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A STUDY ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS PLANET SPORTS AND NEWLY LAUNCHED BRAND AWARENESS LEVEL

at Future Lifestyle Fashions Limited Mumbai

A summer internship report submitted in partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree in

Master of Fashion Management

Submitted by

Indranil Saha

Under the Guidance of

MR. PRIYANK SAHAY (INDUSTRY MENTOR) & MR. DIBYENDU BIKASH DATTA (FACULTY MENTOR)

Department of Fashion Management Studies National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kolkata July, 2014

Certificate from the Company

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Declaration “This is to certify that this research report titled “A Study on Consumer Perception towards
Declaration
“This is to certify that this research report titled “A Study on Consumer Perception towards
Planet Sports and Newly Launched Brands Awareness Level” is based on my original research
work, conducted under the guidance of Mr. Priyank Sahay (Senior Manager-Category, Sports
Division, Future Lifestyle Fashion Ltd.) and Mr. Dibyendu Bikash Datta (CC, FMS, NIFT,
Kolkata) towards partial fulfillment of the requirement for award of the Master’s Degree in
Fashion Management, of the National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kolkata. No part of this
work has been copied from any other source. Material, wherever borrowed has been duly
acknowledged.”
Indranil Saha
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Acknowledgement

Apart from the researchers’ efforts, the success of any project depends largely on the

encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. The guidance and support received from all the respondents, store managers and area heads of Planet Sports, who contributed to this project, was the main element for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help. I also express my gratitude towards other faculty members of FMS department, NIFT, Kolkata for encouraging and giving me valuable advices.

Above all, the moral support of my family and friends was the most instrumental in achievement a satisfactory level in this project. Last but not the least; I would like to thank Mr. Priyank Sahay, my industry mentor and Mr. Dibyendu Bikash Datta, my faculty guide who more than a guide were mentors to me, guiding, motivating, encouraging and supporting me all through the project. Their prompt reply to my queries and valuable suggestions contributed tremendously to my project.

Indranil Saha

Mr. Priyank Sahay

Mr. Dibyendu Bikash Datta

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Table of Contents

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

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  • 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

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  • 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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  • 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ........................................................................................................................

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  • 5. CONCEPTS AND THEORIES

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  • 6. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

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  • 7. SUGGESTION, CONCLUSION& SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

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  • 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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  • 9. ANNEXURES.........................................................................................................................................

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1. INTRODUCTION

Future Group is among India's leading business houses with multiple businesses spanning across the consumption space. The group operates some of India's leading retail chains like Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Central, Planet Sports, Home Town and eZone and also has allied businesses in consumer finance, life and non-life insurance, logistics infrastructure and supply chain and brand and IPR development. The group operates around 16 million square feet of retail space in over 85 cities and towns and 60 rural locations across India. The group's retail formats connect over 220 million customers to over 30,000 small, medium and large enterprises that supply products and services to its retail chains. Future Group believes in developing strong insights on Indian consumers and building businesses based on Indian ideas, as espoused in the group's core value of Indianness.'The group's corporate credo is, 'Rewrite rules, Retain values.

Planet Sports is India's largest multi-brand sports and lifestyle specialty retail chain. Planet Sports offers the largest collection of International sports and lifestyle brands. Planet Sports stores have extensive offerings for sportswear and equipment across all categories including running, tennis, training, golf, fitness, basketball, motor sports as well as other lifestyle products. Also available at the Planet Sports stores are lifestyle products across categories like footwear, apparel, accessories and sports equipment. Planet Sports prides itself for the sports

expertise it has built over time and also for having introduced renowned brands across sports categories like swimming, tennis, squash, badminton, soccer, golf and basketball. Planet Sports’ brand portfolio includes leading sports brands like Converse, Speedo, Spalding, Adidas, Puma and Nike. Planet Sports have recently launched two brands namely Umbro and Champion in India. Planet Sports strives to provide integrated, reliable and cost efficient sports offerings to

Indian consumers and augment India’s sports culture.

Consumer perception applies the concept of sensory perception to marketing and advertising. Just as sensory perception relates to how humans perceive and process sensory stimuli through their five senses, consumer perception pertains to how individuals form opinions about companies and the merchandise they offer through the purchases they make. Planet sports

requires to understand the consumer perception towards itself so that it can identify where does it

positioned in consumer’s mindset.

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  • 1.1. The Organization Hierarchy

1.1. The Organization Hierarchy 2

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  • 1.2. The Work Flow of Planet Sports

Planet Sports follows Spring-Summer (January-June) and Autumn-Winter (July- December) seasons in the stores. The back end team starts working on a season almost twelve months before the season begins. For an example the back end team of Planet Sports would start working for AW2015 in the month of August, 2014. The entire process starts with analyzing the sales data of the same season of previous year. Based on the analyzed sales data yearly budgeting and planning are done. Several levels of budgeting happen before the range is developed. Budgeting is done at brand level as well as category level. Depending upon the category level budgeting the options and quantities are planned and store wise targets are set. After the option planning is done, the data is forwarded to the design team.

The design team goes through various fashion journals and forecasting articles, analyses the market and creates designs accordingly for the season. After the data regarding options and quantities is received the design team starts creating the range for the season. They create options per style according to the plan. After the range is developed, the designs are sent to the vendors for sample making. After the samples are received, the team gives a presentation featuring the samples of the range to the CEO. During the presentation suggestions and modifications on the designs are noted down and the revised designs are sent for sampling. At the same time design team works on the final Catalogue with the help of merchandising department. The merchandiser team develops datasheets containing images of the products, style names, color options, vendors, costs etc. The final catalogue contains merchandize specific key information like CAD Illustration, Color options, Style name, Fabric, Content. While the catalogue for the season is being processed, the MRPs are decided and added to the catalogue. Various determinants of MRP are Costs, Margin and Market Demand. Top & Bottom Line Achievements indicate lower price/unit and more sales in terms of quantity and higher price/unit and more sales in terms of monetary value.

According to the planned quantities the orders are placed to the vendors. Planning is done

based on the previous year’s sales pattern. The technical team of Planet Sports starts feeding data

in the system. ERP software (SAP-System, Application & Products) helps in generating the Articles. Information regarding costing, MRP are mentioned in the database. After the process is done Purchase Order (PO) is raised. Barcode numbers are generated and hand tags are made.

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Allocation of the merchandize is done based on the previous season’s performance of the stores. Stores are graded as Z+, Z, A+, A, B and C (Z+ being the best and C being the worst). Base Stock is set according to previous season’s sales and quantity that is coming in to the store.

There are two channels for selling the merchandise-Retail & Distribution. Retail consists of the various formats associated with Planet Sports and owned by Future Group. The formats are Planet Sports (Stand Alone stores), Central (seamless mall), Brand Factory (Discount Store), I am in (Departmental Store). Distribution consists of the Online Retailers (e.g. Myntra.com, Jabong.com, Flipkart.com etc.) and the local distributors. Road show is organised to interact with the buyers. For the road shows buy forms are made. A buy form contains all information of merchandise. Size wise blank fields are given so that the potential buyers can mention order quantity in those fields. In case the order quantity placed by the buyers is less than the order placed for manufacturing, the extra allocation of the merchandise is moved to the retail formats and if the order quantity placed by the buyers is more than the order placed for manufacturing, the order cannot be taken and that situation is noted for future reference and learning.

