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squared.

you may remember that Einstein's paper on

the Special Theory of Relativity in 1905

was published in June.

A few months after that, he published a

short note in September essentially

saying.

You remember that paper I published a few

months ago, well I've been thinking more

about some of the things contained in it.

Some of the implications and discovered a

very interesting relationship.

And that relationship essentially was E

equals mc squared.

Now unfortunately to, to really

understand this, to derive it in a, in a

sense, even sort in a hand waving since.

Would require us to spend a couple weeks

on concepts of energy and momentum and a

few things like that.

So, we don't have time to do that.

But want to just review a few key things

about it and bring a few of the, the key

concepts as, as well.

And we're going to start with the concept

of Kinetic energy.

All the way back in the 1700s, early

1700s scientists, they weren't really

scientists at that time, they were called

natural philosophers.

Were investigating things with how

objects move and collisions and things

like that.

And identified, had identified a certain

quantity that seemed to be very

important.

And over time in the 1700's and to the

1800's, this quantity came to be known as

kinetic energy and had the form of one

half mv squared.

Where m was the mass, so you can imagine

a particle, a ball, a tennis ball

something like that mass.

And then v is velocity.

Okay, so we're not talking relativity

here, we're just talking everyday type of

velocities.

And also along the way as this developed,

especially in the middle of the 1800s,

mid 19th century.

the idea of conversation of energy came

about.

That there were different forms of energy

and you could transform one form of

energy into another form of of energy.

And so they developed those concepts a

little bit more as, as well.

And one key thing about this was that

kinetic energy.

And what happened when Einstein came

along in 1905 and, and came up with this

idea that energy, okay, of course here's

the famous equation, E equals mc squared.

So we see, just compared to this equation

for kinetic energy masses involved and

then there is an velocity squared

involved in each case.

This is just the regular velocity of an

object.

This is obviously the velocity of light.

So there is some similarity between them

there.

But really what Einstein discovered was,

not quite this equation, this is a

special form of the equation that he

discovered.

What he discovered was, and we're

going to come back to see how it relates

to Conservation of Energy here in a

minute.

He discovered this, that energy is gamma

mc squared.

Okay, gamma mc squared, in other words

here is our familiar Lorentz factor

coming into play here.

And if we play around with this a minute.

Let's just remember, back when we were

talking about the Michelson-Morley

experiment, we used something called the

binomial expansion.

So we're going to bring it out of our

toolbox one more time here.

And remember it's this, if you have

something 1 plus x to the n, some

quantity x to the n power.

If x here, is much less than one.

Then we can write this as 1 plus nx,

approximately with that.

And so we're going to exploit that here

because, of course, gamma, so what we

have here is gamma, in our 1 form.

1 square of 1 minus v squared over c

squared there.

but let's write that in a slightly

different format, as we've done before.

We haven't done this recently, but before

we could write it like this.

We have 1 minus v squared over c squared

to the minus one half power, so that's

just gamma.

So if we've got the mc squared in here,

so we'll put that on the top.

Okay, mc squared over that.

So that's this times mc squared.

So again, this is just gamma, right here,

times mc squared.

And, and note that this has the form

than c.

So if our velocity is much less than the

speed of light.

And what do we mean by much less?

Well, even up to speeds like one tenth

the speed of light.

v squared over c squared, it's still

going to be a very small, very small

value.

So we'll be able to expand this out and,

and put it in this form here using our

binomial expansion.

So if we do that, what this happens here

is we've got, okay, here's the exponent,

the minus one half is equivalent to the n

there.

And I've got a minus here instead of a

plus, but it works the same way.

So, essentially, I'm going to have for

this part right here.

This becomes 1 minus, and then the minus

one half, and then, v squared over c

squared, and, times mc squared.

Okay, now remember this is an

approximation for when v, is much less

than c.

So up until about, up until about, one

tenth the speed of light, someplace in

that region.

So still pretty fast, compared to our

normal everyday experience.

And, so now we got a minus times a

negative one half, so that becomes a plus

one half.

And so we'll write this out one more time

here.

So we've got 1 plus, one half v squared

over c squared times mc squared.

Now we're going to bring it back over

here in a minute here just to.

Looking a little bit better, okay, so

let's, this is how we got there.

Let's erase this part now, and say, okay.

So we've shown that gamm, gamma mc

squared can be written as.

We'll rewrite this here, 1 plus one half

v squared over c squared times mc

squared.

