Rusting of Iron
2.Formation of green film of basic carbonate on the surface of copper


State the types of corrosion.

Ans: There are two main types of corrosion namely,

1. Atmospheric corrosion or Dry corrosion/Direct chemical corrosion
2. Electro chemical/Wet/Immersed corrosion


Define Atmospheric corrosion/Dry corrosion. Give two examples

Ans: The corrosion which is brought out by atmospheric condition is called as

atmospheric corrosion or
The corrosion which is caused by direct chemical action of gases like O 2,
halogens, SO2, H2S with metal surface is called as atmospheric
corrosion/dry corrosion

Example: 1. Rusting of Iron.

2. Formation of green film of basic carbonate on the surface of copper


State the factors affecting rate of atmospheric corrosion.

Ans: Factors affecting atmospheric corrosion are

1. The impurities present in the atmosphere.
2 . Moisture in the atmosphere

Define Electrochemical/Wet corrosion/Immersed corrosion

Ans: The corrosion of metal which take place in presence of liquid (Solution)
through ionic reaction when two dissimilar (different) metals are in contact
with each other is called as electrochemical/wet/immersed corrosion.


Give two examples of electrochemical corrosion.

Ans: a) Steel pipe connected to copper plumbing


b) Copper sheets joined by iron nails.c) Corrosion at rivetted joints


State the factors affecting rate of electrochemical/immersed /wet


Ans: 1. PH value of solution

2. Purity of metal
3. Position of metal in electrochemical series
4. Solubility of the corrosion product
5. Area of cathode and anode
6. Nature of metal surface


Name the oxide film which is corrosive against corrosion. Give one

Ans: Volatile oxide film is more corrosive against corrosion

Volatile oxide film. Ex. Molybdenum


Name the oxide film which is protective against corrosion. Give one

Ans: Non porous oxide film is protective against corrosion

Non-Porous oxide film. Ex. Aluminium, tin, lead


State the necessary condition for electrochemical corrosion to take


Ans: a) Formation of anodic and cathodic area

b) Presence of conducting medium which acts as electrolyte
c) Electrical contact between anode and cathode for conduction of electron


In any structure, two dissimilar metals should not be allowed to come in

contact with each other. Why? Explain with example

Ans: In any structure, two dissimilar metals should not be allowed to come in
contact with each other because galvanic corrosion takes place as a result the
metal in electrochemical series undergoes corrosion
Example: Refer- Electrochemical corrosion using Daniel cell


Why protection from corrosion is necessary?

Ans: Corrosion causes many effects as

1. It reduces the life span of machine
2. It weakens the metallic structure and machinery which may causes
injuries to worker
3. It causes loss of cost of extraction of metal from their ores, cost of
fabrication of metal etc
Due to above reasons protection from corrosion is necessary.

Q. Compare the rate of corrosion of iron when it is in contact with zinc and
Ans. When iron come in contact with zinc, zinc protects the iron from corrosion a
it is more electropositive than iron and does not allow iron to pass into the
solution. When iron comes in contact with copper iron undergoes corrosion
as it is more electropositive than copper


Name different types of oxide film with examples.

Ans: There are three types of oxide film namely,

A) Stable oxide film: These are of two types namely,
1. Porous (Non-protective) oxide film: e.g. Na, K, Ca, Mg
2. Non- porous (Protective) oxide film: e.g. Sn, Pb, Cu,Al
B) Unstable oxide film: e.g. Ag, Au, Pt
C) Volatile (Corrosive) oxide film: e.g. Molybdenum


Explain mechanism of atmospheric (oxidation) corrosion OR

Explain mechanism of corrosion due to action of oxygen

Ans: Oxidation corrosion is brought about by direct chemical action of oxygen

on metals or by forming oxide film.

2M + O 2



Metal oxide

1. When metallic surface comes in contact with atmospheric oxygen then

metallic ion is formed.

2. Then the electrons from metal are transferred to oxygen and oxide ion is
3. Then the metallic ion and oxide ion combine together to form metal
4. The mechanism of oxide film formation can be represented by the
following equation,

M++ + 2e (oxidation loss of e-)


O + 2e-

M++ + O- -

M+ O
Metal Oxygen



(Reduction gain of e-)


MO (Metal oxide)


Explain the factors which affect the rate of atmospheric corrosion.

Ans: The factors which affect the rate of atmospheric corrosion are
1. Impurities in the atmosphere
2. Moisture in the atmosphere

1. Impurities in the atmosphere :

In industrial area the air contains the corrosive gases like CO2, H2S, SO2
along with acidic impurities such as H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl etc. In all of
these SO2 is most corrosive factor. In the presence of such acidic
impurities the corrosion of metals becomes faster.

2. Moisture in the atmosphere:

The rate of corrosion increases in the presence of moisture. The
atmospheric gases or chemical vapours are dissolved in the moisture. The
reaction between such dissolved gases with metallic surface becomes
faster. Therefore moisture acts as conducting medium and increases the
Ex. Rusting of iron increases in presence of moisture.


Explain mechanism of electrochemical/wet/immersed corrosion by using

Daniel cell (Galvanic cell action).

Ans: The mechanism of electrochemical corrosion can be explained by using

Daniel cell
Daniel cell consist of Zn and Cu electrodes which are dipped in ZnSO4 and
CuSO4 respectively. These two solutions are separated by a porous
partition to prevent mixing of two solutions. Zinc and copper electrodes are
connected by a metallic conductor.

Working: The EMF is developed due to two separate reactions taking place
at the two electrodes.

a. Zinc metals is higher in the electrochemical series acts as anode

and goes into the solution as Zn++ ions with liberation of electrons

At anode:

Zn++ (aq) + 2e- (oxidation)

b. The liberated electrons move along metallic conductor and are accepted
by copper which acts cathode.

At cathode:
Cu++(aq)+ 2e-

Cu(s) (reduction)

Thus, zinc goes into the solution (get dissolved) and corroded, while copper
is deposited at cathode and get protected.










electrochemical/wet/immersed corrosion.( Any four )

Ans: Following are the main factors which affect the rate of electrochemical

A. Nature of environment
1. PH value of the solution:
PH value of solution indicates the acidity or alkalinity of solution. Acidic
solutions are more corrosive to metals than neutral or alkaline solution;
hence solution with PH value less than 7 causes more corrosion.

2. Temperature: An increase in temperature results in an increase in

conductance of aqueous medium and rate of corrosion increases and viceversa

3. Humidity: Humidity air is directly related to the rate of corrosion. In

humid condition atmospheric gases easily form electrochemical cell by
which corrosion occurs to great extent

B. Nature of metal
1. Position of metal in electrochemical series:
In electrochemical series, elements are arranged in the order of their
decreasing activity. Therefore top elements are more active than that of
bottom element. So top elements are easily oxidized and get corroded

2. Purity of metal: The impurity present in metals form minute

electrochemical cell and the anodic part get corroded. Hence, rate of
corrosion also increases with increase in impurities present in the metal
3. Area of anode and cathode: Area of anode and cathode: If the
cathode area is large in comparison of anode then corrosion increases and
vice-versa because there is more demand for electrons by larger catholic
4. Nature of oxide film: If the oxide film is non porous then the metal
protects itself from corrosion. But if the oxide film is porous then the
corrosion by the gas continues

Explain different types of oxide film. OR

What is the role (significance) of oxide film in atmospheric corrosion?