Before and after the mass manufacturing process starts multi-level quality check and sampling process is done. Each material of the merchandise is tested separately and they are sealed for mass production only after they are approved. Mass production starts only after Fit Samples, Reference Samples, and Wash Test Samples and Pre production samples are approved. After the production is over, the merchandises are then shipped to the centralized warehouse which is situated at Bhiwandi, Mumbai. From the vendor’s end an ASN (advance Shipment Notice) is raised so as to get an appointment from the warehouse. For the retail formats STOs (Stock Transfer Order) are generated. Four steps are involved in this process so as to confirm that the store has received the merchandize at pre-allocated quantity. The steps are Order, Warehouse Delivery, Goods Issued (to the store) and GRN (Good Receipt Note). Order ensures if the order is placed to the warehouse. Warehouse Delivery ensures that the warehouse personnel have started working on the packing and the shipment of the order and they are ready to be shipped. Goods issued ensure that the order is shipped to the stores and GRN ensures that the store has received the order. For the distribution channels sales order is placed and bills are generated.

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Once the season starts sales data is retrieved from the retail formats as well as the distribution channels on daily basis and DSR (Daily Sales Report) is stored in the database. While the season comes to an end the sales for the current season is analyzed and discounts and offers for End of Season Sale are decided. The EOSS happens in the month of January & July for the season Autumn-Winter & Spring-Summer respectively.

  • 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

  • 2.1. Primary Objective To study the consumer perception of Planet Sports and the recognition level of newly launched brands

  • 2.2. Secondary Objectives

To identify the factors affecting the purchase intention of Planet Sports consumers

To study the buying pattern particularly with respect to the demographic factors

To identify the recognition level of newly launched foreign brands in the store

  • 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1. Research Type

This research is conducted in order to collect primary data and reach the objective of the dissertation. The type of the research is Exploratory as well as Descriptive. Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined (Patricia M. Shields, 2013). Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many". Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. Descriptive

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research or statistical research provides data about the population or universe being studied. But it can only describe the "who, what, when, where and how" of a situation, not what caused it. Therefore, descriptive research is used when the objective is to provide a systematic description that is as factual and accurate as possible. It provides the number of times something occurs, or frequency, lends itself to statistical calculations such as determining the average number of occurrences or central tendencies (Descriptive Research). This type of research methods requires quantifiable data involving numerical and statistical explanations. Quantitative analysis hinges on researchers understanding the assumptions inherent within different statistical models. It generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers(Ellis, 1993). The presentation of data is through tables containing data in the form of numbers and statistics. The primary intention was to collect secondary data and analyze it. After that primary data was collected through a survey. The main purpose of the survey is to collect data about the consumer perception of Planet Sports and the recognition level of newly launched brands. The factors affecting the purchase intention of Planet Sports consumers, the buying pattern particularly with respect to the demographic factors and the recognition level of newly launched foreign brands in the store are the secondary objectives of the research.

  • 3.2. Sampling Unit

Samples for the study consisted of the customers of Planet Sports stores all over India. Convenience samples are drawn from the customers making purchase in the Planet Sports stores. This segment of population was selected as they actually made purchase from the store and it was assumed that they could evaluate the factors with respect to their purchase experience.

  • 3.3. Selection of Planet Sports Stores

The Planet sports stores of India are divided into four zones-East, West, North and South. Stores which have relatively higher conversion rate were selected for the study and the questionnaires were circulated among those stores only. The stores of Kolkata, Ranchi, Siliguri and Shillong represented the East Zone, the stores of Mumbai and Pune represented West Zone, The stores of Bangalore represented South Zone and the stores of Delhi, NCR and Chandigarh represented the North Zone of India.

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  • 3.4. Sampling Size

Since there was time and accessibility constrains a sample size of 500 thought to be an adequate one. 125 valid responds from the stores of East, West, North and South zones of India were planned to be taken into account. Only 370 questionnaires could be received from east, west and north zones. Among them 357 valid questionnaires were chosen and the research is performed.

  • 3.5. Research Instruments

The main tool for this study is questionnaire. The questionnaire aims to gather information about respondent’s demographic background, perception about Planet Sports and the recognition level of the newly launched brands. Besides, various aspects like products, service and branding strategies of the EBOs of major sports brands in Mumbai were also observed to do a SWOT analysis of Planet Sports stores.

  • 3.6. Method of Data Analysis

The data derived from the responses of the questionnaire is analyzed. The main statistical analysis is descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean are calculated to describe respondent’s background and purchase patterns involved with Planet Sports and their opinion about the newly launched brands. Besides, the dependency between various variables is analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Data Editor Software.

  • 3.7. Types of Data-Primary & Secondary

When collecting data to approach the purpose of a research there are two ways in which the data can be collected. In order to acquire a general knowledge about the topic, secondary data is primarily used and this is one of the ways by which data can be collected. The second way to collect data is the primary data collection. Usually when a study is conducted, secondary data is not sufficient enough and needs to be completed with primary data which is collected by the research. In this research study secondary data is collected from the previous research papers and articles on the similar area to find out the background of sports industry of India, the key factors of consumer perception and primary data is collected through a questionnaire survey so as to gather response from the Planet Sports customers.

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  • 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

  • 4.1. Consumer Perception

Consumer perception theory is any attempt to understand how a consumer’s perception of a product or service influences their behavior. The main objective to study consumer perception is to try to understand why consumers make the decisions they do, and how to influence these decisions. Usually, consumer perception theory is used by marketers when designing a campaign for a product or brand. However, some people study consumer perception in order to understand psychology in a much more general sense.(Flamand, 2012)

  • 4.1.1. Perception

In general psychological terms, perception is the ability to make some kind of sense of reality from the external sensory stimuli to which we are exposed. Several factors can influence our perception, causing it to change in certain ways. For example, repeated exposure to one kind of stimuli can either make us oversensitive or desensitized to it. Additionally, the amount of attention we focus on something can cause a change in our perception of it.

  • 4.1.2. Branding

A brand, or a brand name, is the attempt to impose some kind of identifying feature on a product or service so that it is easily recognized by the general public. A brand is oftentimes associated with an image, a set of expectations or recognizable logo. The goal of a brand is to set a product or service apart from others of its kind, and influence the consumers to choose the product over similar products simply because of its associations.

  • 4.1.3. Positioning, Repositioning & Depositioning

Positioning is the process whereby marketers attempt to build a brand. Marketers actively try to create an image which is both recognizable and appeals to a certain group of people or target market. Repositioning is the process of altering this image, usually in order to influence a larger target market and thereby influence the behavior of a greater number of consumers. Depositioning is the practice of trying to devalue alternative, competing brands in the perceptions of a shared target market.

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  • 4.1.4. Value and Quality

Value refers to the perceptions a consumer has of a product's benefits when weighed against its cost. Value can be measured both qualitatively--the emotional or psychological pleasure a consumer derives from a product or service--and quantitatively, in terms of the actual financial gain it wins them. Quality can be related to value, and may be taken into account when measuring the value of a product or service. More formally, it refers to the way in which a product or service relates to its competitors, or else conforms to a set of measurable standards.

  • 4.1.5. Buyer’s remorse

Buyer’s remorse is a strong feeling of regret which occurs after a purchase has been made. It is a specific case of cognitive dissonance, or the psychological state of worry or unease which comes about when attempting to come to terms with conflicting ideas, perceptions or motives. Buyer’s remorse usually occurs after a consumer has made a purchase he or she has come to regret. Generally, it involves the realization that the opportunity of purchasing one product or service over another in some way outweighs the value of the purchase. In this regard, it occurs when a consumer’s perception of a purchase changes after he or she has already invested in it.

