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Sophocles: The Plays and Fragments


Sir Richard Jebbs seven-volume edition of the works of Sophocles, published
between 1883 and 1896, remains a landmark in Greek scholarship. Jebb
(18411905) was the most distinguished classicist of his generation, a
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and University Orator, subsequently
Professor of Greek at Glasgow University and finally Regius Professor of
Greek at Cambridge, and a Member of Parliament for the University. Each
volume of the edition contains an introductory essay, a metrical analysis,
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summaries (arguments) of the play. The text itself is given with a parallel
English translation, textual collation and explanatory notes, and an appendix
consisting of expanded notes on some of the textual issues. The quality of
Jebbs work means that his editions are still widely consulted today. This
volume contains Philoctetes.

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Sophocles: The Plays


and Fragments
With Critical Notes, Commentary and
Translation in English Prose
Volume 4: The P hil o ctetes
E di t e d by R ichard C l averhouse Jebb

C a M b R i D G E U N i V E R Si T y P R E S S
Cambridge, New york, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,
So Paolo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo
Published in the United States of america by Cambridge University Press, New york
www.cambridge.org
information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781108008419
in this compilation Cambridge University Press 2010
This edition first published 1890
This digitally printed version 2010
iSbN 978-1-108-00841-9 Paperback
This book reproduces the text of the original edition. The content and language reflect
the beliefs, practices and terminology of their time, and have not been updated.
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SOPHOCLES
THE PLAYS AND FRAGMENTS.

PART IV.
THE PHILOCTETES.

ILonSnn: C. J. CLAY & S O N S ,


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE,
AVE MARIA LANE.

DEIGHTON, BELL AND CO.


Eeiis: F. A. BROCKHAUS.

SOPHOCLES
THE

PLAYS

AND

FRAGMENTS

WITH CRITICAL NOTES, COMMENTARY, AND


TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH PROSE,

R.

C. J E B B ,

LITT.D.,

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE IN T H E


UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE :
HON. LL.D. EDINBURGH, HARVARD AND DUBLIN;
HON. DOCT. PHILOS., BOLOGNA.

PART IV.
THE PHILOCTETES.

EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

CAMBRIDGE:
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
1890
[All Rights reserved]

ffiambtftigt:
PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SONS,
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
page ix
i. The home of Philoctetes. 2, 3. The legend in epic
poetry. 4. Characteristics of the epic version.
5. The story as a theme for drama. 6. The three great
dramatists.
7. The Philoctetes of Aeschylus. 8. The
Philoctetes of Euripides.
9. Sophocleshis originality. 10. Analysis of the
play.
11. General scope of the treatment.
12. The
oracle.
13. Episode of the merchant.
14. The Chorus.
15. Odysseus. 16. Topography.
17. Other literature of the subject. Greek plays. 18. Attius. Euphorion.
19. Fenelon's Telemaque.Lessing.
French dramas.
20. The legend in Art.
21. The scene
of the sacrifice. 22. Chryse.
23. Date of the play. Supposed political reference.
24. Diction. 25. Versification.
MANUSCRIPTS, EDITIONS, ETC

xlv

1, 2. The Laurentian and other MSS. 3. Scholia.


4. Interpolations. 5. Emendations.
6. Editions, etc.
METRICAL ANALYSIS
ANCIENT

ARGUMENTS

STRUCTURE

TO

.
THE

PLAY ;

DRAMATIS

PERSONAE ;

TEXT

APPENDIX
INDICES

xlviii

3
6

229
255

INTRODUCTION.
i. ON the eastern coast of Greece, just north of Thermo- The home
pylae, lies a region which in ancient times was called Malis,' the
sheep-land.' This was the country of Philoctetes,the home
to which, in the play of Sophocles, his thoughts are constantly
turning1. It will be well to form some idea of its chief features
and associations.
Pindus, the spine of northern Greece, terminates at the south
in Typhrestus, a great pyramidal height from which two mountain-ranges branch out towards the eastern sea. One of these is
Othrys, which skirts the southern border of Thessaly; the other,
south of it, is Oeta, which, like Malis, takes its name from its
pastures. The deep and broad depression between them is the
fertile valley of the Spercheius (the 'hurrying' or'vehement')
which rises at the foot of Typhrestus, and flows into the
Malia'n Gulf. A few miles from the sea, the valley opens.
While Othrys continues its eastward direction, Oeta recedes
southward, and then, with a sudden bend to the south-east,
1
The Homeric Catalogue includes this district in Phthia, the realm of Achilles
(//. 2. 682). It assigns Philoctetes to a more northerly part of Thessaly,viz., the
narrow and mountainous strip of coast, N. and E. of the Pagasaean Gulf, which was
known in historical times as Magnesia. His four towns were Methone, Thaumacia,
Meliboea and Olizon. (//. 2. 716 f.) This agrees with the fact that Poeas, the father
of Philoctetes, was called the son of Thaumacus, and was numbered among the
Argonauts who sailed from Iolcus (Apollod. 1. 9. 16). In its original form, the story
of Poeas and his son must have belonged, like that of Jason, to the legends of the
Minyae who dwelt on the eastern coasts of Thessaly. Cp. Anthol. append. 61
(vol. II. p. 754 ed. Jacobs):

To^itiv 'UpaKKiovs rayXip, Hoidrriov vidv,


ijde ^iXoKTrirffv yij M.twas Karfyet.

It was when the myth became interwoven with the apotheosis of Heracles that the
home of Poeas was transferred to the country around Trachis.

INTRODUCTION.

sweeps down upon Thermopylae, where the fir-clad and snowy

summit of Callidromus rises above the pass. Precipitous cliffs


are thrown forward from this part of the Oetaean range, forming
an irregular crescent round the southern and western sides of
the plain. These cliffs were called of old ' the Trachinian Rocks.'
Trachis, the ' city of the crags,' stood on a rocky spur beneath
them, a little north of the point where they are cleft by the
magnificent gorge of the Asopus,that steep ravine by which
Hydarnes led his Persians up through the mountain oak-woods, on
the night before he surprised Leonidas. Between the Asopus and
the Spercheius are the narrow channels of two lesser streams,
anciently known as the Melas and the Dyras1. The name Malis
denoted this whole seaboard plain, with the heights around it,
from the lower spurs of Othrys on the north to those of Oeta
on the south and west. Just opposite the entrance of the Gulf,
the bold north-west promontory of Euboea, once called Cape
Cenaeum, runs out towards the mainland. There was a peculiar
fitness in the phrase of Sophocles, when he described this district, with its varied scenery, as 'the haunt of Malian Nymphs2,'
1

The Dyras was said to have first started from the ground in order to relieve the
fiery pangs of Heracles (Her. 7. 198). In a vase-painting noticed below (n. on v. 728,
p. 121, 1st col.), the Nymph who seeks to quench the pyre probably symbolises this
stream.
The ancient mouth of the Spercheius was some miles N.W. of Thermopylae; the
present mouths are a little E. N. E. of it, and the line of the coast has been considerably
advanced, so that there is no longer a narrow pass. The Asopus, Melas and Dyras
formerly had separate courses to the sea. They are now mere affluents of the
Spercheius,the Melas and Dyras uniting before they reach it.
2
v. 725 auX&i' MaXiaSui' cu/i^ac.

INTRODUCTION.

xi

those beings of the forest and the river, of the hills and the
sea.
It was in this region that legend placed the last deeds of
Heracles, and his death, or rather his passage from earth to
Olympus. After taking Oechalia in Euboea, he was sacrificing
on Cape Cenaeum when the fatal robe did its work. He was
carried to his home at Trachis ; and then he commanded that he
should be borne to the top of Mount Oeta, sacred to Zeus, and burnt
alive. He was obeyed ; as the flames arose on the mountain,
they were answered from heaven by the blaze of lightning and
the roll of thunder; and by that sign his companions knew that
the spirit of the great warrior had been welcomed to the home
of his immortal father. Somewhere in the wilds of those lonely
summits tradition showed the sacred spot known as 'the Pyre';
and once, at least, in later days a Roman Consul, turning aside
from a victorious progress, went up to visit the solemn place
where the most Roman of Greek heroes had received the supreme
reward of fortitude1.
2. Heracles had constrained his son Hyllus to aid in pre- Thelegend
paring the funeral-pile, but could not prevail upon him to kindle
it. That office was performed, at his urgent prayer, by the
youthful Philoctetes, son of Poeas, king of Malis2. In token of
gratitude, Heracles bequeathed to Philoctetes the bow and arrows
which he himself had received from Apollo.
In the myths relating to the Trojan war a most important
part belonged to the man who had thus inherited the invincible
weapons. Homer, indeed, does not say much about him; but
the Iliad contains only an episode in the tenth year of the war :
the part played by Philoctetes came before and after that
moment. The allusion in the Second Book of the Iliad is,
1
Manius Acilius Glabrio, after taking Heracleia near Trachis, in the war with
Antiochus (191 B.C.). Livy 36. 30: ipse Oetam ascendit, Herculique sacrificium
fecit in eo loco quern Pyram, quod ibi mortale corpus eius dei sit crematum, appellant.
Cp. Silius Italicus 6. 452: Vixdum clara dies summa lustrabat in Oeta | Herculei
monimenta rogi.The name Pyra seems to have been usually associated with a height
about eight miles w.N.w. of Trachis.
2
With regard to the other version, according to which Poeas was the kindler, see
on v. 802.

xii

INTRODUCTION.

however, significant; it glances backwards and forwards. He is


there mentioned as a skilful archer, who had sailed from Greece in
command of seven ships, but had been left behind in Lemnos,
wounded by the bite of a deadly water-snake. And then the
poet adds that the Greeks at Troy will soon have cause to
bethink them of Philoctetes1. In the Odyssey he is named only
twice; in one place, as having been the best bowman at Troy;
in another, as one of those heroes who came safely home2. But
his adventures were fully told in other epics. The events preceding the action of the Iliad were contained in the Cypria, an
epic whose reputed author, Stasinus of Cyprus, lived early in the
eighth century B.C. That poem described how Philoctetes was
bitten by the snake,while the Greeks, on their way to Troy,
were at Tenedos,and was abandoned in Lemnos. His later
fortunes were narrated in the Little Iliad, ascribed to Lesches of
Mitylene {circa 700 B.C.), and in the Iliupersis, or ' Sack of Troy,'
by Arctfnus of Miletus {c. 776 B.C.). The contents of these lost
works are known chiefly from the prose summaries of the grammarian Proclus (140 A.D.), as partly preserved by Photius in his
Bibliotheca. The following is an outline of the story in its epic
form.
3. When the Greeks under Agamemnon were about to sail
against Troy, it became known that an oracle had commanded
them to offer sacrifice, in the course of their voyage across the
Aegean, at the altar of a deity named Chryse. All the accounts
placed this altar somewhere in the north-east of the Archipelago.
The prevalent version assigned it to a small island which, like
the deity herself, was called Chryse, and lay close to the eastern
shore of Lemnos. Jason, it was said, had sacrificed at this altar
when he was leading the Argonauts in quest of the golden
fleece. Heracles had paid it a like homage when he was levying
war against Laomedon.
1

77. 2. 721 ff.:


aXX' 6 /J.& kv vi]<r$ Ketro /cparep' aXyea
eV ijya&irjt 601 [uv Xlirov vies 'A^tu
fwxSlfavTa KUKQ oXoirfrpovos Odpov
ye KCIT' dxiw'
r a ^ a Bi \xoi\aea8ax
ot 7ra/)& vrjuai $tXo/fr^rao avaKTOs.
Od. 8. 2 1 9 : 3. 190.

INTRODUCTION.

xiii

Philoctetes, with his seven ships, was in the fleet of Agamemnon, and undertook to act as guide. He alone knew where
the isle of Chryse was to be found; for, in his early youth, he
had been present at the sacrifice offered there by Heracles.
The altar stood in a sacred precinct, under the open sky.
When, followed by the Greek chieftains, he approached it, he
was bitten in the foot by a serpent. The wound mortified, and
became noisome. His cries of pain made it impossible to perform
the religious rites, which required the absence of all ill-omened
sounds. The fetid odour of his wound also made his presence
a distress to the chiefs. They conveyed him from the islet of
Chryse to the neighbouring coast of Lemnos, where they put
him ashore; and then sailed for Troy.
It should be noticed that the circumstances of this desertion,
as set forth in the early legend, were probably less inhuman than
they appear in the version adopted by Sophocles. In the first
place, it can hardly be doubted that these cyclic poets, like
Homer, imagined Lemnos as an inhabited island1. And, according to one account, some followers of Philoctetes were left in
charge of him2.
Ten years elapsed. The sufferer was still languishing in
Lemnos; his former comrades were still on the shore of the
Hellespont, besieging the city which they could not capture.
Achilles had already fallen; Ajax had died by his own hand.
In their despondency, the Atreidae turned to the prophet who
had so often admonished or consoled them ; but Calchas replied
that the fate of Ilium must now be learned from other lips than
his. They must consult the Trojan Helenus, son of Priam,a
warrior whom they had often seen in the front of battle on the
plain; a seer who, as rumour told, had warned, though he could
not save, his brother Hector.
1

See commentary on v. 2.
Philostratus Heroica 6 : TCL 5 rrjs v6txov KHI T&V iaja^vojv avrbv erepws Xeyet
KaTaXei^S^rai fiiv yap iv Aijjiii'Cjj rbv fcXoimJTi/i', ot) JUT)J> ipTifiov TCIV
v ovd' a.Teppt.ii.p.evov TOV 'EWTJPIKOV'
woWois
re yap TCJV
JteXi/Soiax oUoivTiar %vyKaTa/j.eiiiai (<TTpaT-qyt>s Si Toirav r/i>), rots r' 'Axaiois
daupva eireXdetv, or' aweXnre <r<pas dvrjp 7roXe/iiKos Kal TTOXXWX drri^oi.
As to Meliboea,
see above, 1 n. 1.
2

xiv

INTRODUCTION.

Helenus was made prisoner by a stratagem of Odysseus, and


then declared that, before the Greeks could prevail, two things
must be done. First, Philoctetes must be brought back from
Lemnos: Troy could never fall, until he launched against it the
arrows of Heracles. Secondly, Neoptolemus, the youthful son
of Achilles, must come from the island of Scyros, and must
receive his due heritage, the wondrous armour wrought for his
father by the god Hephaestus.
Both injunctions were obeyed. Diomedes went to Lemnos,
and brought Philoctetes. Odysseus went to Scyros, and brought
Neoptolemus. Philoctetes was healed by the physician Machaon, son of Asclepius. He then slew Paris in single combat,
and shared with Neoptolemus the glory of final victory over
Troy.
Charac 4- In this epic form of the story, two points deserve remark,
f !
^ i c ( ) ^ e m i s s ' o n t o Lemnos and the mission to Scyros are enn, trusted to different persons, and are conceived as simultaneous,
or nearly so. In the Little Iliad of Lesches, the voyage to Lemnos seems to have been related first. (2) Diomedes has apparently no difficulty in persuading Philoctetes to accompany him. For
the purposes of epic narrative, it would evidently suffice that
Diomedes should announce an oracle which promised health to
the sufferer and honour to the exile. The epic Philoctetes would
accept these overtures in a speech of dignified magnanimity; and
all would be happily settled. This particular point is curiously
illustrated by Quintus Smyrnaeus, though in other respects he
has varied widely from the old epic version. He represents the
wrath of Philoctetes as immediately disarmed by the first soothing words of the Greek envoys (Diomedes and Odysseus). Indeed, that brevity which sometimes marks the poet of Smyrna is
seldom quainter than in this passage of his ninth book. At
verse 398 Philoctetes is preparing to shoot his visitors. At verse
426 they are carrying their recovered friend, with pleasant laughter, to their ship :
ol 8e fiiv all/'' ?ri vrja KOX r/lova.'i
Kay)(a.\oo>VTei iv

INTRODUCTION.

xv

5. But all this was changed when Philoctetes became a The story
subject of tragic drama. The very essence of the situation, as fo/drama?
a theme for Tragedy, was the terrible disadvantage at which the
irony of fate had placed the Greeks. Here was a brave and
loyal man, guiltless of offence, whom they had banished from
their company,whom they had even condemned to long years
of extreme suffering,because a misfortune,incurred by him
in the course of doing them a service,had rendered his person
obnoxious to them. For ten years he had been pining on
Lemnos; and now they learned that their miserable victim was
the arbiter of their destinies. It was not enough if, by force or
fraud, they could acquire his bow. The oracle had said that
the bow must be used at Troy by Philoctetes himself. How
could he be induced to give this indispensable aid ?
A dramatist could not glide over this difficulty with the
facile eloquence of an epic poet. If the Lemnian outcast was to
be brought, in all his wretchedness, before the eyes of the spectators, nature and art alike required the inference that such
misery had driven the iron into his soul. It would seem a violation of all probability if, when visited at last by an envoy from
the camp, he was instantly conciliated by a promisebe the
sanction what it mightthat, on going to Troy, he would be
healed, and would gain a victory of which the profit would be
shared by the authors of his past woes. Rather the Philoctetes
of drama would be conceived as one to whom the Greeks at
Troy were objects of a fixed mistrust, and their leaders, of an
invincible abhorrence; one to whom their foes were friends, and
their disasters, consolations; one who could almost think that
his long agony had been an evil dream, if he could but hear that
they were utterly overthrown, and that it was once more possible
for him, without misgiving or perplexity, to recognise the justice
of the gods1.
6. Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophoclesto place their The three
names in the chronological order of their plays on this subject
solved the problem each in his own manner. A comparison of
their methods is interesting. That it is possible, is due in great
1

See, e.g., in this play, vv. 451 f., 631 f., 1043 f.

xvi

INTRODUCTION.

measure to a fortunate accident. Dion, surnamed the goldenmouthed, eminent as a rhetorician and essayist, was born at
Prusa in Bithynia about the middle of the first century, and
eventually settled at Rome, where he enjoyed the favour of
Nerva and of Trajan. The eighty 'discourses' (Xoyot) extant
under his name are partly orations, partly short pieces in the
nature of literary essays,many of them very slight, and written
in an easy, discursive style. In one of these (no. Lll.) he describes
how he spent a summer afternoon in reading the story of Philoctetes at Lemnos, as dramatised by Aeschylus, Euripides, and
Sophocles. He reflects that, even if he had lived at Athens in
their time, he could not have enjoyed precisely this treat,-of
hearing the three masters, one after another, on the same theme.
And, as the result of his perusal, he declares that, if he had been a
sworn judge in the Dionysiac theatre, it would have puzzled him
to award the prize. After such a preface, it is rather disappointing
that he does not tell us more about the two plays which are
lost. However, his little essay, which fills scarcely seven octavo
pages, throws light on several points of interest; and in another
of his short pieces (Lix.) he gives a prose paraphrase of the
opening scene in the Philoctetes of Euripides. Apart from these
two essays of Dion, the fragments of the plays themselves would
not help us far. From the Aeschylean play, less than a dozen
lines remain; from the Euripidean, about thirty-five. Such,
then, are the principal materials for a comparison.
The
7- In the play of Aeschylus, the task of bringing PhilocPMoctetes t e t e s from Lemnos to Troy was undertaken, not by Diomedes,
of A e s c h y -

lus.

as in the epic version,but by Odysseus. This change at once


strikes the key-note of the theme, as Tragedy was to handle it.
Odysseus was the man of all others whom Philoctetes detested;
no envoy more repulsive to him could have been found. On the
other hand, the choice of that wily hero for the mission implies
that its success was felt to depend on the use of stratagem. As
Dion shows us, Aeschylus boldly brought Odysseus face to face
with Philoctetes, and required the spectators to believe that
Philoctetes did not recognise his old enemy. The excuse which
Dion suggests for this improbability is not that the appearance

INTRODUCTION.

xvii

of Odysseus was greatly altered, but that the memory of Philoctetes had been impaired by ten years of suffering. It may
be inferred that the text of Aeschylus supplied no better
explanation.
The unrecognised Odysseus then proceeded to win the ear
of Philoctetes by a false story of misfortunes to the Greeks at
Troy; Agamemnon was dead; Odysseus, too, was gonehaving
been put to death for an atrocious crime (Dion does not say
what): and the whole army was in extremities. This story
having won the confidence of Philoctetes, the Aeschylean Odysseus perhaps seized the arms while the sick man was in a
paroxysm of his disease. A fragment indicates that Aeschylus
described the bow as hanging on a pine-tree near the cave.
How Philoctetes was finally brought away, we do not know:
but it may be assumed that there was no deus ex machina, and
also that Odysseus had no accomplice. The play probably
belonged to a period when Aeschylus had not yet adopted
the third actor. Inhabitants of the island formed the Chorus.
These Lemnians, Dion says, vouchsafed no apology for having
left Philoctetes unvisited during ten years; and he told them
his whole story, as if it were new to them. But, as the essayist
adds, the unfortunate are always ready to speak of their troubles,
and we may charitably suppose that some Lemnians had occasionally cheered his solitude.
The general impression made on Dion's mind by the play
of Aeschylus was that of a simplicity and dignity suitable to
ideal Tragedy. It had an austere grandeur of diction and of
sentiment which sustained the characters on the heroic level1;
though in some respects the management of the plot was open
to the cavils of a more critical and more prosaic age.
8. The Philoctetes of Euripides was produced in 431 B.C.2, The
some forty years or more, perhaps, after that of Aeschylus. ff
pides.
1

Dion or. 52 4 ij r e yap TOU klax"^ov


^eya\o<t>poaivri Kal T6 apxawv, &< Se rb
aWaSes (' rugged boldness') rr)s Siavolas Kal TTJS <ppi<rea>s vpiTovra e0cuVero TpaywSta
Kal TOLS Ta\aiots rjOcffi rdv 7]pixHoi>' ovdev Tnf$tf5ov\tvii4vov ov5 tTTOtp,i\ov ov8 Taituvbv.
So, again, he ascribes to Aeschylus rb aiffades Kal awXovv ( 15).
2
Argum. Eur. Med. The Medea, Philoctetes and Dktys formed a trilogy, with the
Theristae as satyric drama.

xviii

INTR OD UCTION.

Euripides combined the epic with the Aeschylean precedent by


sending Diomedes along with Odysseus to Lemnos. A soliloquy
by Odysseus opened the play1. The astute warrior was in a
highly nervous state of mind. ' Such,' he said in effect, ' are the
consequences of ambition ! I might have stayed at Troy, with
a reputation secured ; but the desire of increasing it has brought
me here to Lemnos, where I am in great danger of losing it
altogether, by failing in this most ticklish business.' He then
explained that, when the Atreidae had first proposed the mission
to him, he had declined, because he knew that all his resources
of persuasion would be thrown away on Philoctetes, the man to
whom he had done a wrong so terrible. His first appearance
would be the signal for an arrow from the unerring bow. But
afterwards his guardian goddess Athena had appeared to him in
a dream, and had told him that, if he would go to Lemnos, she
would change his aspect and his voice, so that his enemy should
not know him. Thus reassured, he had undertaken the task.
We note in passing that Euripides was here indirectly criticising
Aeschylus, who had assumed that Odysseus could escape recognition. The device of Athena's intervention was borrowed
from the Odyssey, where she similarly transforms her favourite
at need. But Euripides, in his turn, invites the obvious comment
that such a device was more suitable to epic narrative than to
drama2.
Continuing his soliloquy, Odysseus said that, as he had
reason to know, a rival embassy was coming to Philoctetes
from the Trojans, who hoped by large promises to gain him
for their side. Here, then, was a crisis that demanded all his
energies. At this moment, he saw Philoctetes approaching,
and, with a hasty prayer to Athena, prepared to meet him.
1
Dion's 59th discourse bears the title $IA0KTHTH2. EZTI AE IIAPA$PASIS.
It is simply a prose paraphrasewithout preface or commentof the soliloquy and the
subsequent dialogue, down to the point at which Philoctetes invites Odysseus to enter
his cave. Although it would be easy to turn Dion's prose into iambics (as Bothe and
others have done), it is evident that, at least in several places, the paraphrase has
been a free one. The whole passage, in its original form, cannot have been much
shorter than the 17)6X0705 in the play of Sophocles.
2
In the Ajax, Athena makes Odysseus invisible to the hero (v. 85); but Ajax is
already frenzied; and the scene is short.

INTRODUCTION.

xix

Philoctetes limped slowly forward,clad (according to Dion's


paraphrase) in the skins of wild beasts which he had shot1.
On finding that his visitor is a Greek from Troy, Philoctetes
pointed an arrow at him2. But he was quickly appeased by
learning that the stranger was a cruelly wronged fugitive,a
friend of that Palamedes whom the unscrupulous malice of
Odysseus had brought to death on a false charge of treason8.
'Will Philoctetes befriend him?' 'Hapless man!'was the reply
' the ally whom you invoke is more forlorn than yourself. But
you are welcome to share his wretched abode, until you can find
some better resource.' Philoctetes "then invited his new friend
into his cave.
Presently the Chorus entered,composed, as in the Aeschylean play, of Lemnians. They began by excusing themselves
for their long neglect of the sufferer. This was another glance
at Aeschylus, whose Lemnians had made no such apologies.
As the judicious Dion says, however, that was perhaps the
wiser course. But Euripides had a further expedient for
redeeming the character of the islanders; he introduced a
Lemnian called Actor, who had occasionally visited the sick
man4. The climax of dramatic interest must have been marked
1
Dion or. 59 5 (Odysseus speaks) : Sopal Bijpluiv KaXiirrovaiv avr6v. (Cp. Ar.
Ach. 424.)
2
Ib. 6 4>I. .roimav 5?) rrjs aStxtas avrUa fid\a ai i(pi^eis SUyv. OA. dXX' CJ Trpds
0eSv Max" d^eiyai TO /SeXos.
3
By this reference to his own base crime, the cynicism of the Euripidean Odysseus
is made needlessly odious. The Sophoclean Odysseus merely authorises his young
friend to abuse him (64 f.).
4

Dion T>r. 52 8 6 EiJ/HTrid'Tjs TOV "AnTopa [MSS. "EKTopa] eltr&yu iva Aij/Wwx ws
yV&pilAOV Tip ^iKoKT^Trj TTpo<Tc6vTa Kol 7ToX\(/S <7l//*/3e/3X9?/COTa.

Hyginus Fab. 102 (in an outline of the story, taken from Euripides) says:quern
expositum pastor regis Actoris nomine Iphimachus Dolopionis films nutrivil. Schneidewin, supposing that Hyginus had accidentally interchanged the names, proposed to
read, pastor regis Iphimachi Dolopionis filii nomine Actor. Milani (Milo di Filoltete
p. 34) obtains the same result in a more probable way when he conjectures, pastor regis
Iphimachi nomine Actor Dolopionis filius. As he remarks, Euphorion, in his ^CKOKT^r-qs (on which see below, 18), introduced a A.o\omovl8r]s (Stobaeus Flor. 59. 16).
And Dion's description of Actor as eva ATJ/WWK would apply to a shepherd better than
to a king. Ovid, however, seems to make Actor king of Lemnos (Trist. r. 10. 17):
Fleximus in laevum etirsus, et ab Actoris urbe \ Venimus ad portus, Imbria terra,
tuos. The best MSS. there have Actoris: others, Hectoris.

xx

INTRODUCTION.

by the arrival of that Trojan embassy which Odysseus had


foreshadowed in the prologue. It came, probably, before the
seizure of the bow, and while, therefore, Odysseus was still
disguised. Two verses, spoken by him in the play, run thus:
inrep ye fiivTOi iravros EJWYJVWV

(rrparov

cnunrav fiapfidpows 8 lav Xiyeiv1.

Such words would be fitting in the mouth of a Greek speaker


who pretended to have been wronged by his countrymen. They
suggest a context of the following kind;' (Although I have
been badly treated by the Greek chiefs,) yet, in the cause of the
Greek army at large, I cannot be silent, while barbarians plead.'
The leader of the Trojan envoysperhaps Pariswould urge
Philoctetes to become their ally. Then the appeal to Hellenic
patriotism would be made with striking effect by one who
alleged that, like Philoctetes himself, he had personal injuries
to forget. This scene would end with the discomfiture and
withdrawal of the Trojan envoys. It may be conjectured that
the subsequent course of the action was somewhat as follows.
Philoctetes was seized with an attack of his malady; the disguised Odysseus, assisted perhaps by the Lemnian shepherd, was
solicitous in tending him ; and meanwhile Diomedes, entering
at the back of the group, contrived to seize the bow. Odysseus
then revealed himself, and, after a stormy scene, ultimately prevailed on Philoctetes to accompany him. His part would here
give scope for another great speech, setting forth the promises
of the oracle. Whether Athena intervened at the close, is
uncertain.
This play of Euripides struck Dion as a masterpiece of
declamation, and as a model of ingenious debate,worthy of
study, indeed, as a practical lesson in those arts. When he
speaks of the ' contrast' to the play of Aeschylus, he is thinking
1

The first of these two verses is preserved by Plut. Mor. 1108 B, who from the
second v. quotes only aiaxpt>vffiwTraK.The second v. was made proverbial by Aristotle's
parody (aiaxpbv GUinrav '\aoKp&.rriv 8' iai> Xiyeiv).

T h a t the original word was papfldpovs

appears from Cic. de orat. 3. 35. 141; where, as in Quintil. 3. 1. 14, it is called 'a verse
from the Philoctetes? That this was the play of Euripides, is a certain inference from
the fact of the Trojan embassy.

INTRODUCTION.

xxi

of these qualities . With regard to the plot, no student of Euripides will be at a loss to name the trait which is most distinctive
of his hand. It is the invention of the Trojan embassy,a really
brilliant contrivance for the purpose which he had in view. We
cannot wonder if, in the period of classical antiquity during
which controversial rhetoric chiefly flourished, the Philoctetes of
Euripides was more generally popular than either of its rivals.
9. The originality of Sophocles can now be estimated. Sophocles.
Hitherto, one broad characteristic had been common to epic
and dramatic treatments of the subject. The fate of Philoctetes
had been considered solely as it affected the Greeks at Troy.
The oracle promised victory to them, if they could regain him :
to him it offered health and glory. This was an excellent prospect for him : if he would not embrace it voluntarily, he must, if
possible, be compelled to submission. But there had been no hint
that, outside of this prospect, he had any claim on human pity.
Suppose him to say,' I refuse health and glory, at the price
of rejoining the men who cast me forth to worse than death;
but I pray to be delivered from this misery, and restored to my
home in Greece.' Would not that be a warrantable choice, a
reasonable prayer ? Not a choice or a prayer, perhaps, that
could win much sympathy from a Diomedes or an Odysseus,
men who had consented to the act of desertion, and who now
had their own objects to gain. But imagine some one in whom
a generous nature, or even an ordinary sense of justice and
humanity, could work without hindrance from self-interest;
1
Or. 52 11 uairep avrlarpoipos eon rrj TOV Alax^ov, iroXtTiKUTaTr] Kal pi/ro/HKwa.Tr] oSffa K.T.X. So, again, he speaks of the ivdv/iri/iara iroXtTiicd used by Odysseus: of the la^fieia tratp&s Kal /caret (pijtrtv Kal TO\ITIK&$ ^xovTa- a n d of the whole
play as marked by TO <zK/>i/3es Kal Spi/iti Kal WOXITIKOV.
The word TTOXITIKOS is here used in the special sense which Greek writers on
rhetoric had given to it. By TTOXITIKOS Xifyos they meant public speaking as distinguished from scholastic exercises,especially speaking in a deliberative assembly
or a law-court. See Attic Orators, vol. I. p. 90. Dion's reiteration of the word marks
his feeling that the rhetorical dialectic of Euripides in this play would have been telling
in the contests of real life. And hence the play is described by him as rois
evrvyxavovffi IT\CI<TTI}V &<pkeiav irapavxew SvvafUvr],'to those who engage in discussion.'
For this use of tvTvyxavuv, cp. Arist. Top. 1. 1, where dialectic is said to be profitable
irphs ras ivrei^eis: and Rhet. 1. r. 12, with Cope's note.
J. S. IV.
C

xxii

INTRODUCTION.

might not such a man be moved by the miseries of Philoctetes,


and recognise that he had human rights which were not extinguished by his refusal to obey the summons of the
Atreidae ?
Again, the two plays on this subject which Sophocles found
existing, both depended, for their chief dramatic interest, on
the successful execution of a plan laid by the envoys. The
Odysseus of Aeschylus, the Odysseus and Diomedes of Euripides, alike carry a stratagem to a triumphant issue.
In associating Odysseus with Neoptolemus, the youthful son
of Achilles, Sophocles chose the person who, if any change was
to be made in that respect, might most naturally be suggested
by the epic version of the fable. But this new feature was no
mere variation on the example of his predecessors. It prepared
the way for a treatment of the whole story which was fundamentally different from theirs.
This will best be shown by a summary of the plot. T h e
events supposed to have occurred before the commencement of
the play can be told in a few words. Achilles having fallen,
his armour had been awarded to Odysseus, and Ajax had committed suicide. Then Helenus had declared the oracle (as related above, 3). Phoenix and Odysseus had gone to Scyros,
and had brought the young Neoptolemus thence to T r o y ; where
his father's armour was duly given to him. (In his false story to
Philoctetes, he represents the Atreidae as having defrauded him
of it.) Then he set out with Odysseus for Lemnos,knowing
that the object was to bring Philoctetes, but not that any deceit
was to be used. T h e chiefs had told him that he himself was
destined to take T r o y ; but not that the aid of Philoctetes was
an indispensable condition.
Analysis
io. T h e scene is laid on the lonely north-east coast of
fth pPj ay- Lemnos. Odysseus and Neoptolemus have just landed, and
logue:
have now walked along the shore to a little distance from their
I
~~134' ship, which is no longer visible. Odysseus tells his young
comrade that here, long ago, he put Philoctetes ashore, by
command of the Atreidae. H e desires the youth to examine
the rocks which rise above their heads, and to look for a cave,

INTRODUCTION.

xxiii

with a spring near it. Neoptolemus presently finds the cave,


with traces in it which show that it is still inhabited.
A seaman, in attendance on Neoptolemus, is then despatched
to act as sentry, lest Philoctetes should come on them by surprise.
Odysseus explains that it is impossible for him to face
Philoctetes; he must remain concealed, on peril of his life;
Neoptolemus must conduct the parley. Neoptolemus must tell
Philoctetes truly who he isbut must pretend that he has
quarrelled with the Greeks at Troy, for depriving him of his
father's arms, and is sailing home to Greece.
The youth at first refuses to utter such a falsehood; but
yields at last to the argument that otherwise he cannot take
Troy. Odysseus now departs to the ship,promising that,
after a certain time, he will send an accomplice to help Neoptolemus in working on the mind of Philoctetes. This will be the
man who had been acting as sentry; he will be disguised as a
sea-captain.
The Chorus of fifteen seamen (from the ship of Neoptolemus) Parados:
now enters. They ask their young chief how they are to aid I3^ 2 I
his design. He invites them to look into the cave, and instructs
them how they are to act when Philoctetes returns. In answer
to their words of pity for the sufferer, he declares his belief that
heaven ordains those sufferings only till the hour for Troy to
fall shall have come.
Philoctetes appears. He is glad to find that the strangers n. First
are Greeks; he is still more rejoiced when he learns that the ^T^L
son of Achilles is before him. He tells his story; and Neoptolemus, in turn, relates his own ill-treatment by the chiefs. The
Chorus, in a lyric strophe, confirm their master's fiction. After
some further converse about affairs at Troy, Philoctetes implores Neoptolemus to take him home. The Chorus support the
prayer. Neoptolemus consents. They are on the point of
setting out for the ship, when two men are seen approaching.
The supposed sea-captain (sent by Odysseus) enters, with
a sailor from the ship. He describes himself as master of
a small merchant-vessel, trading in wine between Peparethus
(an island off the south coast of Thessaly) and the Greek
C2

xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

camp at Troy. He announces that the Greeks have sent


emissaries in pursuit of Neoptolemus:also that Odysseus
and Diomedes have sailed in quest of Philoctetes. He then
departs.
Philoctetes is now more anxious than ever to start at once.
Accompanied by Neoptolemus, he enters his cave, in order to
fetch his few necessaries.
In the choral ode which follows, the seamen give full expresStasimon:
7 729- s j o n t o their pity for Philoctetes. They have heard of Ixion,
but they have never seen any doom so fearful as that of this
unoffending man.
III. SeJust as he is leaving the cave with Neoptolemus, Philoctetes
sodeiTio *s s e i z e d with a sharp attack of pain. He vainly seeks to hide
826. his agony. Neoptolemus is touched, and asks what he can do.
Philoctetes, feeling drowsy, says that, before he falls asleep, he
wishes to place the bow and arrows in his friend's hands. Thus
Neoptolemus (still with treason in his heart) gets the bow into
his keeping.
A second and sharper paroxysm now comes upon Philoctetes. In his misery, he prays for deathhe beseeches his
friend to cast him into the crater of the burning mountain which
can be seen from the cave. Neoptolemus is deeply moved. He
solemnly promises that he will not leave the sick man ; who
presently sinks into slumber.
Kommos
Invoking the Sleep-god to hold Philoctetes prisoner, the
piace'of'a6 Chorus urge Neoptolemus to desert the sleeper, and quit Lemnos
second with the bow. Neoptolemus replies that such a course would be
L ^ a s futile as base,since the oracle had directed them to bring
not only the bow, but its master,
iy. Third
Philoctetes awakes, and, aided by Neoptolemus, painfully
episo e r j s e s j - 0 his feet. They are ready to set out for the ship. And
now Neoptolemus has reached the furthest point to which the
deception can be carried; for at the ship Philoctetes will find
Odysseus. Shame and remorse prevail. He tells Philoctetes
that their destination is Troy.
The unhappy man instantly demands his bowbut Neoptolemus ' refuses to restore it. And then the despair of Philoctetes finds terrible utterance. The youth's purpose is shaken.