Ans: When metal comes in contact with atmospheric oxygen then a thin film of
oxide is formed on the surface of metal. The oxide film which is formed can
be classified into three types.
1. Stable
2. Unstable
3. Volatile
1. Stable oxide film:
Stable film (consist of fine grains in its structure) is tightly adhering and
impervious in nature. Stable oxide film may be porous or non porous.

a. Porous (non-protective) oxide film:

Metals like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, forms their oxides. Here the volume of
metal is greater than the volume of oxide film formed.

Therefore this oxide layer faces stress and strain and produces crack or
pores in its structure.
These porous oxide layers allow free access of O2 to fresh metal surface
and corrosion continues.

b. Non porous (protective) oxide film:

Metals like Sn, Pb, Cu, Al forms their oxides. Here the volume of metal
is less than the volume of oxide film formed. This oxide film is hard,
adherent and non-porous. Due to absence of pores there is no free access
of O2 and form metal oxide layer again.

2. Unstable oxide film: When oxide film is unstable it decomposes back

into the metal and oxygen, hence atmospheric corrosion due to oxygen
(oxidation corrosion) is not possible. Therefore Ag, Al, Pt, do not
undergo oxidation corrosion.



Metal oxide



3. Volatile oxide film: When oxide film formed is volatile it vaporizes as

soon as it formed. Therefore the fresh metal surface is exposed to the
atmosphere continuously and corrosion continues.
Ex. Molybdenum forms MoO2 which is volatile in nature.


Describe mechanism of electrochemical corrosion with evolution of

Hydrogen gas

Ans: The hydrogen evolution mechanism of electrochemical corrosion takes place

in acidic environment like industrial waste.


Consider a steel (Fe) tank which contains acidic solution (waste) and a
small piece of copper. As copper and iron come in contact and surrounded
by acidic solution, then galvanic cell is formed. Then large steel tank (Fe)
becomes anode and small copper becomes cathode.

1. At anode: Electrons flow through the metal from anode to cathode

Fe++ + 2e- (oxidation)

2. At cathode: At cathode, H+ ion present in acidic solution are eliminated

as hydrogen gas

2H+ + 2e-


Net reaction: Fe + 2H+


Fe++ + H2

Thus, iron (steel) gets corroded in acidic reaction.


Describe mechanism of electrochemical corrosion with absorption of

oxygen gas

Ans: This type of corrosion takes place in neutral or alkaline medium

Example: Consider Rusting of iron take place in presence of neutral or
alkaline medium.


Consider a steel (Fe) surface exposed to atmosphere, after a course of time
iron oxide layer is formed on the surface of steel (Fe) plate. If there is a
small crack developed in iron oxide layer and a drop of water (moisture) is
collected in crack, then
a. Water acts as electrolyte
b. Small crack acts as anode
c. Iron oxide covered steel surface acts as cathode.
At anode: The liberated electrons flow through anodic area to cathodic area.


2Fe ++ + 4e- (oxidation)

At cathode: The dissolved oxygen present in moisture (water) .The

electrons are reacting with water and dissolved O2

2H2 O + O2 + 4e-

4OH- (reduction)


The net reaction:

2Fe + 2H2O + O2

2Fe++ + 4OH-

2Fe (OH) 2 brown rust

If enough O2 is present Fe (OH) 2 oxidised to Fe (OH)3 which is called as

yellow rust
4Fe (OH)2 + 2H2O + O2

4Fe (OH) 3 yellow rust



Name different methods of applying metal (protective) coating OR List

different methods used for the prevention of corrosion.

Ans: Methods used for protective coating

1. Hot dipping : a) Galvanising b) Tinning
2. Metal spraying
3. Electroplating
4. Metal cladding
5. Cementation : a) Colorizing b) Chromizing c) Sheradizing


Define cementation. State the types of cementation.

Ans: Cementation is the process in which base metal is heated with a powder of
protective metal.
The types of Cementation are: Chromizing, Colorizing and Sheradizing


What is cathodic protection? Give one example.

Ans: Cathodic protection is a method in which the base metal to be protected from
corrosion is made to acts as cathodic by attaching more active anodic metal
to it. e.g.: Protection of underground pipelines


What is electroplating? Give two main purposes (Applications) of it.

Ans: The process in which superior metal (like Silver, gold, nickel, chromium)
deposited on base metal by passing electric current is called as
Purposes: Decoration, Protection of metal from corrosion, Repairing worn
out machinery parts.


What is sacrificial anodic (Galvanic) protection? Explain sacrificial

anodic protection method of prevention of corrosion. OR How
sacrificial anodic protection can be done?

Ans: Sacrificial anodic protection: In this method the metallic structure to be

protected from corrosion is connected to the anodic metal (active) by an
insulating wire is known as sacrificial anodic protection.
Method: The more active metal like Zn, Mg, and Al (acts as anode) are
connected to the metal structure to be protected so that the chemical
reactions are taking place at the more reactive metal surface and thus saving
the metal structure from corrosion as shown in fig. and gets corroded, hence
it is known as sacrificial anode.
For the purpose of increasing electrical contact, the active metal is placed in
back fill (Coal + NaCl). The sacrificial anode has to be replaced time to time
after complete corrosion..

1. It is used for protection of ships and boats
2. It is used for protection of underground pipeline, cables from soil


Explain impressed current cathodic protection method of prevention of

corrosion. Write its applications.

Ans: In this method the corroding metal is converted from anode to cathode by
applying impressed current to the metal to be protected and is itself used as
cathode.. This can be done by applying amount of direct current from D-C
source to an anode
Method: In this method
1. The negative terminal of battery is connected to the metal
2. The positive terminal of battery is connected to an inert anode
3. The inert anode used is graphite platinized titanium
4. Then the anode is buried in a back fill to provide electrical contact.
5. Then oxidation reaction is taking place at the cathode electrode and
electrons are liberated, which are repelled by the cathode electrode.
6. As result, the anode electrode destruct and has to replaced time to time
7. Thus cathode electrode protected from corrosion

Applications: This method is applicable to protection of Open water box

coolers, Water tank, Buried water or gas pipeline, Condensers, Transmission
line tower, Ships


Explain Galvanising method. OR Describe the process of protecting

steel articles from corrosion by coating of zinc over it

Ans: Galvanising:The process of coating of zinc on the surface of iron (steel)

by hot dipping method to prevent it from corrosion is called as galvanising

The method involves following steps:

1. The iron (steel) sheet to be galvanised is first cleaned by dil. H2SO4 to
remove rust, dirt and oxide layer on the surface of iron
2. Then it is washed with water to remove acid completely and dried
3. Then the sheet is dipped in bath of molten zinc at 425oC to 460oC
temperature. Then it is passed through ammonium chloride and zinc
chloride flux to prevent oxidation of zinc
4. Then the metal sheet is passed through a series of rollers & to get
uniform coating.
5. Finally galvanized sheet is annealed at a temperature 6500C

This method is used for roofing sheets, water pipes, bars, rods, fencing wires


Why Galvanized containers are not useful for storing food and food
stuff (material).