  • 4.2. Role of Perception in Consumer Behavior

The perceptions consumers have of a business and its products or service have a dramatic effect on buying behavior. That’s why businesses spend so much money marketing themselves, honing their customer service and doing whatever else they can to favorably influence the perceptions of target consumers. With careful planning and execution, a business can influence those perceptions and foster profitable consumer behaviors.(Stan Mack, 2010)

  • 4.2.1. Influencing Perception

Consumers continually synthesize all the information they have about a company to form a decision about whether that company offers value. In a sense, consumer perception is an approximation of reality, notes the book “Consumer Behaviour,” by Atul Kr. Sharma. Businesses attempt to influence this perception of reality, sometimes through trickery and manipulation but often just by presenting themselves in the best possible light. For example, advertisements often

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trumpet the quality and convenience of a product or service, hoping to foster a consumer perception of high value, which can pay off with increased sales. (Sharma, 2006)

  • 4.2.2. Reaching Consumers

A key factor in influencing consumer perception is exposure. The more information consumers have about a product, the more comfortable they are buying it. As a result, businesses do all they can to publicize their offerings. However, this causes a problem: When every business bombards consumers with marketing messages, consumers tend to tune out. To influence consumer perception, a business not only must expose its product to consumers, it also must make its product stand out from the crowd.

  • 4.2.3. Risk Perception

Consumer risk perception is another factor businesses must take into account when trying to encourage buying behaviors. The more risky a proposition is, the more difficult it is to get

consumers to act. If consumers aren’t familiar with a brand of product, they can’t assess the risk

involved; it could be poorly built, for instance, or too costly compared to substitutes. Businesses can overcome this hesitancy by offering as much product information as possible in the form of advertisements or by encouraging product reviews. Allowing potential customers to handle the product in stores or test it at home also decreases risk perception, as does offering a flexible return policy.(Satish K Batra, 2009)

  • 4.2.4. Customer Retention

Successful businesses don’t relax once a customer makes a purchase. Rather, they

continue to foster perceptions that result in profitable behaviors. Once consumers have tried a product, the task becomes maintaining a good reputation and establishing brand loyalty. Offering

superior customer service is an effective tactic because it maintains the perception that the

business cares about its customers’ best interests. In return, customers become loyal to the

business, which secures a consistent revenue stream for the company and makes it more difficult for competitors to poach customers.

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  • 4.3. How to measure Consumer Perception

Customers that are satisfied with a product or business have an overall good perception of that product or business. When consumers' perceptions are good, they will continue purchasing goods from this company. These customers also will avoid spreading disappointing experiences to others. Consumer perceptions are based on feelings. A customer perception measurement is an important tool used by companies that expresses how well the companies are satisfying customers.(VanBaren, 2010)

Perform market research on your company's products. When measuring customer perceptions, the first step a company should take is to identify what customers are actually buying and why.

Create a survey to give customers. The only way to measure and increase customer's positive perceptions of your company is to ask customer's how they feel about your company. By creating a survey, information directly from the customer can be recorded. In order for the survey to be successful, it should contain several key elements. The survey must be relatively simple and short. The survey must also be created in a way that would allow actionable reports to be generated from the information it contains.

Analyze survey results. After surveys are distributed and re-collected, the company should analyze the results. When analyzing results, it must be remembered that customer perception is subjective. It varies immensely from person to person and one particular measurement may not be appropriate for the entire sample taken.

Measure the results. After the results are analyzed, the information should be measured. This is accomplished by answering several key questions related to the objective. The results of the survey can be compared to results of previous surveys. Each time a survey is conducted the results should become better.

  • 4.4. Factors Affecting Consumer Perception

Although a consumer's perception of a product or service is at least partially based on his actual experience with the good, a significant amount of market research suggests that a consumer's view of a product is also conditioned by a variety of other factors. From very

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concrete factors of price and quality to less tangible factors such a consumer's view of the manufacturer's reputation, experience with service and the quality of packaging and branding, a number of complex and interrelated psychological factors determine a consumer's perception of goods and services.(Mercer, 2009)

  • 4.4.1. Price

Price has a complex effect on consumer perception. On the one hand, consumers appreciate a bargain and are often likely to favor an economically-priced item. On the other, consumers often perceive very inexpensive items as cheap, ultimately damaging a consumer's view of a product even if the product remains the same and the consumer is benefited from a price reduction. Especially sophisticated or skeptical consumers are even prone to distrust a product that is considerably cheaper than the alternatives. As a result, price should be part of a comprehensive marketing plan, where even inexpensive products are depicted as favorable alternatives with similar levels of quality to the competition, with a price that is somewhat lower but still comparable with other possibilities.

  • 4.4.2. Quality

The actual quality of a product is a vital part of a consumer's perception of a good or service. Quality can describe any attribute in a set of characteristics that satisfy or disappoint a consumer, including usability, reliability and durability. Marketing can influence a consumer's perception of quality, but, in the end, and particularly with non-durable goods, a consumer's actual experience with a product will determine his perception of quality. Outside the realm of mass communication, word of mouth regarding quality also travels very quickly.

  • 4.4.3. Service Quality

Even in the case of goods that exhibit numerous flaws, excellent service quality can often overshadow a negative experience with the product itself. If a consumer feels that he receives exceptional attention when encountering a problem with a product, that consumer is somewhat more likely to trust the brand or product knowing that the manufacturer or retailer provides a prompt and effective response to problems. Humans are social animals and their consumer

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behavior is often determined by the social relationships that surround a product, including interactions with customer service representatives.

  • 4.4.4. Packaging and Branding

Packaging and branding have a huge effect on consumer perceptions, particularly at the point of purchase. Especially when consumers are purchasing a type of product for the first time, the way the product is presented can wholly determine their perception of the item. Packaging and branding, of course, cover everything from the attractiveness and display quality of an item to the attributes of a product the manufacturer chooses to highlight. Depending on the type of product and market, different branding messages from tough and reliable to fine and luxurious can be appropriate and effective.

  • 4.4.5. Reputation

A product's reputation is built up over time and is usually a combination of actual experience with the product, word-of-mouth recommendations and marketing campaigns that attempt to establish a status or shared view of the product or brand. A consumer's perception of a product's reputation, moreover, is not only determined by the product's brand identity and manufacturer but by the whole chain of distribution. Even if a consumer trusts a product's manufacturer, for example, that consumer may change his mind about the product upon seeing it available in a retailer he associates with cheap, defective products.(Ha, 2004)

  • 4.5. Consumer Perception & Attitudes: Research Methods

The marketing research process seeks to identify consumer perceptions and attitudes in order to create successful products and promotional campaigns. Several research methods, such as the Likert scale, measure consumer attitudes in a quantitative fashion. Other methods, such as shadowing and behavior mapping, use qualitative observational data in order to interpret consumer perceptions. Regardless of the research methods that are used, the process of uncovering consumer perceptions and attitudes involves defining the problem, developing a research plan, collecting the information, analyzing the information, and making a strategic decision.(Keller, 2006)

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  • 4.5.1. The Marketing Research Process

A solid marketing research plan begins with a definition of the problem it wishes to solve. Often that problem is centered on a set of consumer perceptions. For example, a company that wishes to re-brand a line of tortilla chips due to lagging sales will design a research plan whose objective is to uncover the perceptions and attitudes that are driving the lack of sales volume. A secondary objective of such a research plan might be uncovering what types of tortilla chip attributes, including flavor and package design, will cause consumers to purchase the brand over the competition. Another important step in the research process is determining what types of methods will be used.