INTRODUCTION.

xxv

He is on the point of giving back the weapon, when suddenly


Odysseus starts forth from a hiding-place near the cave, and
prevents him. Philocteteswhom Odysseus threatens to take
by forceis about to throw himself from the cliffs, when he is
seized by the attendants. In answer to his bitter reproaches,
Odysseus tells him that he can stay in Lemnos, if he chooses :
other hands can wield the bow at Troy. Odysseus then departs
to the ship, ordering his young comrade to follow; but, by the
latter's command, the Chorus stay with Philoctetes, in the hope
that he may yet change his mind.
In a lyric dialogue, Philoctetes bewails his fate, while the Second
Chorus remind him that it is in his own power to escape from (taia^gthe
Lemnos. But at the bare hint of Troy, his anger blazes forth, place of a
and he bids them depart. They are going, when he frantically stasimon):
recalls them. Once more they urge their counselonly to elicit I o 8 '
a still more passionate refusal. He craves but one boon of
themsome weapon with which to kill himself.
They are about to leave himsince no persuasions avail V. Exowhen Neoptolemus is seen hurrying back, with the bow in his J^'^1
hand,closely followed by Odysseus, who asks what he means
to do. Neoptolemus replies that he intends to restore the bow
to its rightful owner. Odysseus remonstrates, blusters, threatens,
and finally departs, saying that he will denounce this treason to
the army.
The youth next calls forth Philoctetes, and gives him the
bow. Odysseus once more starts forth from ambushbut this
time he is too late. The weapon is already in the hands of
Philoctetes, who bends it at his foe, and would have shot him,
had not Neoptolemus interposed. Odysseus hastily retires, and
is not seen again.
Philoctetes now hears from Neoptolemus the purport of the
oracle; he is to be healed, and is to share the glory of taking
Troy. He hesitates for a momentsolely because he shrinks
from paining his friend by a refusal. But he cannot bring
himself to go near the Atreidae. And so he calls upon Neoptolemus to fulfil his promiseto take him home.
Neoptolemus consents. He forebodes the vengeance of the
Greeksbut Philoctetes reassures him: the arrows of Heracles

xxvi

INTRODUCTION.

shall avert it. They are about to set forth for Greece, when a
divine form appears in the air above them.
Heracles has come from Olympus to declare the will of Zeus.
Philoctetes must go to Troy with Neoptolemus, there to find
health and fame. H e yields to the mandate of heaven, brought
by one who, while on earth, had been so dear to him. He makes
his farewell to Lemnos; and the play closes as he moves with
Neoptolemus towards the ship, soon to be sped by a fair wind
to Sigeum.
I I . Even a mere outline of the plot, such as the above, will
General
thereat- s e r v e to exhibit the far-reaching consequences of the change made
ment.
by Sophocles, when he introduced Neoptolemus as the associate
of Odysseus. The man who retains the most indelible memory of
a wrong may be one who still preserves a corresponding depth
of sensibility to kindness; the abiding resentment can coexist
with undiminished quickness of gratitude for benefits, and with
loyal readiness to believe in the faith of promises. Such is the
Philoctetes of Sophocles; he has been cast forth by comrades
whom he was zealously aiding; his occasional visitors have invariably turned a deaf ear to his prayers; but, inexorably as he
hates the Greek chiefs, all the ten years in Lemnos have not
made him a Timon. He is still generous, simple, large-hearted,
full of affection for the friends and scenes of his early days; the
young stranger from the Greek camp, who shows pity for him,
at once wins his warmest regard, and receives proofs of his
absolute confidence. I t is the combination of this character
with heroic fortitude under misery that appeals with such
irresistible pathos to the youthful son of Achilles, and gradually
alters his resolve. But this character could never have been
unfolded except in a sympathetic presence. The disclosure is
possible only because Neoptolemus himself, a naturally frank
and chivalrous spirit, is fitted to invite it. In converse with
Diomedes or Odysseus, only the sterner aspects of Philoctetes
would have appeared.
Nor, again, was it dramatically possible that Diomedes or
Odysseus should regard Philoctetes in any other light than that
of an indispensable ally: they must bring him to Troy, if

INTRODUCTION.

xxvii

possible: if not, then he must remain in Lemnos. Hence


neither Aeschylus nor Euripides could have allowed the scheme
of Odysseus to fail; for then not even a dens ex tnachina could
have made the result satisfactory. It was only a person like
Neoptolemus, detached from the past policy of the chiefs, who
could be expected to view Philoctetes simply as a wronged
and suffering man, with an unconditional claim to compassion. The process by which this view of him gains upon
the mind of Neoptolemus, and finally supersedes the desire of
taking him to Troy, is delineated with marvellous beauty and
truth. Odysseus is baffled ; but the decree of Zeus, whose servant he called himself, is performed. The supernatural agency
of Heracles is employed in a strictly artistic manner, because the dead-lock of motives has come about by a natural
process: the problem now is how to reconcile human piety, as
represented by the decision of Neoptolemus, with the purpose
of the gods, as declared in the oracle of Helenus. Only a
divine message could bend the will of Philoctetes, or absolve
the conscience of the man who had promised to bring him
home.
Thus it is by the introduction of Neoptolemus that Sophocles
is enabled to invest the story with a dramatic interest of the
deepest kind. It is no longer only a critical episode in the
Trojan war, turning on the question whether the envoys of the
Greeks can conciliate the master of their fate. It acquires the
larger significance of a pathetic study in human character,
a typical illustration of generous fortitude under suffering, and
of the struggle between good and evil in an ambitious but loyal
mind. Dion, in his comparison of the three plays on this
subject, gives unstinted praise, as we have seen, to the respective
merits of Aeschylus and of Euripides; but he reserves for
Sophocles the epithet of 'most tragic1.' Sophocles was indeed
the poet who first revealed the whole capabilities of the fable as
a subject for Tragedy.
1
O r . 52 15 6 Si 2O0OK\^S fieeos lomev 6./x<poii> c&ou, oUre TO aiSSaSes Kal d^Xou!"
TO rod Al^xi^ov tyuv, otire TO aKpifits Kal Spifid Kal Trokirmbv rb TOV Eipiiridov " <re/x VT\V
Se Ti.va. Kal fieyaXoTrpeirij
Tro'n\<Tiv, TpayucdiTaTa
Kai eieTreffrara
xoi/<retf ,
wore 7r\eiffri/c cleat r]Sov-l)v, < / c a i > /Mera ii^ous Kal (

xxviii
The
oracle.

INTRODUCTION.

12. While the general plot of the Philoctetes is simple and


lucid, there are some points in it which call for remark.
In the first place, some questions suggest themselves with
regard to the oracle which commanded the Greeks to bring
Philoctetes from Lemnos. Helenus appears to have said that
he must be brought by persuasion, not by force (vv. 612, I33 2 )Odysseus, indeed, offered to compel him, if necessary (618);
and, at one moment, threatens to do so (985). But it would
be in keeping with his characteras depicted in this play
that he should think it unnecessary to observe the letter of the
oracle in this respect. If his stratagem had succeeded, force
would have been needless.
Then at v. 1340 Helenus is quoted as saying that Troy is
doomed to fall in the summer. The Greeks could understand
this only in a conditional sense, since he had told them that
their victory depended on the return of Philoctetes (611 f.).
But the absolute statement in v. 1340 is intelligible, if the seer
be conceived as having a prevision of the event, and therefore
a conviction that, by some means, Philoctetes would be brought.
Again,is the ignorance of the oracle shown by Neoptolemus at v. 114 inconsistent with the knowledge which he shows
afterwards? (197ff.: 1337ff.). I think not. The only fact of
which v. 114 proves him ignorant is that Troy could not be taken
without Philoctetes. What he says afterwards on that point
could be directly inferred from what Odysseus then told him
(v. 115). H e may have known from the first that Philoctetes was
a desirable ally, and that, if he came to Troy, he would be healed.
At v. 1055 Odysseus declares his willingness to leave Philoctetes in Lemnos. It is enough that the bow has been captured.
But the oracle had expressly said that Philoctetes himself must
be brought (841). Indeed, the difficulty of securing him is the
basis of the whole story. Therefore, in 1055 ff., Odysseus must
be conceived as merely using a last threat, which, he hopes, may
cause Philoctetes to yield. The alternative in the mind of
Odysseuswe must supposewas to carry him aboard by force.
In vv. 1075 ff. Neoptolemus directs the Chorus to stay with Philocteteson the chance of his relentinguntil the ship is ready,
and then to come quickly, when called. It would certainly seem

INTRODUCTION.

xxix

from this that Neoptolemus understood his chief as seriously


intending to leave Philoctetes behind. And the words of the
Chorus at v. 1218 suggest the same thing. But it does not
follow that they had penetrated the real purpose of their crafty
leader.
13. The part assigned to the pretended merchant (542Episode
627) has been criticised, and not altogether without reason, merchant.
Odysseus says in the opening scene that, if Neoptolemus seems
to be staying too long at the caveif, that is, there is reason to
fear some miscarriage of their planhe will send this disguised
accomplice, from whose words Neoptolemus will receive useful
hints. It would be natural to expect that this person was destined to arrive at a critical moment, and to solve some difficulty.
But everything goes smoothly; Neoptolemus has already won
the confidence of Philoctetes,who is eager to sail with him,
when the pretended merchant appears (542). The story which
he tells makes Philoctetes still more impatient to start than he
was before; but that is all. It has no new effect upon the action.
So far as the structure of the plot is concerned, it might be
simply cut out. The scene, which is admirably written, has,
however, an indirect advantage, which must be considered as its
justification from a dramatic point of view. The merchant's statement that Odysseus is on his way to Lemnos brings out the
feeling with which Philoctetes regards such an errand. 'Sooner
would I hearken to that deadliest of my foes, the viper which
made me the cripple that I am !'
8 14. The management of the Chorus deserves notice. If The
Sophocles had followed the example of Aeschylus and Euripides,
he would have composed it of Lemnians. He felt, probably,
that it was better to avoid raising the question which was then
suggested,viz., why some effective succour had not been rendered to Philoctetes in the course of the ten years. But there
was a further motive for the change. The attitude of a Lemnian
Chorus would be that of a sympathetic visitor, leading Philoctetes to recount his sufferings, and speaking words of comfort in
return; while, with respect to the scheme of Odysseus for bringing him to Troy, it would be neutral. But the dramatic effect

xxx

INTRODUCTION.

of the situation is heightened by every circumstance that contributes to the isolation of the central figure. As in the Antigone the heroine is the more forlorn because the Theban elders
support Creon, so here the loneliness of Philoctetes becomes
more complete when the Chorus is formed of persons attached to
the Greek chiefs. In these ten years he has seen no human face,
and heard no voice, save when some chance vessel put in at the
coast, only to mock him with a gleam of delusive hope. And
now he stands alone against all.
The key-note of the part played by the seamen is their wish
to second the design of their master, Neoptolemus; but they also
feel genuine pity for Philoctetes. This is powerfully expressed
in the stasimon (6?6ff.),where they are alone upon the scene;
though, at the close of that ode, when the sufferer returns, they
once more seek to deceive him with the belief that he is going
home to Malis (718 f). But there is one passage which is in
startling discord with the general tone of their utterances: it is
where they press Neoptolemus to seize the moment while Philoctetes sleeps, and to decamp with the bow (833 ff.). It would be
a poor excuse to suggest that they regard his sleep as the presage
of imminent death (861 ? 'AtBa irdpa icei/ievo1}). The dramatic
motive of this passage is, indeed, evident: it elicits a reproof
from Neoptolemus, and illustrates his honourable constancy
(839 ff). As for the Chorus, it may at least be said that this jarring note is struck only once. The humane temper which they
had shown up to that point reappears in the sequel.
The Chorus of this play is essentially an active participator
in the plotaiding the strategy of Neoptolemus, and endeavouring to alter the purpose of Philoctetes (10811217). Hence
it is natural that there should be only one stasimon. The other
lyrics subsequent to the Parodos either form parentheses in the
dialogue (391 ff, 507ff.),or belong to the
Odysseus.

15. It is curious to compare the Odysseus of this play


one of the poet's latest workswith that of the Ajax, which was
one of the earliest. There, Odysseus appears as one who has
deeply taken to heart the lesson of moderation, and of reverence
for the gods, taught by Athena's punishment of his rival; and, if

INTRODUCTION.

xxxi

there is no great elevation in his character, at least he performs


a creditable part in dissuading the Atreidae from refusing
burial to the dead. Here, he is found avowing that a falsehood
is not shameful, if it brings advantage (v. 109); he can be
superlatively honest, he says, when there is a prize for honesty;
but his first object is always to gain his end (1049 &) He *s
not content with urging Neoptolemus to tell a lie, but adds a
sneer at the youth's reluctance (84 f.). Yet, as we learn from
Dion, he is ' far gentler and simpler' than the Odysseus who
figured in the Philoctetes of Euripides. The Homeric conception
of the resourceful hero had suffered a grievous decline in the
later period of the Attic drama; but Sophocles, it would seem,
was comparatively lenient to him.
In the Ajax, it will be remembered, Odysseus is terrified at
the prospect of meeting his insane foe, and Athena reproves his
'cowardice' (74f.). His final exit in the Philoctetes is in flight
from the bent bow of the hero, who remarks that he is brave
only in words (1305 ff.). And, at an earlier moment in the play,
he is ironically complimented by Neoptolemus on his prudence
in declining to fight (1259). All these passages indicate that
the conventional stage Odysseus to whom Attic audiences had
become accustomed was something of a poltroon. But it is
instructive to remark the delicate reserve of Sophocles in hinting a trait which was so dangerously near to the grotesque.
For it is no necessary disparagement to the courage of Odysseus
that he should shrink from confronting Ajax,a raging maniac
intent on killing him,or that he should decline to be a passive
target for the ' unerring' shafts of Philoctetes,or that he
should refrain from drawing his sword on his young comrade,
Neoptolemus.
16. A few words must be added concerning the topography Topoof the play1. Mount Hermaeum, which re-echoed the cries ofgrap y'
Philoctetes, may safely be identified with the north-eastern promontory of Lemnos, now Cape Plaka. His cave was imagined
by the poet as situated in the cliffs on the north-east coast, not
far south of Hermaeum (cp. 1455ff.),and at some height above
1

A sketch-map of Lemnos is given in the Appendix, note on v. 800.

xxxii

INTR OD UCTION.

the shore (v. iooo: cp. v. 814). The east coast is probably that
on which the volcano Mosychlus (visible from the cave) once
existed; and the islet called Chryse lay near it. Philoctetes
describes Lemnos as uninhabited (v. 220), and as affording no
anchorage (v. 302). This raises a curious point as to the degree
of licence that a dramatist of that age would have allowed himself in a matter of this sort,and as to the choice which he
would have made between two kinds of improbability. In the
time of Sophocles, Lemnos had long been a possession of
Athens, and it was a familiar fact to Athenians that the island
possessed excellent harbours on every side except the east.
Then, if an Athenian audience were required to suppose that, in
the heroic age, Lemnos was a desert island, they would at once
remember the ' well-peopled ' Lemnos of the Iliad. Hence, the
simplest suppositionviz., that Sophocles chose to make
Lemnos desolate for the nonceis not really so easy as it
might appear. One asks, then, did he mean us to remember,
here also, the maimed condition of Philoctetes, who could not
move many yards from his cave in the eastern cliffs ? The
centres of population, in ancient times, were on the west and
north coasts. The area of Lemnos has been computed as
about a hundred and fifty square miles, or nearly the same as
that of the Isle of Wight 1 . It would not, then, be absurd to
suppose that, even in the space of many years, no Lemnian had
chanced to find that particular spot, at the extreme verge of a
desolate region, in which the sick man was esconced.
Other
'
subject.

h erature

17- The fortunes of the hero after his return to Troy


formed the subject of another play by Sophocles (^XO/CT^TJ??
0 eV Tpoiq). The healing of Philoctetes, and his slaying of Paris,
must have been the principal incidents; but the few words which
remain give no clue to the treatment. It is only a conjecture
though a probable onethat Asclepius himself was introduced
as aiding the skill of his sons 2 .
1

Encycl. Brit. (9th ed.) vol. XIV. p. 436: vol. XXIV. p. 561.
At v. 1437 Heracles promises to send Asclepius to Troy,a passage which has
groundlessly been regarded as inconsistent with the mention of the Asclepiadae in
1333. If the Philoctetes at Troy was the earlier play, this may be an allusion to it,
like that to the Antigone in the Oedipus Coloneus (v. 1410 n.).
2

INTRODUCTION.

xxxiii

Besides the three great dramatists, other tragic poets of the Greek
same period wrote on the story of Philoctetes1. Nothing ofP 1 ^'
interest is known concerning these lost works,except, indeed,
one curious detail. Theodectes, whose repute stood high in the
time of Aristotle, represented the sufferer as wounded in the
hand, not in the foot2. The motive of this innovation is not
difficult to divine. Aristophanes touches on the predilection of
Euripides for maimed heroes, and in the comedies which had
been written on the subject of Philoctetes, his disabled foot had
doubtless been made a prominent trait3. Theodectes wished to
avoid all associations of burlesque. His expedient for dignifying
the warrior's misfortune is very characteristic of the decadence.
18. In the best age of Roman Tragedy, Attius (c. 140 B.C.) Attius.
composed a Philocteta, of which some small fragments remain,-
less than fifty lines in all. Much ingenuity has been expended
on conjectures as to the plot. But the evidence is too scanty
to warrant any conclusion4. Many of the verses have a rugged
1

The 0i\ojmjrijt by Achaeus of Eretria (a contemporary of Sophocles) dealt with


the hero's adventures at Troy. See Nauck, Trag. Graec. Fragm. p. 755 (2nd ed.).
The poet Antiphon (c. 400 B.C.) also wrote a $i\o)cr^Ti;s, if Meineke is right in altering
'AJ/TI0OJ<OUS to 'AvTupui'Tos in Stobaeus Flor. 115. 15 (Nauck, p. 793). The $i\oKTrp-r)s
mentioned by Suidas among the works of Philocles may have been that of his uncle
Aeschylus, as Otto Ribbeck suggested {Rom. Tragbd. p. 376).
8
In Arist. Eth. N. 7. 8 (p. n 50 b 9) the Philoctetes of Theodectes is cited as an
instance of a man fighting against pain which at last overcomes him. A schol. there
(Anecd. Paris, vol. I. p. 243, 15) says that this poet represented him as TT)X x c i p a
SeSriyiUvov, and as exclaiming, KO'^OTE T^V i/iTjv xe'lPa- The last words are doubtless a mere paraphrase.
3
Ar. Ach. 411. The Sicilian Epicharmus had written a piece on Philoctetes; and
Strattis, one of the latest poets of the Old Comedy (c. 412384 B.C.), had taken the
same theme. The ascription of a play on this subject to Antiphanes (of the Middle
Comedy) is perhaps erroneous: see above, n. 1.
4
Ribbeck (Scenicae Rom. poesis fragm. pp. 308 ff.) thinks that Attius followed
Euripides, for the most part, in his general design, but borrowed occasional touches
from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and the minor Greek dramatists. The impossibility of
solving the question is sensibly recognised by Schneidewin (Philologus iv. p. 656)
and Milani (Mito di F., p. 47).
One point of interest may, however, be noticed. Attius made some one tell the
same story which is told by the Neoptolemus of Sophoclesviz., that Odysseus still
held the armour of Achilles (see fr. 16). But no one could use this fiction with so
much effect as the person chiefly aggrieved. Perhaps, then, Attius followed Sophocles
in associating Odysseus with Neoptolemus.

INTROD UCTION.
power,as these, for instance, spoken by the hero in his agony:
Heu ! qui salsis fluctibu' mandet
Me ex sublimo vertice saxi ?
Iamiam absumor: conficit animam
Vis vulneris, ulceris aestus.
Euphorion.

Fenelon's
Telemaque.

The adventures of Philoctetes after the Trojan war were


related by Euphorion of Chalcis (c. 220 B.C.), in a short epic
(<>i\o/cTriTr)<;), of which only five lines, preserved by Stobaeus,
are extant, but of which the contents are partly known from a
note of Tzetzes on Lycophron1. Philoctetes arrived in southern
Italy, and there founded the city of Cremissa, near Crotona.
He raised a shrine to Apollo the protector of wanderers2, and
dedicated in it the bow of Heracles. He was slain while aiding
an expedition of Rhodians against some Achaeans of Pellene
who had settled in Italy.
19. Once, at least, in modern literature the story of Philoctetes has been treated with a really classical grace. The mind of
F&ielon was in natural sympathy with the spirit of ancient Greek
poetry; and the twelfth book of the Telemaque, where Philoctetes
relates his fortunes to Telemachus, is marked by this distinction.
Fenelon varies the earlier part of the legend, following a version
which is given by Servius3. Heracles, when about to perish on
Mount Oeta, wished that the resting-place of his ashes should
remain unknown. Philoctetes swore to keep the secret. Odysseus afterwards came in search of Heracles, and at last prevailed
on Philoctetes to reveal the spot,not, indeed, by words, but by
stamping upon it. It was for this that Philoctetes was punished
by the gods. One of the arrows of Heraclestinged with the
venom of the Lernaean hydradropped from his hand, and
wounded the offending foot. For almost all that part of the
story which passes in Lemnos, Fenelon has closely followed the
play of Sophocles. Many passages are translated or paraphrased
with happy effect. He wished, however, to present the father of
1

Stob. Flor. 59. 16. Tzetzes on Lycophron 911.


Tzetzes on Lye. 911 iraufleis TTJS OXTJS, 'KkaS.au 'ATOWWVOS Upon
connect aXaTos with a\ta (Welcker, Gotterl. I. p. 465).
3
On Verg. Aen. 3. 402.
2

i.

Others

INTRODUCTION.

xxxv

Telemachus in a more favourable light; and so it is Odysseus,


not Neoptolemus, who restores the bow.
' Farewell, thou promontory where Echo so often repeated Lessing.
my cries,'says the Philoctetes of Fenelon,true to the text
of Sophocles. The Tele'maque appeared in 1699. More than
half a century later, these laments of Philoctetes became the
starting-point of a discussion destined to have fruitful results.
Winckelmann, speaking of the Laocoon, had observed that the
marble indicates no loud cry, but rather ' a subdued groan of
anguish': ' Laocoon suffers, but he suffers like the Philoctetes of
Sophocles.' Lessing, in his Laocoon (1766), pointed out that the
Philoctetes of Sophocles shrieks aloud, and that Heracles, in the
Trachiniae, does the same. ' The ancient Greek uttered his
anguish and his sorrow; he was ashamed of no mortal weakness.'
If, then, the poet expresses the cry of bodily pain, while the
sculptor refrains from expressing it, the reason must be sought
in the different conditions of the two arts. At the time when
Lessing wrote, the general tendency of contemporary taste was
in agreement with the view on which Cicero insists, that any
outward manifestation of pain is unworthy of a great mind, and
that a wrong had been done to the heroic character by those
poets who had permitted their heroes to utter lamentations1.
This maxim is exemplified in the tragedies of the stoic Seneca,
whose persons are forcibly described by Lessing as ' prize-fighters
in buskins 2 ': it had also been observed on the classical stage of
France.
In a passage of excellent criticism,which has lost nothing
of its value because it closed the aesthetic controversy which it
concerns,Lessing shows how Sophocles, in the Philoctetes, has
reconciled the necessary portrayal of physical suffering with the
highest requirements of tragic art. He takes up three points.
1
Tusc. Disp. 2. 13. 32, Afflictusne et iacens et lamentabili voce deplorans, audies,
O virum fortem ? Te vero, ita affectum, ne virum quidem dixerit quisquam. Aut
mittenda igitur fortitudo est, aut sepeliendus dolor.
2
He ingeniously remarks that the influence of the gladiatorial shows may have
been perverting, in this respect, to Roman Tragedy. But he might have excepted the
best age of Roman Tragedy,the second century B.C.,when the Greek masters
(chiefly Euripides) were the models. Thus Attiusas we have seendid not shrink
from allowing Philoctetes to utter cries of anguish.

xxxvi

INTRODUCTION.

(i) The nature of the suffering itself. The wound is a divine


punishment, and there is a supernatural element in its operation :
'a poison worse than any to be found in nature' vexes the victim.
Then this affliction is joined to other evils,solitude, hunger,
hardship. (2) The expression of the suffering. It is true that,
in the scene where Philoctetes utters his cries of pain (vv. 730 ff.),
he believes that he is about to be rescued from Lemnos: his
anguish, there, is physical only. But these cries are wrung from
him by extreme torment, despite his efforts to stifle them (vv.
742 f.). They detract nothing from the heroic firmness of his
character,displayed not only in the strength of his attachments, but also (as ancient Greeks would deem) in the fixity of
his resentments. ' A n d then we are asked to suppose that
Athenians would have scorned this rock of a man, because he
reverberates to waves which cannot shake him 1 !' (3) The
effect of this expression upon the other persons. As Lessing
acutely remarks, the dramatic inconvenience of a hero who cries
aloud from bodily pain is that such a cry, though it need not
excite contempt, seems to demand more sympathy than is usually
forthcoming. Sophocles has forestalled this difficulty 'by causing
the other persons of the drama to have their own interests.'
That is, when Philoctetes shrieks, the mind of the spectator is
not occupied in gauging the precise amount of sympathy shown
by Neoptolemus, but rather in watching how it will affect his
secret purpose. ' If Philoctetes had been able to hide his suffering, Neoptolemus would have been able to sustain his deceit...
Philoctetes, who is all nature, brings back Neoptolemus to his
own nature. This return is excellent, and the more affecting
because it is the result of pure humanity.'
French

The last words allude to a French drama in which a different


motive had been employed. Chateaubrun, in his Philoctele
(1755), had given the hero a daughter named Sophie, who (with
hergouvernante) visited Lemnos; and the romantic passion with
which Sophie inspired Neoptolemus became his chief reason for
assisting her father. Two other French dramas of the same
title, those of Ferrand (1780) and La Harpe (1781), are noticed
1

Cp. 1460

x^^io^v-

INTRODUCTION.

xxxvii

by M. Patin ; but a comparative respect for the example of


Sophocles is the highest merit which he ascribes to either.
20. The legend of Philoctetes, as embodied in classical The legend
poetry, is illustrated at every step by extant monuments of1" rtclassical art,vase-paintings, engraved gems, reliefs, or wallpaintings,ranging in date from the fifth century B.C. to the
second or third century of the Christian era2. He is seen assisting, in his youth, at the sacrifices offered to Chryse by Heracles
and by Jason;standing beside the pyre of Heracles on Oeta ;
wounded by the serpent, at his second visit to Chryse's shrine ;
abandoned in Lemnos;finally, tended by the 'healing hands'
at Troy, and victorious over Paris.
A peculiar interest belongs to the representations of his
sufferings in Lemnos, since they exhibit three principal types,
each of which can be traced to the influence of an eminent
artist, (i) The sculptor Pythagoras of Rhegium (c. 460 B.C.),
famous especially for his athletes, excelled in the expression of
sinews and veins. One of his best-known works was a statue at
Syracuse, which represented a man limping, with a sore in his
foot. 'Those who look at it,' says Pliny, 'seem to feel the pain3.'
There can be no doubt that the subject was Philoctetes. As an
example of the later works which were probably copied, more or
less directly, from this statue, may be mentioned a cornelian
intaglio, now in the Museum of Berlin4. Philoctetes is walking,
with the aid of a stick held in his left hand: in his right he
carries the bow and quiver : his left foot,the wounded one, as a
bandage indicates,is put forward, while the weight of the body
is thrown on the right foot. The figure illustrates a principle
which Pythagoras of Rhegium is said to have introduced,viz.,
1

tudes sur les Tragiques grecs: Sophocle: pp. 92 ff.; 149 f.


A complete account of these has been given by Sign. L. A. Milani, in his admirable and exhaustive monograph, / / Mito di Filottete nella Letteratura rfassica e nelP
Arte Figurata (Florence, 1879). The plates subjoined to the work reproduce, on a
small scale, 50 illustrations of the myth from various sources. A supplement, entitled
Ntwvi Monumenti di Filottete (Rome, 1882), contains at the end a synoptical table,
enumerating 63 works of art which relate to the subject.
3
Hist. Nat. 34. 59.
4
Milani, Mito di F., p. 78.
2

J. S. IV.

xxxviii

INTRODUCTION.

a correspondence between the attitude of the left leg and that of


the right arm, or vice versa,a symmetry obtained by an artificial balance of movements1. It is noteworthy that a standing
or walking Philoctetes occurs only on engraved gems, and in one
mural painting at Pompeii (of about 30 B.C.) which may also
have been suggested by the Syracusan statue, (ii) A very
beautiful Athenian vase-painting, of about 350 B.C., shows Philoctetes sitting on a rock in Lemnos, under the leafless branches
of a stunted tree; his head is bowed, as if in dejection; the
bandaged left foot is propped on a stone, and the left hand
clasps the left knee2. He wears a sleeveless Doric chiton, girt
round the waist; at his right side the bow and arrows rest on
the ground. It is probable that the source of this vase-painting
was a picture by Parrhasius, who is known to have taken
Philoctetes for his subject at a date slightly earlier than that
to which the vase is referred. The distinctive feature here
is the predominance of mental over physical pain;a conception which might have been suggested to the painter by the
Attic dramatists, (iii) In a third series of representations, Philoctetes reclines on the ground, fanning his wounded foot with
the wing of a bird, or with a branch. This type occurs only on
gems, and appears to have been originated by Boethus of Chalcedon, a gem-engraver of high repute, who lived probably in
the early part of the third century B.C.3
Some other scenes found on works of art, in which Philoctetes is no longer alone, were directly inspired by Attic Tragedy.
An engraved gem, now in the British Museum, represents the
theft of the bow by Odysseus, as Aeschylus appears to have
imagined it4. Euripides has been the source of some reliefs
1

Such equipoise was technically called 'chiasmus,'a term borrowed from the
form of the Greek X, and transferred from rhetoric to sculpture.
2
Ib. p. 80. Milani has chosen this picture as the frontispiece of his monograph.
The vase is an aryballos, now the property of Sign. A. Castellani, of Rome.
3
Ib. pp. 85 ff., and Nuovi Monumenti, p. 275.It has been conjectured that the
Philoctetes of Aeschylus was the literary source used by Boethus. This is not improbable (see next note). But it is not likely that the winged creatures which the
sufferer fanned away from his foot are the 6KOPVOI (' locusts') or <pdf3es ('wild pigeons')
which were mentioned in that play (fr. 251 f., ed. Nauck).
4
The gem is a sardonyx intaglio, no. 829 in the Hertz collection, and shows the

INTRODUCTION.

xxxix

on alabaster urns of the second century B.C.; two Trojan envoys,


on the left hand of Philoctetes, are inviting him to follow
them, while on his right hand are Odysseus and Diomedes,
in an attitude of remonstrance; or Philoctetes, in acute pain,
is tended by Odysseus, while Diomedes, at the sufferer's back,
seizes the bow and quiver1. Nor has Sophocles been neglected ;
Odysseus instructing Neoptolemus appears on a marble medallion" of the first or second century A.D.; and a sarcophagus3 of
the same period shows the moment when Odysseus starts forward to prevent his more generous comrade from restoring the
bow to its despairing master (v. 974).
21. But the most valuable contribution of art to the inter- The scene
pretation of the play is a vase-painting of Philoctetes wounded "-J
at the shrine of Chryse. This incident, like the personality of
Chryse herself, is left indistinct by the allusions in the poet's text;
and such indistinctness,easily tolerated by ancient audiences in
matters which lay ' outside of the tragedy,'tends to weaken a
modern reader's grasp of the story. It is therefore interesting
to know how the whole scene was conceived by a Greek artist
nearly contemporary with Sophocles. The painting occurs on
a round wine-jar (arafj.vo'i), found at Caere in southern Etruria,
and now in the Campana collection of the Louvre: the date to
which it is assigned is about 400 B.C.4
The place is the sacred precinct of Chryse' the roofless
sanctuary' of which Sophocles speaksin the island of the
same name, near the eastern coast of Lemnos. Philoctetes,
who has just been bitten in the foot by the snake, is lying
on the ground, overcome by pain, and crying aloud, as the
recumbent Philoctetes fanning his foot to keep off some winged creatures; while
Odysseus, characterised by the 7r?Xos, stands at his back, in the act of taking the bow
from the place where it is suspended. This recalls a fragment of the Aeschylean
Philoctetes, Kpe/J.cura<ra ((cpe/taarci?) TOO TTI'TI/OJ (K neXavdpiov. See Milani, Mito di F.,
p. 90.
1
Milani, pp. 96 ff. Each of these subjects occurs on several urns, most of which
were found at Volterra; some of them are in the museum there, others at Florence,
and one at Cortona.
2
Now in the Vatican Library. Milani, p. 91.
3
Now in the garden of the Villa Gherardesca at Florence. Ib. pp. 92 ff.
4
Ib. p. 68.

d2

xl

INTROD UCTION.

open mouth indicates. The laurel-wreath worn by him, as by


all the other persons of the group, denotes that he had been

sacrificing. A beardless youth who bends over the sufferer, as


if about to raise him in his arms, is probably Palamedes; his
chlamys is girt about his loins in the manner used by sacrificers.
On the left, the image of Chryse is seen behind her burning altar ;
the snake, 'the lurking guardian' of her shrine (v. 1327 {.),
which had crept forth as Philoctetes approachedis again
seeking its hiding-place, while Agamemnon strikes at it with
his sceptre. Next to him on the right is the beardless Achilles,
with chlamys girt at the waist, and a piece of flesh, roasted for
the sacrifice, on a spit (o/3e\o<?) in his hand: then the bearded
Diomedes, wrapt in his himation: and, on the extreme right, a
similar form, possibly Menelaus1. The attitudes express horror
at the disaster2. If the followers of the Greek chiefs are
1
So Michaelis conjectures (Anna/. delV Istit. di Corr. Archeol., 1857, P- 2 5s).
Milani, however, thinks that the artist introduced this figure merely because the
symmetry of the picture required it, and had no definite person in view (p. 69).
2
In the original, the names $IA0KTETE2, XPTSB, AIOME . . 2 appear above
the heads of those persons respectively : the names of Agamemnon and Achilles have

INTRODUCTION.

xli

imagined as gathered around this group, awe-struck spectators


of the interrupted rite, nothing is wanting to a picture of the
moment indicated by Sophocles, when the ' ill-omened cries' of
Philoctetes ' filled the camp,' and at length prompted the cruel
resolve to carry him across the narrow strait, and abandon him
on the lonely shore of Lemnos.
22. A further point of interest in this vase-painting is its chryse.
representation of the mysterious Chryse. Her image has the
rigid character of a primitive temple-image (j;6avov). The high
tcaKados or 7ro\o? on her head seems to indicate a Chthonian
power, as in the case of Demeter, Artemis Tauropolos, and
Artemis Orthia. A very similar representation of her occurs on
another vasea 'vinegar-cup' (oxybaphon) of the fifth or fourth
century B.C., now in the Lamberg collection at Vienna1. The
scene there depicted is the first sacrifice of Philoctetes at Chryse's
altar, in company with Heracles; and there, as here, her identity
is made certain by her name being written above. There, too,
her hands are uplifted; but she wears a corona, not the calathus;
and a broad stripe, which runs down her robe from neck to feet,
is studded with two rows of discs, which appear to symbolise
stars. Here, also, such discs are seen, though only on the girdle
and on the lower edge of the garment. According to one
theory, Chryse was merely a form of Athena,the epithet
' golden' having been substituted for the personal name,and
the serpent at her shrine is to be compared with the guardian of
the Erechtheum (see on 1327 ff.). But there is more probability
in the view of Petersen2, that Chryse is a Greek form of Bendis.
The Thracian Bendis was a lunar deity, sharing some attributes
of Artemis (with whom the Greeks chiefly associated her), Hecate,
Selene, and Persephone. The worship of Bendis seems to have
existed in Lemnos, as at Athens. On the other hand, Chryse
is always connected with places near the Thracian coasts.
Lenormant, adopting this view, remarked that, if the name
been almost obliterated, but A
ON and A
2 remain. No trace of a name
appears over the supposed Menelaus.
1
Milani, pp. 60 ff.
2
Ersch and Gruber's Encyc, art. Griechische Mylhologie, p. 294.

xlii

INTRODUCTION.