Ans: Galvanized containers are not useful for storing or preparation of food stuff
because galvanized containers have a coating of zinc. This zinc metal reacts
with the acids present in food stuff and forms highly poisonous compounds
which are harmful for human consumption


Explain Tinning method. OR Describe the process of protecting steel

articles from corrosion by coating of tin over it

Ans: Tinning: It is the process of coating of tin metal on the surface of iron
(steel) by hot dipping method to prevent it from corrosion is called as

The method involves following steps:

1. The iron (steel) sheet to be tinned is first cleaned by dil. H2SO4 to
remove rust, dirt and oxide layer on the surface of iron
2. Then it is washed with water to remove acid completely and dried

3. Then the sheet dipped in bath containing ammonium chloride and zinc
chloride flux and then it is dipped in molten tin
4. Finally it is dipped in palm oil to prevent oxidation of tin
5. Then the metal sheet is passed through a series of rollers to remove
excess of tin & to get uniform coating

Applications: Tinning is used for coating steel used for manufacturing of

containers for storing food stuff, oil, ghee, pickles etc.


Which property of tin makes useful for tinning? Why? OR Tinned

articles are used for storing food stuff. Why? OR Tin coated utensils are
mostly preffered to zinc coated utensils for the storage of food stuff.

Ans: In tinning base metal iron is coated with thin layer of tin (Sn). Tin (Sn) is
less electropositive than iron, hence it is more resistant to chemical attack
and thus protects the base metal. Due to its non-toxic nature and resistance
to chemical attack tinned articles are used for storing food stuff.


Distinguish between galvanizing and tinning.



1. The process of coating a base

1. The process of coating a base

metal like iron or steel with

metal like iron, steel or copper

zinc by hot dipping method is

with tin by hot dipping method

called as galvanizing.

is called as tinning.

2. If a scratch or gap is produced

2. If a scratch or gap is produced


on a galvanized surface, zinc

on a tinned surface, tin will not

will corrode and iron will be

be corroded, instead iron starts



3. In the above case, corrosion of

3. In the above case, corrosion of

zinc will not take place very

anode (iron) takes place very

fast because anodic area (Zn) is

fast because anodic area is



4. Galvanized articles cannot be

4. Tinned articles are mostly used

used for storing food stuff but

for storing and preparing food

galvanized sheets are mostly


used for manufacture of roofing

sheets, buckets etc.


5. Zinc protects the iron from

5. Tin protects the iron from

corrosion because zinc is more

corrosion because tin is less

electropositive than iron.

electropositive than iron.

Name and describe the method used for coating odd (large) and
irregular shaped surfaces for the protection of metal OR
Describe metal spraying method. Write its advantages and applications.

Ans: Metal spraying: The method used for coating odd (large) and irregular
shaped articles to protect from corrosion is called as metal spraying.
It is carried out by using spraying gun.

Method: In this method

1. The molten metal is sprayed on the rough surface by spraying gun.
2. The gun is fitted with oxy-hydrogen flame.
3. The metal in the form of wire is fed into the gun.
4. Then the metal wire gets melted by oxy-hydrogen flame.
5. Thus molten mass is blown out in to a spray by means of compressed
6. The spray can be directed to the surface to be coated
7. The metal thus adheres to the surface well and protect the metal

1. Large and irregular surface can be protected from corrosion by this
2. Non metallic surfaces can be coated
3. The thickness of coating can be controlled


1. It can be applied to non metallic bases made of wood, plastic and glass
2. Coating can be applied to fabricated structure
3. Worn out machine parts can be reclaimed
4. Coating of metals like Al, Zn,Ni,Sn,Pb is made by this method


Describe (Cementation) sheradizing method. OR Describe the method

used for protection of small iron articles. Write its Applications.

Ans: Sheradizing: The method used for coating small iron and steel articles
like bolts, nuts, screws, nails etc by zinc dust to protect from corrosion is
called as sheradizing.

Method: In this method

1. The iron articles (bolts, screws, nails) to be coated are first cleaned
2. Then packed along with zinc dust and zinc oxide powder in a steel drum
which is provided with electrical heating arrangement.
3. The drum is slowly rotated for 2-3 hours and its temperature is kept
between 350o to 400oC.

4. Then zinc dust gets diffused into the iron surface and Fe Zn alloy is
formed at the surface which protect iron surface from corrosion
Applications: This method is used for protecting small steel articles like
bolts, screws, nuts, threaded parts, washers, valves, gauge, tools

Which process is used for protection of small iron articles? Why?

Ans: Sheradizing process is used to protect small iron articles. Because the
coating is uniform even if the surface has depressions and there is practically
no change in dimension of articles


Describe metal cladding method. Write application, advantages and

disadvantages of it.

Ans: Metal cladding: The process is which a dense, homogeneous layer of

coating metal is bonded firmly and permanently to the base metal on one
or both sides is called as metal cladding.

Method: In this method

1. The base metal sheet which is to be protected against corrosion is
cladded between the two sheets of coating metal.


2. This sheet is then passed through two heavy rollers under high
temperature and pressure.
3. The coated metal is cathodic with respect to base metal so that
electrolytic protection is provided.
Ex. The cladding of duralumin by aluminium.

Applications (Advantages) :
1. This methods widely used in aircraft industry where alclad sheets are
used in which a plate of duralumin is cladded between two layers of 99.5%
pure Al
2. To develop surface properties like corrosion resistant in steel sheets.
3. The cladding metal provides electrolytic protection to the base metal

1. By metal cladding only plain surface can be protected
2. Corrosion cannot be absolutely prevented by this method because
irregular surfaces provides the galvanic cell action in presence of


Metal cladding is done for plain surfaces only. Give reason. OR Rough
surfaces corrode faster than smooth surface

Ans: Irregular (Rough) surfaces provides the galvanic cell action in presence of
moisture, hence corrosion cannot be prevented by this method. Due to above
reason metal cladding is done for plain surfaces only


Iron nails used to join copper sheets rust more. Give reason

Ans: Iron nails used to join copper sheets rust more because iron is more
electropositive than copper


Write characteristics (properties) of a good (ideal) paint

Ans: A good paint should have the following main characteristics

1. Paint should possess high covering power and hiding power
2. It should form an quite tough, uniform, adherent and durable film
3. Its film should not cracked on drying
4. Its film should be glossy (lusture) and stable
5. Its film should be washable

What is paint? Give the constituents of paint. Write functions of each


Ans: Paint: Paint is a mechanical dispersion mixture of one or more pigment in

a vehicle.

The main constituents of paints are as follows:

1. Pigment

Ex: red lead, chromium oxide, carbon black

2. Drying oil

Ex: linseed oil, tung oil

3. Thinner

Ex: kerosene ,benzene, turpentine

4. Drier

Ex: linoleates, resonates

5. Extenders

Ex: clay,chalk, silica, talc,CaCO3,CaSO4

6. Plasticizers

Ex: triphenyl phosphate, tricresyl phosphate


1. Pigments: It is a solid substance, which forms paint when mixed with

drying oil.
a. To provide opacity and colour to the paint film.
b. To give strength to the paint film
c. To give protection to the paint film by reflecting harmful UV light.
d. To provide resistance to paint film against abrasion, moisture, and
2. Drying Oil (vehicle): These are the film-forming constituents of paint.
a. It is a main film forming constituent of paint
b. It provides durability and water proofness to the paint film.
c. It improves toughness and adhesion property of the paints film
3. Thinners: These are volatile liquid substances which evaporate easily
after application of paint.
a. They dissolve film forming material
b. They reduce the viscosity of paints
c. They help for drying of film by evaporation
4. Driers: These are oxygen carrier catalysts.
a. They reduce the cost of a paint
b. They increase the durability of paint



What are the main sources of water?