  • 4.5.2. Research Methods

When conducting marketing research, two types of data sources are used. A good researcher will use a combination of both primary and secondary data. Secondary data involves the use of existing research that was conducted by someone else for another purpose. Primary data is new research that is gathered for the specific research problem at hand. There are several methods in which to collect primary data. Those methods include observation, focus groups, surveys, behavioral data, and experimental research.

  • 4.5.3. Quantitative Measures

A popular method of measuring consumer perceptions and attitudes is the survey. A survey consists of closed-end and open-end questions that prompt consumers to reveal thoughts about a particular company, a product category, a product idea, or a purchase situation. A Likert scale is a widely used question format that asks consumers to numerically rate whether they agree or disagree with a particular statement. Likert scales are used to measure consumer attitudes. Respondents indicate whether they have a positive or negative attitude towards a statement and the responses are weighted by researchers using a numerical scale. For example, a question in the Likert scale format might ask survey respondents whether they believe that airline fees for checked luggage is appropriate. Respondents indicated whether they strongly disagree, disagree, are neutral, agree, or strongly agree.

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  • 4.5.4. Qualitative Methods

Qualitative research methods mainly involve observational techniques or open-end questions. Consumer shopping patterns may be tracked and observed with or without direct permission. Actual purchase patterns and how the purchase decisions were made reveal potential perceptions about a brand of toothpaste or a promotional incentive. Open-end focus group questions might ask participants to give opinions about the taste of a newly developed product. Opinion data collected through qualitative methods are then analyzed to determine why a consumer might choose one particular product over another.

  • 4.6. Sportswear Industry of India

    • 4.6.1. The Expanding Market Segment

India’s sportswear market has evolved from a niche segment, which was exclusively aimed at sportspersons, to a burgeoning consumer sector. The industry has witnessed rapid growth over the past few years, driven by growth in income levels, changing lifestyles and the entry of foreign players after liberalization. The ever-increasing popularity of cricket, combined with the growing interest in sports such as football, hockey and tennis, has contributed to the growth of the functional sportswear market in the country. In addition to this, the trend of using sportswear as casual wear has expanded the definition of target consumers for leading brands. Some brands also offer collections to cater to this demand for casual wear.(SartorialViews, 2012)

  • 4.6.2. Market Overview

The sportswear retail market in India is estimated at INR365.8 billion and is expected to grow at a robust CAGR of 33% during 20102014. The market includes sports apparel, footwear and accessories, with footwear being the largest segment, accounting for around 60% of the total market. The country’s sportswear segment is largely unorganized with organized players constituting only around 30% of the market. Franchised exclusive brand outlets (EBOs) and multi-brand outlets form the core retail channels for sportswear in India.

In 1994, Nike entered the Indian market through a licensing arrangement with Sierra Industrial Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. The company later established a wholly owned subsidiary in

India in 2004.Today, the organized sportswear market in India is dominated by the “big four”

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(Adidas, Reebok, Nike and Puma) global players, which have over 80% market share of the organized market, with several others such as Fila and Lotto ramping up their presence.These brands face competition from multi-brand sportswear retailers such as Planet Sports and Royal Sporting House (RSH).

  • 4.6.3. Major Sports Brands of India

Company

Apparel

Footwear

Accessories

India

     

Bata

 

Liberty

 

 

Woodland

 

Planet Sports

International

     

Adidas AG

Nike Inc

Reebok International Ltd.

Puma AG

Fila

Lotto Sport Italia

Rockport

Kappa

Skechers USA Inc

 

 

Royal Sporting House (RSH

The Indian sportswear market is poised for strong growth over the next few years. Several factors, including a booming middle-class population, a paradigm shift in consumers’ attitude to health and fitness, an increase in the number of sports events and the growth of organized retail are driving this market. Recent changes in government regulations on FDI in retail, passed by the Union Cabinet, are expected to give a further impetus to the organized sportswear market. The Government has increased FDI in single-brand retail from 51% to 100% with conditions largely around domestic sourcing.

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  • 4.6.4. Key challenges

However, the domestic sportswear industry is facing several challenges, including the following:

Counterfeiting

Counterfeiting is one of the biggest challenges sportswear brands are facing in India today. Unorganized players imitate product styles, brand logos and names, which adversely impacts the brand equity and sales brands.

Low Participation in Sports

Although there is high viewership of sports (particularly cricket) in India, participation continues to be low, with only an estimated 1% of the population engaging in sporting activities. Therefore, in line with this market reality, several sports brands have positioned themselves as lifestyle instead of fitness brands.

Rising costs

In the Union Budget 2011, the Government revised optional excise duty for readymade garments and made-up textiles, and levied a 10% mandatory excise tax on all branded apparel manufacturers. As a result, branded garments, including sportswear apparel, are likely to witness a price increase of 5%10%.

Unorganized market

Players face major competition from unorganized players that constitute around ~70% of the overall sportswear market, since the latter have a significant advantage over their organized counterparts in pricing.

  • 4.6.5. Emerging Trends in Sportswear Market

Online shopping

Increasing penetration of the internet in India is fueling the growth of online shopping. Brands such as Reebok (www.shop4reebok.com) and Lotto (shop.in.lottosport.com) have

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initiated their online shops in India. Companies such as Puma and Nike have partnered with online retailers such as Myntra and Jabong to expand their distribution beyond conventional multi-brand outlets and large retailers.

Sports merchandising

Sports merchandising is an emerging concept in India. Brands have successfully tapped the market by associating themselves with popular sports such as cricket, and using popular sportspersons as their brand ambassadors for clothes, shoes and other products. Moreover, with the debut of new sports such as Formula 1 (F1), brands such as Puma have begun stocking collections inspired by F1 racing. Nike, the official apparel sponsor of the Indian National Cricket Team since 2005, has extended its contract with the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) for a period of five years. Other brands such as Reebok, Lotto and Puma are also cashing in on the popularity of cricket by hopping on to the IPL bandwagon.

Product innovation

The sportswear industry has been witnessing significant innovation in the premium as well as the mass segment. Brands such as Reebok have introduced new products such as

“Easytone” and “Zigtech,” and Nike the “DriFIT” apparel technology.

Lifestyle positioning

The sports lifestyle business has been growing at 30%40% per annum. Players are increasingly positioning their sportswear brands as lifestyle products by collaborating with well- known designers such as Manish Malhotra, Shantanu, Nikhil and Aki Narula. Other apparel retailers such as S Kumars Nationwide and Reliance Retail have also forayed into the lifestyle sportswear market.

Targeting hot spots of consumption

Having covered large cities, sportswear brands are now trying to ramp up their presence in tier-II and tier-III cities. Companies are using a reduced pricing and localization strategy to drive sales in these cities. In addition to investing in brick-and-mortar stores, they are also

18

reaching out to these cities through online channels that are contributing increasingly to the overall revenues of such players.

retail Awareness of health and fitness Growth in organized Growing middle class population Increase in sporting
retail
Awareness
of health
and fitness
Growth in
organized
Growing
middle
class
population
Increase in
sporting
events
4.6.6. Key Drivers
4.6.7. Future outlook

Today, India has become a strategic market and offers strong growth opportunities to sportswear brands. Several of them are trying to strengthen their presence in the country by expanding their retail footprint and driving their volume growth. Furthermore, the recent regulatory changes made in FDI in single brands are expected to give a further impetus to sportswear brands.