Bendis meant 'bright1,' then Xpvai) {=XPva^ m a v ^ a v e


a direct translation of it2. Thus, when Heracles, Jason and
Agamemnonall bound on perilous enterprisesoffered sacrifice at Chryse's altar, they might be regarded as seeking to
conciliate an alien deity. Sophocles imagines her as a cruel
being (aj/Aotypwv) whom higher powersfor their own good
purposehave permitted to wreak her anger; but he does
not further define her supernatural rank3.
23. The Philoctetes was produced at the Great Dionysia,
Supposed
reference. ' a t e m March, 409 B.C., and gained the first prize4. Sophocles,
according to the tradition, would then have been eighty-seven.
Able critics have favoured the view that his choice of this
subject was in some way connected with the return of Alcibiades5. It was in 411 B.C. that Thrasybulus had prevailed on
the democratic leaders at Samos to send for Alcibiades, and to
elect him one of the ten generals6,a measure by which, as Grote
says, 'he was relieved substantially, though not in strict form,'
from the penalties of banishment. In'4io Alcibiades had been
the principal author of the Athenian victory at Cyzicus. Thus,
at the date of the Philoctetes, men's minds had already been prepared for his formal restitution to citizenshipwhich took place
on his return to Athens in 407 B.C. It is easy to draw a
parallel between the baffled army at Troy, with their fate
hanging on an estranged comrade, and the plight of Athens,
whose hopes were centred on an exile. Nay, even the passage
1

As Jacob Grimm conjectured, comparing Vanadis, a surname of Freyja.


Daremberg and Saglio, Diet, des Antiquites, I. p. 686.
3
In the commentary on vv. 192 ff., where I speak of her as a 'nymph,' I meant to
convey no more than her inferiority to the Olympian deities; as, however, she seems
to be more than a vi/x<f>rj in the proper Greek sense of the word, the fitter term would
2

have been CM.ip.hiv.


4

See the second Argument to the play, p. 4.


Ad. Scholl, Sophokles. Sein Leben und Wirken. (Frankfort, 2nd ed. 1870.)
Ch. Lenormant, in the Correspondant of July 25, 1855. M. Patin (Sophocle, p. 125)
mentions, as the earliest expression of such a view, an art. by M. Lebeau jeune in the
Mem. de VAcad. des Inscriptions, vol. xxxv.
8
Thuc. 8. 8i, 82. The .first overtures of Alcibiades had been made to the
oligarchs in the army at Samos (ib. 47), and had led to the Revolution of the
Four Hundred.
5

INTRODUCTION.

xliii

where Philoctetes learns who have perished, and who survive, in


the Greek army has been read as a series of allusions to dead or
living Athenians. Then Neoptolemus is Thrasybulus: and the
closing words of Heracles (evaefielv ra 7rpo? deovs) convey a
lesson to the suspected profaner of the Mysteries. Now, to
suppose that Sophocles intended a political allegory of this
kind, is surely to wrong him grievously as a poet. At the
same time it must be recognised that the coincidence of date
is really remarkable. It is not impossible that his thoughts
may have been first turned to this theme by the analogy which
he perceived in it to events of such deep interest for his countrymen1. But the play itself is the best proof that, having chosen
his subject, he treated it for itself alone.
24. . The diction of the Philoctetes has been regarded by Diction.
Schneidewin and others as somewhat deficient in the lofty force
of earlier compositions. But this criticism is not warranted by
those passages which gave the fittest scope for such a quality,
as the invocation of the Great Mother (391402),the noble
stasimon (6j6729),and the denunciations by Philoctetes of
the fraud practised against him (927962 : 10041044). If,
in the larger part of the play, the language is of a less elevated
strain, this results from the nature of the subject; since the
gradual unfolding of character, to which the plot owes its
peculiar interest, is effected by the conversations of Neoptolemus with Odysseus or with Philoctetes, in which a more
familiar tone necessarily predominates.
25. The versification, however, clearly shows, in one re- Versificaspect, the general stamp of the later period. If the Philoctetes tlon '
is compared (for example) with the Antigone, it will be apparent
that the structure of the iambic trimeter has become more Euripidean. The use of tribrachs is very large. Two such feet occur
consecutively in the same verse (1029 ical vvv ri-fi ayere ; TL
fi airayeade; TOV ^apti/;): a tribrach precedes a dactyl (1232
1

There is one passage in the Philoctetes, which, though it should not be regarded
as a direct allusion to recent events, might certainly suggest that they were present to
the poet's mind : see commentary on vv. 385 ff.

xliv

INTRODUCTION.

Trap ov-rrep eXaftov rdhe ra ro!j\ av6i<; ira\iv) : or follows it (932


a7r68o?, iKvovfxai a', aTroBoi, itceTeva), T&KVOV). In two instances a

verse ends with a single word which forms a 'paeon quartus'


(1302 TTokifiiov, 1327 atcakvfyri),a licence used, indeed, by
Aeschylus, but in a trimeter which belongs to a lyric passage
(Bum. 780). An anapaest in the first place of the verse occurs
not less than thirteen times (308, 470, 486, 544, 742, 745, 749,
898, 923, 939, 941, 967, 1228),without counting 815 (ri irapa<f>povel<;, where the first foot may be a tribrach), 549 (a proper
name), or 585 (iyd> ei/j.\ a case of synizesis). Not a single
instance occurs in the Antigone; and in no other play are there
more than five. These relaxations of metre in the Philoctetes
may be partly explained, perhaps, by the more colloquial tone
which prevails in much of the dialogue. But at any rate the
pervading tendency to greater freedom is unmistakable, and is
certainly more strongly marked than in any other of the poet's
plays.

MANUSCRIPTS, EDITIONS, ETC.

i. THE MSS., other than L, to which reference is made in the MSS.


critical notes are the Parisian A, B, K, T ; the Florentine Y, Lc, L2, R ;
the Venetian V, V2, V 3 ; the Roman Vat, Vat. b ; and the London
Harl. Some account of these has been given in former volumes (Oed.
Tyr., Introd., pp. liii ff., 2nd ed. : Oed. Col., p. xlix, 2nd ed.),with
three exceptions, viz., K, Lc, and Harl. The readings of K, when
given, are cited from the edition of Blaydes (1870), who was the first to
collate it for the Philocteles. It is a MS. of the 15th century, cod. 2886
in the National Library at Paris, and, as a rule, closely follows L :
though, as Cavallin remarks (Prolegom. pp. xxxv f.), 'nonnunquam suam
quandam est aut corrumpendi aut corrigendi viam ingressus.' It is
curious that in v. 1322, where L has ewoiav a-oi Xeyw, K has the true
evvoiav Xeywv, with crot merely written above. Dindorf's Lc (the N of
Blaydes), is cod. 32. 2 in the Laurentian Library at Florence, and dates
from the 14th century. The Harleian MS. is no. 5743 of that collection
in the British Museum; it is ascribed to the 15th century, and contains
the Philoctetes only.
2. With regard to the readings of L and its peculiarities as a MS.,
some points of interest will be found (e.g.) in the critical notes on
vv
- 533) 715, 727, 942, 1263, 1384. Attention may be drawn, also,
to vv. 82 and 945, as instances of the manner in which L, even when it
has lost the true reading, sometimes preserves a hint of it which has
vanished from later MSS. In what concerns the relations between L
and the other codices, the most remarkable point presented by this
play is the twofold reading in v. 220,K<XK irotas Trdrpas (L), and
TrXdry (A). Cavallin's theory that both arose from K<U. iroia
seems more ingenious than probable; but it does not therefore become
necessary to regard the discrepancy as evidence that A had an archetype
distinct from L (see commentary). Another passage which deserves
notice, as illustrating the character of L, is 639, en-ciSay irvcC/ia TOVK

xlvi

MANUSCRIPTS,

Trpiipas dvfj. Here all the MSS. have lost dvrj. L has a^i (ay), which
shows the corruption in its first stage,a simple loss of v. The ay was
taken as = ' blows,' and was allowed to stand, although contrary to the
sense required by the context. But in the Paris MS., A, a wish to suit
the sense has carried the corruption to a second stage : it has dyij,
meant for dyy (from idyyv),'be broken,' i.e., 'fall,' 'subside.' In 767,
again, we find A itself holding the intermediate place between L and a
MS. still later than A:L there has the true ecy : A has the unmeaning
i-qxi, which, in its turn, led to the ir/Ky of Paris B.
Scholia.

3- In four instances the scholia preserve a true reading which the


MSS. have lost: V. 538 Ka/ca: 954 avavovfiai: 1199 f3povTas avyais :
1461 KVKLOV. At v. 639, where the schol. has ireo-y, dpavaOfj, the first
word has been taken as pointing to the lost reading dvfj: but more
probably it merely refers, like OpavaOrj, to the spurious dyy.

Interpola 4- After v. 1251 averse appears to have been lost. On the other
tions.
hand, two examples of interpolation are scarcely doubtful,viz., (1) the
words ot TOV aOXiov...eKpLvav in 1365 ff., first rejected by Brunck; (2) the
words o-ijs Trdrpas...av8ds in 1407 f., first rejected by Dindorf.
Many other passages have been condemned or suspected by various
critics, but, so far as I can perceive, without sufficient cause. T h e
objections have been discussed in the notes, wherever it seemed
requisite. The following is a list of the impugned verses (about 70 in
all) :
13 f. E. A. Richter. 5054 (5e? u\..&vuyai), 63, 6669, 92 (with a change in 91)
Nauck. 128 Herwerden. 159r6i Benedict. 224, 255 f. (US' exovTO$ -tV*) Nauck.
264269 R. Prinz would reduce these six vv. to three. 268270 A. Jacob. 293
Nauck. 304 Bergk and Herwerden. 335 Burges. 340 Th. Gomperz. 342 Burges,
Gomperz, Otto Hense. 351 Meineke. 421 Dindorf. 458 K. Walter. 460, 474
Nauck. 540 Hense. 592 Herwerden. 598 f. ('ATpeTSai...Toa(d') Nauck. 637 f.
Bergk and Blaydes. 667 f. {ravrd <roi...5owai) Hense. 671673 Wunder, Dindorf,
Nauck, Campbell. 776778 A. Jacob. 782 Dindorf. 8ooTournier. 879 f. Wecklein.
880, 889 A. Zippmann. 916 Wunder. 939 Nauck. 958 Purgold. 988 Hense.
1004 Mollweide. 1039 Nauck. 1252 Wunder. 1369 Nauck (altering 1368). 1437
1440 (eyii d'...6.\G>i>(u) A. Jacob. 14421444 Dindorf. 14691471 Fr. Ritter.

Emendations.

5- Emendations proposed by the editor will be found at vv. 147,


4 9 I )728,

752, 782, 1092, 1125, ii49f., 1153.

Editions,
<> Besides the complete editions of Sophocles (Oed. Tyr. p. lx.i),
these separate editions of the Philodetes have been consulted :Ph.
Buttmann (Berlin, 1822). G. Burges (London, 1833). M. Seyffert
(Berlin, 1866). Chr. Cavallin (Lund, 1875). In the yourn. of Philo-

etc

EDITIONS, ETC.

xlvii

logy, vol. xvi. pp. 114 ff., Mr J. Masson has printed some previously
unpublished conjectures in this play by Turnebus, Lambinus and
Auratus. They are taken from MS. notes by Lambinus, contained
in a copy of the Turnebus Sophocles (ed. 1553) which is now in the
British Museum. Although they contain nothing new of any value,
they are occasionally curious as establishing claims of priority in
regard to more or less obvious corrections. Turnebus, it seems, had
anticipated Schneidewin by conjecturing eXwv in v. 700. Lambinus
had forestalled the following corrections:324 0v/u.6V.. .^ei^i (Brunck):
636 6p%y (Reiske, Brunck) : 639 dvfj (Pierson). As to v. 782,
however, where Lambinus seems to have suggested eixg ['^x*']' there
is no proof that he anticipated Camerarius, whose ed. of Sophocles
appeared in 1534 : and when at v. 1461 (yXvKiov re TTOTOV) he wrote
'al. AVKLOV,' he probably referred to the notice of that variant by the
scholiast. That Auratus was the author of some true conjectures, has
been noted in my commentary or Appendix (190 viraKova, 554 OL/JK/H
<rov via, 992 TWTJS, 1149 MK*T')- It may be added here that he was the
first to propose eiri in 648, and that in 1032 he suggested efc'o-r'
(meaning, probably, igeo
1
As to 5OKT)T TI in 126, and eyii in 571, those corrections may, indeed, have been
his own; but he could also have found them in the 14th century Ms. B at Paris, where
he held a Professorship. A similar remark applies to KXUWC in 688, which is in some
of the later MSS.

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
IN addition to anapaests, the lyric metres used in the Philoctetes are
the following.
(1) Logaoedic, based on the choree (or 'trochee'), ^, and the
cyclic dactyl, which is metrically equivalent to the choree, ~-J *->. A
logaoedic tetrapody, or verse of four feet (one cyclic dactyl and three
chorees) is called ' Glyconic' According as the dactyl comes first,
second, or third, the verse is a First, Second, or Third Glyconic. A
logaoedic tripody (one cyclic dactyl and two chorees) is called ' Pherecratic.' According as the dactyl comes first or- second, it is a First or
Second Pherecratic. Logaoedic verses of six and of five feet also occur.
The logaoedic dipody {'versus Adonius') is found once in this play:
see Analysis, No. III., Stasimon, Second Strophe, per. n., v. 2.
(2) Choreic verses, based on the choree, - w, are ordinarily of four
or of six feet, and are often used to vary logaoedic measures (cp. No. I.,
Parodos, First Strophe, etc.).
(3) Dactyls occur in the form of the hexameter, the tetrapody, and
the tripody. (For the two latter, see Analysis, No. IV., Kommos, First
Strophe, per. 1.)
(4) Dochmiacs. The single dochmius, ^ : ^ | - A ||, occurs in
No. V., Second Kommos, First Str., per. in., v. 1. The dochmiac
dimeter, of which the normal form is ^ \ -~>\-, | | | A ||,
appears in No. II., Hyporcheme, periods 11. and in., and in No. IV.,
Kommos, Strophe, per. in. In the first of these passages (No. II.,
per. 11.), the two dochmiac dimeters are separated by a verse consisting
of bacchii (*>) in two dipodies. Such a measure was akin to the
dochmiac, in which the bacchius was the primary element.

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

xlix

(5) The ionic measure, ^ ^ , is found once (No. V., Anomoiostropha, first section, per. 11.). It is there used with anacrusis,
^ ^ : v ; ^ , i.e., in the form called ionicus a minore. This passage
also exemplifies the not uncommon licence by which dichorees ( - ^ - v)
could be interchanged with ionics. Such substitution was termed
aVaxXacris (' breaking up'). On this see Schmidt, Rhythmic and Metric,
23- 2.
(6) Choriambics ( - ^ ^ - ) occur in the same passage, a little
further on. (No. V., Anomoiostr., first sect., per. iv.)
This sequence of ionics and choriambics is instructive, as illustrating the fine sense which varied lyric metres according to shades of
feeling. The ionic was an animated measure; here, it expresses the
lively repugnance with which Philoctetes regards the prospect of going
to Troy. But the choriambic was more than animated,it was
passionate; and so it is reserved for the climax, where, in his despair,
he conjures the Chorus not to depart,/MJ, Trpos dpaiov Aio's, cXtfgs,
LKerevm. The same ethical relation between the two measures may
be seen in the Oedipus Tyrannus, 483 ff. (Metr. Analysis, p. xciv).
In the subjoined metrical schemes, the sign ', for - , denotes that
the time-value of is increased by one half, so that it is equal to
- ^ or ^ w . The sign > means that an 'irrational' long syllable
(o-vkXafirj akoyos) is substituted for a short. The letter <o, written over
two short syllables, indicates that they have the time-value of one short
only.
At the end of a verse, A marks a pause equal to u, X a pause
equal to - . The anacrusis of a verse (the part preliminary to the
regular metre) is marked off by three dots placed vertically, ; .
The end of a rhythmical unit, or 'sentence,' is marked by [|. The
end of a rhythmical ' period' (a combination of two or more such
sentences, corresponding with each other) is marked by ]].
If a rhythmical sentence introduces a rhythmical period without
belonging to it, it is called a TrpowSo's, or prelude: or, if it closes it, an
e7r(j)8os, epode, or postlude. Similarly a period may be grouped round
an isolated rhythmical sentence, which is then called the //.eo-wSos,
mesode, or interlude.

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
I.

P a r o d o s , vv. 135218.

FIRST STROPHE.Logaoedic, in hexapodies (Period I.), and tetra


podies (II., III.). The First Glyconic is used in II. 2; the Second
Glyconic, in II. 3, 4 and III. 1. There are some choreic verses, viz.
I. 1 (a choreic hexapody, or iambic trimeter): II. 1, IIT. 2, 3 (choreic
tetrapodies). A similar blending of logaoedic and choreic measures
may be seen in Ant. 332375 and 582625 (Metr. Anal. pp. lix ff.).

I. I .

Tt xpr] TL I xpr] fie | SeorroT | V ev | a ev | ov A ||


yttcX I OK 7raX |
>

a i /*eX I
_^

I M<" ^ e 7 I e " " ^ | o f A

W*
_

I .

2. o"Tey etv | y\ TL Aty | eiv irpos | avSp vir | OTTT | av A ]]


<f>povp ': etv [ ofifi Tt

| trip fia\

terra

w 8e | lioi Xe7 | avX | as A


\j

*-*

2. T t \ v a s ertp \ a s | Trpov\ | ei A ||
Trot ; as eveSp | os |

yai

| ei A

3. icai yvwfi, I a 7rap OT | a) TO | /?eiov ||


%iap I av TIP e% | a TO | yap /ioi

Kai

4. St

os I <TKry7TTpov av | aao"T | a i A ]]

IM0

Flf

Ol'K OTTO

I I I . 1. re 8 <o TCKV
[AT]

CD

Kai.pi

I OJ'

I ov TOS e \ I rjXvO \ ev A

irpo&Te(T

I top /te Xa^ | 77 7ro# | e^ A

(i>

0)

CO

2. 7rav KpaTos | (Dyvyt | ov TO //.ot | tvveirt


TIS

TOXOS

I 17 Tts e5/> I a TIV ex


v^

vy

'

3. Tl o-ot ^pt I tov vir I ovpy | tiv A ]]


ei'

ai'Xoj'

J 7} dvp \

at

\ ov

||

I e t VTiftov

Kaip

(p A

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

I.

II.

{ A^

HI*

'A

li

[These diagrams show the structure


of each period. The numerals denote
the number of feet in each rhythmical
unit, or sentence. The dots mark
the beginning and end of each verse.
Curves on the right show how single
sentences correspond with each other.
Curves on the left show the correspondence between groups of sentences.]

After the first Strophe follows the first system of Anapaests (144 vvv 11&... T49 depaTTOJUV): after the first Antistrophe, the second system (159 OTKOV...I68 eirivwiiav).
SECOND STROPHE.Logaoedic. I. Second Glyconics. II. The
same, except that vv. 3 and 4 consist of two tripodies (a Second and
First Pherecratic), with a pentapody between them.
I . 1. oiKTip I o) viv ey I coy oir
OVTOS

I irpwToyov

>
2. fi/q TOV
OIKWV I ovBevos

3.

<os A

j oiv 10 j ws

ov fipoT | u>v A
|

vtrrep

| os

firjSe I vvrpocj>ov [ ofifi. ex | <v A


vavroiv I

a/i/iopos

| ev

1 \ u A

4. Sva-rav \ osjixovos | ai | a A
| /lovvos air \ aW | av A

I I . 1. voo-

i I ynev voo"oi' I aypi


we I 7]

2.

a\

| av A

Aam I w^ /ACT | a A

V I 1 8 TTl I TTaVTL I TO) A


wv j ev T oSi/i* I ats 6/A I ou A

ei A
T I oiKTpos av I ?; || ecrra /icp |

4 . a> TraXafi \ <u 6e \ <ov A


a 5 advp

j OGTO/J. \ 05 A

e%

| B t op | ei- A

Hi

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

5. <o 8VCTT I a m yev | ~q /3por | aw A


a

Xw

I Ti)\e<pav I TJS True/) | at! A

6 . 01s JH17 | /xeTpios

| a t | <i>v A

01/xwy | cut Dira/c | ov | A

I.

II.

After the second Antistrophe follows the third system of Anapaests (191 oiSev

II.

THIRD STROPHE.Logaoedic.
Glyconics.

I. I.

(TTO/JL e^e I 7rai | n

Hexapodies (1 being choreic).

TOSC | Trpov<j>a.v | t] KTVTT | OS A

e%e Tew | OJ* | \ey on | (ppovriS | as ye | as A

a\\
>
2.

I.

<^O)TOS

- ^

(TVVT pO<j>OS

I
| *OV | TOV A

0)S

(os ou/c I

| av | j;p A

I I . I . fj TTOV I TJjS 7] I TJ^Se TO7T | IllV A


ou /ioXir I ay crup | 1770s ex | we A
>

>

ct jSaAA I et /n Tt)ju. | a <]>Ooyy | a | rov UTifi | ov Kar av | ayK | av A |


Toifxav

I aypofior

as aXX

?; | TTOU Trrat

wy vtr av J a7K | a?

METRICAL

ANALYSIS.

liii

OVTOS | ovSe /* I Xad | ei A ||


a TIJX | bywov i |

w | av A

\j

>

^<

^j ^

>

v^

ia | TfjXoOtv | av8a | Tpvcrav || (op 8ia (rrjfia | y a p 0po


ov irpo^og. rt

t A TJ

| yap deiv | OK A

II.

1!
II.

H y p o r c h e m e , vv. 391402 = v v . 507518.

STROPHE.Period I. is choreic.
dochmiacs; v. 2, of bacchii.

v^

In II., verses 1 and 3 consist of

Per. I I I . is wholly dochmiac.

>

eorep | a Trap | /3am | ya || fiarep | avr | ov St | os A

I. 1. op

i/> av

| a f TTOXX | w e

>

| Xei

tv Sva | OI<TT

TOV jiify | a v i r a x r | wAov


a0\

| TtDV /J.

ov ve/j. | eis A ]]
010'X

[M. | Tp, TOTV || I TTi;u8(O/A | aV A

II. I.

Se irutpovs av \ af, ex<?

II fis arpeiS

\ as A

t s TOVS arp I eiSav v/3p || is irao- | x<Pel A


w

3. T

/uec TO I mivwv

TO. nrarpia
anSejuecos

J. S. IV.

KOK || OV TijiSe

| KepSos A

| a 7rapSi8o(r | av A ]]
?rep eirifiefiov | ec A

| <av A

liv
I I I . I.

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
i

(a fiaK [ aipa || TavpoKTOv | <DV A

or

fltts

\ ev(TTo\ I ou rax II

2. Xt

OVTUIV e<f> |

TTOp

evacu/t av

" e | us A

Spe || TO) Xapn

| ou A

\ es 5o/i || ovs ran Be \ uv A

virtprar | ov A ]
f

VCfl

I.

K<[>vy

j wy A

II.

4"
4

III.

j dochm.
/ ' dochm.
| 2 bacch.
I \2 bacch.

6 = e7ra)8o5.

(dochm.
(dochm.
(dochm
(dochm.
dochm. = e

\ i dochm.
(dochm.

III.

Stasimon, vv. 676729.

FIRST STROPHE.Logaoedic. In Period I. the verses are of six,


five, and four feet: Periods II. and III. consist of tetrapodies only.
As in the First Strophe of the Parodos, there is an admixture of choreic
verses (I. 1 and 6 : II. 2).

I . I . Xoy <p ju.V I trjK


iv

I avros
^

I oucr oir | uttra 8 | ov jtiaA. | a A

I i\v irpoa \

ovpot

>

2. TOV
ovde TIC

| owe ex | uv jSacr | iv A

cyx>P

I w

irort

| TWV 8t | os A

KaK0

I 7TOK

| a A

3 . KO.T

Trap

y VTOVOV I avrirvT \ ov fiapv \Pp(t)TaTo\tc\av(T\\ eiev

aifiar

[ijp1 ov A

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
4.

lv

aAAov S I OVTIV ey I <oy I 018a KXV | (OV || OVS etriS | <ov | /xotp | a A |
os TOP

I Sep/ioTdT I av |

ai/j.ada

C. 70vS V0 I OtOVL

(o/iev

| av |

CXK | ewe A

OVT | a A

ov irodos j

6. ^i-aT (ov os

| /OJIC [|

7;7ri

| oiO" [ 1 A

I OUT ep | a s Ttv | ov TI | voa-fjuo- | as A

0 D \ X \ 01s KOT I

ei/rar

eiev

| ei TIS |

efiirea

| 01 A

I I . I . aAA lo-os I (ov LIT I o t s a.v I r]p A


(popflaSos I CK -yai | os eX | WJ> A

2. (oXXvO \ 0)8 av \
eipTe S

III. I.

vo/xev

| os A

Tras XOT | a/i^ii | TTXCIKT II wi' po^t I (ov fiov I os

TT(o<s TTOTt

irais ore/)

as 0iX

TT(OS a p a

if

I TravSaKp

m iropov I

I.

I <os A

ToSe TOI I davfJM fx e ^ | ei A


TOT ac eiX [

2.

aft

aXXor j aXXa^ j 9 A

acifc

II as

ev/tap

\ et VTT \ apx

I VTOV ] OVT II <D /3IOT I av Kar

| ecr^ | t v

| efac |

Su^os

| ar

III.

3 = irpowSos.

II.

4-

et || 77 Sa/ce |

4
4
:>

| 0A

lvi

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

SECOND STROPHE.Logaoedic. Period I., Pherecratic verses. In


Per. II., vv. i and 3 are Glyconic: v. 2 consists of two Pherecratics,
separated by a logaoedic verse of two feet (the 'versus Adonms': cp.
Ant, Metr. Anal. p. lvii).

I. I . ov <op/3 I av up I a s || y a s (nropov | ov/c aAA | <av A


vvv S avSp I wv 070^ ; aw |j

iraiSos VTT
-yj

2 . aipuiv

3.

I TO)V

TTXIJV e f

os va>

II. I.

KTO.V
7ToXX

2.

avrqa
>

| (DV || ei TTOTE |

I irovTOirop \ tp \\ Sovpari

TO$

| V\TI6

\ at A

| a v e p t s I a\<j>rj(TT

I O>KV(3O\

; OtS I
:

v^

| w

at A

\ ei A

ois avvo- I tit I y a o r p i || cpopfiav | to [nt\t \ a i/a>x [ <" A

10V IX7IV

av A

a. irpos

o s /MJ8 I oivo^vr I ov || 7ra)/iaTOS I ^ o - ^ II 77 SeKcr I ei XP0V I <? A


tnrepxet

| oure irap | ox^ll as IJ> 0

| xaX/c || airiris av \ Tip 6e

| 01s A

3 . XEUO"O" (ov 8 oir I ov yvoi | ?? o"TaTov| eis vS || u>p a | ei Trpcxre | va)/^ | a A ]


x\a^

; ei warp

I.

| os ^6t | (*> irvpt. | irafupa \\ TJS OIT j a s vtrep \ o%Q \ wv A

II.

METRICAL

ANALYSIS.

lvii

IV. Kommos (taking the place of a Second Stasimon), vv. 827864.


STROPHE.Period 1. is dactylic: II., choreic: III., dochmiac, with
a prelude.
I. I. i"JT o8vv I as 8a I ??s vTrve 8 | aXyecov
aXXa re/c^ I OK rade

| /tei>

\^v^

2.

cvaes

0eos

otperac

I ^/MV | eXOois \\

we S av a/i \ ei/3g /i \ avOis

3. ev aiwv I evat | <av wv | a | " ^ ||


/3ai o c /toi | jSaiax

| &> TEKI"

| OV "X

4. ofifmm 8 I avTicr^ | 01s /^ ||


we/Awe \oy

\ oiv <pa/x | ai< 7T

5. TCLVS a i y X a v | a T t T a r | a i TO. | vvf


ws

6.

iravTiav j ev poirtfj

i#i i^t

/\

| evSpaK j TJS ~/\^

I jnot Trat I wv /\

UTTKOS avirv | os Xeuirff | av X


>

II. I.

v^

(0

v^

\J

>

'

TtKVOV Op I a 7TOU | (TTO/J | 6 A

a\\

o TL 8vv

v/

I a fxaK

>

VST \ ov A

2 . 7roi 8e | /AOI r a v
/ceivo

| dr; /toi | Keixo |

\a6pq.

3 . <j>povT 180s op I a s I 178 I 7 A ||


ef

4.

i5ou 07T I 9

I ?rpaf

| s A

7TpOS T l /X6V I OV/MtV I TTpaCTtT I tV

or#a 7ap

| av avS \

a/j.

\ at. A

II

lviii

METRICAL

I I I . I . Katp

os Tot

iravTmv

ANALYSIS.

yvwfiav

et

v TI TTOXV Trap |

2 . TTOA.

o. TOL aicopa.

fj.a\

I TroS a | Kparos apvv


TTVKIVOIS ]|

I.

II.

Tat A 3
?? A

III.

4 ~ ^"p*
dochm.X
dochm.y

;
(

(3 J
Between the choral Strophe and the Antistrophe comes the jueiriySos, chanted by
Neoptolemus, and consisting of four dactylic hexameters. It is noticeable that all
four have the ' bucolic diaeresis,' i.e., the end of the 4th foot coincides with the end of
a word.

EPODE.Period I. is logaoedic (Second Glyconics): Per. II.,


dactylic: Per. III., partly choreic (vv. i and 4), partly logaoedic (vv. 2
and 3).
_^

I-

I. I. OUpOS I TOt TtKVOV I OVp | OS A ||

2. av rjp 8

ov8 ^ | toy A

3. ap ; <oyav eKrerar | at

i;s virvos

os A

os A

II. !

2. aA.Xa r t s I cos ai'8 | a irapa | Ktt.fJ.tvos

METRICAL
_

_ ^

ANALYSIS.

lix

I I I . I. op : a /8\7r | et I xaipi | a A ||

2. <f>Oeyy C I T O S aA. | totriju. | ov A ||


I

3- /* : a I 4>P0VTL&L I ' r a t ^ ||
4 . 7TOVOS O I [XT] <j>0J3 I (OV KpOT | MTTOS H

I.

.
4\

II.

III.

4/

3 = 67ra)8o9.

V.

Second Kommos (taking the place of a Third Stasimon),


vv. 10811217.

FIRST STROPHE.Logaoedic, chiefly in the form of Second Glyconics. A dochmiac forms the prelude to Per. III., and a choreic
hexapody to Per. IV.

>

\J

>

v^

I. I. (a KOIA. I as trerp | a s yuaA. | ov A ||


w r\an I oiv rXa/ji, | wv ap ey \ a A
(1)

2. deploy

I Kat TraytT
S I <j)

\ o)8cs | (OS |[ cr OVK e \ fieWov

Xw/3 I KTOS os I ijS ||

a\\a

aiai

aiai

a p | <o r a X | a s A

ovSevos

| uerTe/) | ov A

| /j,oi || Kat Ovyo-K | OVTI <rw | er | ct A

u roX | as ||

lafioi fioi fwi |

ri /ier

vaiwi'

| ecfloS o\ | ou/4 | at A

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

lx

II. I . <o rr\rjp | eoraTov | av\i | ov A


ov <popji |

av e n

| irpoaipcp | av A

ras air e/x | ov ra\ | av A

2.

&w aTr efi j wv oir\

3.

T17TT

| 0)v A

a t ) I fJLOl TO KdT

O|) A
iv A

4.

eOTCLl I 7TOU 7TOTS | Ttvo/JL

uv

t,<rx
5.

I aXXa M<" I a&Kov

o-iTovofj,

|a A

I ou /xeXe | o s iroOev | \7ri8os

T eir \ T) do\ep

| as

iwe5

5e

18

| viv

7TT(OKa8es I O$VTOV

TOV raSe

I ou 81a [

| pvqaaixev \ ov rov iff | ov xpovov

0) A

VXTIV I 0UKT

as \o% I OCT ac I

os WOT/1. I os

cu ^ a p I viroTfie

ovde

| as A

(re

I Sai/.wv | oiv r a S

| KOUK A

I ere 7c SoX | os A

3. aXX

4.

TOI o"v I r o t /car | rj^i | o>o-as |

IV. 1.

2.

| v <ppei>os

eiat 8 av I (o A

III. I.

2.

j at A

TaS a7ro I fiei^ov


-as o-Tvyep | ay ex

TV

X Ia

j os A ||
I e A

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
T y e Trap
Svcr

V.

| ov <f>pov | rj<7 | a i A

TTOT/J.OV ap

I on

fir

lxi

I aXX | ois A

TOV tXcuov | os* | Sai/Aovos


yap efi \

I.

01

| TOUTO /ie\

ei

4 = 7rpou)8os.

IV.

V.

SECOND STROPHE.Logaoedic.
Per. I. opens with a Third
Glyconic, but, as in the first strophe, Second Glyconics predominate.

I. I.

oi/xoi

fioi

Kai | TTOV TTOXI | a s

a irrav \ at Orjp | oi xaPov

2.

e<f> I

TTOVTOV j

etivt)
-

v,

r;/xev

| iw r A

| os A

v^ ^

| ODS o5 e% | ei A
-

3. eyyeX | a

7ra\\ | tov A ]1

X&ipos I ovpetn | /Sur | as A

This examplewhere there is no doubt about the reading, either in the strophe
or in the antistropheproves that the antistrophic correspondence of Glyconic verses
did not necessarily require the dactyl to occur in the same place. Just below (Per.
II., v. 1) there is another instance, if the reading /AT/KIT' air' av\liiit> tpvyij. be right:
see commentary on 1149 f.

lxii
I I . I.

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
rav cju, I av /xeA,c | ov rpo<j> | av A

fjwjKCT air |
>

auXi
\S

| aw (pvy \ q. A
\*S

\J

2 . TO.V 01)8 I EIS 7T0T | /3aOTaO- | EV A

3.

7T);5ar

| ov yap e x |

O) T o

I OV <j>l\0V I 0) <^)lX I O)V A I

irpoad \ ev

4 . xeipwv

/SeXe

<<> X^p

| WK OKK | ay A

I EK J8E/8I I acr/xv | ov A

w SutTT [ a>oj 67 I w r a

III.