Ans: The main sources of water are:

1. Rain water
2. Surface water
3. Ground water
1. Rain water:
It is the purest form of water but gets contaminated by particulates and
gaseous pollutants.
2. Surface water:
Types of surface water
A. River water
B. Sea water
C. Lake water
3. Ground water:
Available under the ground


Name the two coagulant substances with chemical formulae.

Ans: Alum: [K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3. 24H2O]

Ferrous sulphate: [FeSO4. 7H2O]


Write the names of the processes which are used to remove impurities
present in natural water.




Sedimentation with coagulation, filtration
Ion exchange, Zeolite, Limesoda

Name the impurities present in natural water. OR List the common

impurities present in natural water. Give two examples

Ans: 1. Suspended impurities: dust, mud, clay particles

2. Colloidal impurities: fine dust, fine clay particles, fine mud
3. Dissolved impurities: CaCl2, MgSO4, CO2, O2, H2S
4. Biological impurities: Bacteria, Germs, microorganism


Distinguish between hard water and soft water. OR Define hard water
& soft water.

Ans: Hard water: Water which contains chlorides, sulphates and bicarbonates
of calcium and magnesium called as hard water. Such water does not
produce lather with soap. Hard water cannot use for boilers or for cooking or
washing purposes.

Soft water: Water which is free from any salts of calcium and magnesium
is called as soft water. Soft water easily produces lather with soap and can
be safely used for boilers and for other household and industrial purposes.



Name the salts which are responsible for temporary and permanent
hardness of water with chemical formula.

Ans: A) Temporary hardness is due to the presence of dissolved bicarbonates of

calcium and magnesium i.e. Ca (HCO3)2 & Mg (HCO3)2
B) Permanent hardness is due to the presence of dissolved chlorides and
sulphates of calcium and magnesium i.e. CaCl2 & CaSO4, MgCl2 & MgSO4


Write short notes on Units of Hardness of water?

Ans: Units of hardness:

The hardness of water is expressed in terms of parts by weight of calcium
There are three systems to express the hardness of water.

1. Clarks degree of hardness: It is defined as the number of parts by

weight of CaCO3 present in 70,000 parts by weight of water

Clark =

2. French degree of hardness: It is the number of parts by weight of

CaCO3 present in 1,00,000 parts by weight of water.

French =

3. Parts per million (ppm): It is the number of parts by weight if CaCO3

present in 10,00,000 parts by weight of water.


10 Clark = 1.430 French = 14.3PPM.

What is meant by boiler corrosion? Name the factors causing corrosion

of boiler.

Ans: Corrosion of boiler can be defined as the decaying of metals by a chemical

or electrochemical reaction with their environment.
Corrosion in boiler is due to following reasons.
1. Dissolved gases
2. Dissolved salt
3. Acidity and alkalinity of water


Desceribe the different types of impurities present in natural water with


Ans: Impurities in water may be broadly classified into four categories:


Dissolved impurities


Suspended impurities


Dissolved gases &


Organic matter.

1. Dissolved impurities.
The soluble salt impurities present in water included salts of Ca, Mg, Na in
various soluble salt forms oxides of Mn, Fe, Pb &Ar may also present in

2. Suspended impurities.
Suspended impurities are the dispersion of solid particles. Which can be
removed by filtration or settling.
They are of 2 types:Inorganic: It includes clay silica, Oxides of Fe & Mn etc.
Organic: Includes wood pieces. Disintegrated particles of dead


leaf, fishes, Bacteria. Alage, and Protozoa etc.

3. Dissolved gases.
Most water contain dissolved gases such as O2, SO2.NH3 & oxides of
Nitrogen all of which are derived from atmosphere.
4. Organic matter: Organic compounds derived from the decay of
vegetables & animal matter including bacteria, water also gets contaminated
with sewage & human excreted matter etc.


What are the causes of hardness of water? Explain with chemical


Ans: The causes of hardness of water are discussed below

1. The rain water absorbs carbon dioxide from air and also from decaying
plants on soil & it forms carbonic acid

H2 O + CO2
Water Carbonic acid


2. When this water flows over rock containing calcium & magnesium
3. These reacts with carbonic acid present in water to form calcium
bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate which are highly soluble in
H2CO3 + CaCO3
H2CO3 + MgCO3

Mg (HCO3)2

4. There are chlorides & sulphates of calcium & magnesium present on the
surface layer which also dissolve in water.
5. When this water flow on the earth surface,these salt enter in water.In this
way chlorides, sulphates & bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium are
dissolved in water and making it hard.

Write the ill (bad) effect of using hard water in following industries. OR
What are the disadvantages of hard water in 1) Paper industry 2)
Dyeing in industry 3) Textile industry 4) Sugar industry.

Ans: Bad effect of using hard water in industries

1. Paper industry:
A) During the manufacturing of paper, the material like rosin size is added
to the paper pulp to make the surface of paper smooth & glossy. If hard
water is used then Ca++ & Mg++ ions present in it reacts with the material.
So the paper will not have desired smoothness & glossiness.
B) If salts of heavy metal like Fe & Mn are present in hard water they make
paper yellowish & dull.
Therefore water used in paper industry must be free from these salts.
2. Dying industry:
A) In dyeing industry, colouring of fabrics is done with the help of some
organic as well as inorganic coloring substances.
B) If hard water is used for dissolving the dyes then calcium & magnesium
salts present in it reacts with die to form unwanted precipitate.

C) These changes the shades of the dies & unwanted coloures are produced.
Iron produces yellow stains (spots) on clothes
Hence hard water should not be used in dyeing industry.
3. Textile industry:
A) If hard water is used in textile industry then a large quantity of soap as
well as water is wasted during washing the yarn because calcium &
magnesium salts do not allow formation of lather with soap.
B) They react with soap (sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid) to form
curdy precipitate which sticks to the fabric making it weak & brittle. Iron
& manganese present in hard water produces spots ( stains) on fabrics
therefore water used in textile industry should be free from calcium,
magnesium, iron & manganese salts.
4. Sugar industry:
If hard & impure water is used in sugar industry for refining of sugar the
impurities like sulphates nitrates, alkali carbonate & bacteria present in it
causes difficulties in the crystallization of sugar. The sugar so formed
may be deliquescent (become watery) & get decomposed during storage.