  • 5. CONCEPTS AND THEORIES

  • 5.1. Convenience Sampling

Convenience sampling is a statistical method of drawing representative data by selecting people because of the ease of their volunteering or selecting units because of their availability or easy access. The advantages of this type of sampling are the availability and the quickness with which data can be gathered. The disadvantages are the risk that the sample might not represent

19

the population as a whole, and it might be biased by volunteers. For example, a study to determine the average age and sex of gamblers at a casino that is conducted for three hours on a weekday afternoon might be overrepresented by elderly people who have retired and underrepresented by people of working age. This is also called accidental sampling. (What is Convenience Sampling?)

  • 5.2. Hypothesis Testing

A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making decisions using data from a scientific study. In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it has been predicted as unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, according to a pre-determined threshold probability, the significance level. The phrase "test of significance" was coined by statistician Ronald Fisher. These tests are used in determining what outcomes of a study would lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis for a pre-specified level of significance; this can help to decide whether results contain enough information to cast doubt on conventional wisdom, given that conventional wisdom has been used to establish the null hypothesis. The critical region of a hypothesis test is the set of all outcomes which cause the null hypothesis to be rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis (Kaye & Freedman, 2011). Statistical hypothesis testing is sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, in contrast to exploratory data analysis, which may not have pre- specified hypotheses. Statistical hypothesis testing is a key technique of frequentist inference.

Statistical hypothesis tests define a procedure that controls (fixes) the probability of incorrectly deciding that a default position (null hypothesis) is incorrect based on how likely it would be for a set of observations to occur if the null hypothesis were true. Note that this probability of making an incorrect decision is not the probability that the null hypothesis is true, nor whether any specific alternative hypothesis is true. This contrasts with other possible techniques of decision theory in which the null and alternative hypothesis are treated on a more equal basis. One naive Bayesian approach to hypothesis testing is to base decisions on the posterior probability (Schervish, 1996). But this fails when comparing point and continuous hypotheses. Other approaches to decision making, such as Bayesian decision theory, attempt to balance the consequences of incorrect decisions across all possibilities, rather than concentrating on a single null hypothesis. A number of other approaches to reaching a decision based on data are available via decision theory and optimal decisions, some of which have desirable properties,

20

yet hypothesis testing is a dominant approach to data analysis in many fields of science. Extensions to the theory of hypothesis testing include the study of the power of tests, which refers to the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis when a given state of nature exists. Such considerations can be used for the purpose of sample size determination prior to the collection of data.

  • 5.3. Chi Square Test

A chi-squared test, also referred to as chi-square test or χw² test, is any statistical hypothesis test in which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true. Also considered a chi-squared test is a test in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-squared distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough.

One case where the distribution of the test statistic is an exact chi-squared distribution is the test that the variance of a normally distributed population has a given value based on a sample variance. Such a test is uncommon in practice because values of variances to test against are seldom known exactly. (Corder, 2009)

If a sample of size n is taken from a population having a normal distribution, then there is a result (see distribution of the sample variance) which allows a test to be made of whether the variance of the population has a pre-determined value. For example, a manufacturing process might have been in stable condition for a long period, allowing a value for the variance to be

determined essentially without error. Suppose that a variant of the process is being tested, giving rise to a small sample of n product items whose variation is to be tested. The test statistic T in this instance could be set to be the sum of squares about the sample mean, divided by the nominal value for the variance (i.e. the value to be tested as holding). Then T has a chi-squared

distribution with n − 1 degrees of freedom. For example if the sample size is 21, the acceptance

region for T for a significance level of 5% is the interval 9.59 to 34.17. (Weisstein, 2012)

21

  • 5.4. Pie Chart

A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are variations on the way it can be presented. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfair's Statistical Breviary of 1801. (Cleveland, 1985)

Pie charts are very widely used in the business world and the mass media. However, they have been criticized, and many experts recommend avoiding them, pointing out that research has shown it is difficult to compare different sections of a given pie chart, or to compare data across different pie charts. Pie charts can be replaced in most cases by other plots such as the bar chart.

  • 6. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

  • 6.1. SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis is a tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. SWOT is a basic, straightforward model that assesses what an organization can and cannot do as well as its potential opportunities and threats (INVESTOPEDIA). SWOT Analysis of Planet Sports has been done based on observation of Planet Sports stores and EBOs of major sports brands of India. Various articles regarding Indian Sportswear industry were also gone through.

Strength

Planet Sports is India's largest multi-brand sports and lifestyle specialty retail chain

Planet Sports stores have extensive offerings for sportswear and equipment across all

categories as well as other lifestyle products Planet Sports belongs to a Strong Parent Company Future Group which has a strong

Retail Presence in India Strong and Experienced Vendor Base throughout Categories

A well-equipped Design Team

A wide channel for distribution (Sale perspective) of Merchandise across India

Wide presence in India covering major cities and towns

22

Variety of products and brands under single window increasing the chances of customer time and choices
Variety of products and brands under single window increasing the chances of
customer time and choices
 Planet Sports provides sports offerings to Indian consumers and augment India’s sports
culture
Weakness
Lower Price Points for Agency Brands resulting in high quantity sales but lesser turn-
over (Opportunity Loss)
Smaller Stores as Compared to other Lifestyle retail Formats
Lower awareness Level of the new agency brands in Customers
Less of promotional activities done by Planet Sports and not much of advertisement
Less knowledgeable sales representatives
Lack of motivation amongst sales representatives
Excessive inventory
Lack of Space within the store
Inappropriate music being played in the store
Static and less attractive window display
Unplanned, scattered and clumsy merchandise display within the store
Opportunity
Growing awareness of sports and fitness among the population in India, especially in
Metros
Changing Lifestyle and increase in per capita income of India
Product expansion in areas like sports accessories and equipment (soccer ball,
mountaineering equipment etc.) which may give high profit
Opening more stores in tier II cities
Enhance brand visibility by collaborating with major sports academies and national
sports events across India for nurturing young talent
Online promotion and activities to enhance newly launched brand awareness
 Training sessions for the sales representatives regarding product specification and
SOP of the store
23

Threat

100% FDI in single Brand Retail causing more Brands setting up their own Exclusive Outlets Harsh competition and to keep-up with the competitions efforts will cost a lot of money and pressure on marketing and R&D Footwear market is highly competitive, major competition from low end brands available online Fake imitations and replicas of renowned brands and logos often cause a problem

Adaption of new techniques and innovation in the EBOs of the major sports brands

  • 6.2. Research Results

    • 6.2.1. Demographic Information Gender

6.2.1.1.

 

Gender

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Male

298

 
  • 83.5 83.5

83.5

Female

59

 
  • 16.5 16.5

100.0

Total

357

100.0

100.0

 
  • 6.2.1.2. Age Group

Age

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Under 20 Years

74

20.7

21.3

21.3

20-25 Years

117

32.8

33.7

55.0

26-30 Years

44

12.3

12.7

67.7

31-40 Years

64

17.9

18.4

86.2

41-50 Years

31

8.7

8.9

95.1

51-60 Years

13

3.6

3.7

98.8

Above 60 Years

4

1.1

1.2

100.0

Total

347

97.2

100.0

 

24

 

Missing

System

 

10

 

2.8

     

Total

357

100.0

   

6.2.1.3.