I . 17 7T0l> X I IVOV Op
aXX' aie5 |

r/Tos

I CDSE croi ||

epwere

\ vvv K(CKov

I XPV(roPev

| Tpos xaPtv
_

atoX

| as A

avSpos

t A 3

(v /iv I ato"xp I as airaT | a s o-rvyv || ov T | ^><T

TTO9 I ev yap |

V.

I i I ov A
| v/i, | ix A

I OV TO jU.C7 | WTfpOV )

| o-apKos |

TTOXV ;

op

I OUKTl

ov 8 I V /AT | aXXay | a A ||
as

6.

&IpOS a p

ov Kopetx | at oro/ia

L_

IV.

I ou/te9

3 . apOfuov

4.

| vvv A

as

f\v 0 Se

is TOV I r)pai<\

5. aXA.

| oi" A

eirr

| 01 /3ior | a

ns

|| o>S ev | aw/)

OV A ]]

{ ac A

/xx'pi a i r I aio"^p | (ov a v a | TEXX j ovO o s <^> | y]jJ.- ||iv xa/c | fX.r]o~a.T | to | t,tv A
/ATjiceTi. I /nySe? | os K/>OT |

VV \\ av

oja

| ire/iTT 1] ei /3io | Swpos [ at | a A

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

V I . I.

>

\ _ /

'

lxiii

ai'Spos I TOira fi.ev | evSiK | atev | enr | eiv A


jrpos fewi" | (re^ | ec %ev | o ?reX | aaa \ ov A

-> -c

av A

2 . C17T0VT | 0 5 S e | fX.1)

ewoi | a iraa \ a

av A

_ >
^ ^
3. efwcr I a i yXoxrcr | as o8w | av A
Xa | 7i<u& ev

[ crot A

4. Ktvos S I cts airo | 7roAA | <av A ||


Kijpa I ra^8 airo | <pevy | fix A
>
>
-- w 5. rax^tis I TCOVS e<^) I rjfioavv | a A ||
oiKrpa

6.

I 7a/) /Soff/c I eic aSa | ijs 5 A

KOIV av I -qwa-iv | eis ^>tA. | ovs ap | toy | af A H


0

fivpiov

I.

II.

{UK

OIK

III.

IV.

4 /

v.

4,
2

4'

| 61 A

VI.

lxiv

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
ANOMOIOSTROPHA (VV. 11691217).

First Section.Period I., choreic: II., ionic: III., dactylic: IV.,


choriambic. The variety of measures, and the rapid transitions from
one to another, suit the fluctuations of excited feeling.

I . I . irak I iv TraX | w TraX | awv | aXy || rj/x. w | tfiv | ao-as | to A

2. Xcocrre | TWV irpiv | ev TOTT | <OV, TI |j //. wXecr | a s Tt | fi, eipyacr

at A

3. TL TOVT e I Xe^as | ei <rv | rav e | fioi A 3

I I . 1. trrvyep

' av rpaiaSa

2. TOSE yap vow Kpa.T | HTTOV airo || vvv jxt XEITTET | rjSrj A
I *

I I I . I. ^>iA.a /xot ^>t\a I raifra Trap | rjyy \\ ttXas CKOVTI TE

2. 1 ; o)|,ci' 1 I w I yoiei' A

3 . raos tv |. 17/t I iv Te I TaKTat ]]

I V . ! /*iy 7rpos apai | ov 810s EX6 || J/S I/CETEU | OJ

2. a) (ev

I.

ot |] fi.iivo.Ti Trpos I

Choreic.
-4'
-4'

II. Ionic.

TI Opoti's ]]

III. Dactylic.

3=Trp.

2 =irp.
2 .

choreic 2

-44.
S=ETT.

IV. Choriambic.

4 logaoed. = CTT.

METRICAL
Second
I. i.

ANALYSIS.

Section.Logaoedic.

aiai aiat |(
>

-yj

w v^

>

\s

Sai/x (uv 8ai|ix | cov a7roX | <X o TaX | a s A ||

2.

<I) 7TOUS I 7TOUS T t tT T | V y8t | <0 A ||

3. Tevfco I TO) jueroir I iv TaX I a s A ||

4. 0) fevot I eXOer eir | ?jXi)8es | av^is J


I I . I . Tl p* I OVTS I aXXoKOT | O) A ||
2. yvta/xa | rwi' irapos | <ov Trpou |
"*

3.

*-<

i-/

ov rot vc/to- I I;TOV II

_^

4. aX j v I ovTa I xei/iLepL | u A
5. XvTra I xai irapa | vow 0po | ctv A 1]

I.

II.

?!

?Vrf

!-y

Section.Dactylic.

I . I . jSa^t i w I (1) raXav | ws o-e KEX | evopev ||

\j

\s

^J*-*

^/

\s

^J

\s

2. OUSOTOT I ovSeiroT | ur6i ToS | |U.ire8ov ||

lxv

lxvi
3.

METRICAL ANALYSIS.

ovS t I irvp<j>opo<; I a<TTpO7r | rjrrjs II

II.

v^

v^

4.

fipovras

5-

CppCTO) I LXLOV I 01 6 V7T I KtV<i> H

I ctvyais | /A CMTL <j>\oy | ia>v ||

iravTes oo- | ot TOS e | rXaaav

III.

\j

\j

\j

\j

e || /^ou TTOSOS | apOpov WK | cocrai ]]

\j

\j

*_

\j

I. aXA. (o ^evoi I ev ye /AOI | evxs op | efare [|

2. TTOWV ep I eis TOS ir | os ^^os | et TroOev \\

3 . ^ yei^v I 17 /SeXe | (ov TI irpo | Trefuf/are ||

4. o>s Tiva I

6. 4>ov a <^>ov I a voos | r]8 | 17 A 3

I.

II.
3

III.
)

4<

yy

4 logaoed. = r.

Fourth Section.Per. I., choreic: II., logaoedic.


I. 1. TI irore irar | epa fiar | ev | tav A ||
I _ w I _
2. iroi I yas es | aiS | on A ]

METRICAL ANALYSIS.
I I . I. ov yap \ cv <f>a \ L y T \ i A \\
\J

yj

v-

\S

2. 0> 7T0Xt5 | 0) 1T0\ I IS TTOLTpt | a A ||

v^f

*w*

'w'

\j

\j

3. TTOXS o.v I 7tS I oifjii cr | a^Xt | os y av | rjp A ||

4. os ye I <rav \nr \ tav tcp | av A ||

5. Ar^SaS j exOp I ots c I /?av Sava | ot5 A |j


6. ap toyos CT I ovScv | CI/A | t A ]]

4 =

kvii

CORRIGENDA.
PAGE 22,
,, 137,
,, 140,
,, 176,
,, 188,

commentary, col. 1, line 5. For vofwts read opxou

col. 2, line 15. For 853 f. read 852 ff.


text, v. 857. Place dpaiy&v in the next verse, before e
cr. n. on r n 8 . For TO^GUS read ri/x at s
text, v. 1213. Read w TTO'XIS, IS TTOXIS irarpia

SO0OKAEOY2
0 I A O K T H T H 2

J. S. IV,

( D I A 0 K T H T H 2

#IAOKTHTOY
'A6r)va<s
i(j> ovirep 'A^atots xp-qcrOtv rpr 6v<rai,
IIoiavTOS ijSci Trais iro#' 'HpaxXet fwaJv.
fcijTuiv 8e TOVTOV vavfidrri

Seifai oroAa),

ir\ijyeis vir c^etos, eXixeT eV Arjfuvu) voaiav.


"EXevos 8' 'A^aios e*^)' akuxrt&ff

'IXiov

rots 'HpaicA.eovs rofoitri iraiSt T*


Ta TO^' virfjpy(t napd <&i\oKTr]Tri
8' 'OSwcreus d/j.<j>OTepov? <rvvijyayev.
I Xpiays 'AOijvas] ep xPv<rVl AByvat L : e? %pv<ry O.()T)VS.S T .

2 ^ 0 ' oBTrep] e<paiirep

L. 3 ijfSei L : ^8); T.7ro0' T : TI59' L. 4 The first three verses, and the first half
of the fourth, are written in L as prose. Having perceived that the Argument was
metrical, the scribe then stopped abruptly after the syllable vav of vavpdrri, and began
afresh with verse 3. Hence verse 3 and the first half of v. 4 are written twice in L.
ffT{i\ip\ vav^dT7]t...ar6\ov L: vavdryv...<TT6\OV T. 5 v Aijjuyy voffwv\ iv
vo L, the three last letters of voadv having been lost. %, with a mark denoting T (i.e. f^ret), stands in the margin. 6 eZ$'] etiry L. 7 T6OTI] T6OI<T L, which
a later hand has sought to alter into T6%OI<TI. 8 T6' iTrjpxe] TOT' inrelpxe L.

This metrical Argument, with the heading 4?IXOKTI}TOV V, stands in L (p. 79 b)


immediately after the a6\oi "H.pa.K\4ovs, twelve hexameters which are placed at the
end of the Trachiniae. Then comes the prose Argument, with the heading <S\Xs,
followed by T<k TOO Spi/Maros irpoawira. The metrical Argument was first printed in the
ed. of Sophocles by Turnebus (Paris, 1553), who found it in the Paris 15th century MS.,
T (cod. 2711). It is absent from the earlier editions (those of Aldus, Junta, and Came-

12

IO<t>OKAEOYI

rarius), since the MSS. on which they were chiefly based did not contain it. (Cp.
0. C. p. liv.)-The workmanship of these iambics is decidedly worse (and presumably
much later) than that of the metrical Argument to the Oedipus Tyrannus. In v. 2
an anapaest holds the second, and in v. 9, the fourth place; while in v. 6 aXdaeffB'
"IXioj' combines an impossible elision with an impossible spondee. In v. 5 iXlver' has
the sense of \el<pdri, a Homeric use of the aor. midd. which is unknown to later
classical Greek.
1 XpiVijs 'k9-qvas. The second scholium on v. 194, and the schol. on 1326,
identify Xptfoi/ with Athena; but nothing in the play itself favours that view.
Sophocles seems rather to think of Chryse as a nymph.ftoifiiiv: cp. Dion Chrysostom, or. 59 9 (where he paraphrases a dialogue, from the Euripidean Philoctetes,
between that hero and Odysseus), wairep A/xiXu K&/J. e^0)jKas, {nrtp rrjs Koivrjs ffwnjpJas
ve KOX VIKT\% irepiTvrovra rrjSe T ^vfufropq,, SeiKvvvra rhv Xptimjs jSw^oo, ov dtiaavres
KpaTrjtretv fj.e\\ov rCov iro\efxlojv% el S /ATJ, fiAryjp eylyvero T) ffrpareia.
iinKex&atih'ov, in classical Greek, would mean, 'heaped up,' and would be pointless
here. Probably, however, the post-classical writer of these verses intended to express
the idea, 'encumbered with earth or debris,' and so, 'decayed,' 'neglected.' Cp. the
scholium of Tzetzes on Lycophron v. 911 Sre iMaipev iv Xpi<ry rbv Kexa<sfi.ivov
fiwixbv TTJS 'ACijvas (where Kexfiuaiiivov, 'defiled,' would, indeed, be a possible v. 1.);
Tzetzes seems to mean, 'the decayed altar,' using %6u in a sense suggested by its
application to the 'choking u p ' of harbours. 3 jrof 'H/jaxXei ^vv<iv=iTreid^ irore
'Up. wijv. Not in the expedition of Heracles against Troy,which was referred by
legend to the generation before the Trojan War,but in some later wanderings.
The altar was said to have been founded by Jason on his way to Colchis. Cp. Philostratus /mag. 17 rbv rfjs Xptfcnjs /Su/uox, 5c 'I<<TUJ irori ISpvaaro, Sre eis
Ko\xto
^i\oKTijfri)$ 5 K TTJS i>v 'Hpa/cXet iLvt)[n)S T6V fiujfibit rots fr]Tov<ri detKvijs,
acT0S OI5T<? TOV S5pov rbv liv h O&repov TOIV iroSdiv,...iv kr)iipip rairri Keirat,
K.T.X.

AAAOS.
Aira-ycoyi} $IA.OKTIJTOU K Arj/j.vov tts Tpotav viro NeoTrroXe/xou xat
'OSvtro-e'ws Kaff 'EXevov frnvreiav, os Kara /xavreiW KaXxavTos, ws iSa>s
Xpr)<r[jLov<i cruvTeAoiWas irpds rrjv Tpoias aXaxriv, virb 'O8v<ro'e(O5 vvKTtop
evefipevOus, S0"/iios "ifxOri TOLS 'EAAr/criv. 17 8e ancqvrj iv AIJ/JLVO)- 6 81 xopos
e IK ytpovTiDV T(3v T<3 NOTTTOX.JLJ) uv/jarXeoVTiov. KCITOU ai Trap Aitr^uXa) rj
fj.v6oTTOua. cSiSa^iy im TXavKiTnrov TrpioTO'S r/v SOI^OKX^S.
5 T&V Tip] TUI L. The loss of TWP in L may have been due to the preceding
ytpovrwv, esp. as it is the last word of a line./ten-cu L : KUTCU 8i vulg.

Soph, refers to the nocturnal ambuscade by which Odysseus


captured Helenus (606 ff.), but nowhere hints that Calchas had prompted it. The
advice of Calchas appears to have been mentioned by Lesches in the 'IXias Mu-prf
(circ. 700 B.C.), and the author of this Argument may have found it noticed in tjie

<t>IA0KTHTH2

Philoctetes of Aeschylus, to which he alludes. Quintus Smymaeus (9. 325 ff.) names
Calchas only, and says nothing of Helenus. 5 kiayy\<#\ See Introduction. The
writer ignores the Philoctetes of Euripides, and the treatment of the subject by other
dramatic poets. 6 M T\aviciTTov] Glaucippus was archon from July 410 to July 409
B.C. (01. 92. 3). The play was brought out, then, at the great Dionysia at the end of
March, 409 B.C. Sophocles was then eighty-seven.

TA TOY APAMAT02
OAY52EY2.
NE0IIT0AEM02.
$IAOKTHTH2.

XOPO5.
EMII0P02.
HPAKAHS.

The t/iTopos is an attendant of Neoptolemus who appears in the disguise of a


pai/cXr/pos, or captain of a ship (v. 542). At v. 128 he is identified with the atcoirot.
But the latter was a 'mute person,' while the l/nropos was really played by the
tritagonist. Wecklein suggests that the word Ipiropos may have been suggested to the
grammarians by %vvlixiropov in v. 542: but that word ('companion') is there applied,
not to the supposed vavKXypos, but by the latter to a sailor who accompanies him.
And the designation 2/nropos seems fitting enough, when we observe that the man
describes himself as trading between Peparethus and the Greek camp at Troy (547 ff.,
cp. 582 ff.). In the list of Dramatis Personae L has 0776X05 fyiropos, but in the text
of the play, ?jxo/>os only. Some editors give <TKoirt>s us ZfiTopos.
L adds iirt^>aLv6/j.cvoi to 'HpcucX^s.
The Chorus consists of fifteen seamen from the ship of Neoptolemus.
The protagonist played Philoctetes, and the deuteragonist, Neoptolemus; while
the tritagonist took the parts of Odysseus, the pretended merchant, and Heracles.

STRUCTURE OF THE PLAY.


1.
2.
3.
choral
having
4.

irpoXoYOS, I 1 3 4 .
irdpoSos, 1 3 5 2 1 8 .
fimo-oSiov irpwrov, 219675. In this are inserted two short
songs,a strophe (391402) and an antistrophe (507518),
the character of a 'dance-song' or uiropxw' (see on O. T. 1086).
<rTd<ri(J.ov, 6767 2 9"

5.
6.

omo-oSiov ScvTcpov, 730826.


Ko|j.|j.os, taking the place of a second stasimon, 827864.

7.
8.

JirtwroSiov rpCrov, 8651080.


Second Koppfc, taking the place of a third stasimon, 10811217.

9.

H$oSo, 12181471.

I04>0KAE0YS:
0ATSSET2.
'AKTH fj.ev rjSe TTJS irepippvTov *xdovo<;
ATJ/JLVOV,
/8/3OTOIS a o r i T T T o s o u S '
o i K i
evff, w KpaTLaTov warpo? 'EXXrpw
p
X'

r a i Neo7JToXeju,e, TOV MTJXICI

viov i^ddrjK iyco irore,


n
OS' ipBeiv rutv dvacrcrovTcov vrro,
vocrto KaTaardtfiVTCL Sta/So/a&i TroBa,
or' ovre XotySiys IJ/AII' OVTC 6vp.6.T<iiv
L=cod. Laur. 32. 9 (first half of eleventh century). r=one or more of the
later MSS. This symbol is used where a more particular statement is unnecessary.
'Mss.,' after a reading, means that it is in all the MSS. known to the editor.
Scene:A lonely place on the N.E.
coast of Lemnos, near the promontory of
Mount Hermaeum (1455 ff.). A rocky
cliff rises steeply from the sea-shore (cp.
1000 ff.); in it is seen the cave of Philoctetes. ODYSSEUS and NEOPTOLEMUS enter

on the left of the spectators.


1134
Prologue. Odysseus tells
Neoptolemus that this is the spot where,
ten years before, he had put Philoctetes
ashore. Neoptolemus presently finds the
cave, with traces in it which show that it
is still inhabited. Odysseus then suggests
that he should capture Philoctetes and
his bow by a stratagem. He is to pretend that he has quarrelled with the
Atreidae, and is sailing homeward. The
youth at first refuses; but ultimately yields
to the argument that only thus can he
win the glory of taking Troy.Odysseus returns to his ship, leaving Neoptolemus to watch for Philoctetes at the
cave.
1 OKTTJ |iiv TJ8, implying the antithesis, Tqi $i tpyp rfSv etf'Xc<Pirr&'> which
is virtually given by vv. 11 ff. For IUV
thus deprived of its answering 5^ by a
change in the form of a long sentence,
cp. Ant. ii99ff.
2 fiomrros is the form given by L
hete, which also has <rr\nrrf\ in v. 33.
<rTi7rTO5, not arenrTos, is also the best attested form in Aristophanes Ach. 180,
and in Theophrastus De Igne 37. See
Appendix.
oiiS' OIKOV)UVI). Aeschylus and Euripides had both written a ^IAOTCTIJTI/J, and
each had composed his chorus of Lemnians,thus making it seem strange that

the sufferer should have been left so long


without aid (Dion Chrysostom, or. 52).
Sophocles wished to avoid that defect.
Everything that is said of Lemnos throughout this play would naturally suggest a
wholly uninhabited island. And the
words ascribed to Philoctetes (vv. 220 f.,
300 ff.) require us to suppose that he, at
least, believed it to be so. The Iliad,
however, represents BfrT/os, son of Jason
and Hypsipyle, as reigning in Lemnos
during the Trojan war (7. 467); and it
was into 'well-peopled Lemnos' that
Achilles sold Lycaon (21. 40). It is simplest to suppose that Sophocles, finding
it convenient to have a desert island,
ignored the Homeric notices. But it is
also possible that he conceived the island
as inhabited in some parts and desolate
in others. This is the scholiast's view:
iv if/qixif} yi.p fxlpei

rrfi Kiiixvov i&TiftT].

The area of Lemnos is about 150 square


miles, or more than thrice that of Jersey.
Philoctetes could not crawl far from his
sea-side cave (cp. 163, 291).
3 KpaTurTov...Tpa<fs : strictly, 'bred
from' (not, 'reared by') 'a sire who was
the bravest of the Greeks.' worpos is
not a gen. of agency (like TtkqyeU 6vyaTp6s, Eur. Or. 497), but a gen. of
origin, as 1284 dplarov irarpos alcrx^ros
yeyibi: cp. O.T. 1082 r^s yap n-i<j>vKa /ir/tp6s, O.C. 1322 /j.riTpis\oxtv0eis. Tpa<j>eCs
is more forcible than yeyuis, as suggesting, not birth merely, but the inborn qualities. C p . Ai. 556 dei <r' SITUS irarpbs \ Se(us

ev ^xfyx> ofos f otov 'rpatyrp, ' thou must


see that thouprovest among thy father'sfoes
of what mettle and what breed thou art.'

<I>IAOKTHTH:E

ODYSSEUS.

This is the shore of the sea-girt land of Lemnos, untrodden


of men and desolate. O thou whose sire was the noblest of the
Greeks, true-bred son of Achilles, Neoptolemus,here, long ago,
I put ashore the Malian, the son of Poeas, (having charge from
my chiefs so to do,)his foot all ulcerous with a gnawing sore,
when neither drink-offering nor sacrifice could be attempted
2 lUmTTos L, and T (cod. Abbat. Flor. 152, late 13th cent.): drreiTTos A, with
the other later MSS. Cp. on <mim}, v. 33.
6 Nauck places this verse after v. 7.

6 f. Nauck's transposition of these


I n Aesch. Th. 792 Bapaare, iraides fp
pon> Te9paiJ.iJ.tvai., the gen. seems again to two verses effaces a delicate touch. Odysbe one of origin, ' maidens who are true
daughters of your mothers' (i.e., who
resemble them, rather than your intrepid
fathers). Wakefield's conjecture Ivd' a
< ' K > KparUrrov was warranted by the
commoner usage of rpatpeh (with in, Ai.
557, Eur. Ion 693; with airb, Ion 262,
Ai. 1229); but it was needless here.
4 NnrnS\|M, four syllables, the voice
gliding so rapidly over the first e that,
with 0, it gives the effect of only one syllable. So in 24 r, and Eur. Andr. 14, Tro.
1126. But the name is a word of five
syllables in Or. 1655 NeoTrriXe/ios ya/ieii>
viv, 01) yaiiS 7roTe. Elmsley thought
that verse corrupt; the same variation
occurs, however, in QeoK\i//.evos, which
is of four syllables in Eur. Helen, 9,
but of five ib. 1168 and 1643.TAV
JMnXid, belonging to Malis ('the sheepcountry,' from itSjkav, as the neighbouring Mount Oeta takes its name
from ols),a district almost enclosed by
hills, at the head (i.e., west) of the MaXIOK6S K6\TOS.

That bay forms a deep

recess in the south coast of Thessaly, just


opposite the N.w. end of Euboea. Cp.
n. on 490. The Iliad (2. 682) includes
this region in the domain of Achilles, and
assigns Philoctetes to the more northerly
region of Thessaly, afterwards called
Magnesia: see Introduction.Her., consistently Ionic, has, i) M^Xis yrj, 17 T/njX'"!: Attic writers always have Tpax's:
but Thuc. and Xen. say 01 Mi/Xieis, while
Aeschines, like later writers, has oi MaXtets. Cp. 725 M^Xiadwp vv^av.
5 eg^9r]K'=d7rej3ij3ao-a: cp. Arist. Poet.
24 ra Tepl TTJV fudeaiv, the story of
Odysseus being pit ashore by the Phaeacians in Ithaca (Od. 13. ii6ff.).

seus is anxious to present his conduct


in the best light. After i^tf-qiC hy&, he
hastens to add that he was merely obeying his chiefs (v. 6). And then, in vv.
7ff.,he palliates their conduct by describing how unendurable Philoctetes was.
7 KaT<wrrd|ovTO agrees with vl6v (5):
iroSa is ace. of respect: Ai. 9 K&pa \
ara^wv ISpSrri.Suxpdpu:
Tr. 1084 i]
raXatva SiapSpos v6aos (the venom of the
hydra). So below, 313 fttanuv TTJV d5ijtpdyov vbaov: 745 ^piKOfiai. Aesch. fr.
249 (Philoctetes speaking) tpayS<w>' ad
/lov <rdpKas (<rffiei TTO56S : a v. which Euri-

pides borrowed in his own Philoctetes,


changing trapKas taQLei to <rdpKa doivarai

(Arist. Poet. 22).


8 ff. \oipijs...8v|uT<i>v. The sacrifice
regularly preceded the libation (cp. / / .
1. 462); the order here is prompted by
metrical convenience (as in / / . 9. 500
Xoi/35 TC KV'WQ TC), while the natural order
is given below, 1033 (atdeiv iepd,...ffirivSew).irpoo-Oi/yctv, fig., ' e n g a g e i n ' ; so
the simple diyydvu (408, Ant. 546), a n d
dVro/iOi : cp. Ant. 1005 e/iiriipaw iyevd\J.T)V.Suo-(|>T||uai.s, cries of anguish, such
as he utters below (743, 785). C p . E u r .
Andr. 1144 tcpavy^ 8' iv e6<p7i/j.ouri Si<r<j>7)/j.os 56jiio(S J irirpauriv dvriKXay^' (cries

of strife echoing in the Delphian temple


from the rocks hard by). At a sacrifice,
all present were first sprinkled with consecrated water, then silence was proclaimed, and then the offering began :
A r . Av.

958 a$$ts ai vepixupei \af3n>

T7]V X^Pvifia. I edtpTJfjU7


Kardp^Tj rou rpdyov.

^CTTOJ.

X P . fll]

The sacrifice which the cries of Philoctetes interrupted must be that which an
oracle had commanded the Greeks to

IO*OKAEOYI
Traprjv eKT^Xots irpocrOt/yelv, dXX' dypiacs
Kareu^ del nav crTpaTowehov S u c r ^ / i t a i s ,
/3oSv, crTevatfiiv. dXXd ravra fiev TL Set
Xeyew; aKfir) yap ov fiaKpav rjinv Xoycov,
firj Kal fJ-dOr) ju.' TJKOVTCL, Ka/c^ea) TO ITOM
<r6(f>i(rf^a ru viv avrv^ alpijcreiv SOKS.
dXX epyov rjSr) crov rd XoC(f> VTrrjpereiv,
i 6' OTTOV 'or' ivravda StoTo/ios irirpa,
dS', Iv iv *pv)(i fj,ev tfXCov SLTTXTJ
vdpea-Tiv ivddia)cri<s, iv Oipei 8' VTTVOV
hi d/jL<t>i,TprJTOs avXiov triinrei TTVOTJ.

paiov o evepuev eg apto-repas r a ^ av

IO

15

20

iSots TTOTOV Kprjvaiov, etnep etrrl oSv.


d jaot 7rpo(reXd(ov crlya crrniaiv eir'
I O KaTttxer'L: mreix' r.
1 1 aTev&fav] rfvfov (sic) V, a corruption of 16pm,
itself manifestly a reminiscence of Tr. 787 /SOSF, lifav.
1 3 f. These two verses
are rejected by E. A. Richter (Beitrdge z. Kritik u. Erkl. des Soph. Philoct., Altenburg, 1876), with Nauck's approval, who pronounces v. 14 'quite unworthy of an
intelligent poet.'
14 aMx' made from {rlt' in L by S (the 1st corrector).

offer at Chryse's altar, in the islet Chryse.


as appears from its frequency in Ar.,
Thence they sailed to Lemnos, which was
either (a) with inf., as Nub. 1345, <rbv
close by, and put him ashore (270). The
Zpyov, w irpe&fivTa, tppoififav K.T.\.: or
word trTparbireSov could be said of a fleet ($) as a parenthesis before an imperat., as
(Thuc. 1. 117); but the reference in vv.
Av. 862, iepev, cbv Ipyov, 0ve: Th. 1208,
8 f. can hardly include attempts at sacriabv Ipyov, <fxvye. It occurs more often
fice made between Chryse and Lemnos.
without ia-rl than with it.
1 2 dK|r>i...Xd-yiov : c p . El. 22 fyyav
16 oirov '<rr . Three modes of writing
&KIA7I. Possibly a covert criticism on the
these words are possible: (1) as above,
length of the prologue in some previous
with prodelision of the I in tan.
Cp.
Philoctetes: cp. O.C. m 6 n .
0. T. 732 KOX irov '<rd' 6 x<"Vs'! Ar.
Ach. 129 a'XX' 'Aft<t>We6s /J-01 TTOU 'OTO> ; S o
1 3 f. |) KO.1: this Kal='e'en' (not
O. C. 974 ds iyu '<t>6.vrjv, Ant. 457 e
' b o t h ' ) : cp. 46, 534.-lK\ia (aor. subj.),
OTOV '(pdvT). (2) moiStrT, with crasis, the
'waste' (El. 1291), which would promode followed by the scribe of L : cp.
perly be said of the labour bestowed on
812 u>s 01) ffi/us y ^Joftm. (3) #7rou (an,
devising the scheme, is here applied, in
the sense of 'frustrate,' to the <r6<pur/Mwith synizesis, the mode preferred by
itself: cp. Eur. fr. 787 fioxSoiv TUV irpLv several recent edd. The fact that the 2nd
syll. of Swov has ictus appears to render
iKxitu- x^P""- (Cp- Virg. G. 4. 491 ibi
(1) or (2) slightly preferable to (3); and
omnis \ Effusus labor.)T$ for. : O. C.
(1) seems recommended by the analogy
*H1 n.Aesch. and Eur. had both repreof '<t>di>i]ii, '<fxan\, where, at the end of the
sented Odysseus as boldly confronting
verse,
a synizesis would have had a very
Philoctetes, who failed to recognise him;
harsh effect.8Trov...evTovfl', i.e., where
a marvel which Eur. excused by suppo(precisely) in this region. Ar. Ran. 432
sing that Athena had changed the aspect
i % o i r a v ovv (jipdacu
vt}v \ I l X i ' 6
of Odysseus. These two verses remind us
that dramatic probability required Odys;
seus to keep himself in the background.
17 ff. roidS', W, 'such that in i t ' :
Cp. 70.
tv' = ev 37 (for ToidaSe...6s, see O. C. 1353).
16 i-p-yov . .<r&v: a familiar Attic phrase, Cp. Eur. fr. 183 ri/Mv TO trkeiarov t

4HA0KTHTHZ
by us in peace, but with his fierce, ill-omened cries he filled the
whole camp continually, shrieking, moaning. But what need to
speak of that ? 'Tis no time for many words, lest he learn that
I am here, and I waste the whole plan whereby I think to
take him anon.
Come, to work !'tis for thee to help in what remains, and to
seek where in this region is a cave with twofold mouth, such
that in cold weather either front offers a sunny seat, but in
summer a breeze wafts sleep through the tunnelled grot. And
a little below, on the left hand, perchance thou wilt see a spring,
if it hath not failed.
Move thither silently, and signify to me whether he still
I S Xoi7r' L, with <f> written over ir by S.
16 aKoirelv 0'] In L the 0' has been
added by S.oirobcrT' L. Some recent edd. write 8irov <rr' instead of Srrov '<TT\
2 2 <ri)ixaiv' etr'] Porson conj. ai\iwivea>: Nauck, <rri[w.veh.^Xe0 Canter (in his
ed. of 1579) conject. eiceZ, and so the London ed. of 1722. In Vat. b (cod. Urb. 141,

TovrCfi ptpos, j 'lv ainbs avrou


[the cave and spring], ' and sign (to me)
fiEkriGTOS ijjv, where lv= iv y,
whether he still occupies this same spot,
or is elsewhere.' The position of |H
T]\U>U 8i.irXTJ...!v8<fia](ris, lit, ' a twoindicates that it is the ethic dat. (O. T.
fold means of sitting in the sun.' Cp.
Arist. Probl. 5 36 eaTTjKOTes {vrqi q\l<j): 1512), rather than dat. with o-r/fuuve, with
ib. 16 I liv ev ij\i(f reffuxri. So BaKeiv which it can easily be understood.In
iv (or ivdanetv) yXtip could mean, 'to sit the Appendix reasons are given for the
following views. (1) The words <nj(n,v'
in the sun'; and the genit. in r/\tov ivSiK7i<ris is objective, corresponding to the T* H\a break the metrical rule, since
dr must be considered as metrically bedat. with the verb. This is better than
longing to i%u rather than to pri/iawe,
to make it a gen. of quality, as if the
and therefore the 5th foot ought to be an
phrase meant, ' a sunny seat in (the
iambus. But nevertheless the words are
cave).' The morning sun could be ensound, since the natural stress on the
joyed at the seaward mouth of the cave,
which had a s. or s. E. aspect (cp. 1457) > first syllable of the imperative (nj/taic',coinciding with the rhythmical ictus, has
while the afternoon sun fell on the other
the effect of making the next syllable (<uv)
entrance, looking N. or N.w.
seem relatively short to the ear. (2) In
dfjuJHTpiJTOs, 'pierced at both ends,'
v. 23 the traditional x^po" wpis airbv is
'tunnelled': perh. suggested by Eur. Cycl.
707 Si a/j.<piTpTJTos Tr/aSe irpoajlalvwv vt- untenable, irpos with ace. could here
mean only, 'looking towards,' 'facing';
rpas (so Kirchhoff for woSl). This pass,
sense of a/Afarpys {afupOT^pwdev reTpTi/j.4- it could not mean merely, ' in the neighbourhood
of.' And ^x.i- I xp" ""Pos
vov, scliol.), in which d/x^pirpriTos would
be normal, cannot be illustrated by <n5rj- avT&v rovSe could not mean either, '(the
poK/iijs ('slain with the sword,' Ai. 325), cave and spring) are situated facing just
or SopiKn-r/s Aesch. Ch. 365), since those this spot'; nor, 'he dwells facing this
spot.' We should read with Blaydes,
adjectives= 'succumbing to' the sword,
etc. (from the poet, sense of ol ica/navres, X&pov r&v airov. (3) TOVS' 2T', Ar is the
etc.). But /3OTOIS <nSTjpoKfirjffiv in thebest correction of L's TOVS', T\T in v. 23:
and (T confirms the view that Philoctetes
former passage illustrates the use of d/i<j>irpris, properly masc. or fem., as a neuter is the subject to the verbs. Odysseus is
sure that the cave is somewhere near (16).
adj.aiiXCov, as 954, 1087 : cp. 30 n.
His doubt is whether Philoctetes still
2 1 fiirep Icrrl o w , a doubt the more
lives in it, or has removed to some other
natural since the island was volcanic (800).
part of the island.
2 2 f. & [U>i irpo<rc\6<iiv..,Kupci: 'advance, I pray thee (pen), towards them'

ZCXfcOKAEOYS

IO

-vwpov

pv

*T<W

avTov rovS' < er' > ,

CLT'

cos TavikoLira TCDV koyav crv /xev


eyco oe <ppat,(o, KOLva o eg a/xipoiv

aXky

vy.

Kvpei,
25

NEOnTOAEMOS.
OA.
NE.
OA.
NE.
OA.

d r a 'OSvcrcreu, rovpyov ov \x.aKpav Xeyets'


So/cctJ yap otov eiTras avrpov elcropav.
avcodev, 77 KarwOev; ov yap ivvocu.
TO' ig'vvepde' /ecu crTifiov y ouSeis KTWOS.
opa /ca0' VTTVOV fufj /carauXtcr^ei? KVpfj.
o/3<3 Kevrjv oiKrjcriv avdpcaircov St^a.
ouS' ei'801' oiKO7roios eoTt rts Tpo(f)t] ;

14th cent.) ?ci for #x e ' looks like a weak conjecture.


2 3 *roy avrbv Blaydes :
Tpbs atirbv MSS. Bergk conj. ir&pavKov : Wecklein, TrerpaXov.TOPS' IT', efr'] r6vd', ip-'
L : Elmsley added IT' after T6C5'. The later MSS. have either rbvS' etr\ or (as A)
2 4 KXI5J;S r, /cXiiots L.
2 5 ??j
rbvSe 7' e?T'. Nauck gives TOVTOV, eh'.