What are the disadvantages or ill (bad) effect of using hard water in 1)
Washing 2) Cooking 3) Bathing 4) Drinking OR
Why hard water is not suitable for 1) Washing 2) Cooking 3) Bathing 4)

Ans: 1.Washing:
Hard water consist of soluble sulphate, chlorides & bicarbonates of calcium
& magnesium
If hard water is used for washing, then the Ca & Mg salts react with soap &
produces curdy precipitate of Ca of Mg salts of fatty acid

In this way large quantity of soap is wasted & the precipitate stick to the
cloth making it weak & brittle.
Secondly if iron is present in hard water it forms spots (stains) on clothes
2. Cooking:
The presence of impurities in water also increases the boiling point of water.
Hence vegetables may not cook well, so more time and more fuel required if
hard water is used.
The life of cooking utensils also decreases due to overheating
Hence hard water should not be used for cooking.
3. Bathing:
If hard water is used for bathing then
a) Wastage of soap takes place as hard water does not form good lather
b) Insoluble residue is formed with soap which is adsorbed on our body,
due to which our skin become dry & dark
4. Drinking:
If hard water is used for drinking then impurities in hard water causes bad
effect on digestion process and also kidney stone may formed due to
accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals


What are the causes of boiler corrosion? Explain the causes of boiler

Ans: Corrosion can be defined as the decaying of metals by a chemical or

electro chemical reaction with their environment
The corrosion in boiler due to following reasons
1. Dissolved gases

2. Dissolved salts
3. Acidity or alkalinity of water
1. Dissolved gases:
Among the dissolved gases oxygen has most corroding effect on boiler
Water contains about 8ml of oxygen per litre at 100C
Dissolve oxygen in presence of water under high temperature attacks the
boiler material
4Fe + 4H2O + 2O2
4Fe (OH)2 + O2

4Fe (OH)2
2 ( Fe 2O3. 2 H2O)

Ferrous hydroxide


Carbon dioxide when dissolved in water forms carbonic acid

H2O + CO2

H2 CO3

The dissolved bicarbonate of Ca & Mg decomposes & gives CO2

Mg (HCO3)2

Mg CO3 + H2O + CO2

2. Dissolved salts:
If hard water contains chlorides of calcium & magnesium; they get
hydrolyses & produces hydrochloric acid

Mg (OH)2 + 2HCl

This liberated hydrochloric acid react with iron material of the boiler like a
chain reaction producing hydrochloric acid again & again
Fe + 2HCl
FeCl2 + 2H2O

FeCl2 + H2
Fe(OH)2 + 2HCl

Therefore, due to presence of small amount of CaCl 2 or MgCl2 will cause

corrosion of boiler.

3. Acidity or alkalinity of water:

The corrosion in boiler is more it water is used is acidic. It is less when
water is neutral. Again the corrosion of boiler is greater when water is


What is caustic embrittlement? How it can be prevented (avoided)?

Ans: This a type of boiler corrosion caused due to alkaline water.

During water softening process small amount of sodium carbonate (Na 2CO3)
is added in water. In high pressure boilers, sodium carbonate decomposes to
form sodium hydroxide & carbon dioxide & water becomes alkaline due to
formation of caustic soda (NaOH). This alkaline water goes into the cracks
by capillary action. Water evaporates & dissolved caustic soda is left behind.
The deposition of more & more caustic soda dissolves iron material of the
This causes embrittlement (corrosion) of boiler parts, called as caustic
Caustic embrittelment can be avoided by
1. By using sodium phosphate for water softening
2. By adding tannin or lignin additives
3. By adjusting the alkalinity of water (PH 7-9)

Define scales & sludge OR What are scales and sludge in boiler? Write
prevention (control) measures
Scales: The hard and adherent coating formed on inner walls of the boiler is
called as boiler scales. They stick very firmly on to the inner wall surface
and are difficult to remove with chisel and hammer.
Methods of prevention of scales

Internal conditioning method: Internal conditioning methods involve

addition of complexing agents like calogen to boiler feed water. Another
method of internal conditioning method is Phosphate conditioning. In this
method sodium phosphate is added to boiler feed water which forms nonsticky Calcium and magnesium Phosphate which can be removed by blow
down operation.
External conditioning method: In external conditioning methods water is
purified either by Zeolite process or by ion-exchange method before being
fed into boilers.
Sludge: When the precipitated matter forms a soft, loose, slimy deposits
inside the boiler which do not stick to the boiler permanently are called
boiler sludge.
a. By using well softended water.
b. By drawing off a portion of concentrated water frequently.

Explain causes of scale & sludge formation in boiler.

Ans: The main causes of scale & sludge formation in boiler are
1. Chemical decomposition OR Presence of Ca (HCO3)2 & Mg (HCO3)2
2. Decrease in solubility of salts
1. Chemical decomposition OR Presence of Ca (HCO3)2 & Mg (HCO3)2
If water contains soluble bicarbonate of calcium & magnesium then under
high temperature & pressure inside the boiler, it decomposes to give calcium
carbonate precipitate (insoluble) which forms scales.
This effect is observed in low pressure boiler.
In high pressure boilers CaCO3 forms soluble Ca (OH)2.
Ca (HCO3)2

CaCO3 + H2 O + CO2

2. Decrease in solubility of salts

Salts present in hard water; like CaSO4 & silicates of Ca & Mg formed by
reaction with silica (SiO2) have lower solubility at high temperature. As the
water in boiler starts heating up, the solubility decreases & excess salts are
thrown out of water forming hard deposits in the form of scales.


Write the disadvantages of scale & sludge formation in boiler OR

Explain the ill (bad) effect of using hard water in boiler unit.

Ans: The disadvantages of scale & sludge formation in boiler are as follow.
1. Wastage of fuel:
Scales deposited on the inner wall of the boiler are poor conductor of heat.
Hence to get the steady supply of steam; overheating of boiler is needed.
Most of the heat is wasted in heating the scales & in this way there is
wastage of fuel.
It is estimated that for 25mm thick scale, nearly 60% of the fuel is wasted.

2. Lowering safety of boiler OR Decrease in life of the boiler:

Scales are poor conductor of heat it reduces transfer of heat from boiler to
Therefore overheating of boiler is to be done in order to maintain a constant
supply of steam. This makes the boiler material & boiler tubes soft. This
lowers the safety of boiler.

3. Danger of explosion:
a) When scales crack due to uneven expansion of scale & boiler material,
the water comes suddenly in contact with overheated iron plate of boiler

b) This causes the formation of a large amount of steam suddenly inside the
c) Hence sudden high pressure is developed which may causes explosion of
4. Decrease in efficiency:
Scales may sometimes deposits in the valves of condensers of the boiler &
choke them. These results in decrease of efficiency of boiler


Write the principle which is used to soften hard water

Ans: During the process of softening of hard water, the soluble calcium and
magnesium salts are converted into insoluble salts. These insoluble salts can
be removed by filtration and soft water can be obtained


Differentiate between scale & sludge.



When the precipitated matter forms a
hard adherent coating on the inner
surface of the boiler is called boiler
Scales are hard and adherent
It cannot be removed by mechanical
Scales are bad conductor of heat
Scales are formed throughout the
metal surface in contact with water
Scales lead to bursting or explosion
of metal tube

When the precipitated matter forms a
soft, loose, slimy deposits inside the
boiler which do not stick to the boiler
permanently are called boiler sludge.
Sludges are soft
Sludges can be removed by mechanical
Sludges are poor conductor of heat
Sludges are formed at comparatively
cooler parts of the boiler
Sludge lead to check up problems



Explain Zeolite OR Permutit process. OR What is Permutit (Zeolite)?

Write principle of Permutit (Zeolite) Process. Explain the process with
diagram. Write chemical & regeneration reactions involved in it.

1. Zeolite: Zeolite are complex of silicates and aluminates of metallic and
non metallic oxides. For softening of water, generally sodium zeolite is
used. It has crystalline structure with a chemical formula.
Na2Al2 Si2O8.6 H2O
It is represented as Na2Z or Na2P
Principle: When zeolite come in contact with hard water, sodium ions in
zeolite are replaced by calcium and magnesium to form insoluble
calcium and magnesium zeolite

2. Working: When zeolites come in contact with hard water, sodium ions
in zeolites are replaced by calcium and magnesium ions to form insoluble
calcium and magnesium zeolites.