If, we'll just say if v is less than you

know, about 0.1c, something like that,

for low velocities in other words.

But let's look at this a minute, look at

what we've got here.

1 times mc squared, that's just equals mc

squared.

And I've got one half v squared over c

squared timed mc squared.

Well the c squares here cancel and I'm

left with plus one half mv squared.

So that falls right out of this general

formula for in the low velocity limit.

Well what is this telling us.

Back before Einstein came along, people

would look at kinetic energy and other

forms of energy and would talk about the

conservation of energy.

What Einstein is saying with this

formula, is that there's another form of

energy right here too.

It's not only the kinetic energy that's

important, but this mc squared factor as

well.

And note that if we just had v equals 0

here, then energy just as mc squared.

We get our famous form of the equation mc

squared here.

But what this is saying, going back to

conservation of energy, is that before

Einstein came along with this equation.

Then the idea was, well, sure, you have a

conservation of kinetic energy.

It could go into other forms of energy,

as well.

But no one really payed attention to, a,

the masses involved.

And what Einstein is saying, you know

what, you got the masses involved maybe

in something, you got some energy

involved.

You can actually convert in between them,

and still have the whole thing be

conserved.

So that's what the implication of this

equation is.

That, in principle, you can take some of

the mass energy here, in a sense,

sometimes called the rest mass, or rest

energy.

Because if v is zero, you're just left

with the mc squared part here.

You can, you could potentially convert

some of this into kinetic energy.

Or you could go the other way as well.

As long you, if you convert some of this

it converts to this, if you have some of

that it can turn to that.

As long as energy itself, the total, is

conserved, does not, does not change.

And again we don't have time

unfortunately to go into to all the

details of this.

But essentially, what you get out of

this, what it leads to eventually are

things like nuclear fission and nuclear

fusion, fission and fusion.

So the idea here, [SOUND], Fission and

Fusion.

The idea is you can turn some just

locked up inside of it, it's really a

form of energy.

If somehow you can liberate that energy,

you can turn that mass directly into

things like kinetic energy.

And, turns out in atomic realm, really

the, the nucleus of atoms.

Where the protons and neutrons are.

That, if you turn, say if you have your,

certain types of uranium.

The uranium nucleus can split apart.

And it turns out that if you add up the

components that are left with say, to

make it simple say, it splits into two

pieces versus the original uranium atom.

The new atoms, the smaller constituents

there have less mass than the uranium

atom did.

And therefore, where did, where does that

missing mass go, it turns into energy.

And that's really the idea of nuclear

fission, that you can split apart certain

atoms, certain nuclei.

And that releases the mass energy in a

sense, that's stored inside there.

Nuclear fusion goes the other way.

It turns out that for lighter elements,

say hydrogen, the lightest element.

If you fuse two hydrogen nuclei together

to create a helium nucleus, a few other

things involved here as well.

But if you create a helium nucleus out of

it, then and you look at it, the helium

nucleus actually has less mass than the

two hydrogen.

A nuclei that you use to, to put together

with.

So again, where did the missing mass go?

It turns into energy.

And that's the whole idea of nuclear

fusion.

You're fusing nuclei together in a sense.

And this is how the sun works, for

example.

So, we're all here because of the sun, in

a sense.

And so we're here because of, of nuclear

fusion.

Nuclear fission, was developed the idea

of it, the concept of it, over a number

of years, 1920s, 1930s.

Ended up developing of the atomic bomb,

or atomic energy in general.

In other words when you're liberating

energy like this, and if you think about

it, because c squared is such a big

number.

It takes just a little bit of mass if you

can liberate the energy inside there, you

energy and other forms of energy out of

that.

In fact just to give you a glimpse of it,

we all sort of have a general idea of the

destructive power of an atomic bomb.

It doesn't take a small bomb to level a

city and things like hydrogen bombs.

Which are based on nuclear fusion

actually have even more power than that

In terms of more peaceful uses of it, for

example.

If, somehow, you could liberate all the,

the energy contained in a mass of, of

just three kilograms, okay?

So that's, you know, not, not much mass

there.

if you could do that, if you could turn

that all into energy.

You could power a city with a 100,000

inhabitants for a hundred years.

A city of that size 100,000 inhabitants

needs a generating station, an electrical

generating station of about 100

megawatts, a 100 million watts.

And therefore just three kilograms of

matter.

Again if you could liberate all the

energy inside there, will power up a city

for up to 100 years.

