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Chemical Grouting

and
Soil Stabilization
i
Third Edition, Revised and Expanded

Reuben H. Karol
Rutgers University
New Brunswick, New Jersey, U.S.A.

EL

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Civil and Environmental Engineering


A Series of Reference Books and Textbooks
Editor

Michael D. Meyer
Department of Qvil and Environmental Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia

1. Preliminary Design of Bridges for Architects and Engineers


Michele Melaragno
2. Concrete Forrnwork Systems
Awad S. Hanna
3. Multilayered Aquifer Systems: Fundamentals and Applications
Alexander H.-D. Cheng
4. Matrix Analysis of Structural Dynamics: Applications and
Earthquake Engineering
Franklin Y. Cheng
5. Hazardous Gases Underground: Applications to Tunnel
Engineering
Barry R. Doyle

6. Cold-Formed Steel Structures to the AISI Specification


Gregory J. Hancock, Thomas M. Murray, Duane S. Ellifritt
7. Fundamentals of Infrastructure Engineering: Civil Engineering Systems: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded
Patrick H. McDonald
8. Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization
edited by Abbas Ghassemi
9. Introduction to Approximate Solution Techniques, Numerical Modeling, and Finite Element Methods
Victor N. Kaliakin
10. Geotechnical Engineering: Principles and Practices of Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
V. N. S, Murthy

11. Estimating Building Costs


Calin M. Popescu, Kan Phaobunjong, Nuntapong Ovararin

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

12. Chemical Grouting and Soil Stabilization: Third Edition,


Revised and Expanded
Reuben H. Karol

Additional Volumes in Production

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Preface to the Third Edition

Over a decade has passed since publication of the second edition. During
this time the major changes have been the movement of chemical grouting
from remedial use to preventive use, and the development and growing use
of other methods of ground improvement. Although new grouts have been
developed, silicates and acrylics still dominate the domestic market.
Increasing sophistication in grouting equipment and procedures, as
well as in associated placement techniques, and the growing number of
organizations specifying and using chemical grouts, have resulted in the
broad acceptance of chemical grouting as a bona de construction tool.
The basics of chemical grouting remain largely unchanged and, with
appropriate modications and additions, occupy a major part of this
edition. Over the years of teaching grouting, I have found it desirable to
include information on other accepted procedures for soil modication and
stabilization (as well as some very recent innovations) in sufcient detail to
permit assessment of the place of grouting in the contractors arsenal of eld
procedures. Other ground improvement techniques are now discussed in
much greater detail than in the two previous editions.
This past decade has seen rapidly growing concern for the problems
caused by hazardous wastes. Containment of such wastes will demand more
and more attention in the coming years. Grouting and other procedures can

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

be used for containment, and the nal chapter of this edition is devoted to
that subject.
The Internet has expanded tremendously since publication of the
second edition, and now contains voluminous data related to methods of
ground modication and improvement. For this reason, the chapter
references now include Internet sites related to the chapter topics. Problems
have been added, where appropriate, so that this edition may also be used
for student instruction.
Reuben H. Karol

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Preface to the Second Edition

In the time since publication of the rst edition, many changes have
occurred involving the materials and practice of chemical grouting. First
and foremost has been the growing acceptance of chemical grouting as a
preventive measure, as well as a remedial measure. Together with this
acceptance has come a signicant increase in the number of small
contractors working with chemical grouts. This positive growth has been
fuelled by a better understanding of the properties and behavior of grouts,
and by a spread of general knowledge of how to exploit those properties.
These are the factors that have prompted the writing of a second edition of
this book. While the original material is still applicable, this edition expands
the various topics presented earlier, and adds new topics that have either
gained in importance or been developed since the publication of the rst
edition.
In Chapter 1, additional information has been given on competitive
methods: compressed air, freezing, and slurry walls. The subsection on
history has been updated and expanded. In Chapter 2, data has been added
to better dene soils for grouting purposes, and in Chapter 3, correlation
between theory and grouting acceptance is discussed.
Chapter 4 has been greatly expanded to include advances in
knowledge of existing grouts, as well as properties of new materials. More
emphasis is given to the silicates, still the major grout in the United States,

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

and details of the available acrylates (the growing acrylamide replacement)


are given. Many charts and tables have been added.
In Chapter 5, the discussion of ow of grout through soils has been
expanded. In Chapters 6 and 7, sections have been added concerning
instrumentation and its relationships to the use of short gel times in the eld.
Chapters 8 through to 12, which deal primarily with various eld
applications, have been expanded by the addition of new case histories and
references to other articles.
In Chapter 13, excerpts have been included of recent specications for
chemical grouts. Chapter 14 has been updated.
Much new material has been added to the appendixes. Microne
cements are covered in Appendix A. These materials are not chemical
grouts, but they rival the chemical grouts in penetrability and strength.
Setting times, however, are very long. This opens the future to growing use
of mixtures of chemical grouts and microne cements to optimize the better
properties of each.
Other appendixes list a computer program for determination of
optimal grout hole spacing, a test procedure for determining design strength
of grouted soils, and a glossary of terms.
Reuben H. Karol