3. Chemical Reactions:
For temporary hardness
Ca(HCO3)2+ Na2P

CaP + 2NaHCO3

Mg(HCO 3)2+Na2P

MgP +2 NaHCO3

For permanent hardness (Write any two reactions)

CaCl2+ Na2P

CaP +2 NaCl

MgCl2+ Na2P

MgP +2 NaCl


CaP +Na2SO4

MgSO4 +Na2P

MgP +Na2SO4

4. Regeneration: After some time all the Na+ ions from zeolite (permutit)
completely gets converted into calcium and gets exhausted. At this stage,
supply of hard water is stopped. The exhausted zeolite is regenerated
or reactivated by passing 10% Brine solution( NaCl) through it
CaP + 2NaCl


Brine Solution
MgP + 2 NaCl

Na2P + MgCl2

The washings containing CaCl2 and MgCl2 are passed to drain and the
regenerated zeolite is used again. Water softened by zeolite is almost of
zero hardness.


5. Limitations/Disadvantages of Zeolite process:

1. The capital cost involved in the zeolite process is much high as compared
to other conventional methods like soda- lime process.
2. If water contains some mineral acids, it cannot be softened by this
process since the acids destroys the softening material, sodium zeolites.
3. If water contains Fe or Mn salts, the original sodium zeolites are
converted into Fe or Mn zeolites which cannot be regenerated easily.

6. Advantages of Permutit or Zeolite Process:

1. Zeolite removes the hardness completely
2. It is a clean process
3. It requires less time for softening
4. The equipment occupy small space


Explain Ion Exchange or Demineralization or Deionisation process with

diagram.(Only process and Diagram). Write chemical & regeneration
reactions involved in it. Write advantages and limitations.

Ans: Process: It consists of three cylindrical towers. First tower consists of cation
exchanger (RH2) and second tower consists of anion and alkali tanks for
regeneration of the exhausted resins.
Third tower is a degasifier.
1. Hard water is first passed through the cation exchanger. It removes all the
cations like Ca++, Mg2+ and releases H+ ions.
RH2 + CaCl2

RCa + 2HCl

RH2 + MgSO4

RMg + H2 SO4

Thus water is free from cations but it is acidic.


2. The acidic water is then passed through anion exchanger where acids are
converted into water.
R-(OH)2 + 2HCl


R-(OH)2 + H2SO4

R- SO4 + 2H2O

3. Thus water is free from all cations and anions. Finally water is made free
from dissolved gases like CO2, O2 by passing it through third tower of

Regeneration: When the cation exchanger resins get exhausted, they are
regenerated by passing the solution of dill. HCl or H2SO4 through first
R-Ca + 2HCl

RH2 + CaCl2

R-Mg + H2SO4

RH2+ MgSO4

The washings containing CaCl2 , MgCl2 , CaSO4 , MgSO4 etc. is passed to

When the anion exchanger resin get exhausted, they are regenerated by
passing the solution of dil. NaOH or KOH through second tower.
RCl2 + 2NaOH

R(OH)2 + 2NaCl

RSO 4 + 2NaOH

R(OH)2 + Na2SO4

The washings containing NaCl, Na2SO4 etc. is also passed to drain.

The regenerated resins are then used again.

This process can be used for purifying highly acidic or alkaline water
Water of zero hardness is obtained
Small space occupying equipment and portable
Water totally free from any ionic impurity is obtained
Treated water contains negligible amount of total dissolved solid i.e. up
to 5 mg/lit
6. Method of self adjusts with water of all types and different hardness

1. Initial investment is high (low running cost)
2. Turbidity may clog the pores of resins and reduce the output of process
3. Method cannot be used for getting deionized water on large scale


Define potable water. Mention its requirements (parameters).

Ans: Water which is fit for human consumption and safe to drink is known as
drinking water or potable water.
Requirement (Characteristics/Parameters) for potable water:
1. It should be colourless, odourless and clear
2. It should be totally free from disease producing microorganisms like
germs and bacteria
3. Water should be soft and pleasant in taste
4. The turbidity of water should be less than 10 ppm
5. If water has a colour then it should be less than 20ppm
6. If water dissolve any solid then it should be less than 500ppm
7. It should be free from dissolved gases like hydrogen sulphate


Explain the terms: 1) Screening 2) Sedimentation 3) Coagulation

1. Screening:
Screening is the process of removing floating materials from water. To
remove the floating matter, mainly this method is used.
The water is allowed to pass through screens having a large number of
pores. Thus, only floating material remains on the screen.

2. Sedimentation:
Sedimentation is the process of removing suspended impurities by allowing
the water to stay undisturbed for some time in large tanks when most of the
suspended particles settle down due to the force of gravity.
The process of sedimentation is generally carried out in continuous flow
type tanks in which water flows continuously in a horizontal or vertical
direction at a slow and uniform speed. Due to gravitational force, the
suspended particles get settled down at the bottom of the tank, form where
they can be removed periodically. Sediment water is taken out continuously.

3. Coagulation:
Coagulation is the process of removing colloidal (or fine size) particles
from water by the addition of certain chemicals known as coagulants before
sedimentation. This process is usually carried out along with
The commonly used coagulants are the salts of iron and aluminium e.g. alum
[K2SO4. Al2(SO4)3. 24H2O], ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) etc.
These coagulants react with bicarbonates present in water, and form bulky
gelatinous precipitate called flock. As these flocks descend through water,

they absorb or catch suspended fine particles from water and forming bigger
flocks, which settle down quickly.
The addition of coagulants to water also removes colour, odour and
improves its taste.

Al2(SO4)3 + 3 Ca (HCO3)2


(Bulky gelatinous flock)

FeSO4 + Mg(HCO3)2

2Al (OH)3 + 3CaSO4 + 6CO2


Fe (OH)2 + MgSO4 + 2CO2

(Ferrous Hydroxide)

4 Fe (OH)2 + 2H2O + O2
(Dissolved oxygen)


4 Fe (OH)3
Ferric hydroxide
(Heavy flock)

Defing Filtration. Explain Gravity sand filtration process with the help
of a figure.

Ans: Filtration is a process of removing insoluble colloidal and bacterial

impurities by passing water through a bed of proper sized material.
Gravity sand filter: These filters are best suited for municipal water supply

It consists of a large shallow rectangular tank made of concrete
At the bottom of the tank, there is a channel of bricks through which filtered
water goes out. Over this channel, a layer of coarse and fine gravels (about
30cm thick) and then a layer of coarse sand (about 20cm thick) and finally a
layer of fine sand (about 50cm thick) are placed


Sediment water enters the sand filter from the top. As the water percolates
through the sand bed, fine suspended particles, most of the germs and
bacteria are retained by the top sand layer. Clean filtered water is collected
in the under drain channel, from where it is drawn out.

1. The rate of filtration, after 24 hours of use becomes slow due to clogging
of pores or the top sand layer by the impurities retained in the pores
2. Therefore, the portion of the top fine sand layer is scrapped off and
replaced by a new sand layer. The filter is put to use again.