Now nuclear fission nuclear fission

you're just liberating just tiny amounts

of the mass energy available.

But your getting a lot of energy out of

it even in those cases.

Now you might ask going back to Einstein.

what was his role in especially the

atomic bomb, because you may know that he

wrote a famous letter to president

Roosevelt.

Franklin Roosevelt in the United States

alerting the president to the fact that

scientists had recently discovered

nuclear fission.

Atually so this was in the early 1930's

right around 1930.

And the possibility of either a

controlled nuclear reaction, or even an

uncontrolled nuclear reaction using

nuclear fission.

That would release incredible amounts of

energy in a, in a bomb, was feasible.

So, beyond that, though, Einstein really

didn't play much role in, in the

development of it.

he, he was asked to write the letter by

some of, the other scientists involved

who were very concerned about this.

And because his name had cache as it

will, as it were he could get the

They approached him to, to write the

letter.

Beyond that letter he really played no

role at all in the development of the

atomic bomb and the Manhattan Project

during World War Two in the United

States.

So that's Einstein's role in that.

Certainly in a sense it all does go back

to the E equals mc squared equation.

The idea that there's an incredible

amount of energy stored in regular,

ordinary matter, if we can liberate it

and, in some sense there.

one other point to make here, about E

equals mc squared, gamma mc squared, and

the like.

Is that, we've talked before, about

invariance, and the fact that really, a

better name for perhaps the, the special

theory of relativity would be

Not the theory of relativity but the

theory of invariance.

Because one of the key invariant

quantities is the speed of light.

or, actually, technically, it's the speed

of massless particles.

But we'll just say, the speed of light,

invariant.

No matter how you're moving with respect

to somebody else in respect to a light

beam.

You will always measure the speed of

light to be, to have the value, c.

So we talk about invariance.

And turns out that in 1918, so just a few

years after the miracle year of 1905.

And even just a couple years after

Einstein introduces general theory of

relativity.

A mathematician named Emmy Noether, whom

Einstein considered one of the greatest

mathematicians ever.

She published a very famous theorem, that

essentially ties in, tied invariance in

to this idea of conservation of, of

energy.

And she, she was able to show that other

quantities, like if you think about just

if we move from here to there, that

doesn't change the laws of physics.

That's called translational invariance.

So we can talk about translational

invariance.

That if I move from here to there, I do

the same experiment.

If I do an experiment here, I do an

experiment there.

I should, you know, shouldn't get

everything else is equal there.

In other words, where you do the

experiment in the universe shouldn't

matter.

Again assuming the other conditions are

equivalent.

So that's translational invariance and

out of that Noether showed that the

concept of conservational momentum came

out of that.

Again Momentum is beyond our course but

just the idea of translational invariance

is connected up with this idea of

conservation of some quantity.

This case, conservation of momentum.

Another idea is rotational invariance.

If I, as I turn from side to side, or

point in that direction, versus that

direction, or maybe versus that

direction.

I should get the same results.

So that I have rotational invariance of

the laws of physics, in some very general

sense.

And that leads to the concept of

conservation of angular momentum.

In other words, in order to show that

these were equivalent concepts.

If you have rotational invariance, you

get conservation angular momentum.

And then, finally, back to the

conservation of energy, to show if you

have invariance through time, you know,

time like invariance in a sense.

That connects directly with the idea of

the conservation of energy.

So, if the laws of physics are the same

through time and of course time and space

time are the key concepts underlying the

special theory of relativity.

And later the general theory of

relativity.

Noether showed that this the concept of

time and moving through time.

Whether I do an experiment now or ten

minutes from now or two years from now

Again, other things being equal, that

leads directly to energy being

conserved., okay?

So, in a really deep sense, this all

hangs together.

If you really start pushing it down in

the depths of some of these concepts.

You see that we're not just talking about

you know, sort of time dilation and

things like that.

But we're, we're talking about the

foundations of Of the universe itself,

and how it's put together, and, and how

it works.

So, those are just a few words about,

again, right, The Famous Equation, most

famous equation, E equals mc squared.

Again, the, the real form of it coming

out of relativity is E equals gamma mc

squared.

And we showed that out of that you can

sort of get the, the regular form of

kinetic energy.

But you really, then learn about this

concept, or see this concept that, that

mass itself has energy stored in it.

That mass, matter, and energy are

equivalent in some sense and can be

turned from one form into another.

And then in cases in like nuclear fission

In nuclear fusion release huge amounts of

energy potentially.

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