Education Qualification

 
 

Education

 
         

Cumulative

Frequency

 

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Under High School

 

7

2.0

2.0

2.0

High School

 

60

16.8

16.9

18.8

Bachelor Degree

 

178

49.9

50.0

68.8

Master Degree

 

88

24.6

24.7

93.5

   

12

3.4

3.4

96.9

 

Doctorate Degree Others

 

11

3.1

3.1

100.0

Total

 

356

99.7

100.0

 

Missing

System

 

1

.3

   

Total

 

357

100.0

   

6.2.1.4.

Occupation

 

Occupation

 
         

Cumulative

Frequency

 

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Student

 

134

37.5

38.0

38.0

Housewife

 

17

4.8

4.8

42.8

Employee

 

128

35.9

36.3

79.0

Entrepreneur

 

30

 
  • 8.4 8.5

87.5

Government Official

 

22

 
  • 6.2 6.2

93.8

Others

 

22

 
  • 6.2 6.2

100.0

Total

 

353

98.9

100.0

 

Missing

System

 

4

1.1

   

Total

 

357

100.0

   

25

6.2.1.5.

Monthly Income

MonthlyIncome

 
         

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Less than 20,000

103

28.9

36.8

36.8

20,000-30,000

60

16.8

21.4

58.2

30,001-40,000

37

10.4

13.2

71.4

40,001-50,000

21

 
  • 5.9 7.5

78.9

50,001-60,000

16

 
  • 4.5 5.7

84.6

 

43

12.0

15.4

100.0

 

More than 60,000 Total

280

78.4

100.0

 

Missing

System

77

21.6

   

Total

357

100.0

   

6.2.1.6.

Association with Sports Activity

 

SportActivitiesPerformed

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Yes

250

70.0

74.4

74.4

No

86

24.1

25.6

100.0

Total

336

94.1

100.0

 

Missing

System

21

5.9

   

Total

357

100.0

   

Demographic Inference:The above table provides the insights of the demographic profile of the respondents. The sample size for the study was of 357 respondents which includes 298 males and 59 females. Major population of the sample belongs to 20-25 years of age. 50% of the respondents have bachelor degree as educational qualification and majorly the respondents are either students or working as an employee. Major population of the sample lies in the monthly income group of Less than 20,000 INR and 20,000-30,000 INR. 74.4% respondents are into sports activities where it was found that the respondents associated with sport activities are mostly into Football and Cricket.

26

  • 6.2.2. Store Location

 

Location

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

North

126

35.3

35.3

35.3

East

126

35.3

35.3

70.6

West

105

29.4

29.4

100.0

Total

357

100.0

100.0

 
6.2.2. Store Location Location Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid North 126 35.3 35.3 35.3

Inference:

The questionnaires were circulated among the stand alone stores of Planet Sports all over India; however, data from three zones (i.e. North, East and West) could only be received and analyzed. It is seen that 35.3% of the responds have come from the Northern part of India which includes the stores of Delhi, NCR and Chandigarh and the Eastern part of India which includes the stores of Kolkata, Ranchi, Siliguri and Shillong. 29.41% of responds have come from the Western part of India which includes the stores of Pune.

27

  • 6.2.3. Billing Amount (in INR)

The minimum billing amount was 99 INR and the maximum billing amount was 27636 INR. In order to analyze the huge distribution of data points, the entire data set is divided in ten intervals. And the dataset is recoded as follows:

Code

Range

 
  • 1 99-2853

 
  • 2 2854-5606

 
  • 3 5607-8360

 
  • 4 8361-11114

 
  • 5 11115-13868

 
  • 6 13869-16621

 
  • 7 16622-19375

 
  • 8 19376-22129

 
  • 9 22130-24882

10

24883-27636

Recoded Billing Amount

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

1.00

201

56.3

56.8

56.8

2.00

123

34.5

34.7

91.5

3.00

19

5.3

5.4

96.9

4.00

 

1.4

  • 5 1.4

98.3

5.00

 
  • 2 .6

.6

98.9

7.00

 
  • 1 .3

.3

99.2

8.00

 
  • 2 .6

.6

99.7

10.00

 
  • 1 .3

.3

100.0

Total

354

99.2

100.0

 

Missing

System

3

.8

   

Total

357

100.0

   

28

Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and
Inference: The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and

Inference:

The above graph clearly shows that maximum (56.78%) billing amount is from 99-2853 INR and 34.75% respondents made purchase of 2854-5606 INR. It is clear from the figures that there is a huge potential of the products which are priced below 6000 INR.

  • 6.2.4. Consumer Perception of Planet Sports

    • 6.2.4.1. Shopping frequency

ShoppingFrequency

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Once in a Month

131

36.7

36.9

36.9

Once in Six Months

144

40.3

40.6

77.5

Once in a Year

44

12.3

12.4

89.9

More Frequently

36

10.1

10.1

100.0

Total

355

99.4

100.0

 

Missing

System

2

.6

   

Total

357

100.0

   

29

Inference: The above graph and tables shows the shopping frequency of the respondents. Major population of

Inference:

The above graph and tables shows the shopping frequency of the respondents. Major population of the sample (40.56%) visit Planet Sports once in six months and 36.9% visit Planet Sports once in a Month. From the above data we can infer that there is a major possibility of a customer to visit Planet Sports is six times in six months.

  • 6.2.4.2. Preferred product type

PreferredProductType

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Apparels

73

20.4

20.6

20.6

Footwear

150

42.0

42.3

62.8

Accessories

27

7.6

7.6

70.4

Sports Equipment

38

10.6

10.7

81.1

All

8

2.2

2.3

83.4

 

59

16.5

16.6

100.0

 

Apparels & Footwear Total

355

99.4

100.0

 

Missing

System

2

.6

   

30

Inference: The above graph shows that the Planet Sports 42.3% customers purchase Footwear and 20.5% population

Inference:

The above graph shows that the Planet Sports 42.3% customers purchase Footwear and 20.5% population of the sample purchase apparels from the store. 7.6% of the respondents purchase sports equipments and it is seen that 16.6% respondents purchase both Apparels and Footwear. From the data it can be inferred that the management can mainly focuson the footwear and apparels category. The accessories and sports equipments section should offer more versatility in terms of product offerings and price points so as to attract the customers to the mentioned departments.

31

  • 6.2.4.3. Planet sports visibility in media

Planet sports visibility in media

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Newspaper

20

5.6

5.7

5.7

Hoardings

74

20.7

21.2

26.9

Friends

197

55.2

56.4

83.4

Others

58

16.2

16.6

100.0

Total

349

97.8

100.0

 

Missing

System

8

2.2

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.4.3. Planet sports visibility in media Planet sports visibility in media Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Inference:

The above pie chart shows that 56.4% of the population from the sample size gets to know about the store from friends through word-of-mouth communication process. A major section of the respondents i.e. 16.62% says that they got to see the store through walk in to the shopping area or the mall. It is clear from the data that the management should increase the promotion and branding of the store and its agency brands in the print and visual media so as to increase the awareness.

32

  • 6.2.4.4. Driving factor of making a purchase

DrivingFactor

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Low Price

35

9.8

9.9

9.9

Better Quality

130

 
  • 36.4 36.8

46.7

 

131

 
  • 36.7 37.1

83.9

 

Variety of Products Various Brands

51

 
  • 14.3 14.4

98.3

Others

6

1.7

1.7

100.0

Total

353

98.9

100.0

 

Missing

System

4

1.1

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.4.4. Driving factor of making a purchase DrivingFactor Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Low

Inference:

The above table of data and the bar graph represent the driving factors which influence the customer to purchase from Planet sports. 36.83% and 37.11% of the sample says they find better quality and a variety of products respectively in the Planet Sports stores.