Define sterilization. Explain chlorination with chemical reactions.

a) By using chlorine gas
b) By adding bleaching powder
c) By using chloramines

Ans; The process of destroying the diseases causing bacteria and

microorganisms etc. from water is known as disinfection or sterilization of

By using chlorine gas (Cl2):

1. Chlorine can be used directly as a gas or as chlorine water for

sterilization of municipal water supply
2. It reacts with water to form hypochlorous acid and nascent oxygen, both
are powerful germicides.
Cl2 + H2O

HOCl + HCl
(Hypochlorous acid)


HCl + [O]
(Nascent Oxygen)

Germs + [O]

Germs are killed

By adding bleaching powder (CaOCl2):

1. Bleaching powder is a good sterilizer for small water works

2. In practice, about 1 kg of bleaching powder per 1000 litres of water is
mixed and the resulting solution is allowed to stand for several hours.
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and nascent oxygen (O) produced by the
action of water on bleaching powder are powerful germicides.
CaOCl2 + H2O
Cl2 + H2O

Ca(OH)2 + Cl2
HOCl + HCl
HCl + [O]
(Nascent oxygen)

3. The nascent oxygen liberated, oxidizes germs and other harmful bacteria.

4. Only calculated quantity of bleaching powder should be used, because

excess of it will give a bad taste and disagreeable smell to the water.

By using chloramines(ClNH2):

1. Chlorine and ammonia are mixed in the ratio 2 : 1 by volume to produce

a compound known as chloramines. This process is known as
Cl2 + NH3
Cl NH2 + HCl
( Chloramine)

2. Chloramines is a quite stable compound and does not impart any

disagreeable smell and bad taste to water, hence it is considered as a
better germicide than chlorine alone

ClNH2 + H2O


HOCl + NH3

HCl + [O] (Nascent oxygen)

Advantages of chloramination:
1. It removes irritating smell due to excess of chlorine
2. It imparts good taste to water
3. It checks the dissipation of chlorine (by stabilizing chlorine) when
water is exposed to atmosphere, especially to sunlight


State the principle of reverse osmosis. Explain the process of

desalination of sea water by reverse osmosis cell with diagram.

Ans: Principle of reverse osmosis: In reverse osmosis the flow of solvent take
place in reverse direction i.e. from higher concentration solution to lower
concentration solution through a semi permeable membrane (SPM).


1. Sea water is filled in reverse osmosis cell. A pressure of 200-800 psi is
applied on it to force the solvent to pass through semi permeable
2. The membrane consists of a polymeric material film made of proper
porosity, from materials like acrylics, polyamides, barmaids etc.


Explain EDTA titration method for determination of total and

permanent hardness of water.(Write only procedure)

Ans: Chemicals required:


Standard hard water

EDTA solution (0.01M)
EBT indicator
Ammonia buffer

EDTA stands for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. As it is insoluble in
water, we use its disodium salt.


Structure of EDTA:

By nature, Eriochrome Black T indicator is blue in colour. When EBT

indicator is added to water sample, it forms wine red coloured unstable
Ca-Mg-EBT complex. This reaction is carried out under a basic PH of 8-10
using ammonia buffers.
Ca2+/Mg2+ in water + EBT

[Ca/Mg-EBT] unstable wine red complex.

When EDTA is titrated against the complex, EDTA replaces all the
EBT and forms a stable Ca/Mg-EDTA complex. The liberated EBT
indicates the end point as steel blue.
[Ca/Mg EDTA] + EBT

[Ca/Mg-EBT] + EDTA
(Wine red/unstable)


(Steel blue)

So, the end point is the colour change from wine red to steel blue.
Determination of total hardness:
1. Pipette out 50 ml of the given hard water sample into 250 ml conical
2. Add 5 ml of buffer solution to increase the pH to about 10.
3. Add 3-4 drops of Eriochrome Black- T indicator.
4. The solution turns wine red.
5. Titrate the hard water sample slowly with 0.01M EDTA until the colour
changes to blue (end point).

Note down the volume of EDTA used up at end point.

Determination of permanent hardness:

1.50ml hard water sample is boiled for about 15 to 20 minutes.
2. Then filtrate is diluted with distilled water to make 50 ml.
3. Add 5ml of buffer solution to increase the pH to about 10.
4. Add 3-4 drops of Eriochrome Black-T indicater.
5. The solution turns wine red.
6. Titrate the boiled hard water sample slowly with 0.01M EDTA until the
colour changes to blue (end point).
Note down the volume of EDTA used up at end point.
Using the above data, total and permanent hardness can be calculated.


Define hardness of water. State the type of hardness of water. OR

Distinguish between temporary
(noncarbonate) hardness.




Ans: Hardness: Hardness of water is defined which prevent lathering of soap

Temporary Hardness: It is due to the presence of dissolved bi-carbonates
of Ca, Mg and other heavy metals. Presence of bicarbonates causes
alkalinity to water. Temporary hardness can be removed by simple boiling
of water.
Permanent Hardness: It is due to the presence of dissolved chlorides and
sulphates of Ca, Mg and other heavy metals it cannot be removed by simple
boiling, chemical treatment is required to remove the hardness


Define cement.

Ans: Cement is a finely grounded grey powder of calcium aluminates and

silicates of different compositions. Cement when mixed with water in
suitable proportion forms a paste called as concrete, which strongly binds
the aggregates like gravels, stones, bricks, sand and other materials.

Give classification of cement.

Ans: 1. Puzzolanic Cement: It is made from a naturally occuring volcanic ash

containing silicates of iron, calcium and aluminum.
2. Natural Cement: It is obtained by calcinating natural cement rocks
containing clay and lime stone at temperature of 1000 0C to 12500C in kilns
and then pulverizing.
3. Portland Cement: It is obtained by calcinating calcareous and
argillaceous materials, with addition of water and gypsum.
4. Special Cement: a) Ordinary portland cement
b) Rapid hardening portland cement
c) Extra rapid hardening portland cement
d) White portland cement,
e) Coloured portland cement
f) High alumina cement
g) Super sulphate cement.


What is Portland cement?

Ans: It is finely ground grayish mixture of calcium silicates and aluminates with a
small amount of gypsum which are capable of setting and hardening by
chemical reaction with water.

Name the raw materials used for manufacture of Portland cement.

Ans: The raw materials used in the manufacture are



Calcareous materials like lime-stone, chalk which supply lime

Argillaceous materials like clay or shale which supply Al2 O3 or SiO2
Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)
Powdered coal or fuel oil which is used as a fuel.

Give chemical composition of Portland cement.


Lime (CaO)
Silica (SiO2)
Iron Oxides(Fe2O3)
Magnesia (MgO)
Sulphur trioxide
Soda and Potash(Na2O+K2O)
Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)


What is the function of: 1) Lime 2) Silica and 3) Alumina

Ans: 1) Functions of Lime:

Lime is the major ingredient forming the cement hence it plays important
role in deciding the properties of cement. Cement containing high
percentage of lime increases the setting time, but gives early strength. At the
same time it makes cement concrete unsound and likely to get disintegrated
and crack. On the other hand cement containing low percentage of lime
reduces the strength and decreases the setting time.

2) Function of Silica:
It is one of the active constituent of cement. If Silica percentage is high it
prolongs setting time but increases the strength.

3) Functions of Alumina:
Alumina makes the cement quick setting. Excess alumina, however weakens
the cement.


What is initial setting of cement?

Ans: After adding water to cement, the initial setting occurs within short time (30
min). We get jelly like paste which is quite plastic. As the time passes the
mixture loses its plasticity. Before the time of initial set, the paste can be
mixed and put in different sections of structure. Once the solid mass is
formed it should not be disturbed. After initial setting there is final setting
followed by hardening of cement.