2 4 f. TCtmXoura TIOV Xoywv, not robs


fitting; he is still a little below the cave,
iiriXolirovs, because the X6701 are thought and cannot yet see whether it is empty.
of collectively, not singly: cp. 131; Ant. Seyffert's Kal ffrtfiov 8* would be appro499 TWV GWV Xoywv I apecrrof ovdfr : Plat. priate only if it followed the mention of
Rep. 352 B Ta \oitrd. rrjs i<m<L<reo>s. The
some other sign that the cave was empty.
ref. is to the plan disclosed at 50 ff.
OTIPOU, usu. 'track (path),' or 'footKOivd, subst., 'joint action' (not adv.,
print, ' here, the act of treading: cp. 206
' jointly,' as though the subject to ty were o-Tlfiov Kar' av&yKav, n. Remark how
'our plan,' implied in TawLXoura. rap \6- strongly KTVTTOS (L'S reading) is conyiov): cp. Thuc. 1. 8 7r\wi/Atirepa eytvero
firmed, as against TWOS, by v. 30, where
irap 0XX17X011S.e| d|i.(f>oiv T|, lit., 'proOdysseus says (in effect), 'perhaps the
ceed from both': cp. Eur. Hec. 294 X670S
reason why you hear no sound is that he
7<zp K T ddo^ovvTuv Iwv [ KO,K T&V doKoijvis asleep within.'Other readings are
TUIV ainbs 0(1 Tairrbv ade'vei.
Kal <TTI/3OU 7' ouScls Tiiiros (Tricl. and
Brunck): /cat (rrl^ov '<TT oi>x e^s Tti-Kos
2 6 ToilpYov ov |j.aKpdv
\iyas,=Tb
ipyov 6 \4yeis oi /xaKpdp <TTI, 'the task (Mudge): nal arlfiov '<TT oiidei TISJTOS
of which thou speakest is not far off,' i.e. (Bergk; though o85as is the only case of
the noun found in Tragedy). These asI can do thy bidding without going far.
rb Ipyov is the search for (and in) the sume that there was sand or earth just in
cave. This seems simpler than to take front of the cave on the side towards the
IMKp&v as 'to a distance' (O. T. 16), and sea. But vv. 1000 ff. imply that the cave's
ToSpyov as = 'mission'. For the adverb seaward mouth opened on steep rocks at
some height above the beach. And if
as predicate, cp. 0. C. 586 d\X' iv /Spa^ei
5i) TTjfSe /j.' i^airei %dpi.v, n.: 7'r. 962 v. 29 referred to the presence or absence
dyxov d' dpa Koi p-aKpav | wpoSicXaiov (sc.of foot-prints, v. 30 would lose its special
Sv), 'the sorrow foretold by my lament is point.
near, and not afar.'
3O KO.8' Sirvov: Tr. 970 Kaff virvov
2 8 av<8cv, i)' KaTu06v; i.e. above or
tvTo.: but here we need not be supplied;
below Neoptolemus, who is climbing the
the phrase is adverbial, with Karav\ur$els
rocks. Odysseus is on the sea-shore.
Kvpy.KaTav\ur6els, 'lodged' (cp. 19
ouXi'ou, 153 auXris), a word suitable to
Cp. 1000 ff.
2 9 Kal o"r(f3ov y ovScls KTVITOS, ' a n d rough or temporary quarters, as to a
of foot-fall, at least, there is no sound.' bivouac; Xen. An. 7. 5. 15 KWTI\V
The 7, which has been suspected, is Xi<s9t\aav S' ev T$ ireSltp: so Eur. El.

cMAOKTHTHI

II

dwells in this same place, or is to be sought elsewhere,that so


our further course may be explained by me, and heard by thee,
and sped by the joint work of both.
NEOPTOLEMUS.

King Odysseus, the task that thou settest lies not far off;
methinks I see such a cave as thou hast described.
OD. Above thee, or below ? I perceive it not.
NE. Here, high up;and of footsteps not a sound.
OD. Look that he be not lodged there, asleep.
NE. I see an empty chamber,no man therein.
OD. And no provision in it for man's abode ?
Camerarius (ed. 1534): el-rj MSS. Wecklein conj. <pavrj.
2 9 T6S'] Wakefield
conject. rfjd'.<rW/Sou T' L , A , and most MSS.: ari^ov y' Triclinius: aripov 5'
Seyffert: arlfiov W Mudge {ap. Heath).otidels KTTJTTOS L : oiSels riiros r.
Mudge
(ap. Heath) conj. oi% eh T{ITTOS: Bergk, oidei rtiwos. N a b e r proposed K6.<TTI irob y
35' iKToiros.
3 O Ka.Tav\ur$els L , with V and o t h e r s : KaraK\i9els A, B, T , which Nauck
prefers and Blaydes reads.Kvprj MSS.: Kvpei Schaefer, Seyffert, N a u c k , Wecklein.
3 2 Tfxxpij MSS.
Welcker and Burges conj. rpwpr): Bergk, far'
i Q i j

304 (Electra speaking of her rustic cottage) olois $v TTT\OIS av\io/Aa.L (cp. ib.
168 aypbTeipav av\dv). KaTaic\i6cls, the
weak reading of some later MSS., was
prob. suggested by KO.6' UTTPOV.Kvpfj is
the reading of our MSS., and, though their
authority on such a point is not great, the
subjunct. seems here slightly better than
KvpEi. Spa ix.T]...Kvpu, 'see whether he is
not,' would imply that in the speaker's
mind there was little doubt on the subject: cp. notes on Ant. 278, 1253: Plat.
Charm. 163 A a\X' opa /xr) iiceivov jcwXt/ei:
Lach. 196 C a\X' bpwfitv f/.r} Ntidas oterai
TI Xtyew. Thcaet. 145 C Spa /IT) iralfav

IXeyev. These are admonitions in the


polite guise of suggestions. Now here we
may, indeed, conceive Odysseus as saying /xi)...KupEi: but, in the anxious uncertainty which he actually feels, it is more
natural that he should say fiii ...Kvprj. If
it be said that general Attic usage rather
favours the indie, after Spa firj, we may
refer to 519, El. 1003 and fr. 83 as a
few places out of several where the subjunct. after Spa /tij is proved by metre.
3 1 6p<3. Neoptolemus, mounting the
rocks, has now just reached the mouth of
the cave. Kvi)v is made more explicit
by dvOpcoirwv SCxa.: 'empty,yes, there
is no man there.' Such iteration is natural when the mind confirms itself in a
first impression, or dwells on a striking

thought; so Verg. Aen. 4. 588 vacuos


sensit sine remige portus ('empty,no
rower there'); Ai. 464 yv/xvbv <pavivTa
TUV apuTTduv arep ' (when I return) ungraced,aye, without the meed of valour.'
Cp. 487: 0. T. 57 n., Ant. 445 n.
3 2 olKoiroi6s..Tis Tpoifnj, 'any comforts, such as make a human dwelling,'
in contradistinction to a wild beast's lair.
Tpocjrq here = 'what sustains life,'not
only food and drink, but also provision
for necessary repose and warmth: cp.
Plat. Legg. 667 B iSuiSrj ph nal ird&ei Kal
fyiliiraoT) Tpo<prj, 'food and drink and the
comforts of life generally.' The question
of Odysseus is comprehensive; in reply,
Neopt. can only mention a bed; but
that does not require us to assume that
Od. used Tpotpr) in the specific sense of
'furniture.' The objection which has
been made to rpo^r) here thus falls to
the ground. Against Welcker's Tpu<J>ij,
remark:(i) The irony would be misplaced here, where Od. is anxiously seeking information; it is otherwise in v. 37,
where the slightly ironical tone of By\<saipta/xa shows the first gleam of sinister
joy.

(2)

The

phrase olKoiroi.os...Tpwj>ii

would be infelicitous. The adjective itself


shows that the substantive ought to
denote the rudiments, not the refinements,
of a home.

SO0OKAEOYX

12

NE. a-TiTTTtj ye <f>vk\a<; w ivav\it,ovTi TU>.


OA. TO. 8' aAA' eprjfjua, Kovhiv ecrd' v-nocneyov;
NE. avrov\6v y eKircofia, (f>\avpovpyov TWOS
Teyyrjfiar' dvSpos, /ecu nvpe? o/xoC TaSe.
OA. Keivov TO Qr\<ja.vpi(T\x.a. (rr)fialv&.$ TOSC.

35

NE. tou iou* Kai rauTa y' a\Xa daXneTai


pdia), fiapeCas TOV voo-rfkeias irXea.
O A . dvr)p

KCLTOiKei TovaSe

KOLCTT' oir^

TOVS TOVOVS cra^&Js,

e/cas TTOV' 77<WS y a p

KCOXOV TraXaia yojpi irpoo-fiaiq

40

a v voo~<av avrjp
\uxK.pa.v)

3 3 {TTITTJI L, A (ci over 1 from the corrector), with most MSS., and Suidas: aTtnr!\
T and Eustathius.ev avXl^oi/Ti L, with an erasure of one or two letters after iv.

3 3 oTiimj ye K.T.X., 'aye, a heap of


leaves pressed down, as if for the use of
one who sleeps in the place.' Here
Y serves to correct the suggestion contained in the negative question: 'There
is nothing there?' 'Yes, there is something '. In this use it may be compared
with the Fr. si, since it is corrective
without being emphatic. ('Vousn'avez
pas ete la?''Si.') Cp. 35. For the
spellingffTiTTTi},see v. 2. A bed of leaves
(or rushes, etc.) was called aTifids (Eur.
Tro. 507 anji&da. 7rpds xa/wuireri;). [Eur.]

couch.For cos with ivav\lfoi>Tl rep, cp.


203.
3 4 TO. 8* d\X', all parts of the cave
except that covered by the bed of leaves:
fyipa, 'bare,' i.e. without any sign of
inhabitation. The second question, KOV8^v K.T.X., repeats the first in a more
precise form.
3 5 aw6|vXov, 'of mere wood,' means
here, 'of wood not artistically treated';
the piece of wood remained as nearly in its
original state as was compatible with its
serving for a cup. Cp. fr. com. 322

Rhes.

avrbiroKov lfi.a.Ti.ov, a cloak of rough w o o l :


Alexis KiSfl-piot 2 TOV 8' atiroirvpov dprov,

9 XetTre ^a/ieiJ^as (pvWoaTptorovs

(of soldiers bivouacking). GTurri) means,


pressed down by the body of the person
who has slept on it. Some take evavXlfocTi rep as dat. of agent with GTITVTTI (pressed down by some one lodging here); but
the order of words renders it simpler to
take the dat. as one of interest. Hartung,
whom Nauck follows, changes OTITTT*] to
o-Tpwnj, finding a hint of the latter in one
of the two scholia on this v. in L, x"/""arpuala iK (piWwv. But that may refer
to the one word <j>v\\&s: while the other
scholium unequivocally refers to o r i i m i ,
ijwKaixivq Kal Trarov/iivr;, ('spread
out, and pressed down,') ws Koifiw/itvov iir'

the loaf of unbolten wheat-flour: see O. C.


192 atiroiriTpov ^/taros n.(j>\avpovpY<>5: seemingly the only extant instance
of the form <f>\avpos in a compound adj.
3 6 Txvij(KtT": the poet. plur. has a
certain dignity, and there is possibly a
shade of designed irony in its use here:
Hes. Scut, 313 rpliros, K\VT& Ipya Teplippovos 'HtpcdtTTOio: Eur. Or. 1053 f^prj/xa,
...K^Spov TexpnoyxaTa (a coffin,...finely
wrought of cedar): Virg. Aen. 5. 359
clypeum...Didymaonis artes.irupeta. igniaria, 'means of kindling a fire,' the
stones mentioned in 296, and perhaps also
avrrj TWOS. If it be said that 7JTT\O)/J.4V7J bits of wood with which to catch the spark.
might refer to orpwrij, we may reply
3 7 KCCVOV, predicate, cp. Plat. Apol.
that iraj-ovixivri could refer only to OTMTTJJ : and by riir\oi/ji.ev7i the schol. meant (I 20 E oi yap ifxbv (pu TOP X6701' (= 6 X670S,
oV ep>, oiiK C/JOS itTTai). 8i|o-avpi<r|ia,
think) to express that the leaves formed,
'store' (not so strong as 'treasure'): the
not a soft heap, but only a shallow layer,
verb Orpravplfa was used of 'laying in'
ornrrq is more graphic than orpwnj: it
supplies for household use (Xen. Cyr. 8.
suggests the recent impress of the body,
2. 24); cp. Eur. El. 497 Britraipiaixa
and the cheerless discomfort of the
Aiovi<rov (store of wine). Yet here the

4>IA0KTHTHI
NE. Aye, a mattress of leaves, as if for some one who
makes his lodging here.
OD. And all else is bare ? Nought else beneath the roof?
NE. Just a rude cup of wood, the work of a sorry craftsman ; and this tinder-stuff therewith.
OD. His is the household store whereof thou tellest.
NE. Ha! Yes, and here are some rags withal, drying in
the sun,stained with matter from some grievous sore.
OD. The man dwells in these regions, clearly, and is somewhere not far off; how could one go far afield, with foot maimed
by that inveterate plague ?
3 5 <p\avpovpyov corrected from <j>\avpoipyov L .
<palverai.
4O Arty L, clW/p Brunck.

42

3 8 6d\TeTai\ Nauck conj.


Trpoaairj\ Herwerden conj.

has raoTjXeia as either (i) 'sickness,' or


word is ironical, since the 'store' is so
(ii) 'nursing of the sick.'ir\&i, tainted,
wretched.
stained with: cp. Xen. Cyr. 1. 3. 5 (T\
3 8 101) low, a cry of surprise, with
X^lp) irXta trot (for' air&v iyivero, has been
which the watcher greets the beacon in
defiled by those things: so TrX^peis, Ant.
Aesch. Ag. 25,where it is 'extra me1017.
trum,' as in Ai. 737. It stands within
the verse, as here, in 0. T. 1071, 1182,
4 1 f. ox ends irov, as 163 TrAas TOV,
Tr. 1143.Kal ravTa y'. In v. 29, cal
0. T. 1410 ?{U...7TOI;.jK-qpl, 'plague,'as
OTI/SOV 7', ye specially emphasises the
1166 Krjpa T&vS' aTro^>ei\eiv,but without
word <TTI'/3OU: here, it does not specially
ref. to the idea that the vbcsos was oremphasise ravra, but helps Kal to introdained by fate (1326).irpoo-poCr), in the
duce the new fact; i.e., it is not, 'and
sense of 'advance,' where we should have
here are rags,' but rather, 'yes, and here
expected irpofiaiTi, is certainly strange.
are rags.' Wherever KaC-.^e occurs, it
It is partly excused, however, by the fact
is well to note in which of these two ways
that the speaker is himself outside of the
it is used. Examples like Kal ravrd y'
cave, and so can the more naturally place
here are, below, 1296 Kai irAas 7 ' : O.
himself in imagination at the external
T. 1132 KoiSiv ye Bav/j.a: ib. 1319 Kal point towards which the movement is
6av/j.& y' oiS&. Examples like Kal (Trlpov made,saying, 'come far', instead of, 'go

7' are, below, 674 Kal ai y' elaa^ta: 1277


Kal iripa 7' laff rj \tyia.d'XXa, 'withal'
(i.e., besides the other objects already
found): cp. O. T. 290 n.: Aesch. Tkeb. 424
7(705 o5' aXXos.BttXirerai, 'are drying'
in the sun at the seaward mouth of the
cave (cp. 17). Not, 'are warm' to the
touch,as if recently used. Cp. Eur.
Helen. 181 a\lov ir&rXous | avyvXow iv
rats xP""^ais \ afupidaXirow'.

far'. I do not feel sure, then, that irptxr/Sai?) is corrupt, though it is suspicious.
If corrupt, it probably conceals a compound with Tp6. In the Classical Review
(vol. n . p. 324, 1888) I have conjectured
irpoo-Krfoi, 'limp forth'. Minuscule|3and
K often resemble each other (thus in Ant.
1094 Xa/ceii' is corrected from \af}eiv). If
irpoa-KciiJoi had become irpoir^afoi, the latter
would easily have generated Trpoff^alri. A
verb describing painful movement would

3 9 papeCas, 'grievous,' the epithet of


be fitting here, after VOG(OV...K&\OV iraXaiJ
the malady itself, as 1330 vbaov (Sapelas.
K-qpl: c p . 6yp.erjeL (163), ei\v6/j.rjv (291).
Not 'fetid' (likegravis...hircus, Hor. Ep.
It is immaterial that this particular com12. 5),a sense in which fiaptis occurs
pound of ovcdfw does not occur elsewhere;
only when it is the epithet of 6ap.rj, ar/xh
many verbal compounds occur once only,
(Arist. Hist. An. 9. 5), etc.vo<n\as, e.g., irpodeieas [0. T. 90), TpoK\ivas {O.
Xetas, (subst. from voarjK6%, 'morbid,')
C. 201). For other conjectures, see Apr
here = the matter discharged from the
pendix.
ulcer in the foot; cp. 824. Isocr. uses
voaijKeioi as = ' to tend the sick,' and Plut,

ZO0OKAEOYI
dXX'

1 7 V I <f>opfiyj<;

VOCTTOV

77 <f)i\\ov e? TI vdSvvov KCtroiSe 7rou.


TOI> o w Trapoma vdfM\jfov eis KaTacrKoirrjv,
JMI} Kal X a ^ yxe wpocnrecrcov' co<s (JLOLWOV av
eXoiTO ft' 17 TOWS Travras 'A/ayetous XajSeiv.
NE. dXX' epxerat re /cat <f>vkai;erai ori)8os*
(TU 8' ei Tt ^/o^ets, (f>pdCe Sevrepco \6ya>.
OA.
^iXXews 77at, Set <r' ' ofs eX^Xu^as
yevvaiov elvai, (JLT} \LOVOV T<5 creofiaTi,
dXX' 17V Tt Kaivov, (xiv irp\v OVK dtf
K\VT)<S, vnovpyeiv,
<os vTn)peTr]<i irdpei.

45

50

p x i : Blaydes, iroi Pal-q.


4 3 r) VI (popflrjs vbarov MSS.: Burges, Herwerden
and Blaydes conj. ^ VI Qopffiv vbarov: Toup, rj VI (popfUjs iiaaTiiv ('search'):
Wecklein, fj VJ (popffiv vrjans.
4 7 ?XOITO /U' L, the d in an erasure, having been
made by S from e (not i). ?XOITC /A' (i.e. (\OIT4 /JS) was prob. a mere error, not a
trace of eXow' /*', the reading which Bergk and Cavallin adopt.Xafleiv] The
4 3 <f>opprjs votrrov. The defence of the young chiefs TT/XJOTTOXOS, who is called
this much-impugned phrase depends on ffKowbs at v. 125. The phrase does not
three points. (i) vbaros is poetically imply that he is actually at his master's
used in the general sense of 6S6s: Eur. side on the rocks.
/ . A. 1261 (speaking of the Greeks), oh
4 6 f. (ii] Kal, cp. 13.irpo<nr<r<ov, of
v6ffros ofiic &TT' 'TKlov wtipyovs %in. (2) sudden and unforeseen approach (0. C.
In <j>op[}rjs-i>6ffTos, a food-journey, the gen.
1157): the same phrase below, 156, and
denotes the object of the VOOTOS : the prin- Eur. Heracl. 338.^XOITO (i. The enciple is the same as in Eur. / . T. 1066 clitic |i is warranted here (though ?XOIT'
71JS irorpijjas vbaros, 'a fatherland-return,' i|i* might seem more natural), since the
i.e. a return to it: Orph. Argon. 200 iirl words, p.T) Kal Xd$y lie irpoairetr&v, have
trhbov 'A^eivoio, on a voyage to the Euxine. already indicated Odysseus as the person
(3) The poet has not said, ee\ij\u0e (pop- chiefly menaced. It is as though he said:
/S?js vborov ('cognate' ace.), but i%e\rf\v0ev ' We must take care that he does not surM. (poppys vborov, thus marking that vbcrrov prise me; it would delight him more than
denotes, not merely the act of going out,
to capture all the Greeks'; where the
but the purpose of that act, viz., a quest. unemphatic 'it' would resemble the enIn other words, the presence of kirl before clitic lie as merely referring back to a case
it already tinges vbarov with the sense of already indicated. A similar instance
ffirrjaui: cp. Her. 4. 140 inricrrpe^ov M
(and one that is certified by metre) occurs
iftrriaiv T&V THepaiav. The conjecture below, 1049 ff.: "^ 7^P TMOATW Sei,
dXV ij Vi 4>opf5ijv vborov i^eMjKvdtv seems, TOIOVTOS elp' iyii' | %unrov SiKalav KayaB&v
then, needless; but it is also open to a dvSpwv Kplais, I 01V &v Xd/Scus ]u>v /xaWov
strong positive objection, viz., that vbarov oiSfr' ebaefiri: where the iyib in 1049
then becomes a mere pleonasm. A cog- makes it needless to have i/xov in 1051.
nate ace. added to (l-e\ij\vdtv ought here Such cases are distinct from those in
to qualify it in some manner (cp. Ai. 287 which the enclitic form of the pers. pron.
i^bSovs Spweiv nerds).
is justified by the fact that the chief em4 4 TJ <(>tiXXov K.T.X. The constr. is, rj, phasis is on a verbal notion (e.g., 958: Ant.
546 jxij 110L Bavins <rii Koivd, ' share not my
el <pti\\ov v&bvvbv TL K&TOL8 TTOV, (^TT'
air6):
rather than, rj (M) <f>6X\ov, et n death').The first hand in L seems
vibivvov (<p<Gh\ov) K&roiSi irov.vuSvvov, to have written \one /x' (sic): the cor-

in active sense: Anthol. app. 57 <pap/x- rector changed the second e to 0, accenting the latter. If there had been reason
dicois avaSwois.
to think that the first hand in L wrote
4 5 TAv...irop6vTa,'thyattendant,'

*IAOKTHTHI

15

No. he hath gone forth in quest of food, or of some soothing


herb, haply, that he hath noted somewhere. Send thine attendant,
therefore, to keep watch, lest the foe come on me unawares; for
he would rather take me than all the Greeks beside.
NE. Enough, the man is going, and the path shall be
watched.-And now, if thou wouldst say more, proceed.
[Exit Attendant, on the spectators' left.
OD. Son of Achilles, thou must be loyal to thy mission,
and not with thy body alone. Shouldst thou hear some new
thing, some plan unknown to thee till now, thou must help it;
for to help is thy part here.
variant /noXeo' (found in A, and thence taken by the Aldine) may, as Boissonade
conjectured, have come from fi' e\ew: but fi i\etv would have required ?XOTT' av instead
of ?Xom5 n'. Toup conj. \affe7v: Valckenaer and Blaydes, f3a\e'u>.
6O54
Nauck holds that the verses, from del tr] $' ofs e\-fj\v6as to TI Srp-' Avayas (inclusive),
t'Xoir' /u', then I should have taken that
must show his true-bred spirit, not merely
reading, not as better than (\OITO H\ but physically, but morally,i.e., by bringing
as equally good and better attested.
himself (TOX/JO, 82) to aid plans which
may be repugnant to him. Neopt. sup\af3civ, 'catch,' 'find in his power.' |ioXetv in A was prob. a conjecture, or a posed that his task was to take Phil, by
mere error, rather than, as Boissonade force (71710! filav, 90). Odysseus seeks to
supposed, a corruption of |i* cXctv. For
prepare the disclosure very gently. Hence
the hypothetical clause which takes the
the difference between eketv and \aetv
(in regard to warfare), see //. 5. 144 evff' place of a simple dXXi KO.1 TJ; yvdiixrg,
e"\ep 'A.ariv6ov ('slew'), and id. 159 ?W)' Viz., dXV ^fv TI KCUVOV, K.T. X. After that
vtas Hpid/ioio ova \&/3e AapSavlSao, | elv clause, a modal partic, WovpyovvTa ('by
evl ditppcfi iovras ('caught'). Cp. below, serving'), ought to have balanced the in101, 103; O. T. 266 fijrfij' TOV airoxe^pa strumental dat. T$ aiiixaTi. But, instead
TOV tptvov \afietv ('find').Blaydes says of it, we have a second infin., virovp^etv,
that \afieiv is 'clearly wrong,' and reads depending, like elvai, on Set: just as, in
PoXtiv('hit').
independent sentences, a new finite verb
4 8 f. eiXV, in assent, like 'oh, well,' is often substituted for a second participial
the implied adversative sense being, clause (0. C. 351 n.: Ant. 256, 816).
'nay, I have no objection': cp. 232,
7vvatov, 'true-bred.' rb yevvatov is, as
336, 645, 647.fpxTOi, sc. b irap&v (45), Arist. defines it (Hist. An. 1. 1. 32), rb
'he goes,' i.e., ' I send him' (said as he \r>\ it;i<TT&iiei>ov ix rrjs airov ipvcreas. Odysmakesasign to the 7rpo<r7roXos). Cp. 1181 seus calls on Neopt. to prove himself a
^...IXBys, 'depart not': Ant. 99 avovs true son of his sire (cp. 3) by complete
/xiv %pxe<-Tt Kal marks the full assent loyalty to his mission.Tji <r<i>|iaTi: cp.
to v. 45: he shall go, and for that pur- Eur. Suppl. 886 lV7rois re xa^Pav T a T>
pose.-<|>vXdeT<u, the fut. pass, in good
ii/Telvwv xePoiv' I ToXet irapaaxo-v aHp.0.
prose also (Xen. Oec. 4. 9): (pv\axO^(rofi.ai X/wJ(Fi|U<>P BiKuv.
was late. For other such futures, cp.
Ktuvov, euphemistic, as oft.: cp. Antiph.
303: Ant. 93 n.SeuT^pw Xovcu, 'in furTetr. A. 5. 2 Katvorara yh.p 5?J, et XPV
ther speech,'continuing the former dis- Kai.voTa.Ta. jj,a\\ov TJ KaKovpyorara eiweiv,
course. Cp. Pind. O. 1.43 devrepifi xpi"<p^ SiafiaWoval lie.<5v (TOVTWV a) irplv OVK
= {jar4p(fi.
dKiJKoas
novel thing),
J , '(some
(
g) viz., one
i
h i h thou
h hast
h
hd
SO ff. 4<j>' ots = e7rl TOVTOIS e<p' oh, of those things
which
not heard
'for' (i.e., 'so as to aid') 'the objects for before'; i.e., ' a p a r t of my plans which
which,' etc.; cp. O. T. 1457 p.^ 'iri T<I> has not hitherto been disclosed to thee.'
Seivuj KaKq>.The sentence begins as if the Cp. Eur. Med. 356 ov yip TI Bpaaas Secvov,
form were to b e , Set...yevvatov etvcu, ^
fxovov T^I (nb/xart, dXXA Kal TTJ yvdj/j.7}: he

5 3 virt|prt)S, like virujpeTeTv in 15, said

i6

I04>0KAE0YI

N K . TL Srjr

avcoyas \

OA.

\pv)(r}v OTTGJS XoyoLcruv

rrjv <J>IXOKT7/TOU ere Set


e/c/cXet/zeis

Xeycov.

orai' cr' epwra TIS TC /cat nodev irdpei,


Xiyetv,

'A^iXXecos Trais* TOS' OV)(L KXetrreov

XeiS S' 6JS TT^OS OTKOV,

d '

'

eKXlTTbiv TO

idj

ot cr' e^ Xtrats crreiXai'Tes e^ OLKCOV fioXeiv,


fJLOVTjV <E.XOVT<Z TTJvS' akdXTLV 'TXbOV,
OVK rj^loxrav

iXdovn

55

Sovvcu

TWV 'Ar^iXXiuav

Kvpidis

60

STTXOJV

alrovfievq),

'axe probably spurious; at any rate, in their present form, absurd.'


54 Se!...
Xiyuv] Matthiaeconj. deii>...\fyu: Dindorf, Sei...opav. Erfurdt, Sei...aKovetv; Cavallin,
S.../4o\iiv (or liiv).\6younv] Gedike conj. SoXoicnc.^/txX^ijdr L : imcXtyeis r.

in the speaker's own words;; as 33.


of a friend and equal. Cp. Eur. El. 821 sequel
q
\ y ' A now,'
d '
(Orestes) XlvXdSriv /JV eifXer' ^>> iroWs 156,
56, '
, ' pi \yiov,...'And
vir7]p^TT]v, j dfiwas 5' dirwfci: and so he
h went on to say,... (lit, said, as he went
even in good prose, as Xen. An. 1. on speaking).Other ways of taking X^9. 18.
Y<v, which seem less good, are:(1) As
5 4 f. T 8TJT* dvwyas; The division of instrum. partic, with which avrois is to
the verse between the speakers (avTiXap-fj) be supplied from \6younv: 'with words,
serves at once to mark the surprise of
...i.e., by speaking them.' For this view,
Neopt. and to introduce the words of Od.
Schneidewin cp. Plat. Legg. 885 B baa.
with a certain abrupt force: cp. O. C. Xoyy Kal Saa tpyy wept $eois vpplfei TIS
722 n.
\4yuv if irpdrTav. (2) As instrum. partic,
<re 8tt K.T.X. Two other examples used absolutely, to emphasise Xbyoiaw,
of this constr. are extant: At. 556 Set 'with words,I repeat, by speaking.'
(3) As instrum. partic, to be taken closely
<r' 8TOK irarp&s | Seffets ev ex^pois ofos ^ |
otou 'rpdipris: Cratinus (the poet of the with Xoyoiaiv, in the sense, 'speaking
Old Comedy), NV/jeiris fr. 3 Set a' SITUS vain words.' This is Seyffert's view, who
explains \6yois \4yetv as meris verbis
eiffxtf/tovos I d\e/c7-/)udcos firidiv faolaeis rods
rpoTovs. In both those passages, as in dicere: a sense which the phrase could
not bear.IKKX^JTCIS: here related to
this, the constr. is used by an elder, or
KKinTeiv, fallere (Tr. 243 ei jirij av/upopal
superior, in giving a precept of conduct.
K\nTov<rl fie), as i^avarav to tiirarav.
The admonitory tone thus associated with
Cp. 968. // 14. 217 ijr' tK\e\//e pooi> irtiKa
the formula confirms the text, as against
Matthiae's conjecture, <re 8etv | ^uxV irep tppoveoj/Twv.
STOIS X070UT1P eKK\tyeis \iya. The partic.
5 7 f. Xyv, infin. for imper. (0. C.
X^cnv explains the instrum. dat. Xoyouriv 481 n . ) ; not depending on Set in 54.^
more clearly; it is not instrumental {'by 'A\iXX&>S) -'
The e suffers synispeaking'), but temporal; i.e., literally, zesis again in 364, 582, 1066, 1237, 1298,
'as you go on speaking? It indicates
1312 : though not in 4, 50, 241, 260,
that Neopt. is to converse alone with
1220, 1433.T68" ofyl KXCTTT&V: lit.,
Phil. (cp. 70, ofuXia), and is to deceive
'this thing' (his parentage) 'must not be
him in the course of their conversation. represented falsely,'i. e., the truth must
The next verse makes this still clearer:
not be hidden. KkiirTtw n can mean,
When he asks, say,' etc. A similar use
'to do (or speak) a thing fraudulently':
of \iyuv, to denote the process of talk,
Ai. 189 KXivTovGt. niBovs, they speak false
is frequent in Herod., when, after epitowords. In Tr. 437^7)...iicKhiifnris X67oi' =
mising part of a speech, he gives the
'do not keep back the story'; but'the

<t>IAOKTHTHZ

17

NE. What is thy bidding ?


OD. Thou must beguile the mind of Philoctetes by a story
told in thy converse with him. When he asks thee who and
whence thou art, say, the son of Achilles,there must be
no deception touching that; but thou art homeward bound,
thou hast left the fleet of the Achaean warriors, and hast conceived a deadly hatred for them ; who, when they had moved
thee by their prayers to come from home, deemed thee not
worthy of the arms of Achilles,deigned not to give them
to thee when thou earnest and didst claim them by right,
57 irXorrAw] Nauck conj. KpvTr4ov. 5 8 TTXS] Blaydesconj.TrXeii'.
6O trrelXavres]
Naber conj. weiaav-res.i OIKOIP L : f OIKOV r.
6 1 nbvrjv A : imvqv 5' L. The later
MSS. are divided between these (fiivig 5' and IJAVOV 5' also occurring); the Aldine agrees
as usual with A. Seyffert conj. ynoViji" y'.
6 3 Nauck suspects the verse.

simple icKtirTeiv could not literally express that was their only way of taking
this.Kp-uirrsov is a tame conjecture.
Troy,'the second clause implying that,
as his presence was so momentous, his
5 8 f. irXels is more dramatic than
claim to good treatment was the stronger.
irXelv, which would also be awkward after
But iibvqv, without 8', is clearly right.
\iyeiv.<6s irpos OIKOV. irpds states the
Then lxc"/Tes ' s causal, expressing the
direction of the voyage: uts merely adds
motive of areCKavres, 'having brought
an indication of the voyager's purpose:
thee,...since they had no other way,'etc.
'thou art homeward bound.' (Not, 'thou
The insertion of 5', if not a mere error,
art sailing as if for home,' with ref. to the
story being untrue.) Cp. Ai. 44 TJ KO.1 rb may have been due to a corrector who,
not perceiving the relation of the two
/Soi/Xeu/i' us eir' 'Apyelois TOS' T\V, 'was
participles, thought that they required a
this plot, in his intention (us), against the
copula.SXotriv, means of capture :
Greeks ?' (though the actual victims were
the cattle). Thuc. 4. 93 TrapecrKevd^ero T h u c . 1. 75 X^M a %XOVV Trpbs rr\v Tr6\ivy
voidfyvres TCLXIGTW aXpeaw [rijv a'ipeatv
ws is fi&xvvi made his dispositions with a
Classen] lirctrflai airuv (the quickest way
view (cos) to fighting. Xen. H. 1. 1. 12
av&yecxBai. r}$7] airov ixiWovros us iwi vav- of taking the place).
/Mxlav.i\9o% l\6r\pas piya.: cp. El.
6 2 f. T(3V 'AxiXXetwv SirXwv, gen.
1 0 3 4 oi^5' av TOGOVTOV Hx@s ex&cdpca cr'
depending on the principal verb rjgCoxrav,
eyiSi. For the aor. part. cp. 227, 309:
instead of an a c e , TA 'A%iXXe(a 6VXa,
Pind. N. 7. 88 ^iXiiowr' (having formed
depending on the infin. Sovvai. This
a friendship); O. T. 11 n., 649 n.
construction arises from eagerness for
compact expression of the main idea,
6 0 ot, with causal force (Lat. qui with
as here the main idea is completely exsubjunct.): O. C. 263 n.iv XITOUS, by
means of prayers: cp. 102 iv S6\u... &yeu>, pressed by v. 62. The ' epexegetic' infin.,
like Sovvai, is usu. the only word added:
1393 iv \6yois I irdBeiv: Ant. 764 n.
but here it is naturally supplemented by
o~rXavT6s...(>.oX.iv: lit., having caused
the words which denote the aggravating
thee to set forth, so that thou shouldst
circumstances (e\66vn...nvpla>s ahovfiivu).
come from home: cp. Ant. 164 v/ias
Plat. Legg* 941 D hiKTjs ovv obdirepov
5' iyw irofXTroiffLV eK TT&VTUV 5IX<* flreiX'
o&deripov i\6.Trovos...b v6/j.os d.^101 T][IIOVI>
Ueadat. Odysseus and Phoenix were sent
(instead of dioi frifuovv SIKTJ). Thuc. 3 .
from Troy to bring the young Neoptole6 Kal rijs fiiv 6a\A.<raris etpyov /iii xpyv^i'
mus from Scyros: 343 ff.
6 1 |i6vi]v. If L's )i.ovt]v 8' were sound, rods M.vri\Tjyalovs. C p . O. C. 1211 n.
then <rrel\avTts (piv) and ixovTe* & would xupCcos, with good right (tuo hire), as heir
of Achilles; cp. Dem. or. 36 32 Kvplws
express two reasons why the conduct
S6VTOS rod waTpbs...KaTd. roiis vofwvs atirty
of the Atreidae was bad:'when they
yeya/iijadai.
had brought thee from home, and when

J. S. IV,

i8

204>0KAE0YS
aXX' a w 'OSucrcrei trapeSoaav

Xeycov ocr av

deXrjs xaff TJ/JLOJV ecrxfLT ia^aToiv /ca/ca.