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Preface to the First Edition

As this book is being written, we are on the threshold of a new era in


chemical grouting. The federal government and many universities have
begun to take serious interest in the engineering applications of chemical
grouts. The research now underway and that planned for the future will go
far in improving the reliability and efciency of a eld grouting project. At
the same time, concerns over environmental pollution and personnel health
hazards threaten to eliminate some of the most versatile chemical grouts and
have spurred a search for new safer materials.
In the United States, large-scale use of cement grouts began at the turn
of the century, when federal agencies began treating dam foundation sites.
The practices and specications developed for those purposes quickly
became the unofcial grouting standards for virtually all grouting projects
in the United States. In later years this was to prove a deterrent to the
developing chemical grouts because of the tendency to force cement
grouting practices on materials with properties and capabilities vastly
different from cement.
Applicators with previous cement experience (and who didnt have
some?) insisted on handling chemical grouts as if they were low-viscosity,
expensive cement grouts.
In particular, pumping with long gel times to a pressure refusal,
common practice with cement, is very wasteful and inefcient with

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

chemicals. Also, payment by the volume of grout placed, common practice


with cement, tends to stie engineering design of a grouting operation. The
biggest technical offender was the batch pumping system, since it precluded
taking advantage of the special properties of chemical grouts, particularly
short, controllable gel times. The most imposing mental obstacle for cement
grouters was the acceptance of the fact that chemical grouts could be
pumped into a formation for periods much longer than the setting time.
Over the past two decades, chemical grouting technology gained
acceptance as a bona de construction tool. Current practice makes use of
sophisticated multipump grout plants and grout pipes, with accurate
controls and monitors that permit full exploitation of the unique properties
of available grouting materials. Further, the engineering profession also has
accepted the fact that a technology exists and that there are reasonable and
reliable methods of applying engineering principles to the design of a
grouting operation. As we enter the 1980s, chemical grouting is taking its
place alongside other accepted water control and strengthening techniques
such as well pointing and underpinning. This book deals primarily with the
materials and techniques from the 1950s on, with emphasis on current
practices when they have superseded earlier developments.
Reuben H. Karol

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Acknowledgments

Many people and organizations have contributed to the three editions of


this book (where specic contributions are known, credit is given by direct
reference). These include the engineers and technicians with whom I have
worked on eld projects both above and under the ground, and those with
whom I have served (and continue to serve) on the Grouting Committees of
the ASCE and ASTM, and on the boards of consultants for various
projects. I am grateful for the help and encouragement that many of these
professionals have given me in compiling and dening the information that
comprises this book. In particular, my thanks to Herb Parsons and John
Gnaedinger, who taught me the rst things I ever learned about chemical
grouting; to Ed Graf, whose three-decade role as friend and devils advocate
has helped us both; and to Wally Baker, Joe Welsh, Bruce Lamberton,
Donald Bruce, and Stephen Waring, whose willingness to share their
expertise has helped the entire profession. I must also express my
appreciation to individuals and companies who so kindly furnished the
job and research reports, including Wayne Clough, Jim Mitchell, Ray
Krizek, Peter Yen, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Hayward Baker Company, American Dewatering Corp., and Florida Power Corp.
My gratitude also extends to my colleagues in the Civil Engineering
Department of Rutgers University, particularly to the Chairman, Dr. Ali

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Maher, whose help and encouragement were instrumental in my completing


the manuscript on schedule.
Writing and compiling the data for a book is a time-consuming effort
that demands reducing some other normal activities. This usually occurs to
the detriment of close family members. I appreciate the patience and
understanding of my wife and children during the past two years.

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Contents

Preface to the Third Edition


Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Acknowledgments
1.

Introduction
1.1
General
1.2
Modication and Stabilization
1.3
Soil and Rock Sampling
1.4
Degree of Representation
1.5
Safety Factors
1.6
Permanence
1.7
Failure Criteria
1.8
Summary
1.9
General References
1.10 Problems

2.

Soil and Rock Properties


2.1
Introduction
2.2
Void Ratio and Porosity

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12

Density and Relative Density


Permeability
Shear Strength
Consolidation Characteristics
Stress Transmission
Soil and Rock Classication
Rock Properties
Summary
References
Problems

3.

Compaction
3.1
Density Measurements
3.2
Shallow Compaction
3.3
Deep Compaction
3.4
Deep Dynamic Compaction
3.5
Preloading
3.6
Blasting
3.7
Summary
3.8
References
3.9
Problems

4.

Water Removal and Wellpointing


4.1
Sumps
4.2
Drainage Ditches
4.3
Wellpoints
4.4
Deep Wells
4.5
Electro-Osmosis
4.6
Summary
4.7
References
4.8
Problems

5.

Ground Freezing
5.1
General
5.2
Refrigeration Systems
5.3
Shallow Applications
5.4
Deep Applications
5.5
Permanence
5.6
Summary
5.7
References
5.8
Problems

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6.