33

  • 6.2.4.5. Amount spent per shopping

6.2.4.5. Amount spent per shopping Inference: The above graph represents the approximate amount that a customer

Inference:

6.2.4.5. Amount spent per shopping Inference: The above graph represents the approximate amount that a customer

The above graph represents the approximate amount that a customer spends during shopping. It is seen that 23.45% of the respondents shop within the price bracket of 2501-3500 INR. A major section of the respondents (20.62%) spends 1500-2500 INR while shopping. It was seen that the respond percentages are almost equal within the range of 1500 to 5500 INR which supports the percentage variation of the billing amount distribution.

34

  • 6.2.4.6. Product range under product categories

6.2.4.6. Product range under product categories Inference: The above graph answers whether the customers finds wide
6.2.4.6. Product range under product categories Inference: The above graph answers whether the customers finds wide
6.2.4.6. Product range under product categories Inference: The above graph answers whether the customers finds wide
6.2.4.6. Product range under product categories Inference: The above graph answers whether the customers finds wide
6.2.4.6. Product range under product categories Inference: The above graph answers whether the customers finds wide

Inference:

The above graph answers whether the customers finds wide range of products in one product category. 68.56% of the sample agrees that Planet Sports provide wide range of products in one product category. 20.11% of the sample says there are not many options in product categories where 7.082% completely disagrees with the fact that Planet Sports provide wide range of products in one product category.

35

  • 6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction

Sales representative’s interaction

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Effective

162

45.4

45.6

45.6

Not Effective

2

.6

.6

46.2

Good

190

53.2

53.5

99.7

No Interaction

1

.3

.3

100.0

Total

355

99.4

100.0

 

Missing

System

2

.6

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162
6.2.4.7. Sales representative’s interaction Sales representative’s interaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Effective 162

Inference:

The above graph tells about the sales representative’s interaction within the store. Whether the interaction is effective enough to make a purchase decision or not is aimed to be found out from the above data. 45.63% sample says that the interaction was effective and 53.52% says that it was good enough to make a purchase decision. The data gives a very strong and positive feedback regarding the sales representatives interaction in the store.

36

  • 6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase

Satisfaction

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Yes

352

98.6

98.6

98.6

No

5

1.4

1.4

100.0

Total

357

100.0

100.0

 
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6
6.2.4.8. Satisfaction after purchase Satisfaction Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 352 98.6 98.6

Inference:

The above table and graph represent whether the customer feels satisfied after they make a purchase from Planet Sports. 98.6% of the sample says that they feel satisfied after shopping at Planet sports which is again a very positive indication regarding the store from the consumer’s point of view.

37

  • 6.2.4.9. Product quality

 

ProductQuality

 
       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Excellent

197

55.2

55.6

55.6

Average

145

40.6

41.0

96.6

Below Average

12

3.4

3.4

100.0

Total

354

99.2

100.0

 

Missing

System

3

.8

   

Total

357

100.0

   

Inference:

6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6
6.2.4.9. Product quality ProductQuality Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Excellent 197 55.2 55.6 55.6

The above table and graph show the customer’s view on how Planet Sports is maintaining product quality compared to the other retail stores. A scale of three heads (excellent, average & below average) is given to get response. 55.65% respondents say that they find the quality of the Planet Sports store excellent and 40.96% respondents say that they find it average.

38

  • 6.2.4.10. Store rating

6.2.4.10. Store rating Statistics RatingPS N Valid 346 Missing 11 Mean 3.6301 Inference: The above table

Statistics

RatingPS

N

Valid

346

Missing

11

Mean

3.6301

Inference:

The above table and graph give the overall rating of the Planet Sports store compared to other similar stores that offer sports products. A scale of five heads (1 to 5 representing low rating to high) is given to get response. This includes all possible factors like ambience, look, smell, the overall experience inside the store etc. 41.62% respondents rated Planet Sports between average and high, however, the mean value comes out to be 3.63 from which it can be inferred that Planet Sports store gets high rating from its customers.

39

  • 6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level

    • 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands

 

U/CHeard

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Yes

224

62.7

65.1

65.1

No

120

33.6

34.9

100.0

Total

344

96.4

100.0

 

Missing

System

13

3.6

   

Total

357

100.0

   

Inference:

6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative
6.2.5. Newly launched brand recognition & awareness level 6.2.5.1. If heard of the brands U/CHeard Cumulative

The above table and graph indicate if the customer heard about the newly launched brands (i.e. Umbro and Champion) ever. The result shows that 65.12% of the respondents heard about the brands and 34.88% never heard about these two brands.

40

  • 6.2.5.2. How often heard about the brands

Statistics

UCHowOftenHeard

N Valid 326 Missing 31 Mean 2.2730
N
Valid
326
Missing
31
Mean
2.2730

Inference:

The above table and graph indicate if the customer heard about the newly launched brands (i.e. Umbro and Champion), how often they heard about it. 51.84% respondents say that it was moderately often that they heard of the brands. A huge section of the respondents (37.73%) say that it was not at all often that they heard about the brands.

41

  • 6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands

If the customer was informed about the new brands

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Yes

240

67.2

70.4

70.4

No

101

28.3

29.6

100.0

Total

341

95.5

100.0

 

Missing

System

16

4.5

   

Total

357

100.0

   

Inference:

6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about
6.2.5.3. If the customer was informed about the new brands If the customer was informed about

The above table and graph indicate if the customer was informed about the newly launched brands (i.e. Umbro and Champion) and its products after he/she entered Planet Sports. The result shows that 70.38% of the respondents were informed about the brands and 29.62% was never informed about these two brands after they entered the store.

42

  • 6.2.5.4. Familiarity with the brands

Statistics

UCFamiliar

N

Valid

336

Missing

21

Mean

2.1280

6.2.5.4. Familiarity with the brands Statistics UCFamiliar N Valid 336 Missing 21 Mean 2.1280 Inference: The

Inference:

6.2.5.4. Familiarity with the brands Statistics UCFamiliar N Valid 336 Missing 21 Mean 2.1280 Inference: The
6.2.5.4. Familiarity with the brands Statistics UCFamiliar N Valid 336 Missing 21 Mean 2.1280 Inference: The
6.2.5.4. Familiarity with the brands Statistics UCFamiliar N Valid 336 Missing 21 Mean 2.1280 Inference: The

The above table and graph give the data ofhow familiar the customer is with the newly launched brands. Familiarity simply means the presence of knowledge (concept, product range etc) regarding the brands. A scale of three heads (extremely familiar, moderately familiar and not at all familiar) is given to get response. 65.18% respondents were moderately familiar with the brands. The mean value (2.13) of the result supports the data.

43

  • 6.2.5.5. Brand visibility in media

Brand visibility in media

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Newspaper

56

15.7

16.3

16.3

Hoardings

61

17.1

17.8

34.1

Television

63

17.6

18.4

52.5

Never Seen

122

34.2

35.6

88.0

Others

41

11.5

12.0

100.0

Total

343

96.1

100.0

 

Missing

System

14

3.9

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.5.5. Brand visibility in media Brand visibility in media Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid

Inference:

The above table and graph give the data of visibility of the newly launched brands in Media. 35.57% respondents never saw the advertisements of Umbro& Champion anywhere. 18.37% and 17.78% respondents say that the brands were visible on TV and hoardings respectively.