*TOVTO) yap ovhiv /x' dXyvveiS' el S' ipydcrei
[irj ravTa, \VTTI)V TTOLCTLV 'ApyeCous /SaXets.
el yap ra rovSe Tofa fvij Xrj^Oj
OVK ecrri irepcrai trot TO AapSdvov
ws o e a r e/xot //.ev oin^i, o~oi o o/juKta
irpos rovSe TTICTTT} /cai /Je/3aios, eKfiade.
crv fxkv TreVXeu/cas OUT' evopKos ovSevl
OVT
avayK7)<i ovre TOV irpcorov oroXou"

65

JO

6 4 atfr'] aiir' L.X^ywe] Gedike conj. \iy' ofo.6V made from $<j in L.
6 8 Totirwv yip oiSip.' aXyvveltT L. The first corrector (S) has written v, very small,
between the e and /*' of oidep.', indicating oi55^c ju'. And oiSev p? is in some of the
later MSS., including A and V, while Vat. has ovSiv. Ven. has dXyvvei, the rest
6 4 f. irapeSocav, handed over,a
word suggesting fraud or treachery, as
oft.; cp. 399.\e7uv refers back to \iyew
in 57 (with which, as infm. for imperat.,
the nomin. is rightly used in the 2nd pers.,
O. T. 15 29 n.). Odysseus leaves the available epithets to his young friend's imagination. Cp. O. T. 1287 /3o$ Sioiyeiv

Before roiTtnv yap oiSe'v /*' ahyweh could


be accepted, it would be needful to show
that a cognate ace. (oiSiv) could thus replace an instrum. dat. The next question concerns its origin. It might be
suggested that the ovUp." of the jst hand
in L came, not from ovSiv /*', but from
ov5v\ and that the sense is, 'thou wilt
KXrjdpa Kal 5r/\ovi> Tiva [ TOIS Tratrt K a 5 pain no one of them' (masc),so
[leloiai rbv iraTpoKTbvov, rbv fj.7jrp6sy afithat KaB' 7fp.Civ in 65 should mean,
SQv avbaC oiSk /n)T& /wi. E u r . / . T. 16
Odysseus and the Atreidae. But this
as
Kal \iyei Kd\x
T<iSe' | ...'iraid' oSv h
cannot be; for, here, there has been no
OTKOIS (TT] KXyTaifAvrfarpa ddfj.ap TIKTCL ' direct mention of the Atreidae,only
rb KaWtaretov els f/.' dvatppwv
| 'T\V of 'Axaiwv generally (59); and so, for
Xfh ae OSffat.'Ka8' I]|MOV, in this con- contrast with iraaLv 'Apydois (67), the
text, seems best taken as = /car' e/xoO : for pain denoted by dXyvveU must be pain to
the sing. |K SO closely following, see n. on
Odysseus. TOVTWV ydp ovSev' dVyuvets
Ant. 734 ir6\is yap T)JUV d/ii XF<1 rdaanv being thus set aside, we have to weigh (1)
^pei;&TXO.T' i<r\wr(av: cp. O. T. 465 TOUTCDV yap ovStv aXyvvii (i,Dindorfs
apprfr' App^rav n.
conjecture; and (2) TOVTIO ^dp ovSev |i'
dX-yvveis, Buttmann's. Both being pos6 6 *TOT<J) 7<lp K.T.X. The reading
TOIITWV 7<*p ovSiv \L' dXyvvds is probably sible, the question is, which of them is
most likely to have generated roirav yap
that which stood in L's archetype; for
the inserted v, by which oidip.' has been ovS^v n' akyvveXs. The fact that aXyvveis
made into oid&p,', is due to thefirstcor- precedes ipydaei. diminishes the probarector of L, who revised the work of the bility that dXyweis arose from dXyvvel p.'
by assimilation of persons. Further, had
scribe by comparing the copy with the
otiSe'v /i' d\yvveU come from oiSiv d\ywel
original. The first question, then, is
pi,we
might have expected tofinda variant,
whether that reading can be kept. It is
required to mean:'for in regard to no oiSiv dXyvvels p.'. If, on the other hand,
one of these things' (viz., the KCIKO., taunts) the words oiSiv p.' aKyvveh are genuine,
' wilt thou pain me.' But it would properly we have only to suppose a change of TOIJTWI into rovTiav. On these palaeographimean:' for thou wilt not cause me any of
these pains.' . Cp. 1021 eywS' dXyiUvofiat J cal grounds Buttmann's reading appears
preferable to Dindorfs.
TOUT' av6' on f<3 K.T.X., ' I feel just this
pain,that I live,' etc.: Ar. Ach. 2 ijaOriv
6 7 (XT) : for d ipydffei p.fi, instead of
Si paid... I a 8' d>8w/j0rp>, K.T.X.I Ant. 550 ei p.7i ipydtru, cp. 332, 653, O. T. 328 n.:
T'I ravr' dvias p.' (cause me this distress).
for p.ri as first word of a verse, when a word

*IAOKTHTHI
but made them over to Odysseus. Of me, say what thou wilt,
the vilest of vile reproaches;thou wilt cost me no pang by
that;but if thou fail to do this deed, thou wilt bring sorrow
on all our host. For if yon man's bow is not to be taken, never
canst thou sack the realm of Dardanus.
And mark why thine intercourse with him may be
free from mistrust or danger, while mine cannot. Thou
hast come to Troy under no oath to any man, and by
no constraint; nor hadst thou part in the earlier voyage:
iXyvvets. All have roiroiv. Buttmann conj. Toirif (for ToiTuv) yap oiSiv fi'
aXyvvets : so Wund. and Blaydes. Dindorf, Tobruiv yb.p oidh dVyura fi'.ipy&aei]
epyiurji L; as below, 78 yevfyrqi, 108 ifrijt, and passim.
6 7 apyeloun L, thefinal1
with which it is construed stands in the
preceding verse, cp. O. C. 1349 (el... |
/4i)), 0. T. 348 (Soov I ii-fj). PoXiShere =
i/ifiakas (or Trpoo-j3d\eU),' inflict' on t h e m :
cp. E u r . Phoen. 1534 <TK6TOV S/j-fiaai aouri

flakibv. In poetry the simple dat. (instead


of dat. or ace. with a prep.) is sometimes
thus used to denote the object to, or
against, which an action is directed : cp.
n. on Ant. 1232 irTtivas irpoGtlnrip. N o t ,

'launch against them,' as though the \tiirq


were a missile; nor, 'sow' sorrow for
them, like dvlas fioi Karaairelpas, Ai.
1005.
6 8 f. el...(J.l] \i|<|>9'if<renn, OVK IOTTI
K.T.X. 'if the bow is not to be taken, then
it is impossible' etc. Here the condition
expressed by the fut. ind. in the protasis
is really a present one; the meaning is,
'if it is (now) settled that the bow is not
to be taken.' Cp. Xen. An. 3. 4. 39

will be pained, it seems less fitting to


place the personal concern of Neoptolemus in the foreground; and (b) the necessary emphasis on aol in v. 70 would have
a slightly awkward effect if the same
pron. had been emphasised in v. 69. Cp.
n. on 47, P\OIT6

fi'.

TO AapSdvov ir&ov, the land of Dardanus,meaning Tpola in its larger sense,


the town with its territory (cp. 920 ra
Tpoias TreSia, 1435 eXefx T6 Ipoias irediov).
So 0. C. 380 TO Kadtieluv iriSov^Q^ris
iriBov (ib. 415). Dardanus, son of Zeus,
was fifth ancestor of Priam (//. 20. 215 ff.).
Cp. Pind. O. 13. 56 irpb Aapdavov reiX^uv: Eur. Helen. 1493 Aapdavov TT6\CV.
7 O f. 10S 8* 1<TT |i0l \LiV O\l\t K.T.X. I
cp. X e n . An. 2. 5. 35 o! Si iravres p-iv
OUK T]X$OV, 'Aptatos 8e /cat 'Aprao^os

K.T.X.

Odysseus anticipates the objection that,


if there is to be a stratagem, he should
ohx <TTt trapehOeLV, el /XTJ TOUTOVS diroconduct it himself,as Aesch. and Eur.
Koipofxev: ' it is an impossibility to advance, had made him d o : cp. 13 n.6|ii\Ca,
if we are not to dislodge these men' (i.e. merely 'intercourse,' in a general sense:
assuming that we do not mean to dislodge
the special meaning, 'colloquy,' (seen in
them). Practically, this is a more emphatic
the Mod. Gk. 6/tiX^M= 'to speak,') is postway of expressing the necessity of the act
classical.iricrni, trusted by Philoctetes;
to which the protasis refers. Distinguish
cp. 1272. p'Paios, safe for Neoptolemus.
those cases in which the condition ex7 2 f. Jvopxos. Odysseus was bound
pressed by the fut. indie, is really future; by the oath which all the suitors of Helen
as in 66 {., el /IT] epyavei ('if thou fail to had sworn to her father Tyndareus,
do this'), (SaXeis: and in 75 f. el /j.e a'urdy)- that they would come to her husband's
trerax ('if he shall perceive me'), SXwXa aid, if he was robbed of her: Eur. / . A.
(i.e. oXoufjLcu): where eav fii] epydur], idv

61 HTOU yvvrj ytvoLTo Tt/*>5a/>ts Kopij, | ToijTtfi

lie aUcrdy would differ from the fut. ind. vva)i.vveiv, etns e/c 56/tw Xa/3<ic | olxoini.
with e only as being somewhat less vivid.
So Ajax came to Troy oiivex' SpKav olaiv
qv evtbiiOTOS (Ai. 1113). Paus. was shown
ovK'ia-Tiiriptraia-oi. The difference bethe place, called "ITTTTOU p ^ a , on the
tween o-oi and <rol here resembles that beroad from Lacedaemon into Arcadia,
tween 'thou canst never take' and 'thou
where Tyndareus, having sacrificed a
canst never take.' L supports <rol, which
is, of course, quite tenable. But <roi seems horse, TOI)S ' 3X(vqs <!>pKov iivqaTipas (3.
preferable, because (a) in giving a reason, 20. 9).4| avoYKT)s: Odysseus feigned
madness, in order to avoid going to Troy,
as yap implies, why 'all the Greeks'

23

I0*0KAE0YI

20
i/xol

Se TOVTCOV ovSev

war*

el fie

ecrr'

T6I;<>)V iyKpaTrjs

oXwXa, /cat ere TrpocrSiatfrdepco


aXX' a v r o TOVTO

p J f
alcrOrja-eTai,

75

vva>v.

Set cro<f>icr07)va.i, /cXcmevs

OTTCU? yev^cret r&Iv dvLKTf)T<ov OTTXWV.

efotSa, ^TraT, (frvcrei ere /AT) Trec^u/cora


roiauTa (fxove'iv fir/Be Te^yacrdai /ca/ca*
dXX' 1781) y a p Tt KTrj^a Trjs vt/ojs XaySetv,
ToX/i,a- Sucaiot 8' au#is
eK^avovd
vvv 8' ets aVatSes 77/xepas fiepos

80

erased.
7 6 irpoaHuupdcpCi"] Tournier conj. irpoaSiacpBdpiii. 7 8 L 7evi} en;t rax
(JV), made from yevrjiai ariiv (?).
7 9 7r<u Erfurdt conj.: rai MSS.: Froehlich
proposes ^ney, Gernhardt 8i), Blaydes (reading iral) TOI: Campb., with Linwood,
defends ml, but, if a change were made, would prefer rot.
8 1 TI L : TOI A. The
later MSS. are divided; B, R, V3 are among those that have TOI, while V and L 2 have
TI.Xo/Sew] Erfurdt conj. Xaxf"'.
8 2 8' A, B : 6' (sic) L, L 2 : T' K (Par. 2886,
but Palamedes detected the trick: cp.
<peis. The connection of thought is:
1025 n.TOSirpcoTov O-TOXOV, partit. gen.,
' No; open force is out of the question;
thou hast not sailed ' o n ' ( = ' a s a mem- the object which our ingenuity must comber of) the first expedition. Cp. Dem. pass is precisely that (which I have alor. 21 202 ofiSatiov ir&iroTe 6 MeiSfas ready indicated),viz., how the bow can
TWV avvr)ioii.ivwv oidi T 5 > <rvyxalbe taken by craft.'ero<j>i<r&fjvai: cp. Ar.
pbvriDV i&T&adri T$ 5 ^ y ('has nowhere Av. 1401 xaptevra y , w irpeafivT, iaotylau
figured in the ranks of those who share
xal aoipd.KXoiris...Vvtj(rei.: cp. O. T.
the pleasure and joy of the people').The
721 cpovia yeveaBai. irarphs: 0. C. 582
wp&ros CTTOXOS is the original Greek expe- 8TO.P ddfuj 'ytb Kal sij fiov TCMpeds y&y.
dition, as distinguished from the voyage of
7 9 f. goi8a, *irat. Erfurrlt's corOdysseus and Phoenix when they brought
rection of Kal to irat appears certain.
Neopt. from Scyros (343 ff.).
The caressing tone of wat (cp. 0. T.
7 5 f. JyKpari^s: for the omission of uv,
1008, Ant. 1289) is dramatically happy
even when, as here, the adj. marks a con- at this moment, when he has just used
dition, cp. n. on Ant. 1327 fipax^ra yap the jarring word (tXoTrfiis. The arguKparujTa TOM iroalv Hand i.e. Ppax<-vra ments in defence of Kal are examined in
(oVra) KpaTUTTa (icm).oXaAa: cp. O. T. the Appendix.<|>v<rci is excusably added
1166 o'XwXas, et ae ravr' iprqiroficu irdXtv : to ir<puK6Ta, since the force of the latter
Xen. An. 1. 8. 12raxTOUT', icjyq, riKwpiev, had become weakened by usage (TrttpvKtvai.
vdvB' rj/uv ireiroiriTai.. Plaut. Amphitruo oft. meaning little more than etvai): as
1.1. 164 perii, si me adspexerit.irpoa-- here, Tr<pVK6ra...Texva(r0at (without <pi8ia4>6cpw ought not to be changed (as
<rei) would not necessarily mean more
Tournier proposed) to irpoo-8i.a<|>8epa).
than 'apt to contrive,'whether the aptiThe force of S\oi\a, used in the sense of
tude was innate, or acquired. So Eur.
dXovfuu, would be weakened, not enBacch. 896 <pv<rei wetpvicos: Plat. Crat.
hanced, by a repetition of the device;
3 8 9 C T 6 0ti<m K&(FT(p TT(pUK&S dpyCLVOV.
while, on the other hand, the natural
4>o)i'elv: for the inf. with irecpvKfrra., cp.
future irpoaSiacpdepu makes the rhetorical 88, 1052.
Skbiha more impressive: cp. Eur. / . T.
8 1 i^Si yap Ti KTtj(i.a (rb KT^aa) Tijs
1002 TOIJTOU 5 xwpurdua ( = xaPiff^V- VCKT)S Xa.ptv (ian): the possession conffo/tcu) e7tb p.v 6\\vfiai,
[ ad 5" dv rb
sisting in victory (defining gen.) is a
uavrov 0//,evos ev V6(FTOV TVXOIS.
pleasant possession to win. KTTJUO,, which,
without an art., stands as predicate, has
7 7 f. ari TOVTO prepares the emto be supplied, with an art., as subject.
phasis on uXoiretis, while it also refers
So Plat. Theaet. 209 E rjSi
' & ^
b a c k tO 5 4 f. TT]V $>CXoKTrqTQV...KK\-

<J>IAOKTHTHI

21

but none of these things can I deny. And so, if he shall


perceive me while he is still master of his bow, I am lost,
and thou, as my comrade, wilt share my doom. No; the
thing that must be plotted is just this,how thou mayest
win the resistless arms by stealth. I well know, my son, that
by nature thou art not apt to utter or contrive such guile;
yet, seeing that victory is a sweet prize to gain, bend thy
will thereto; our honesty shall be shown forth another time.
But now lend thyself to me for one little knavish day,
ap. Blaydes), R, T, etc. Here, as elsewhere (cp. Ant. 467, 966), L hints at a true
reading which it has lost: 6' afflis really points to S' addts, though it might easily be
supposed to be a mere blunder for T' o89ts, the reading which prevailed in the later MSS.
8 3 avatSts] Nauck conj. fipaxe'tas (without proposing to alter flpaxii): Mekler,
fucLs 56s, with a comma after Ppaxi>.Vv. 8385 are rejected by E. A. Richter.

cp. 481, 0. C. 184, Ai. 528.Shcaioi...


rod KaWlffTov TCIV irepi ejri(TT!J|i;s X6701/,
i.e. (TO xpyPa) Tov...\6yov ridii xPVf*' &** 4ic<|>avou|j.e8a sc. 6>>Tes (cp. 0. T. 1063
etri, ('our most successful definition of
knowledge would be a pretty affair'):
where (rd xPVf^) Tou...\6yov is a mere
periphrasis for 6...X070S. Eur. Andr. 957
70<p6v TI XPW

TOB Stdd^avros fiporoiis |

eKfiavei Kajci)) : //. 13. 278 h6' 6 re 5eiX6s


dv/jp,

8s T' aXxi/ios, Qetpa&vdT). avSis,

afterwards, ^some other day :


1204 n 83

vvv

8'

K.T.\.,

has

been

Ant.
sug-

\070us dicoietv, 'a wonder of wisdom was gested by the contrast with a6is, and so
he who taught' (etc.), where (TO xpyp")
the thought already conveyed by roXfut
TOV dtSd^avros is a periphrasis for 6 StSd- is re-stated more explicitly : then yfitpas
cts. Sometimes the defining gen. has no p.posft>ax5suggests, in its turn, KQTO. T6K
art.: Eur. Andr. 181 eirlrpdovov n XPVa \oiirbv XP"0" K.T.X., which repeats the
iTJKei&v i(pv: i.e., (TO) dtjketwv (XPVP0-) ^ -sense of Skaioi 5' a.$6is hcpavoiixeBa. Cp.
pdovbv TI xpvpd' etTTt.The reading ydu n. on Ant. 465 ff.ls dvatS^s ii|J.^pas
yap TOI (instead of TI) is preferred by
('pos Ppa\v, 'for one little roguish day':
several edd. The combination dXXA...
0/j.epas /J^pos f3paxii = ' a short space (conydp TOI is unusual (no example occurs sisting in) one day' (cp. Eur. Med. \i\"j
in Soph.); but that matters little, since
dXXd TTjvde ye \ \adod ^pax^^-v
Vf^^'
here dXXii ydp is not elliptically used
pav iraiSoJV aeBev, /cdVetTCt dp*t}vei). p&(cp. Ant. 148 n.); i.e. dWd goes with pos is a fraction of the life-time which is
ToX/xa, and therefore yap, in the parenbefore him: and since ^juepas-/x^os (' daythetic clause, could be followed by TOT space') forms one notion, dvaiSes has the
as legitimately as if there were no dXXa same force as if it were dvcuSous, agreeing
in question. The reasons for preferring with 7)ixpu.s {Ant* 794 veiicosdvdpGiv
TI seem to be these: (a) TOI would be ifivaifwv, n.). For several epithets joined
bluntly sententious, while TI has a more
(without copula) to one subst., cp. Ant.
delicate persuasiveness: (b) TI is else586 TrovTiais...dv<nrvoot.s... | Qpy<T(ratfftv...
where associated with the peculiar constr.
7rcocus. For els marking a limit of time,
used here: see Eur. Andr. 181, 957,
cp. below, 1076 XPVOV Toaourov ei's '6aov
quoted above, and id. 727 dvei^Uvov TI Ta T' kK cecos j (TTelXoxri vavrai, K.T.X.
1
XPVI^ irpevflvTSiv (cpv.(TO KTrjixa) TTJS v- Others take ets dvaiSfs by itself, as = els
Ki]s: for the defining gen., cp. 159?.,403^:
dvatdei.av (rui. /xipos fip. being ace. of dura0. T. 1474 TO. tpt\TaT' eKyopotv fj.oiv ('my
tion of time), 'for shamelessness.: Such
darlingsmy two daughters'), Ant. 471 an abstract sense for the neut. adj., withTO y4yvTjfia, TT\S iraidos.\a(3iv epexeg.,
out the art., seems impossible. Campbell
as Ant. 439 TO.S6' TJo-cru \aj3efv | ifiol iri- compares Plat. Gorg. 504 c e/AOi ydp SOKU
<pvKe, n. The conjecture \a\e!v would Tats fief TOU (T&fiaTOS Ta^effiv 6vofia elvat,
be as good, but no better.
iryt.ei.v6v (as though vyieivbv stood for T6
vyi.et.vbv, or byluav): but cp. Cope's ver8 2 To'X(ia, bring thyself to do i t :

22

I04>0KAE0YI

80s /J-ot creavrov, Kara TOZ> XOLTTOV yjpovov


KeKk-qcro iravjutv ewcreySecrTaros fipoTcov.
NE. eyw /xku ovs dv TO>V Xoycov aXyw KXVCOU,
AaepTLOv Trail, rovcrSe /cat irpda'creiv
e<f>vv yap ovSev 4K T e ^ ^ s Trpdaaeiv
OVT avros ovd\ &>s <f>acrbv, ovK^vaas
dXX' tip erot)aos Trpos /Stav rov aVSp dyuv
/cat /AT) SoAoicrw ov yap i epos 7roS6s
rocrovcrSe TTpos /Stav
^tpuxTerai.
des ye (JLVTOL crol ^vvepyaTrjs OKVCO
poTrjs
KaXticrdat,' jBovXofxat 8', dva, /caA.c3s
SpciJv i^a/Jbaprelv fiaXXov rj VIKOLV Kia/cw?.
OA. iadXov waTpo's iral, /cavros car veos nore
yXwcrcrav jx,h> dpyov, yelpa S' el^ov
kpydriv
vvv 8' ets eXeyyov i^cwv 6pu> /Sporois
TT)J> yXwcrcrai/, ov^i rdpya, Trdvff

85

90

95

8 7 T0i)<r5e] TOI>S 5 Buttmann.irp6.<rauv\ E. A. Richter conj. TrXdcrtreiv. 9 1 f. Nauck


wishes to delete v. 92, and to change ov yhp ef evbs 7ro5is into ov yap e| c/ioO rpoirov
(with a full stop: 'for it is not my way').ToaoiaSe] TO o-ova5e L, with an erasure of
sion: 'For my opinion is, that order in the
forms: while in the Od., where the
body of every kind bears the name of
name occurs 22 times, katpr-t)$ alone is
' healthy':' /'.., Hvofia is equiv. to ' epithet.' used.TOI5(T8, referring back to oti's d)v:
tT a
Ka
In Thuc. 5. 18 4 diKal(fi xp^l ^ "
'
cp. O. C. 1332 oh an ai) irpotrdrj, TO?<rd'
voiiois, di.Ka.ttj) is certainly a subst. ('law,' </>air/c' eTvcu Kpdros : so El. 441, Tr. 23.
in the sense of 'legal procedure'): but
Prose would here use roirovs, because
that does not warrant avcu8s as=dvalSeia. OSTOS regularly (though not always) points
Blaydes, again, takes els dvoi8s in a
back, while Sde points forward. Buttconcrete sense, as= 'for a shameless deed' mann's TOVS 8J, though admissible, would
(supplying tpyov). We can hardly supply
be too emphatic: see Appendix.
tpyov, though we might perhaps supply
irpacra"iv \6yovs, as meaning, ' to pitt
TI (cp. 0. T. 517, 1312, Ant. 687). This
words into acts,' is not a strictly correct
view seems just possible, but very imphrase, but the verb is used here, with
probable.
' some poetical freedom, as if om av TWV
\bywv...TotiaSe were a cu> \eyo/J.eva...T&de'.
8 4 f. 80s (J.01 o-eavTov, i.e. allow me
i.e. \6yoi are virtually 'proposed deeds.'
to overrule youf scruples, a phrase applicable to friendly remonstrance, as Tr. The prose equivalent of this irpaaaew
j 117 56s fwi o-eavrov, fiT] TotrovTov us would be />7if> eiriTeXeiv (Thuc. 1. 70).
ddnvet \ &U/J.$ d(>o~opyos: cp. n. on Ant. Distinguish Eur. H. F. 1305 tirpa^e yap
718. Brunck cp. Ter. Adelph. 5. 3. 838 fioi\ri<nv rjv ifJoiXero, where the verb =
(?|(?7r/rafe, 'effected.'Isocr. or. 1 15 has
Mitte iam istaec: da te hodie mihi: \
the converse maxim, a iroieiv aiaxpbv,
Exporge frontem.K^KXT]<TO : for the
ravra vS/ufc fii)S \eyew eJecu Ka\6i> (cp.
perf., cp. 119, El. 366, Tr. 736.
0. T. 1409).
8 6 f. |iev merely emphasises eyc& (Ant.
11 n.); it is not opposed to dXX' in 90.
8 8 f. IK T'\VT]S : for & = ' by means of,'
AacprCov: the same form (always in the CP- 563, 710, El. 279 4K 56XOI;. Ant. 475
1st or 5th place, the a being long,) 417,
iyirrov 4K irvpbs TepivKeXi}.irpd<r<reiv : for
628, 1357, At. 101 : but Aalprov below,
the inf., cp. 80: for the repetition of the
366, 614, fr. 827 : and Aaprlov, 401, 1286,
word from 87, cp. 0. C. 554 n., Ant.
Ai. 11 380. Eur., too, has these three 76 n.OUT ovris K.T.X. : instead of ovre

0IAOKTHTHZ

23

and then, through all thy days to come, be called the most
righteous of mankind.
NE. When counsels pain my ear, son of Laertes, then I
abhor to aid them with my hand. It is not in my nature to
compass aught by evil arts,nor was it, as men say, in my sire's.
But I am ready to take the man by force,not by fraud;for,
having the use of one foot only, he cannot prevail in fight
against us who are so many. And yet, having been sent to act
with thee, I am loth to be called traitor. But my wish, 0 King,
is to do right and miss my aim, rather than succeed by evil
ways.
OD. Son of brave sire, time was when I too, in my youth,
had a slow tongue and a ready hand: but now, when I come
forth to the proof, I see that words, not deeds, are ever the
masters among men.
one letter between the first o and <r.
9 6 Kavrbs] In L the cr of Kairba has been
added by S.
9 7 dpybv L, dpyty r.epydriv] epydrtjv Y: Blomfield conj. ipyavrp.
yap airbs i<pvv, OVTC 6 (K(fjiras (0u): cp.
O. C. 461 eird^tos /xei>, Oldiirovs, KCLTOLKTItrcu, afirds re TT<5^S 0' ai'5'.ou9*, <3s
<f>ao-iv, ouK((>vo-as: as in / / . 9. 312 Achilles says, txSpbs J&P M0' Kehos 6/tws 'AtSao
TriX-yaw, I Us x' Irepov fi.fr Kcidri ivl <ppecriv, d\\o 5e etirrj: a n d in E u r . / . A. 926
eyd> 5' ev dvdpbs evae^eardrov rpatpels |
Xdpuivos ifiaBov robs rpbtrovs ctTrXoDs

9 3 ff. ire(i.<|>8is Y (WVTOI : ye emphasises Tre/xcpffeis, and IIAVTOI. =


'however':
cp. O. T. 442 n.irpo8oTr|s: he is thinking of what Od. said in v. 53.poiiXojiai.
8': Si=d\\d (Ant. 85).egajiapTriv, aor.,
'to fail' (regarded as an event occurring
at some one moment); VIK&V, pres., 'to
be victorious' (a continuing state: cp. O.
T. 437 n.).
9 7 dp-yov, fem.: in good Attic prose
x
as well as verse this adj. is of two ter9O ff. irpds pav: so 594 vpbs
minations, and the v. 1.' dpyr}v here reKpdros : c p . vpbs rjSovfiv, npbs x&PLvi e t c - :
presents only a later usage: Aristotle (if
aytiv = dirdyav (cp. 941), as 102, 985 etc.
our MSS. may be trusted) wrote in Meteor.
Kal (jiij 8O\OL(TLV : /ti) is generic (it does
1. 14 (Berl. ed. p. 352 a 13) i] i).iv yhp
not, and could not here, go with the inf.
(X^po) apyy yiyove, yet in Oecon. 2 (Berl.
ayeiv): i.e., the phrase means strictly,
ed. p. 1348 a 3) T?}s x&Pas dpyov yevo/j.4'and by such means as are not frauds':
vqs.
cp. on 409 (ii-qiev 51K<UOV), Ant. 494 T&V
9 8 f. ts SXeyx0" ^"^v, going forth to
jp
x
f
those contests of real life by which the
ov *Y<lp K.T.X.: the ydp implies, 'this
adult tries the maxims learned in youth.
ought to satisfy thee, for force cannot
i\eyxos here is the test which the man apfail'; it is thus already a trace of irresoplies
to the principle (yhGiaaav fiev dpybv
lution. l v6s iroSos, lit., 'starting from
K.T.\.) ; not the test applied to the man
one foot,' i.e., 'when he has the use of
himself. The latter is, however, the
only one foot,' K marking that eh irois
usual sense of this phrase: cp. fr. 102
is the condition which makes his victory
impossible. Cp. n. on O. C. 848 OVKOVV yevos yap els O^eyxov e^tbv Ka\bv \ evicXeiav
av KTiiaai.ro: E u r . Ale. 640 (Sei^as eis
TTOT' K Toiroiv ye firj ffK^irrpotv ^rt \ bdotae7xo>/ e^eXeiiv 8s el: Plat. Phaedr. 278 c
Trop'/iar/s. I n El. 455 'Optarrjv e inrepT^/Msxepos I x6po~'<n<'...eireiJ.firivai, ('that, cis i\eyxov l&v Tepi Ssv typuipe.PpOTOts,
'for men,' i.e. in their estimation, an
with victorious might, he may trample
on his foes,') the inrtpTe'pa xe^P is similarly ethic dat. (Ar. Av. 445 iraai vutav rots
KpiraXs). irdvS' iiYou|Mvr|v, 'taking the
the antecedent condition.Tocroiio-Se (sc.
lead, having the chief influence (absol.,
6vras, cp. n. on iyKparris, 75):- the 15
as 386) in all things': for the adv. irdvra,
seamen who form the Chorus will be at
cp. 0. T. 904 V&VT' &vd<r<rav.We might
hand to help them.

I0*0KAE0Y2
NE. TL fi ovv dvooyas aXXo irXrjv xjjevSrj Xiyeiv;
OA. Xeya> a iya 86Xa> ^LXOKTTJTTJV Xafieiv.
NE. TL 8' iv S6Xa> 8ei /JLOLXXOV rj weUravT aye.LV;
OA. ov jxrj irCdrjTai' Trpos /3Cav 8' OVK av Xd/Sois.
NE. OUTWS e^ei TL Seuvov lo"\vo<; dpdcros;
OA. iovs oufrvKTOVs *cai Trpoire/juTrovTas <f>6vov.
NE. ow/c a p ' e/cetvw y ' oi)Se irpoo-fjieL^ai dpacrv ;
OA. ov, JU,T) 8oXa> Xa/36vra y, G$S eyw Xeyo).

IOO

105

NE. ou/c alcrxpov ijyei 8^ra rd xpevSrj Xeyew;


OA.

OUK, ei TO cradrjvai ye TO i/;e{!8os (f>epei.

1OO TI otV /i' MSS. (in L ow has been made from ou by S): T/ /J.' OVV Wakefield.
1O3 L has irWirrai made from rreWrirai by S.
1O4 8pa.<ros] Nauck conj. Kp&Tos.
1O5 totis] Dobree conj. lots y'.
1O6 (Kdvtf y' ovlt] Blaydes conj. iKelvif '<rr' ovSi:
Bergk, eicdvq teal TO.ovSi r, OUTC L.
1O7 XafSovra 7'] Blaydes conj. \adovra y\
also take /3/>oro(s directly with ijyov/i. as =
' shmoingthe way in all things to men' (cp.
133): but here the notion required is that
of 'swaying' rather than 'guiding'; and
in the former sense ijyov/iivriv would take
the genit. ppor&v. There is an allusion
to the Athenian demagogues (cp. 388 5i5a<rKd\uv \6youri): as Cleon says (Thuc.
3. 38) of the citizens in the ecclesia, eiii$are
ffearal fiiy T&V \byav ylyvecdai, aKpoaral
Si TUV Ipyuiv ('absorbed in the drama of
debate, but content with rumours from the
field of action').
1OO TC |i* ovv. With Nauck, I adopt
Wakefield's transposition here, while recognising that much may be said for T
oiv \i. Two questions are involved, and
should be kept distinct; viz. (1) whether
Tragedy ever used the licence, denied to
it by Porson (Phoen. 892), of hiatus after
T(: and (2) whether Sophocles is likely
to have written ri oOv /i' rather than rl JX'
oth> here. As to (1), the strongest instance is Aesch. Theb. 704 rl oSv IT' av

T&de; Ai. 1364 avoyyas ovv //.e TOV vetepbv

Bairrav ear; though no argument can be


drawn from the fact that oSv precedes
Me in those places. Cp. 733, 753, 917.
See Appendix.T...OX\O, SC. voieiv: cp.
310, and n. on Ant. 497 SAeis rl ixei&v 7)
KaTa.KTeiva.1 /i' i\tbv ;

1O1 Xe-yw <r'...\aptv, ' I say that


thou art to take.' In this constr., 'say'
means 'command'; the act commanded
is denoted by the inf., and the agent by
the ace, as subject to the inf. Cp. Ai.

1047 <7^ (pavQ TbvSe TOV veKpbv XP0^" I M


avyKOfil^eiv: O. C. 932 elwov fiiv odv xoi
Tpovdev, kvveiru Se vvv, \ rb.s Tacdas u)s
T&.XUJTO. Sevp' dyeiv rivd.
T h e agent can

also stand in the dat., as object to the


verb of saying; 0. C. 840 xa^v ^Y>
aouThis verse has no caesura: cp. 1369:
Ant.

1021 ox/5' 6pvLS evtrtf/Aovs diroppoitidei

j3ods, with n. there. Distinguish these


rare examples from those which have an
elision after the 3rd foot ('quasi-caesura'),
as 276: Ant. 44 7} yap voeis ddirTetv o~(p\
dd ppi
6X6 ;
o~aivoif/v 6\6piov fidpov; where TI 5' ody,
T( VVV, TI STJT' are all improbable. It
1O3 iv 86X<ji: cp. 60.TMioavr,
would seem, then, that Aesch., at least,
i.e. by persuading him that it is for his
sometimes admitted the hiatus; so that,
own good to come to Troy,instead of
1
if we transpose jx here, it does not nedeceiving him by a pretext of taking
cessarily follow that the same transposihim home to Greece (58).
tion should be made in Aesch. Eum.
1 0 3 ou (M] ir8T]Tai, a strong denial:
902 rl odv [/.' attwyas Trjd' etpv^.vTj<rai. yBovl; cp. 381, 418, O. C. 849 n.irpos pCav 8':
But the prevailing character of Sophopersuasion will be in vain: and, when
clean verse certainly favours TI p' oiV
persuasion has failed, force will be useless
rather than TL ofiv //.'. As against con(cp. 90).
jecturing TI vvv M', it is well to note Tr.
104
OUTUS ... T l SciVOV K.T.X.
It
&
ofiv jue .TdU
seems truer to regard TI as adj. with

<t>IAOKTHTHI
NE.

lie?
OD.
NE.
OD.

25

What, then, is thy command ? What, but that I should


I say that thou art to take Philoctetes by guile.
And why by guile rather than by persuasion ?
He will never listen; and by force thou canst not take

him.
NE.
OD.
NE.
OD.
NE.
OD.

Hath he such dread strength to make him bold ?


Shafts inevitable, and winged with death.
None may dare, then, e'en to approach that foe ?
No, unless thou take him by guile, as I say.
Thou thinkest it no shame, then, to speak falsehoods ?
No, if the falsehood brings deliverance.