Piling, Nailing, and Mixing


6.1
Piling
6.2
Soil Nailing
6.3
Reinforced Fill
6.4
Shallow Soil Mixing
6.5
Deep Soil Mixing
6.6
Summary
6.7
References
6.8
Problems

7.

Slurry Walls and Trenches


7.1
General
7.2
Principles
7.3
Design and Construction
7.4
Summary
7.5
References
7.6
Problems

8.

Biostabilization
8.1
Plantings
8.2
Microbial Stabilization
8.3
Summary
8.4
References
8.5
Problems

9.

Grouting with Cement


9.1
Grout Materials
9.2
Portland Cement
9.3
Microne Cements
9.4
Jet Grouting
9.5
Compaction Grouting
9.6
Grouting for Dams
9.7
Summary
9.8
References
9.9
Problems

10.

Chemical Grouts
10.1 General
10.2 History
10.3 Field Problems Amenable to Grouting
10.4 Grout Properties
10.5 The Ideal Chemical Grout

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10.6
10.7
10.8

Summary
References
Problems

11.

Commercial Chemical Grouts


11.1
Introduction
11.2
Grouting Materials
11.3
New Products
11.4
Comments and Summary
11.5
References
11.6
Problems

12.

Grouting Theory
12.1
Introduction
12.2
Basic Considerations
12.3
Stability of Interface
12.4
Flow Through Soil Voids
12.5
Effect of Pumping Rate on Grout Flow
12.6
Effect of Pumping Pressure on Grout Flow
12.7
Fracturing
12.8
Summary
12.9
References
12.10 Problems

13.

Grouting Technology
13.1
Introduction
13.2
Point Injections
13.3
Injections Along a Grout Hole
13.4
Short Gel Times
13.5
Theory of Short Gel Times
13.6
Factors Related to the Use of Short Gel Times
13.7
Uniform Penetration in Stratied Deposits
13.8
Grout Curtains
13.9
Summary
13.10 References
13.11 Problems

14.

Field Equipment
14.1
Introduction
14.2
The Batch Pumping System
14.3
Two-Tank Single-Pump Systems
14.4
Equal Volume Systems

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13

Metering Systems
Other Chemical Grout Pumps
Components and Materials of Construction
Packers
Grout Pipes
Instrumentation
Summary
References
Problems

15.

Field Procedures and Tests


15.1
Introduction
15.2
Determination of Groutability
15.3
Field Pumping Tests
15.4
Field Permeability Tests
15.5
Use of Tracers
15.6
Additives
15.7
Pumping Rate
15.8
Pumping Pressure
15.9
Grouting in Pipes and HolesManifolding
15.10 Use of Short Gel Times
15.11 Summary
15.12 References
15.13 Problems

16.

Grouting to Shut off Seepage


16.1
Introduction
16.2
Types of Seepage Problems
16.3
Laboratory Studies
16.4
Field Work
16.5
Summary
16.6
References
16.7
Problems

17.

Grout
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7

Curtains
Introduction
Selection of Grout
Grout Curtain Patterns
Design of a Grout Curtain
Construction of a Grout Curtain
Rocky Reach Dam
Small Grout Curtains

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17.8
17.9
17.10

Summary
References
Problems

18.

Grouting for Strength


18.1
Introduction
18.2
Strength of Grouted Soils
18.3
Grouting for Stability
18.4
Summary
18.5
References
18.6
Problems

19.

Grouting in Tunnels and Shafts


19.1
Introduction
19.2
Shallow Tunnels
19.3
European Practice
19.4
Recent Developments in Tunnel Grouting Practice
19.5
Grout Patterns
19.6
Seikan Tunnel
19.7
Shaft Grouting
19.8
Summary
19.9
References
19.10 Bibliography
19.11 Problems

20.

Special Applications of Chemical Grouts


20.1
Introduction
20.2
Sewer Line Rehabilitation
20.3
Sampling of Sands, In Situ Density
20.4
Sealing Piezometers
20.5
Controlling Cement
20.6
Sealing SheetPile Interlocks
20.7
Summary
20.8
References

21.

Specications, Supervision, and Inspection


21.1
Introduction
21.2
Specications for Chemical Grouting
21.3
Supervision of Grouting
21.4
Inspection of Grouting
21.5
Reasons for Unsuccessful Jobs
21.6
Summary
21.7
References

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

22.

Containment of Hazardous Wastes


22.1
General
22.2
Early Disposal Methods
22.3
Detecting Pollution
22.4
Radioactive Wastes
22.5
Oil Spills
22.6
Bioremediation
22.7
Deep Well Injection
22.8
Barrier Walls
22.9
Treatment Methods
22.10 Summary
22.11 References
22.12 Problems

Appendix A: Glossary of Selected Terms


Appendix B: Computer Program for Optimal Grout Hole
Spacing for a Chemical Grout Curtain
Appendix C: Suggested Test Method for Determining Strength
of Grouted Soils for Design Purposes
Appendix D: Tunnel Design Criteria
Appendix E: Field Research with Sodium Silicate
Appendix F: Ground Improvement

Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.