What are the reactions occurring in the settings and hardening of


Ans: The setting and hardening of cement is due to hydration and hydrolysis
reaction taking place between various constituents of cement and water.
Anhydrous compounds undergo hydration forming insoluble gels and
crystalline products.
Setting: It is defined as stiffening of original plastic mass due to initial gel
Hardening: It is the development of strength due to crystallisation.
The chemical reactions taking place during setting and hardening of cement
are as follows

1. Hydrolysis:
C3S + (x+1) H2O
C4AF+7 H2O
2. Hydration:
C3S + xH2O


C3A. 6H2O(gel) +C.H2O(gel) +CaO(lime)

C3A + 6H2O


C2S.xH2O(gel) + C.H2O(crystals)

C3A. 6H2O(crystals) + Heat

Explain the role of gypsum in cement OR Why gypsum is added to


Ans: Gypsum is added to cement because it retards the dissolution of C 3A by

forming insoluble calcium sulpho-aluminate, which does not have quick
hydration property. Thus, it avoids initial or flash set.

Write composition properties and uses of super sulphate cement.
Composition: It contains
1. Granulated slag
2. Anhydride
3. Portland cement

= 80-85%
= 10-12%
= 5-6%

1. It is highly resistant to marine water and sulphate bearing soil.
2. Low heat is librated during setting.

1. It is used for mass concrete job
2. It is suitable where concrete is exposed to sea water and sulphate bearing


Write properties and application of waterproof cement and sorel


Ans: Water proof cement:

1. It resists action of water
2. It resists action of acids and alkalis
1. It used for roads, roofs, buildings.
2. It is used in construction of dams, bridges, swimming tanks

Sorel cements (Magnesium Ox chloride Cement):

1. The materials prepared by Sorels cement are fire proof, non-slip, scratch
2. They are durable and capable of taking a wax or oil polish.
1. It is used in composite floorings.
2. It is used for grindstones, tiles, artificial stones and artificial ivory



Why are calcium soaps and aluminium soaps used in making water
proof cement?

Ans: Calcium soaps and aluminium soaps are chemically inactive agents. They
also act as a pore blocking agents and increase the resistance to penetration
of moisture. Therefore calcium soaps and aluminium soaps are used in
making water proof cement.


State ISI specification of cement.

Ans: Some important specifications for ordinary Portland cement as per. Indian
standard are given below:
A) Chemical Requirements:
1. Lime saturation factors 0.66 to 1.02
2. (Al2O3) Alumina :
Not lesser than 0.66
(Fe2O3)Iron oxide
3. Insoluble residue- Not more than 2%
4. MgO: Not more than 6%
5. SO3 : Not more than 2.75%
6. Loss on ignition: Not more than 4%

B) Physical Requirements:
1. Initial setting time - Not less than 30 Minutes.
2. Final setting time - Not more than 60 Minutes.
3. Compressive strength 3 days : Not less than 1.6 kgf/mm2 (1 kgf =9.807
4. Soundness method
By Le chatiler method Unaerated cement: max 10 mm.
Aerated cement: max 5 mm.
5. Finess
As specific surface (Not less than 215 m2/kg)
By Blain permeability method:



What is plaster of paris?

Ans: Plaster of paris [CaSO4. H2O] is produced by heating fairly pure gypsum to
a temperature of about 120-1600C



CaSO4. H2O


plaster of Paris



Why is plaster of Paris used for plastering fractures of body parts?

Ans: When plaster of Paris is mixed with water, the powder forms a plastic mass,
which quickly sets to a hard mass like stone. This supports the cracked
bones. Then recovery of fractured bones is faster, hence POP is used for
plastering fractured bones.


Write uses of Plaster of Paris

Ans: Uses of plaster of paris

1. It is used in surgery for plastering fractured parts of a body
2. It is used in laboratory for making apparatus air tight
3. It is used in making moulds, statues, black board chalks
4. It is used in plastering the walls, interior ceilings and decorative



What is lime?

Ans: Calcium oxide (CaO) is called as lime. It is also known as quick lime or
common lime.
On calcinations of CaCO3 in the form of limestone, chalk, marble etc. quick
lime is obtained.


(Lime stone) to redness



What is slaking of lime? Give the reaction

Ans: The action of water on quick lime is known as slaking of lime. When lime is
mixed with water (3:1) it absorbs water, begins to burst and swell with
evolution of heat. This heat brings entire mass to boil with hissing sound and
the solid lime crumbles into fine dry white powder resulting in a suspension
of finally divided calcium hydroxide in water called slaked lime.
The process is called slaking of lime.
CaO + H2O
Ca(OH)2 + (15.9) Kcal
(Quick lime) (Slaked lime) (Heat)

What is hydrated lime? What are its advantages?

Ans: If little amount of water is added to quick lime we get fine white powder
called hydrated lime.

It is easier to handle and more reliable

It is easy to slake due to less evolution of heat
It can be stored without any danger
It can be used immediately


How is lime classified on the basis of their chemical composition? Give

their properties, composition and uses.

Ans: Lime is classified as:

1. Fat lime or High calcium Lime
2. Poor Lime or Lean Lime
3. Hydraulic Lime
a) Feebly Hydraulic b) Moderately Hydraulic c) Eminently Hydraulic
4. Dolomite Lime

A) Fat Lime:
It is purest form of lime containing CaO 92-95%. Other impurities like
Alumina, Silica and iron oxide are less than 2% and remaining consist of

It is more expensive than other types of lime

It has high sand carrying capacity
It forms good paste with water
It is perfectly white in colour
It has greater plasticity


It is used in chemical, metallurgical and glass industries

It is used in machinary work, in mortar form
It is used in softening of water
It is used for white washing and plastering walls


B) Poor OR Lean Lime:

It is interior grade of lime containing about 75% of CaO and remaining
being Sillica, Alumina, Iron Oxide and Magnesium Oxide.

It requires less water for slaking

It expands less
It makes thin paste
It has low sand carrying capacity
Mortar made from it is weak and difficult to work

1. White washing
2. Plastering
3. In the form of mortar for inferior type structures
C) Hydraulic Lime:
It is like inferior grade natural cement. It contains about 70 to 80% of CaO
and 5-20% Silica and Alumina and very small quantity of Fe2O3 and MgO.
Depending on the proportion of Silica and Alumina Hydraulic Lime is
classified as
1. Feebly Hydraulic Lime
2. Moderately Hydraulic Lime
3. Eminently Hydraulic Lime
Hydraulic Lime slakes slowly with water with less evolution of heat. It
possesses the Hydraulic property of setting under water.


1. Feebly Hydraulic Lime containing 5 to 15% of Silica and Alumina has
poor hydraulic property and used in ordinary machinery and plastering
2. Moderately Hydraulic Lime containing 15 to 25% of Silica and Alumina
has better hydraulic property and used as mortars in superior machinery
3. Eminently Hydraulic Lime containing 25 to 30% of Silica and Alumina
has high hydraulic property, and sets under water therefore used for
foundation work under water

D) Dolomite Lime:
It is obtained by calcinations of dolomite (CaCO3.MgCO3) at 17000C.
Dolomite Lime thus obtained contain 30 to 40% of MgO, 60-70% CaO and
very small percentage of clay.

It slakes very slowly

It has low sand carrying capacity
The mortar formed is very plastic and easy to work
It is too expensive to be used as common mortar

1. It is used in metallurgy as flux
2. It repairing basic refractories
3. It is used for preparing special slag