1O8 dijra rk r : S^ T& Se (=-n5e) L (and so K, cod. Par. 2886): the 5rj was omitted at
first, and then added (by the 1st hand itself) above the line. Vauvilliers conj. Srjra
rb : Wecklein, dijra ai: Cavallin, SrjXaSri. The reading Sr) ra if/evdij in L 2 seems

deivbv than as adv. with olirois: cp. Xen. N. 7. 50 Qpaai fioi T<55' elirtiv. Cp. Plat.
Cyr. 5. i . 24 O(IT(JJ deivbs rts e'pws...eyyly- Rep. 450 E T&XIJSTJ eidbra Xtyeiv &<r<pa\s
verai. For the enclitic TIS preceding its
Kai dappaKiov.
noun, cp. 519, O. C. 280 n. In Herod.,
1 0 7 p.i^ SoXcp \af36vra, acc. as subj.
indeed, oiira 8$ n ('so very...') often
to 7rpo<r/jeijcu, (it is not safe that one
qualifies adjectives (1. 185, 3. 12, etc.):
should approach him,) unless one has
but in the Attic examples of oliria n
ensnared him; for Xa^bvra, cp. 47 n.
with an adj. the latter is usually a neut.
1 0 8 TO nj/euSr]. The art. with the
sing., as Posidippus Mtv/)</.?; fr. 2 oiira
neut. adj. gives a certain emphasis ('those
TI TTO\6TOVV iarlv 7; \1iwr1 naubv.l<r)(wos things which are false'), and the obfipdo-os, strength-confidence, i.e., strength jection to it here would have point only
which makes him confident.
Against
if, instead of the adj., we had the subst.,
Kpd-ros, conjectured by Nauck and
T& ij/eiidri. For the same reason, TO
Blaydes, (the latter placing it in the
^evSfj Xiyeif seems rather better than
text,) observe that Spdaos agrees well
TO ^/eudij \4yew, though at first sight the
with ov f.r[ irfttryrai. If Philoctetes is deaf
latter is specious. In fr. 325 Kahbv p.iv
to persuasion, and risks the alternative
oHv OVK icrn rh xf/evBrj X^yeic, also, rk
of having force used against him, he must
appears sound. Cp. Antiphon or. 1 10
have some resource which inspires him
alirri yd.p Kai rods T& tf/evdij va.pttsKaia.awith such boldness.
[
y
jJ
yyp
^
1 0 5 iovs: we might expect loiis y',
Cavallin changes -8TJTO TO. to 8r)XaSi],
since the question in 104 is not, ' what
'evidently' (O. T. 1501); but this would
resource has he?' but, 'has he some
be better suited to ironical reproof than
resource?' And in 104 we cannot well
to ingenuous surprise.
change TI to T. L has probably lost
1O9 TO o-<i)8ijvai: i.e. the success of
y' in some other places: see, e.g., on
the Greeks at Troy. The aor. inf. is
Ant. 648, 1241. But y' is not indispensused because the speaker is thinking of
able, and by its absence the reply gains
that success as an event (to be marked by
a certain abrupt force. Cp. 985.
the fall of Troy), not as a process or
state (rb o-qfraBat.). Cp. Andoc. or. 2 12
1 0 6 (Ktiva y': ye emphasises the
oi irepl TOV ffwaai T<is'ASijras 6 KIV&WOS
pron., ' then we dare not even approach
qr avroiis /j.a\\ov T? irepl TOV fiySe airois
Aim,'a man with such arrows as those.
aw9rivai. (referring to the Athenian
irpo<r|uiai: the spelling yiteifw, l/ieifa,
army at Samos in 411 B.C.): where, as
is attested for saec. vi.IV. B.C. by nuhere, the aorists infinitive mark the
merous Attic inscriptions (Meisterhans,
critical moments.
p. 87, n. 690).8pa<r, a thing that may
be dared; Pind. has this pass, sense,

26
N E . TTWS OVV fiXeiTWV TIS TOVTa T0\[J,7]0-eL \0LKelv j

OA.
NE.
OA.
NE.
OA.
NE.

Spas ets KeyoSos, OUK oKvetv


K^aSos 8' e/i.ol TI TOVTOV ets TpoCav /
aipet r a ro^a Tavra r i p Tpoiav p a .
owe a/)' d iripcroiv, ws e<ao-/ceT\ et/A* ey<u;
OUT' dv cru ke,ivo)V yapis OVT iicelva crov.
dr/pare' ovv yiyvovr av, etirep cuS'

OA.

o5sTOUTO

I io

OTCLV TL

y ' e/sfas

S u o ^>e/9 S p j /

NE. TTOIW ; vLaOaiv yap OVK av apvoCf^-qv TO Spav.


OA. o~o<po<; T av avTO<s Kayafos KCKky a/xa.
NE. t r w TroTjcrw, TTacrav aio~xyvr)v dfats.

120

to have come from diJTa (TO,) \peuSij: see comment.


11O \aKciv L 1st hand,
altered by an early hand to \a\elp. Most of the later MSS. have XoXefy (Vat. Xaficlv).
I l l elff L, ^j r.
1 1 2 5' ifiol L : 5^ /J.OL r.
116 dtjpaT^a ylyvovr' &v L, and so
almost all the later MSS.: in A the final a of drtpurta is marked as long, and the gloss,
Swarf] \7i(j)B9jvau, shows that the adj. was taken with Tpola. A v. 1. was Br/paria
70O1' (V2, Vat.). Triclinius gave Brfparf oS: Elmsley conj. Bitpari' &v
yiyvoir' &v.
Tournier,
Bripari' av ytyvoiT' dp': Nauck, ylyvoir' dp, etvep u5' ?xet> B^paria.
1
7&01T , a v . l . found in T and other late MSS., was perh. due to Triclinius: see

1 1 0 iris ovv pXcirov K.T.X. By using and Phoenix visited Scyros, and perovv, he concedes (at least for argument's suaded him to come to Troy (345 ff.).
sake) what Od. has just said. 'Granting,
115 OUT' av sc. wipcreias : cp. El. 364
then, that a falsehood is not disgraceful rijs <ri}s 5.' OVK epw TLfiTjs rvxeiv, j OVT' av
when it has such a motive, how is one to o~ft, (nbtppcav y' ovtja {sc. ep(t>i]s): Tr. 462
have the face to tell it?' In vv. 91ff.we (KOUITW TIS.. .iiviyKar'.. .ftveiSos)' ijSe 8' oib"
saw the first trace of irresolution: this av (sc. evifKairo), K.T.X.
verse marks a further step. He now de116 6r]paT^' ouv yC'yvoi.T' ctv, they
murs to play the part, not (as in v: 108) would then become (by logical inference)
because it is immoral, but because it is desirable prizes: cp. Plat. Prot. 338 c el
distasteful and difficult. For mos ouv, Se alpi\(jeaBe..., ais%phv yap TOVTO T$de
cp. O. T. 124 TWS ovv 0 Xij<rT?7s ('granting ylyverai.
So ytyvo/xai denotes ariththat there was a robber, how then..?.'): metical process (Thuc. 3. 17 at 7r2<r<u (vrjes)
for Tr<3s...pXftrv, O. T. 1371 8/j./j.a<nva/ta iytyvovTo diaicbaiaL K.T.X.), or legal sucirolois p\4irwv, n.XaKeiv of bold or im- cession to property (Isae. or. 5 44 o
pudent utterance, as Ar. Ach. 1046 TOI- iKelvoiv iylyveTo). This usage of ylyvo/iat
avra Xao-Kuv: cp. Ant. 1094 n.
is decisive for YfryvoiT' against 7VOIT', a
111 els K^pSos, for it, with a view to v. 1. found in a few late MSS.ouv, the
it: cp. //. 23. 304 TraTTjp 6i oi ay%i- irapa- conjecture of Triclinius, seems better here
(rris I nvBetr' eh ayaBd: Eur. Phoen. 395 than the other corrections, Br/parf av
av (or ylyvon' ap').
ctXX1 % T6 K^pdos irapa tpdatv dovXevre'ov ylyvoir'
:
Xen. Cyr. 8. 1. 33 Id&v av avrous ^
117 iis...cf)6pei, (be sure) that thou
winnest: cp. At. 39 A9. us iaTiv dvSpbs
T<}} 88VTI els
l KdWos
dW TJV.
1 1 3 cupel, the oracular pres., denoting rovSe rdpya raOrd <roi: Eur. Ph. 1664
what is to happen: Aesch. Ag. 126 XP&V KP. Cis OVTIS dfupl T<fb" bypav B-q<rei KOVIV:
/jv dypei Hpid/wv w6\iv d"Se KiXevBos : id. id. Hec. 400 BK. ws rijixd' eKovaa iraiSbs
P. V. 170 TO vtov jSotfXeu/i' i<p' 8TOV | aicfjir- ov iieSfyro/iai.<j>^pci, reportas: cp. O. T.
rpov TLfids r* diroo'vKaTai: Her. 3. 155 500 n.
17817 &v, rjv /i-Jj TWV o-&v Setfari, aipe'o/j.ev 118 TO Spdv: for the art., cp. 0. C.
HafivXtiiva.
442 T6 dpav I OVK riBiXr)trav, and ti. 47 n,
114 us ifyda-KCT : when Odysseus Neoptolemus was already all but per-

0IAOKTHTHS
NE.

words ?
OD.
NE.

And how shall one have the face to speak those


When thy deed promises gain, 'tis unmeet to shrink.
And what gain is it for me, that he should come to

Troy ?

With these shafts alone can Troy be taken.


Then / am not to be the conqueror, as ye said ?
Neither thou apart from these, nor these from thee.
'Twould seem that we must try to win them, if it
stands thus.
OD. Know that, if thou dost this thing, two prizes are thine.
NE. What are they ? Tell me, and I will not refuse the
deed.
Ob. Thou wilt be called at once wise and valiant.
NE. Come what may, I'll do it, and cast off all shame.
OD.
NE.
OD.
NE.

comment.
117 Soip^/iaTa] Blaydes conj. Sap^fiare.
1 1 8 rb dpav] T having
TO fir] $pav, Blaydes conj. rb /XT/.
119 avrbs] aurbtr L, which was the common
reading.KCKXI?'] L has Koc\i)i' made from KC/CXTJIT' (sic), prob. by S, with tip
Ke/cAij/^xos et-qs written above.afia] Herwerden conj. avftp: Mekler, (Ke/cXg6) /ux.
ISO ira-ipa L, and so Nauck, Wecklein, Mekler (reviser of Dind. 6th Teubner ed.,

suaded by the promise that he should


take Troy. If, besides that reward, there
is yet another, then his mind is made
P
1 1 9 cro<j>6s T'...KaYa9<5s: schol. ao<pbt
liiv Sib. rb K\4\J/(U, ayadbs Se did. rb wopSij(jcu. C p . HI. 1088 5i5o (p4peiv ev evi \6y<{),
I ao<pa r' apiara re TTCUS KexXijadat.awTOS: 0. T. 458 ade\tpbs avrbs KO.1 irarr/p,

n.K6K\TJ' : for the forms of the optat.


perf. pass., see n. on O. T. 49.
1 2 0 TO) is a defiance of the possible
consequences ('happen what may'): cp.
1254 trw rb fitWov.
Eur. Med. 819
(Medea, having taken her resolve to kill
the children) if irepuxtxol irAvres ovv
IMtaq \6yoi-.

irotj<r.
Numerous Attic inscriptions of the 5th and 4th centuries B. c.
show that in this verb the letter 1 was
regularly omitted before a following
E-sound (c or TJ), though never before an
o-sound (0 or w): hence (e.g.) Toe?, 71-017<T<K, but iroioOcri, TTOISV. It should be

noted that iro- and 77-01-, according as the


E- or o-sound follows, sometimes occur
in the same inscription: thus in C. I. A.
167, 55 (of 334326 B.C.) we find 7roi<3c
(thrice) in company with Troijo-as. The
omission of 1 before the E-sound was not,
indeed, rigorous; thus an Attic inscription

of the 5th cent. B.C. gives Evtppay efewoiria' OVK a-Saty Jldpios : but t h e facts

prove that it was usual. See Meisterhans,


Gramm. d. Att. Inschriften, p. 27. As
to L, its practice is not constant. It
almost always gives #0, not TTOI, before e
,or 17, when the first syllable is short,as
here, and in vv. 552, 752, 926, 1010.
In a few such places where the first hand
had written iroi it has been corrected to TTO.
But there are also a few places where
Trot remains. See Appendix. In writing
iroijo-u, etc., 1 rely primarily on the epigraphic evidence belonging to the poet's
own time: but L's prevailing practice
must also be considered as strengthening
the grounds for believing that those inscriptions represent the general rule.
irdo-av at<rxiivt)v difieCs. This verse
does not (as some have objected) mark an
abrupt change of mind; that change has
come by a series of steps which the poet
has indicated by light touches (91 ff, n o ,
116, 118). Rather this very phrase hints
that the feeling shown in v. 110 still
lingers with him. He will do the deed,
but there is still a sense of aiaxivq which
it costs an effort to shake off. These are
the words of one who may yet feel remorse.

28

IO*OKAEOYI

OA. r/ jjLvrjfjLoveueis ovv a croi TTaprjve&a;


NE. crd<f>' lo~9*, eireiTrep eicraVaf o~vvyveo~a.
OA. cri) fiev fievcov vvv Keivov ivddh" e/cSe^ou,
eyeo S' aTreifii, p/q KaTOTTTevOca vapc&v,
/cat TOV o~Koirov Trpos vavv aVooTeXa! TrdXiv.
/cat Sevp', idv fioi TOV xpovov SoKrJTe r t
TOVTOV TOV avrov dvSpa, vavKXrypov Tpoirois
fLopffyfjv SoXwcras, ws dv dyvoia irpoo-fi'
ov hrjra, Texvov, 7rot/ct\ws avhtapuivov
Si)(ov TO. o~v{i(f)epovTa TCOV del Xoycov.

125

130

1885).
1 2 1 ixvrjfwveias MSS.: fj.vrnj.ovei'eras Herwerden, and so Blaydes, Cavallin,
Nauck, Seyffert, Wecklein.
1 2 3 vvv] vvv L.
1 2 5 &iroGTe\u] Musgrave (ed.
1809 Oxon.) proposed avoGTelXai. The alternative conj. &ir6ffTc\\' a$, ascribed
by Blaydes to Musgrave, seems to be that of Burges (ed. 1833). Cavallin in his
crit. note credits Musgrave with airoaTiWov, but in his commentary, p. 29, quotes
Blaydes as his authority for it, and must therefore mean d7T(S<rTe\A' aS. Blaydes suggests that, reading ajrAoTeXV aS, or airoo-TeiXcu, we should transpose vv. 124, 125.

1 2 1 f. |ivT]|j.ovev.s. Almost all recent


edd. adopt the conjecture |ivt](ji.ovev<ris,
but without necessity. The question,' dost
thou remember my advice?' naturally implies here, 'dost thou intend to observe
it?'and so N.'s answer, o-dc}>' tar8',
follows the present tense just as fitly as it
would follow the future.a...irapf|Vo-a:
referring to 56 ff.OTiv^vtcro, 'agreed':
O. C. 1508 n. Remark the two compounds of aivtw at the end of two successive verses: cp. Ar. Eq. 1370f./Merey7/>a0i}(reT<u, | ...iyyeypcaj/erai.
1 2 3 CKS4\OV, exdpe. The idea of the
compound is, 'be ready for him,'prepared to deal with him the moment that
he appears. The figurative use of the
word in Her. 4. 1 is essentially the same,
2Kv0as...Ka.Ti6vTas is Tty ffjteriprjv !eSi^aro
OVK iXcurawv irdvos (as if it had
been lying in wait for them).
124 f. Ka,TOirTeu6o: cp. At. 829 wpis
ix#P<2" TOV KarowTcvdds.KOI T6V (TKOTTOV

himself had hitherto been standing; viz.,


the side nearest to the ship.
1 2 6 f. Kal Sevp'. If any undue delay
occurred, Odysseus might reasonably suppose that Neoptolemus was failing to
persuade Philoctetes. In case of such
delay, then, Odysseus will send back
N.'s man, disguised as the captain of a
ship. The object of the disguise is that
the supposed captain may tell a story
which shall quicken the desire of Philoctetes to leave Lemnos, and shall also
confirm his trust in Neoptolemus.
TOS xpdvov..Ti KaTa<rxoX,cij6iv. Nauck's
conjecture wtpa <rxo\d^eiv would suit the
sense; but it would leave the origin of
the vulgate unexplained. I believe that
Soph, has used Karao-xoXafe"' TOV xpbvov,
somewhat boldly, in the sense of ' to lag
behind the due time,'the use of a%o\6.few in the sense 'to linger,' 'to delay,'
permitting a genitive to be used, as after
varepeiv, \e\ei<t>6cu, etc. The compound
K.T.X. The <TKOW6S is the attendant of KaTa<rxo\eifeu' may be compared with
KaBvo-Tepeiv, where Kara, merely implies
Neoptolemus who had been sent to watch
that the delay is to be regretted or
the neighbourhood of the cave, lest Phiblamed. At first sight there is much in
loctetes should take Odysseus by surprise
favour of the more generally received
(46). Now that Odysseus is going back
to the ship, such a OKoirds is no longer view, that TOV xpovov n Ka.Tcurxo\a{eiv
means, 'to waste part of our (precious)
needed. And it is natural that Odysseus
time by lingering.' But the tone of that
should expect to meet the sentinel, since
phrase seems very unsuitable here: see
the latter would be keeping watch on
Appendix!KIT(=|J.<|/M. The prep, is not
that side of the cave at which Odysseus

*IAOKTHTHZ

29

OD. Art thou mindful, then, of the counsels that I gave ?


NE. Be sure of it,now that once I have consented.
OD. DO thou, then, stay here, in wait for him ; but I will go
away, lest I be espied with thee, and will send our watcher back
to the ship. And, if ye seem to be tarrying at all beyond the
due time, I will send that same man hither again, disguised as
the captain of a merchant-ship, that secrecy may aid us; and
then, my son, as he tells his artful story, take such hints as may
help thee from the tenor of his words.
1 2 6 xp6"ol;] After this word, one letter (apparently <r) has been erased in L.
SoKTyri TI] SOKTJT' eVi L, the fj made from , prob. by the first corrector (S). SoKTjri TI r.
127 KaTCKrxoXdfe"'] Nauck conj. wipa <rx<>Xaf<\aSffis r : aBris L.iKiri^a r:
iKirinirw L, with \j/o> written above by the 1st hand.Burges conj. atiBis ad iriiMpoi.
1 2 8 rphirois] rpdwov Triclinius. Herwerden would delete this verse.
1 2 8 ayvoia. L, with most of the later MSS. : ayvola Triclinius.
13O auSw/dvov] In L,
v seems to have been erased after a, which is itself in an erasure. It is possible,
though not clear, that the 1st hand wrote avdty fibov.Nauck conj. ai Srjra., rinvov,
(or, aii S', & Tixvov noi,) Toiid\as aiSuixivuv.
1 3 1 TWV del \bytav] Blaydes conj.

otiose, as Burges thought, but marks that


irpocfj, may be an attendant circumthe person sent will come as the sender's stance, i.e., may aid our plan: cp. Ant,
agent.
1251 TIT' S.yav aiy^^api \ Sonet irpoaeivcu,
n
The reading a-yvotcj is certainly
1 2 8 vavKXijpou : the man, when he
comes, pretends to be the captain of a
wrong: the sense would then be, 'that
small merchant-ship, trading between
he (the GKOTOS) may be added to your
Greece and the Troad (547 ff.). In Plaut. company without suspicion' (dat. of cirMil. 4. 3. 41 ff. the 'skipper's dress'
cumstance) : it could not be, as Musgrave
(ornatus nauclericus) consists of a darktook it, 'that thou mayest approach the
coloured hat with broad brim (causia), man without seeming to know him' (wpoari
and a garment of the same colour, well
being then 2nd pers. subj. aor. midd. of
girt-up, and looped on the left shoulder,
pip)l )
leaving the right arm bare, like the Greek
13Off. ou 8TJTCI. Blaydes conjectures
iu/ds. The colour of both hat and tunic oS 8r] a~i. But Sifra is right. It means,
is described by ferrugineus, ('nam is colos
'then, of course'differing from dij by
thalassicust'). This was a dark violet,
implying more clearly that the step prerather than, as Nonius (p. 549) makes it,
scribed by Six"" is the obvious one.
iron-grey: see Conington on Verg. G. 1. o$=irapa 06, with 8^\ov: cp. O. T. 1163
467, and Munro on Lucr. 4. 76.Tpoirois,
e8ea/ii7)>' hi TOV. This is better than to
as Aesch. Cho. 479 rporcmaa ov Tvpavvi- take ov...aiibo3fUvov as gen. absol.iroiKOIS, Oavibv: often with eV, as Ag. 918 KCXWS, 'craftily,'i.e., in terms fitted to
yvpaiKhs iv T/WVOIS. Not Tpoirov, which beguile Philoctetes. Not, 'in riddling
would mean, tSairep vatinXripos 80X0? TTJC speech,' as if the point of the artifice lay
fy cp. Her. 2. 57 ipviOos rpSirov... in second meanings which Neoptolemus
was to divine. The word could, indeed,
yy
p p
pyy
mean that (cp. O. T. 130 T\ iroixiXpSos
1 2 9 dyvoCa: ignorance, on the part of
IJtplyZ): but the more general sense agrees
Philoctetes, as to the real quality of the
(TKOTris. Disyllables in om (as Vpoia) better with vv. 542627.avS<i>|iivov,
midd., as 852, Ai. 772: the pass, occurs
have final d, but longer words have ct.
below, 240, 430.Td o-u[u|>^povTa: for
Other exceptions are: Tr. 350 iyvola
the neut., cp. 24 n. TOV al Xfywv, the
/x' ? x : fr. 521 dcoia Tpi(pu: fr. 748
iraXippola ftv$ov: Aesch. Theb. 402 avoLa words spoken by him from moment to
moment,the tenor of his discourse.
Ttvl (Blomf. hvotf): Eur. Andr. 520 icai
yap avota | yue-ydXi; (in anapaests): Ar. The phrase is explained by the dialogue
fr, 29 ij irapavola KOX avaidela. (do.), between the disguised <TKOT6S and Neo-

SO^OKAEOYZ

iya Se wpos vavv ei/u, <rot Trapel<s raSe*


8' o TtipjTwv SoXios r/yrjcraiTO vcov,
T 'A0dva IIoA.tas, 17 crwe<, /x' aet.
XOPO2.
^7

)(pj f

iu

135

2 o-Tiyew rj TL \eyew npos dvSp' vnoirTav;


3 ^>pdt,e fj,oi. Te\ya yap
4 rexyas erejoas
TUV \6yui> del.
1 3 4 adriva MSS.: 'Afldra Eustath. 758. 44.IloXicis] T h e H a r leian MS. of this play (Brit. Mus. 5743, 15th cent.) has TraXXcts, whence Burges
inclines to read IlaXXds: but the iroXXas in V (13th cent.) and Vat. (14th cent.)
indicates plainly enough that the process of corruption was from iroXi&s to iraWas,
not vice versa.<r<jjf] Nauclc conj. trifjfoi.
1 3 5 jxe, diawor' Triclinius.
S i d

ptolemus (vv. 542627). The GKOTTSS tells ^


/
6's ye
a story; N. follows his lead, and strikes
vifv, dat.: cp. on 98.
in from time to time with artful comments,
1 3 4 NCKT) T "A8avo IloXias. The
reasserting his hatred of the Atreidae,
personified Ni/07 meant Victory not merely
his sympathy with Philoctetes, etc. These
in war but in any contest. She was
opportunities, or 'cues,' are 'the useful
especially associated with Zeus; but his
hints' (ri. <rvn<p4povTa).<rol impels Tci.Se,daughter was the only goddess with
'having committed these matters to thee,'
whom she was actually identified. Thus
a parting reminder of the responsiEur. {/on 452 ff.): Tav...efjiay | 'Atfcu'ai'
bility. Not, 'having given thee these
iKereiia, | ...u/xa/caipa N/ca, | fioXe. And
directions.'
Aristeides, in his oration on Athena, says
1 3 3 'Ep|ii}s 6 irl|MT<i>v 86X1.0S' Epufis of her, yhvrt) [xv anrtLvTwv dewv, O/JLOLW 5
Tvdffdv, OVK eirdivvfios
rr/s VIKT}S icrip
S6\LOS SS Ttfiirei, the god of stratagems,
[in such epithets as ci/o;06pos], aXX' 6/toiwho escorts men on their way.6 irfyiM/J.0S (1. p. 29). At Athens the small
irwv: cp. Tr. 620 (the herald Lichas
speaks) d\X' etirep 'Epfiov T-fy/de Tro^irei/oi Ionic temple of 'AOrjpd NIKTJ stood on the
Ti-j(yriv: Aesch.Eum. gi (Zeus to Hermes) platform of a bastion (wtipyos) springing
Trofj.ircuos ta$i, rovSe TOI/JJCLIVOIV tfjibv ltc- from the south wing of the Propylaea,
on the right hand of one ascending to
T7]v. So he is odtoSy ivbSios, Tfyefjuovios,
the Acropolis. The figure of the goda-ftfTtap, and, in relation to the dead,
dess, probably a work of Calamis, bore
\pvxoTroixTr6s (0. C. 1548 n.).SrfXiosa helmet in her left hand, and in her
Near Pellene in Achaia Pausanias saw a
right a pomegranate (<ri5ij), her regular
statue of 'Ep/iTJs,iwlk\Ti<nv ixiv AoXios,
eixi.5 Si dv$p<J>naiv Irot/xos Te\t<rai (7. 27. attribute in the Athena-cult at Side in
Pamphylia. As Benndorf has shown
1). Cp. Ar. Th. i2O2'Ep#?; So'Xie, ravrl
(Ueber das Kultusbild der Athena Nike,
/n^c In raXcis iroieis. The Coreyrean
month \)/vSp(jjs was probably sacred to Vienna, 1879), the temple probably commemorated Cimon's victory over the
Hermes as i)/v8p6s ( = <{/ev5ris). In BaPersians at the mouth of the Eurymedon,
brius fab. 57 Hermes is conducting 'a
near Side (466 B.C.). This 'kBt\va. NIKT;
waggon-load of lies,' when he is way-laid
was the figure which at Athens came
and robbed of his whole stock by Arabs.
to be popularly known as the Wingless
Especially, he is the arch-thief (Hor.
Victory,
N/KI; "Airrepos. Wings were the
Carm. 1. 10. 7: cp. Ovid Fast. 5. 691).
distinctive attribute of N/KI; in art: and
His character of 56\ios is similarly comAthenians were familiar with the winged
bined with that of TO^TOS in El. 1396
'Ep/iTJs <T<f ayei
SoXox (TK6T(J1 | Kpti/ias, Ni/c?; which the chryselephantine Athena
K.T.X.: and in [Eur.] Rhes. 216 dXX' e3 of Pheidias, in the Parthenon, held in her
<r' 6 Matas ircus tKcipe KaX srdXw [ T4/JL- outstretched right hand (cp. Ar. Av. 574).

cMAOKTHTHI
Now I will go to the ship, having left this charge with
thee; and may speeding Hermes, the lord of stratagem, lead
us on, and Victory, even Athena Polias, who saves me ever!
[Exit ODYSSEUS, on the spectators' left.
CHORUS.

A stranger in a strange land, what am I to hide, what 1st


am I to speak, O Master, before a man who will be swift to ^
think evil ? Be thou my guide: his skill excels all other skill,
jti' MSS., and so Blaydes (reading in 150 /W\ov irdXat pot cri) \iyeis, dca|, T6 aov). Bergk
reads Siairor' (omitting pe before it), and in r5o iiiXov TrdXeu fioi \4yeis, drag, T6 abv.
The conception of 'A.6T]VS.'SUriwas not
exclusively Athenian. Thus Pausanias
saw at Megara Itpbv 'A0?pas.. .Ka\oviJ.ivt)s
Nkijs (1. 42. 4).
The same1 remark applies to the name
IloXids. At Athens it denoted Athena
as guardian of citadel, city, and land.
Athena Polias was represented by the
old (3ptTCLs of olive-wood in the Erechtheutn. But she bore the title IloXicis in
many other places also, especially in the
Ionic cities of Asia Minor,as at Erythrae, Priene, Teos, Phocaea (Paus. 7. 5.
3, 4: 2. 31. 9). Equivalent titles were
noXians, HoXiovxos, and (in a case noticed
by Leake, Morea, II. p. 80) 'A7i/<ri7ro\is.
Cp. Aristeides I. p. 21: zeal ualvaX woXeis
S
'Kd
6d 8
l rtXO
airaei K^/CXIJTCU. Thus Sophocles,
though writing for Athenians, is not
making purely local allusions.rj <riot,v,
\L deC: as in the Odyssey. In Ai. 14 he
calls her <pi\Ta.Tr)s i/wl 6e<Sv.

1 3 5 2 1 8 Parodos. For the metres


see Metrical Analysis. The framework
is as follows. (1) 1st strophe 135143
= ist antistrophe 150158. (2) 2nd
str. 169I79 = 2nd antistr. 180190.
(3) 3rd str. 201209 = 3rd antistr. 210
218. An anapaestic system (aicrT-qiia) of
six verses (144149) follows the 1st
strophe; another, of ten verses (159
168) follows the 1st antistrophe; and a
third, also of ten (191200), follows the
2nd antistrophe. With respect to the
manner in which the anapaests are interspersed with the lyrics, we may compare the Parodos of the 0. C. (where
see n. on 117),the play which is probably nearest in date to the Philoctetes,
both being among the poet's latest
works. On the other hand, in the Parodos of the Antigone (an early play), there

is a stricter symmetry between the anapaestic systems (see n. there on 100).


The Chorus consists of 15 men belonging to the ship of Neoptolemus, who
is their prince and their 'captain' (vavKpdrap, 1072). As he is so youthful
(vais, id.), they can address him as TKvov (141), iroX (201). It does not follow
that they were actually ydpovra, as the
author of the prose Argument (p. 4) calls
them.
This ode is well fitted for its place at
the opening of the play. In the prologue
Neoptolemus has been the pupil of a
crafty veteran; now he is the young
leader to whom the sailors look for
guidance. Hitherto the foremost topic
has been the importance of capturing
Philoctetes ; here our thoughts are turned
to his sufferings. And so, when the ode
closes, the mind has been prepared for
the coming conflict of motives.
135 f. Iv evq. 6>ov: cp. 685 n.:
O. C. 184 feipos iirl ^tirqs.err^yeiv...
\yiv: for the likeness of form in the
words (irapovofiaala), combined with likeness of sound (Trapofialuxris), cp. Isocr. or.
4 186

<pi]fx-qv

5 Kal /xvrffnjv. faro-

WTOV : the subst. expresses a fixed habit


of mind more forcibly than STTOTTTOV
would have done: cp. Thuc. 6. 60 0
5%tos...xtt\e7rds "qv rdre Kal virbirTys is
robs Trepi rwv /xvartKwv T^\V OXT'IOV \a.fibvras.
Xen. Eq. 3. 9 rois...VW/>TTO.S <j>i<xei

(iVirous), naturally shy. The Chorus,


now entering the orchestra for the first
time, cannot be conceived as thinking
of what Od. has said (70 ff.): but they
know how Philoctetes has been treated,
and may naturally expect him to be ' shy'
of Greek strangers.
137 ff. T^XVO, the skill of the ruler,
whose art is the highest of all: see on

32

ZO<D.OKAEOYI
5 Kal yvrifia, Trap' OT&J TO Oeiov
6 A to? cncf)7TTpov dvdcrcrerai.

140

7 ere 8', <5 TCKVOV, TO8' ihjXvOev

8 7rav Kpa/To<; uryvyiov


TO /AOI evveire,
9 TI crot xpeav virovpyelv.
a. NE. vuv /xeV, urfc)5 ya^o TO7TOV eo-^aTiats
TrpoariZeiv iOiXeis ovTiva /ceiTat,
SepKov dapcrcov OTTOTOLV Se jjioXr)
oeu'os
1 3 9 yvilifw. A : 7x16/405 L. The later MSS. are divided, and some (among which
are B, L 2 , T) have yvii/ia yviliiias.
14O avdaaerat] L has di | ' V<rerai
('<:). Diibner reports the 1st hand as having written avavav . (raerai., with a letter,
which was not o, erased between v and a. A reference to the autotype facsimile
(p. 81 B, 1. 5) will show that this interpretation of the lacuna is at least very
1 4 1 at d' L, from ai 5'
doubtful.Seyffert conj. diWerai, Blaydes ipiaatTat..

trimeter, the case for rol 8' would be


strong: but here, in lyrics, we should
keep <rfc 8'.We cannot properly compare Uvaffdai, or IKCWCIV, after which an
ace. of pers. was common.
irdv Kparos, complete (i.e. sovereign)
power. Distinguish the phrase with
the art., Her. 6. 35, el%e /it> rb irav
Kpdros n(Ti(rTparos, which gives the same
meaning in a slightly different way
('the whole power'). (tyiyiov, predicate
stood: cp. 956: O. C. 1388 KTOMUV $ i(j> with e\^\v8ev, 'from of old,' i.e., 'from
odirep e\ri\a<r<u: At. 1050 SOKOVVT' e/wl,
thine ancestors': for taybyiov, see 0. C.
SoKoSvra 5', 6s Kpalvei arparov.rb 8ctov
1770 n.
Aids o-Ktjirrpov, the godlike Zeus-sceptre,
TO, 'therefore': //. 3. 176 dXXck rd5' oix
i.e., sceptre derived from Zeus (gen. of eyivovro' rit Kal K\aLov<ra T^rt}Ka. So, in
source), SioaSorov.dvd<r<reTai implies Attic, TOOTO, Xen. An. 4. 1. 21 TOUT'
a.vaaaw tTKTJKTpov (an almost adverbial t<rir(v5oi> Kal Bid. TOVTO oi% vw^/xevov : esp.
cogn. ace), as = 'to rule with sceptre': TOUT' dpa, Ar. Nub. 319, etc.For the
cp. 0. C. 449 OKTJirTpa lepalveiv, to have like use of Tip, cp. 0. T. 511 n.
sceptred sway.The tone here is genuine1 4 4 f. The Chorus has asked, How
ly Homeric. Cp. //. 9. 98 \aiSv ioirl drai- are we to help? He replies, in effect,
ned rot Zei>s tyyvaKifev \ (TKiJTrrpdv T ' qSi 'The moment for you to help has not
Gt/wrras, tra aiplai ^ouXoigff^a.
come yet. Meanwhile you can approach,
1 4 1 f. <rJ...IXT)Xi)6ev, hath come to and look at the cave. When Philoctetes
thee. There is perhaps no other ex- returns, then you must be guided by the
ample of the simple (pxop^ai with ace. of signs that I shall give you.' The Chorus
person: but there is an exact parallel in are supposed to be on the shore, below
the cave, and at a point from which
the rare use of fialvw with ace. of person,
E u r . Hipp. 1371 Red vvv <55iVa /A bfitiva. they have not a clear view of it. Injiaivei. It is doubtless more than a mere vited by Neoptolemus, they now advance
coincidence that both these instances are nearer. The word d/xipWvpop (159) implies
lyric ; and that a lyric boldness was felt that, having approached the seaward
in them may be inferred from the parody mouth of the cave, they can see right
in Ar. Nub. 30, arap rl xpts ^ Me; through i t ; and v. 161 (TTOV yap 6 rk-fiIf ak 8...PKJjkvdev occurred in an iambic /i&w...;) confirms this; their own eyes
O. T. 380 f., Tiyyt) rtyiyi)s \ iircfxpipovaa.
cr^pas, not, another kind of skill, but
rather, skill in another man : see on 0. C.
230 dirdrais eWpcus.yvd\UL, sc. yvw/ias
vpouxei- As dist. from T^X"Vthe art
of ruling yviifirj here is intellectual
power generally. The latter would not
be separately ascribed to the king, if
we adopted ^vu|ias, which is thus the
weaker reading.irop' OT<J>: in whose
keeping. The anteced. is ineivov under-

<t>IAOKTHTHI

33

his counsel hath no peer, with whom is the sway of the godlike
sceptre given by Zeus. And to thee, my son, that sovereign
power hath descended from of old; tell me, therefore, wherein
I am to serve thee.
NE.
For the present,as haply thou wouldst behold the
place where he abides on ocean's verge,survey it fearlessly:
but when the dread wayfarer, who hath left this dwelling, shall
return,
(which

suggests

ae1 T ' ) : a o l de ( o m i t t i n g

i3)

Triclinius : aol

8'

W u n d e r . e ^ ]

Hartung conj. e-n-qkvdev. 1 4 2 vav Kpdros] Schenkel conj. irayKparh.tvveire]


In L a letter (vi) has been erased after the final e.
1 4 4 vvv fib> l<rus yap L :
vvv nh> yap foois r.TOTTOV m a d e from TOTOIV in L.io-xariout L, A : e&xaTtas r .