44

  • 6.2.5.6. If the brands were used

If the brands were used

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Yes

 
  • 154 43.1

44.5

44.5

No

 
  • 192 53.8

55.5

100.0

Total

 
  • 346 96.9

100.0

 

Missing

System

11

3.1

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.5.6. If the brands were used If the brands were used Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Inference:

The above table and graph answers if the respondent has ever used the brands Umbro& Champion. 55.49% respondents never used the brands Umbro and Champion and 44.51% says that they have used the brands.

45

  • 6.2.5.7. Satisfaction if used already

UCSatisfactionLevel

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Extremely Satisfied

59

16.5

27.1

27.1

 

133

37.3

61.0

88.1

 

Moderately Satisfied Not at all Satisfied

26

7.3

11.9

100.0

Total

218

61.1

100.0

 

Missing

System

139

38.9

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.5.7. Satisfaction if used already UCSatisfactionLevel Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Extremely Satisfied 59

Inference:

6.2.5.7. Satisfaction if used already UCSatisfactionLevel Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Extremely Satisfied 59
6.2.5.7. Satisfaction if used already UCSatisfactionLevel Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Extremely Satisfied 59
6.2.5.7. Satisfaction if used already UCSatisfactionLevel Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Extremely Satisfied 59

The above table and graph answers if the respondent has ever used the brands Umbro& Champion, whether they are satisfied with the products of the brands. 61.01% population of the sample who had used the brands says that they are moderately satisfied with the new brand(s).

46

  • 6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes

Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Less than 2000

59

 
  • 16.5 18.4

18.4

2000-3000

123

 
  • 34.5 38.4

56.9

3001-4000

78

 
  • 21.8 24.4

81.3

4001-5000

38

 
  • 10.6 11.9

93.1

5001-6000

15

 
  • 4.2 4.7

97.8

6001 and Above

7

 
  • 2.0 2.2

100.0

Total

320

89.6

100.0

 

Missing

System

37

10.4

   

Total

357

100.0

   
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency
6.2.5.8. Preferred price range for Performance shoes and Lifestyle shoes Sports Shoe Performance PreferredPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency

Inference:

The above table and graph give the data regarding the preferred price range a customer is willing to pay for one unit of Performance sports shoes (running, training etc). The result says the price bracket of 2000-3000 INR is most preferred price range for the same. 24.38% respondents were also willing to spend 3001-4000 INR for the same category.

47

Sports Shoe Lifestyle ProfferedPriceCategory

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Less than 2000

57

16.0

20.9

20.9

2000-3000

106

29.7

38.8

59.7

3001-4000

60

16.8

22.0

81.7

4001-5000

33

9.2

12.1

93.8

5001-6000

10

2.8

3.7

97.4

6001 and Above

7

2.0

2.6

100.0

Total

273

76.5

100.0

 

Missing

System

84

23.5

   

Total

357

100.0

   
Sports Shoe Lifestyle ProfferedPriceCategory Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Less than 2000 57 16.0

Inference:

The above table and graph give the data regarding the preferred price range a customer is willing to pay for one unit of lifestyle sports shoes (casual). The result says the price bracket of 2000-3000 INR is most preferred price range for the same. Almost similar percentage of respondents is ready to pay 3001-4000 INR and Less than 2000 INR for the same category.

48

  • 6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands

6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49
6.2.5.9. Category wise most preferred brands 49

49

Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.
Inference: The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories.

Inference:

The above graphs show the most preferred brand for the Apparels, Footwear and Accessories categories. According to the result Nike is the most preferred brand as 41.27%, 46.65% and 38.78% respondents choose Nike for apparels, footwear and accessories respectively. Respondents have chosen Umbro more than Champion as preferred brand, however the percentage of both brands are very less than the brands leading the list.

50

  • 6.2.5.10. Likeliness of recommendation

Statistics

UCRecommendation

N

Valid

287

Missing

70

Mean

4.9199

UCRecommendation

       

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

1.00

21

 
  • 5.9 7.3

7.3

2.00

27

 
  • 7.6 9.4

16.7

3.00

38

 
  • 10.6 13.2

30.0

4.00

41

 
  • 11.5 14.3

44.3

5.00

55

 
  • 15.4 19.2

63.4

6.00

37

 
  • 10.4 12.9

76.3

7.00

22

 
  • 6.2 7.7

84.0

8.00

19

 
  • 5.3 6.6

90.6

9.00

14

 
  • 3.9 4.9

95.5

10.00

13

 
  • 3.6 4.5

100.0

Total

287

80.4

100.0

 

Missing

System

70

19.6

   

Total

357

100.0

   

51

Inference: The above graph and tables give the information about how likely the customer would recommend

Inference:

Inference: The above graph and tables give the information about how likely the customer would recommend

The above graph and tables give the information about how likely the customer would recommend the newly launched brands to the peer groups. In order to get the respond a ten point scale was used. And the mean value comes out to be 4.91 which tell that the recommendation chance is neither extremely likely nor not at all likely as the mean value lies almost at the center of the data range.

52

  • 6.2.6. Dependency (Chi-square) Tests of variables (at 95% confidence level)

    • 6.2.6.1. Dependency of the often purchased product typewith customer’s sports involvement

Variables:

The often purchased product type

Customer’s sports involvement

Hypothesis:

H0: The often purchased product type does not depend on customer’s sports involvement H1: The often purchased product type depends on customer’s sports involvement

Case Processing Summary

   

Cases

 
 

Valid

 

Missing

   

Total

 
 

N

Percent

 

N

Percent

 

N

Percent

PrefferedProductType * SportActivitiesPerformed

 

334

93.6%

 

23

 

6.4%

 

357

100.0%

 

PrefferedProductType * SportActivitiesPerformedCrosstabulation

 

Count

 

SportActivitiesPerformed

   

Yes

No

Total

PrefferedProductType

Apparels

 

56

 

11

 

67

Footwear

 

106

 

39

 

145

Accessories

 

18

 

7

 

25

Sports Equipment

   

29

 

7

 

36

All

 

5

 

2

 

7

Apparels & Footwear

   

34

 

20

 

54

Total

248

86

334

53

Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.594 5 .180 Likelihood Ratio 7.673

Chi-Square Tests

     

Asymp. Sig. (2-

Value

df

sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

7.594

a

 
  • 5 .180

Likelihood Ratio

7.673

  • 5 .175

Linear-by-Linear Association

4.078

  • 1 .043

N of Valid Cases

334

   

a. 1 cells (8.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.80.

As the Pearson Chi square significant value is greater than the test significant value (0.05), we accept null hypothesis.

Inference: The often purchased product type does not depend on customer’s sports involvement.

54

  • 6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income

Variables:

Billing Amount

Customer’s monthly income

Hypothesis:

H0: The billing amountdoes not depend on customer’s monthly income H1: The billing amountdepends on customer’s monthly income

Case Processing Summary

   

Cases

 
 

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

Recoded Billing Amount * MonthlyIncome

277

77.6%

80

22.4%

357

100.0%

6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly
6.2.6.2. Dependency of the billing amountwith customer’s monthly income Variables:  Billing Amount  Customer’s monthly

55

Recoded Billing Amount * MonthlyIncomeCrosstabulation

Count

   

MonthlyIncome

   

Less than

       

More than

 

20,000

20,000-30,000

30,001-40,000

40,001-50,000

50,001-60,000

60,000

Total

Recoded Billing Amount

1.00

 

66

31

 

17

 

10

 

7

 
  • 15 146

2.00

 

27