Blaydes conj. rbirov eo-xanas.


1 4 5 Hvnva /ceirai] Blaydes conj. Hvriva vaUi :
Wecklein, SVTIV' evoueel: Mekler, rdvS' tva neirou.
1 4 7 O81TT)S] Bergk conj.
now assure them that the cave is empty.
But nothing indicates that they actually
enter it.
IcrxoTiats, locative dat. (0. C. 411 n.),
'in the extreme parts' of the island,
those, namely, which are on the edge of
the sea. This reading, which has the best
authority, is also intrinsically better than
the gen. sing.: rbwov eo-xanas ('region,
part, of the sea-marge') would be an
unusual phrase. Homer, indeed, uses
only the sing, of this word: and it is very
likely that Soph, was thinking of Od. 9.

'cognate' as it would be in M0r; f)iau>.


But the difference between KUTOX Siaiv
and Keirai rbirov is, in principle, only the
same as that between ?fo/u 'iSpav and
' f y
6
1 4 7 T(5V8' *OK [icXaBpojv.

For 4K I

read OVK.
Wakefield and Hermann were
right in feeling that the sense required
TUX'S' (K p.e\adpuv to be connected with
oSCrtis ('metuendus vir qui ex hoc antro
abiit'), and not with |i6Xr). Then, however, the article 6 becomes indispensable.
Let it be granted that we could say,

182 (v0a 8' iv etTX&TiTJ o-irtos ctSoixev &yx<-opw OSITTJV CK rwv fieXadpojv, ' I see one
6a\ia<Ti)s, ib. 5. 238 v-tyrov ivr' eo-xanrj, etc. leaving the abode,'oSirijc having the

But that is no reason why Soph, should


not have used the plur., which was familiar
in Attic (e.g. Xen. H. 2. 4. 4 TUV ayp&v...
eh T&S eaxariAs).
SVTIVO KCITCU, in which he is situated,

constr. of bSetiw. as, in Tas...Kii'i5opeis r y


ails/tari (Plat. Legg. 631 c), the dat. after
lav-qaeis is that which might follow Kivei<r0ai. But no Greek could have written

OTr&rav nbXy bShrp IK rusv p.e\d0poiv in t h e

sense, ' when he who has left the abode


shall return to it,'the movement dePhiloctetes) ev vf}ffiff KCCTO Kparip aX-yea noted by c/f TUV /teXdffpiiiv being opposite
Traaxav. Verbs of position (as 'sitting' to that denoted by ,146X77. For the order
or 'standing') sometimes take an ace. of words, TOV8 6 IK |u\d6piv, instead of
(which may be regarded as a kind of 6 ruvSe eK y.., cp. O. T. 735 Kal rls xp6i<os
?5' i l
i!\\0&
b iS X
' cognate' ace), denoting the place in or
on which one sits, stands, etc. Aesch. \v0dt. For other examples of this crasis
Ag. 183 ai\iia...rifiAvu>v (on the same prin- in Soph., cp. below, 639 irvevfia TOVK
ciple as iSpav ifriuu): Eur. Suffl. 987 rl irpifipas: 0. C. 1540 TOVK 0eov wapbv: El.
TOT' aWepiav iiTTijKe iriTpav; (as if one 731 yvobs 5' 01/% 'A0i)vtoi' dewds TjvtoffTposaid, &rn7Ke ircTpivTjvffraffiv): ib. 657 (pot.With the simple 4K, only two verSe|i6i< Terayixivom \ Kfpas (ra^w). Poetry sions are possible. (1) Taking IK with
could say, then, T&Kov...&vTaia iffrrjKe or(J.6X-n: 'when he shall come forth from
Tira/crai: and so also KUTM. It is true this abode.' But N . knows that Ph. is
that KetraL rbirov is not precisely like KeZrat not now in the cave, and he cannot
Btaui (Thuc. I. 37 ^ T6\is...avrapKr) 8i<nv assume that, on returning, Ph. will enter
Kunh-q): for (tei/nai served as perf. pass, it from the landward side, to emerge at
of TiB-qiu (T^Bet/xai being midd.), and inthe other. Philoctetes is, in fact, outride
Ketrat. Bk<nv the ace. is therefore as strictly of the cave from his first appearance at
abides. The verb is esp. suitable to a
crippled sufferer; cp. 183: //. 2. 721 (of
1

J. S. IV.

34
ifirjv alel X^Pa
/ ^
ireipa TO irapov depairevetv.

TT/DOS

. fiikov TTakai ixiXrjfid fxoi Xeyeis, dva,


2 <f>povpeiv o/Liju,' eiu crw jj.dki<rTa
3 v w oe )u,ot Xey', auXcts
4 Troias IveSpos ratei
5 /cat -yaipov TIV e^ei. TO yap
6 fiadelv OVK a/rroKaipiov,
7 ///>} Trpoairecrcov fie XdOy irodev'
8 Tts TOTTOS, 17 TIS eSpa; w e x e t omTtf3ov,
9 evavkov, rj dvpaiov ;

150

155

. OTKO^ ju,ez/ o/>as TOVS' dfJi.<j)Cdvpov


Trerpivr)<i KOCTTJS.
V yap
yap 66 rXij
XO. TTOV

160
auTos aireo-Tiv;

dirXhi]!.
1 4 8 xpa vpoxoipCm] Burges conj. xfya '"'po^xoipuv. A MS. ascribed
to the 15th cent. (B, cod. Par. 2787) has irpoaxuP&v!doubtless by a mere blunder.
ISO f. L has id\ov irdXai ^A))/id fwi. X^eis otj/al rb abv \ (ppovpeiv [from <ppopeip] %<''
ewl ai>i fiakiGTa aaipSn. So also A. Verse 150 thus exceeds v. 135 by an iambus.
Hence, in v. 150, (1) Triclinius omitted TO abv : (2) Cavallin, keeping rb abv, omits
i.va.%. (3) Burges conj. /xAoc T&\CU 5ij fioi Xiyeis, &va, T6 abv. (4) For the readings
of Blaydes and Bergk, see cr. n. on 135. In v. 151 (1) Seyffert conj. (ppovpeiv
8/t/ian abv /iAXiara Kcupov: (2) Nauck, omitting i/xp.', conj. rb (ppoupeiv evl <riJ5
a KaipQ. (3) Burges, guided by the schol., rb. <rk rei/iara <pv\6.Trav, conj.

v. 219 up to v. 675. (2) Taking ex with


irpoxupuv, as referring to the Chorus:
' moving forth from this abode.' But the
Chorus never enter the cave,they only
look into it: and, in any case, a gradual
retreat from it (irpds e^V aiei xP a )
would be unsuitable.Seyffert refers
TuyS' ix neXdOpav to the Chorus, but does
not connect it with irpoxapav, taking IK
in the pregnant sense of ?|u we: i.e.,
'having quitted the cave ( = 4K), advance
ever at my beck,' etc. This seems impossible.
1 4 8 irpos if.ip alel xcipa irpo\apav,
coming forward towards my (beckoning)
hand,i.e., at a sign given by me,from
time to time (aid). This phrase is explained by the part which the Chorus
actually plays in the dialogue between
Philoctetes and Neoptolemus,interposing, from time to time, with some
utterance fitted to confirm the belief of
Philoctetes in the story which Neoptolemus is telling (317, 391, 508, 676, etc.).
because the sailors would re-

main at some distance from their master


while he conversed with Ph., but would
naturally move a step or two nearer at
the moments when they offered their
own remarks. Not in a fig. sense, 'directing your course of action.' irpos |ii}v
...\etpa, too, is literal (i.e., it does not
mean simply, 'following the lead' of my
words).
149 r& irapov Beparrefaiv, to provide
for the need of the moment. Cp. Dem.
or. 18 307 >s inrtp rQmfrxdpSvKcupois
dvrt TWV TT)S trarpidos depairetieiv. Cp.
the proverb rb irapbv ev iroieiv (Plat. Gorg.
499 c), 'to do the best one can.'
1 5 0 f. pU\ov...|J.l\i]|i.a: with a certain
emphasis; cp. Eur. Andr. 868 deifi' S
dei/ialvas. The Chorus first reply to the
last words of N., and then respond to his
suggestion that perhaps they wish to see
the abode of Ph.The text is sound,
when, with Triclinius, we have ejected rb
abv (see cr. n.),a gloss added by some
one who, taking the S/M/j.a to be that of
N., naturally felt the want of the pos-

<t>IAOKTHTHZ

35

come forward at my beck from time to time, and try to help as


the moment may require.
ist ar
CH. Long have I been careful of that care, my prince, stro
tithat mine eye should be watchful for thy good, before all else. PheAnd now tell me, in what manner of shelter hath he made his
abode ? In what region is he ? 'Twere not unseasonable for
me to learn, lest he surprise me from some quarter. What is
the place of his wandering, or of his rest ? Where planteth he
his steps, within his dwelling, or abroad ?
NE. Here thou seest his home, with its two portals,his
rocky cell.
CH. And its hapless inmate,whither is he gone ?

<ppovpe?v veQ[i' etrl <j$ fiaXiffra Kcup: (4) Blaydes, cppovpeiv 0/tyttm ffty fid^urra. x/)a.
152 ad\h(r from ai\da L.
156 Trpo<rirecruiv p.e X&dri Herm.: fj.e \ddj] TrpoaireG&v
MSS. For similar transpositions of words in L, cp. 1332, 0. C. 1088, Ant. 106.
157 f. rlv' %xet GTIOV, \ &av\ov, rj dvpaiov;] Wakefield conj. ris ?%ei <rrf/Sos | lvav\ov
7) BvpaXov; Porson (on Eur. Or: 1263) cites approvingly from Thom. Magister
(s.v. pav\os), ih'a.vXos ij OvpaZos', (retaining TIV' %ec aTLpov).
159161 OTKOV...
&ireoriv\\ These three vv. are deleted by Benedict (Observ. in Soph. p. 239), with whom
Nauck agrees. See on 166.
161 &Tre<mv ;] dweim L.

sessive pron. The 6'(j.|j.a is that of the


dent,' is not pleonastic, since vain can
Chorus, and is the subject to <j>povpeiv:
be said of a wanderer with ref. to the
this appears certain, when we compare
place that he is in at a given moment:
Tr. 225 ovde 11' Sfi/MiTos | (ppovphv [<ppovpk
892: 0. C. 117 n.\apov TIV Sxl> *'*>
L] iraprjKOe, 'nor hath it escaped my where he is now: cp. 22, 0. C. 37.ri
watchful eye.' Dindorf takes 6p./j.' as a ydp OVK diroK. |>t (m) |ia0civ: TO is
sort of 'cognate' ace, 'to watch with the
pron. in nom. case (cp. Tr. 1172 rb S' -qv
eye,' and compares Tr. 914 K&yi) Xadpaiov ap' oiSkv dWo): fiaffetv, epexeg. inf.
6fifi' iweaKtatTfi^vT] [ tppoijpovv'. but thereirpO(nro"wv'. 46 n.
the partic. is the warrant for it.
157 f. TS TOITOS. . .flupalov; The iteraeirl <r<[> Kcupio=lit., 'for thine occasion,' tion, and the want of coherence, are
i.e.,' for the moment at which a thing can
meant to mark eager anxiety.i\a orbe done for thine advantage.' The use of
Pov here= ' is planting his steps' (cp. 29),
the sing, xaipos with the possessive is rare,
rather than, 'is following a path' (48):
but is akin to a freq. use of the plur., as
hence the narrow space implied by SvavIsocr. or. 6 80 tv rots T)jiTtpois iccupofcXov is no objection. But with Wakefield's
(i.e. at the moments advantageous for us)
TCS lx e ' T ' P O S the sense 'path' would
AWh. pyq TOIS avT&v iroi-qaaaBcu rois KivBi- be unavoidable.
xovs. And how naturally 6 <rbs icaipos 159 ff. O?KOV...KOCTT]S, a home conmight approximate (esp. in lyric poetry)
sisting in a rocky sleeping-place (defining
to the sense of T6 abv xipSos, is suggested
gen.: cp. 81 n.).d|j,<|>C8vpov: cp. 16.
by such phrases as that in Her. 1. 206 oti
The piv implies, ' but where he is, I
yd.p av eldelrjs e? rot es Kcupbv &rrat ravra know not.' The Chorus then say, iroB
reXeojucva, 'seasonably for thee,'='for
Yap...; i.e., (you surprise me;) for (if he
thine advantage.'
is not here) where can he be ?
162 f. (|>op8rjs: cp. 43.oyiuvei, &y152 ff. av\ds iroCos: cp. 30. The
/ios, from rt. ay of &yca (cp. agmen), is
plur. av\al could denote a single chamber
prop, any line drawn out by movement;
(Ant. 945). The Chorus are not supthen, esp., a furrow in ploughing (//. 18.
posed to have been present when the cave
546, Theocr. 10. 2) ; or the track
was found, and do not yet know the
('swathe') made by reapers through corn.
nature of Ph.'s quarters.JveSpos, 'resi-

32

IO<t>OKAEOYI

36

NE. SrjXov e/ioty' ws jpfij


XP
crTifiov oy/xeveL %Trj8e ireXas TTOV.
TavTrjv yap ex.i.v /Sior^s avTov
Xoyos iarl <j>v<ri,v, dtqpofiokovvra,
irrrjvois 101s (TTvyepov
i
ouoe rtv auTw

165

KOLKOIV i

/?' X O . OLKTipoi viv eycoy, OTTCOS,


2 JU/>7 TOU Kr)So/xvov fipoT&v
1 70
3 ij8e vvTpo<]>ov o/tu' e ^ u i '
4 Sucrravos, fiovos aiei,
vocrov ddrypiav,
5 ^ocre? j
6 aA.uet 8'
l
7 vpeias icrTafievct). TTWS mire, 7rw9 Sucr/xo^ao? avrej
8 <u TraXdfJuaL *6eci)v
*6eci)v'
1 6 3 TixSe MSS.: except that T (13th cent.) has rtySe. Blaydes conj. TJjSe.
166 ffrvyepbv ortryepus MSS.: Brunck conj. <T/jivyepbv <r/j.vyepCis. Benedict omits the
words, and thus (having omitted also vv. 159161) makes the anapaestic system,
162168, equal to that in 144149.
167 airQ r : airnp L. The words o6Se rtv'
airifi are bracketed by Herm. They are absent from one of the later MSS. (R, 14th
cent.).

1 6 8 iTtvoifiav] Burges conj. Tr6a.vw[w,v. 1 7 O /M'TJ TOV Ktjdofj^vov m a d e from fiy

Here the image is from ploughing; the


but also to persons, as Ant. 144 rotv
furrow which the ploughman leaves bearvyepotv (the sons of Oed.: where seen.).
hind him is compared to the track left
Almost all recent editors, however, have
by the helpless foot which Philoctetes
received Brunck's conjecture, (riuryepAv
drags after him. Cp. 291 el\v6firiv, S6u- vpvytpas, i.e., 'with painful toil.' At
njyoe i%t\Kwv ToSa (where see n.). The first sight, this is favoured by the schol.
word iyjietiei also serves to suggest the
here, iiri/iovws,
which can scarcely
laborious character of the progress. Cp. be explained as meaning 'with grim reLucan 9. 721 (of a serpent) contentus iter
solve,' and ought doubtless to be exicauda sulcare.Tfj8e seems a necessary TTOCUS. NOW, as Brunck points out,
correction of TOVOS, since ffriflov...rovSe
Hesych. has apvyephv,
iirlirovov, oltcwould mean, 'his path yonder'' (as though
rpdp, /loxOypof apvyepus,
einirovus.
N. could point to it): not merely 'his path
So Eustath. p. 1463 (an Sk tr/ivyepHs, rb
in this neighbourhood'' (though invisible). iimrovws, oSvvrjpws. Yet the following
considerations make me hesitate to for1 6 4 f. TOVTIJV, i.e., by making exsake the MSS. (1) Is it so clear that, in
peditions in quest of food,referring to
this context, the schol. could not have
162 f. Others take it to mean, 'in the
following manner,'viz., 6ripof}o\ovvTa. used iTirovas to explain (rrvyep&s, seeing
that the notions of TOVOS and 'wretchedThis is possible (0. C. 787): but then we
should expect Bypofiokeiv.(f>vo-iv = rpo- ness' are often so near to each other,
esp. in poetry? (2) Apollonius Rhodius
vov.
166 orwytpov <mryps: cp. 1369 seems to be the earliest extant writer
Ko.K<Ss...KaKois: 0. T. 479 juAeos

pikiip

iroSl ;CT/>ei)i'. Tragedy applies arvyepos, in the sense of 'wretched,'not only


to things (Tr. 1016 /SI'OV...TOO arvyepov),

who uses (r/ivyepos: 1. 374 <r/j.vyepiiraToi

avSpwv ('most laborious'): 4. 380 <r,ewyepws, 'painfully.' Homer has only ^incrfivyepus:

Hesiod has eiruT/j,vyep6s.

On

4>IA0KTHTHI

37

NE. I doubt not but he is trailing his painful steps somewhere near this spot, in quest of food. For rumour saith that
in this fashion he lives, seeking prey with his winged shafts,
all-wretched that he is; and no healer of his woe draws nigh
unto him.
CH. I pity him, to think how, with no man to care for him, 2nd
and seeing no companion's face, suffering, lonely evermore, he is 3troPnevexed by fierce disease, and bewildered by each want as it
arises. How, how doth he endure in his misery ? Alas, the
dark dealings of the gods!
TOIV KijSo/iivova L. 1 7 1 /J.TJ ativTfXHpov L : /tySe oivrpo<f>ov r. Brunck conj. iiifii givrpo<pov'. Pauli, fiyd' is (rtivTpocpov: Wecklein, fiijd^p trtivTpotpov : Cavallin, pJ\ TOV <njvrpo<pov.
1 7 2 aiel Triclinius : del L, with A and most of the other MSS.
1 7 4 eiri iravri
rip] Aristeides (l. p. 6i) loosely quotes these words as tirl atravn T<J> (sic).
1 7 7 * Be&v Lachmann: BVIJTQV MSS.

<n5vrpo<j>ov could stand. But, as there


the other hand, the form poyepos is used
is no other instance of that syllable being
five times by Aesch., thrice by Eur., once
shortened in this strophe or antistrophe,
by Soph. (El. 93), and once by Ar.; but
Brunck's 'vTPotl>ov is better, and is re(T/J.vyepos never.
ceived
by Heinrich Schmidt (Composi1 6 8 emv|J.av, intrans., 'direct his
tionshhre, p. clxii.).vvTp. o'nji', the
course towards,' 'approach': cp. 717,
where irpoaevio/w. also seems to be in- face of a man who lives with one; cp.
At. 9 7 7 w <J>L\TO.T' Atas, a iv<u)i.ov B/i/i'
trans., 'bent his course towards' the
ep.ol.
water. This intrans. use must come
from the trans, sense of noi/ida 'to ply'
1 7 4 f. d\v, properly, 'wanders in
the limbs, or 'guide' a chariot, etc., as / / .
mind'; hence, here, of despairing per10. 358 yoOvaTo, vwfiav: O. T. 468 TroSa plexity, cp. 1194. This use of the word
vwixav: Pind. P. 4. 18 Sl<j>povt re vw/xa.might be illustrated by Alexis Kvflepv/icroiaiv: we must mentally supply w65a,
TT]S 13 elB' ol fxev eiwopov/iep,
oi S' dXtfo686f, or the like. Apart from the two ,uej>, 'some of us are rich, while others
instances in this play, there appears to
are at their wits' ends.'TTOVTC rp \pc(as
be no sound example of an intrans. via- = each item or article of need, i.e., each
p.doi. See Appendix.
new form in which need besets him. Cp.
n. on Ant. 1229 h> r p (=TIVC) <rvf/.(popas.
1 6 9 olK-ripw, the spelling attested by
tcrTa|i^vw = Sre Krrartu, as it arises. Cp.
Attic inscriptions (0. T. 13 n.).8irs,
1263:
/ / . 2 1 . 2 4 0 KVK(!>/j.evov 'CaraTo
'(thinking) how': cp. Ai. 510 o&crtpe
8', wva.%, iraXSarbv aov, ...'iaov KaKoy\j!elvu
KVfJLa.
re K&fiol TOVO\ Srav Bdvys, ve/ieU.
177 (5 ira\ct|iai *8t<3v: the 'devices'
of the gods are their mysterious dispensa1 7 0 f. (iij TOV. The force of /j (as
tions, which can bring such misery on a
dist. from oti) is here 'generic,' i.e., it preman who was once fortunate. Cp. Pind.
sents the situation as typical of a class; 'in
P. 1. 48 evplffKovro 0eS>v rraXd/tais n/idv.
a case where there is none to tend ': and
I
have accepted Lachmann's conjecture
this implies thecause of pity,'seeing that
here, 05v for 8VT)TV, because (1) there
there is none to tend.' Cp. 256, 715:
is aprima facie case for a short penult.,
O. T. 397 n.|M)8 seems better than any
answering to that of dBvpbaTOfiot (188);
of the proposed corrections (see cr. n.):
and (2) BVI\TWV, so closely followed by fipoand for /; TOV KT]8O|UVOV..., /M;5 SX""*'
TG>V, is very awkward, while #ewc not only
cp. O. C. HI oin e{ tvbs ardXeu'Tos, d \ \ '
dcrrwy viro j irdvTwv KeXevcrdeis, n.: Tr. gives a forcible contrast with flpoT&v, but
suggests a thought well suited to the
291 vuv aoi Tipypis fi<pavr)s Kvpel, \ TWV
solemn pathos. Hermann defends 8VI)TI3V
fiev irapbvTOJv, TO. de Treirvffp^vrj Xoyip.
at the cost of reading d6vp6y\a<r<ros in 188.
The second syllable of the verse might
Heinrich Schmidt also keeps it, but rebe short (see Metr. Anal.), and therefore

IO<t>OKAEOYS
9 d> hvcrTava. yevrj
/xerpios aidv.
10 ois
ctVT.

ft.

0VT0<5,

TTpOiTOyOVOiV

lOTOi S

2 OIKCOV ovSevos ucrrepos,


3 vdvTcov a/A/Aopos iv yStw
i KeuraL fiovvos an a\\a>z>,
5 (TTLKTMV 7) XaCTlCOV fieTOL

G0r/po)v, ev T oSwcus ofiov


185
7 XtjLtw T' oi/crpos, dv^Kecrra ju.eptju.v'jf/AaT' e^wf" *6peC179 o?s] ofcri Suidas s.v. TraXcijuai.aMx] Burges conj. a7iic.
18O fcrws] Burges
conj. 7e7(is: Mekler, riws: Seyffert (who ultimately, however, retained the vulgate)
TIS &>.
181 OIKUV] Meineke conj. OIKWV : Toup, oiK Up. In Suidas s.v. \aaiois
some MSS. have oinojv, but others (not the best) give r/Koiv, which Brunck adopted,
with Porson's approval (Adv. 199, 315).ilarepos] Wecklein conj. b i

tains a$vp6ffTOfix>s in 188, on the ground


Keiv. | TWV yb.p /jiwpluv irpuyra
that, in this logaoedic measure, the 'irrafiiv eiwetv | TOVVO/AO. viKq,: where it is added
tional syllable' is admissible in the choree
that 'excess of good fortune' (rh inrep(ai dvfjr). A probably authentic example
pdWovra) 'brings greater calamities on
is Sea/iv in 218 (=0poet in 209). 7rahouses, when the god is wroth,' /teffous 5'
Xd/aoi 8VT|TV, if sound, would mean,' the draSy 8TCLV opyiffdy j SaificM, OIKOIS &Te'5(aKev. H e r . 7. 10 <piXhi yhp 6 Oebs r d
resources of men' (as shown by Philoctetes): so Theognis 623 vavTotai KaKorijTes vTrepixovTa irdvra noXotieiv.Others take
iv avBptlmounv laaiv, \ Travroiai. 3' aperal
[ii] p.tTpi.09 as, 'exceeding the ordinary
Kal jSiorou waXd/xai. Cp. the praise of
measure of woe.' Cp. Eur. Tro. 717 01)
yb.p /j.h'pta irdcrxo/xev icaicd. I prefer the
man as iracTcwropos in Ant. 360. Not,
former view, because (a) the sense of ytvr\
'the (wicked) devices of men,' as seen in
suggests the greatness that precedes the
the hero's enemies.
abasement; and (b) vv. 180 ff., which
1 7 8 yivr\, 'races,' in the narrower
comment on ofs fj.^ /iirpios aliiv, show that
sense of' houses' or ' families,' such as the
these words suggested a contrast between
princely house to which Philoctetes bePh.'s past and present fortunes.
longed: cp. Od. 15. 533 iiieripov S' oiK
o"Tt ytvos fiacriXetiTepov dXXo. N o t 'gene18O f. xpomyydvwv: schol. evyev&v.
rations,' yeveal (0. T. 1186): nor, again,
Elsewhere wpoir6yovos always = 'first' sons of men,'a sense which could not born.' But as apxaibyovos can mean 'of
be justified by the bold phrase in At. 784, ancient race' (Ant. 981), so irpbiroyovos
T^KMW, Sia/wpov fives. In Her. 3. 'of foremost race.' Cp. Thuc. 3. 65 av159 read 'iva acpi yeve^ (not -yivea) iiro- Spes tifiwv oi TrpwroL Kal xpTjjuaa't Kal ytvei.
yiimiTcu.
to-cos does not imply a doubt as to
179 ols (iij (uVpios olwv. aldiv here = whether Philoctetes is of noble birth, but
merely gives a certain vagueness to the
not 'life' merely (as Ant. 583), but 'fortune in life,' as Tr. 34 TOLOVTOS aiCcv els surmise that no one else was nobler.
dofwvs re KO.K Sdfxojv | alel rbv avdp' e'ireii.ire. Yet Nauck (following Burges) changes
VA ('generic,' 170) (leVpios, 'such as to frrus to Yeyus because the Chorus must
have known the hero to be noble. Cp.
exceed the ordinary lot,'in prosperity,
Tr. 301 (Deianeira is pitying the captives
and afterwards in misery. The more
highly placed a man is, the greater may sent to her by Heracles), at irplv fiiev Tjaav
e e\ev6ipav laws \ avSpSv: where taws
be his fall. Cp. 505 f.: O. T. n86ff.,
does not mean that she doubts their
I282ff. (the reverses of Oed.): Ant. n6iff.
(those of Creon). Aesch. Sum. 528 iravri former freedom, but merely that she does
not know their fathers' names. Cp. vov
lAtaij) T& Kpdros 8ebs umaaev.
Eur. Med.
in Thuc. 7. 77 (Nicias speaking of him123 e\w\ yovv ewl ^ /xeydXois | dxvpws ety

<J>IAOKTHTHI

39

Alas, hapless races of men, whose destiny exceeds due


measure!
This man,noble, perchance, as any scion of the noblest 2nd antihouse,reft of all life's gifts, lies lonely, apart from his fellows, strophe.
with the dappled or shaggy beasts of the field, piteous alike in
his torments and his hunger, bearing anguish that finds no cure;
1 8 2 iv filtf] Blaydes conj. is filov.
1 8 3 iSXXuc] Burges conj. dvSp&v.
1 8 4 fierk] /i(-ra L. To avoid the short syll. at the end of the v., Herm. wrote
Oripuv ^ Xaaiaiv pir' rj \ (TTLKT&V (doubting whether IMTOX was permissible). Burges
conj. per' wv : Meineke, //.{try: Lehrs, iri\as.
1 8 6 if. L has : Xi,ntDt T' oUrpba
dv^Keara fiepi\fip^iiar' lxwv'
/SapeijoS' (sic) dSvp6<TTOfi-0(r | &xw' Tij\e(f>avTi<T mapac \
oi/idiyaa iwoKeurai.. The point after (xuv is faint, and not, apparently, from the first
hand. The later MSS. agree with L, except that Vat. b (cod. Urb. 141, 14th cent.)
has /Sapei' | & 5'.For the conjectures, see comment, and Appendix.

self), OVT1 CVTUXL*} Soicwy irov varephs TOV


Eur. Bacch. 111) naturally suggests deer,
elpai. So we sometimes guard a stateand, ace. to one interpretation, is meant
ment by saying, 'perhaps' the greatest,
here to denote the class of ' peaceful anietc.
mals,' as dist. from Xacricoy, beasts of
OVSEV&S SC. di>dp6s. oiSels OIKWV Tpw- prey. The latter epithet, it might be
objected,
could equally well suggest
roybvuv could mean either (a) no house of
goats and sheep. Another and stranger
those houses, or (b) no man belonging to
them; cp. Plat. Prot. 316 B 'AiroWodibpov view is that OTIKTWV means birds (pictae
vl6s, oULas /ieyd\i)s; O. T. 336 n. Here volucres), as dist. from beasts. Obviously
it is possible, indeed, to supply OIKOV ('a the poet used the epithets simply in order
to call up a general picture of creatures
man inferior to no house,' i.e., ' t o no
that haunt the wilds; he was not caremember of a house'). But in compressed
Greek comparison the type rb iicclvov yivot fully classifying them. Cp. 937.nerd.
oix vffrepdv ian TUV fta<xi\io)v (sc. TOV The last syllable of a verse is of variyevovs), is commoner than iiceivos (for T6 able value (dSidipopos, anceps); i.e., a
eKeivov ytvos) ovx vvrepos <m rod Ttav short may stand for a long, as here, or
vice versa. Cp- Heinrich Schmidt, Rhythfiacriktuv yinovs,which latter would be
mic and Metric, p. 58, who cites Aesch.
the type here. Further, the fact that oiSevbs (OIKOV) depends on OIKUV would increase Ag. 1531 evTrd\a/Mi> pjpi/j.vav | Sira K.T.X.:
the -av there serves as -dv. So 188 (dffvthe awkwardness. The reading TJKUV for
OEKIDV is specious; cp. At. 636 os in irarpipas p6orO|UOs), 1089 (a/iap), 1104 (varepov),
1110 (xepa\v), etc. It is needless, then,
i)Kwv yeveas<dpi<TT0S> : though dpuTTOs
to alter fierd.iv r' 68vvais=&' 65iWs
is there doubtful. But OI'KWV is confirmed
T (cp. 0. T. 258 n.): for this b> of cir(a) by Eur. Ion 1073 a T&V einmTpiSav
yeyucr' OIKWV : and (b) by the bold use of cumstance, ib. 1112 kv,..iMKpC$ I yqpq., n.
irpwToyoviav, which dtKiov helps to interpret. 1 8 7 f. *6po 8', S. Mekler's coroiStvos So-repos, as Plat. Tim. p. 20 A rection of papeia 8", occurs in his revision
of Dindorf (6th Teubner ed., 1885),
oiffig. Kal yivu oiSevbs vffrepos w rQsv eicei.
where it is placed in the text. But, so
1 8 2 Iv pCo) belongs to d|i|iopos (destifar as I know, the arguments for it have
tute, in his life, of all things): it cannot
not yet been stated. It is one of those
go with irdvrwv, as if we had iravTuv
emendations, the probability of which
TWV iv filcfi: but the sense is virtually the
cannot be adequately estimated at a first
same.
glance, but must be carefully considered
1 8 3 IF. (j.ovvos <^1r> tt\Xwv, alone,
in relation to the peculiarities of the MS.
apart from his fellows: an epic phrase ;
(1) We observe, then, that L has /3aHymn. Horn. 3. 193 6 5 ravpos ejjbaKero pel\aS' ddvpoffro/ioiT. This favours the view
/xovvos air' aXXaw: cp. Od. 16. 239 fioOvto that v. t88 began with a 5' rather than
avevd' aXXa\OTIKTWV (the epithet of
d 5'. But, as metre proves, that a must
an l\a<pos in El. 568, and of vefipLdes in

20<t>0KAE0Y2:

40

8a 8' d
190

10
OWT. y.

N E . Ol)8v

TOVTCOV OaVfldCTTOV

0ela ydp, etirep Kayco TL


Kal rd 7radrjfj.aTa Keiva
auroi>
a>iio<j>povo<; Xpv<rrj<s
vvv a vovel S i ^ a
OVK icrO" as ov deciv TOV f ) ,
TOV [Mr} irporepov rovh' iirl Tpota
Ttivai rd deav dfid)(r)Ta
ftthy,
1 9 3 irad'fiiJ.a.Ta. Keiva Brunck : TaSrmar' e/ceixa MSS.

195

1 9 6 us Porson: STTOK MSS.

nis 421 TTOXXOIS avBptlmoiv y^iiffffy Bipai


have been a, not S: and this points to
an ending -eija, as in 6pet\a. (2) Some
OVK iirliceivTai | app-bdiai.Wecklein reads
d6upoo*TO|j.ovo"' (comparing 0pa<Fv<TTo[iLe?v,
corruptions in L, as in other MSS., have
arisen through the genuine word being
iro\v<TTo/j.e7i>), for the sake of the long
final syll.: but see on /iera in 184.
mistaken for one resembling it in form;
as axs has become &x8os in O. T. 13551 8 9 f.' Ax<4 TT)Xe<|)avi)s, Echo, appearAnd this could occur even when the
ing afar,as if she came forth from her
initial of the false word did not belong to
secret abode in response to the voice. Eur.
the true word. See Tr. 887 arovbtvToi
introduced Echo as an (unseen) speaker
iv TOM$ ffiSdpov. For TO/JQ, L there has
in his Andromeda; cp. Ar. Th. 1059 fif.
a-Tofuu: and this, not merely through the
('Hx^, \6ywi> avrifiSos, iTriKOKKaffrpia
influence of arovbevTos, but, evidently,
'mocker'). But she was not, in the clasbecause the scribe was thinking of crrbixa. sical age, a distinctly recognised dal/xiov :
Thus, even without assuming an interthough Paus. (2. 35. 10) saw at Corinth a
mediate apel\a or 6.pei\a, we see that
Upov of T\ XQovla, locally called 'Hx^.
j3apeija was a possible corruption of
Cp. Wieseler, Die Nymphe Echo (Got6pd\a. Note, as increasing the probabitingen, 1854).
lity, that v. 208, j3a/)a TrjK&Bev avod,
irtKpais I ot|M>yais inraicovci is the
stands in L in the middle of the same
best correction yet proposed for micpas |
page (82 A) which contains this verse.
ol|i-yds VIT6KI.TCU. With the latter verb,
(3) opeCa, as an epithet for Echo here, is
the dat. trixfoXt ol/j.wyais would be reillustrated by the only other place in the
quired. The sense would then be, ' Echo
play where such echo is spoken of: 1458
is subject to his cries,' i.e., attends upon
TroXXd di (pavrjs TTJS TifMTe'pas \ 'Bp/toioc them, follows them, as a kind of under8/3 os Ta.pim-eii.fev ift-ot. The Brjpes have strain or accompaniment. Such a use of
just been mentioned (185); and at 937
vTOKeiTat is not merely forced; it is (to
we have $t]puv opeiuv.
Cp. Hymn.
my mind) inconceivable. Prof. CampHorn. 19. 21 Kopv<pT]v Be repurrevei ovpeosbell, keeping the gen. Trucpas ol/ioiyas,
TYX&- Echo is the 'neighbour' of Pan
renders inroKeiTcu 'lies close to, i.e. keeps
(Moschus 6. 1), himself 6peff(nf}&T7is (0. following upon': and quotes Plat. Gorg.
T. 1100).For other conjectures, see
465 B T-ij /iiv oSv la.Tpi.KT)...T] 6\J/QTOUK^
Appendix.
KoKattela iiroKeircu: but that means,
'Cookery is a flattery which ranges under
d6vp6o-TO|j.os is not extant elsewhere.
Cp. Eur. Or. 903 arS/p T &$vp6y\waaos, medicine,' i.e., corresponds to it, as the
counterfeit
to the genuine art. And,
iayiav Spdirei. Ar. Ran. 838 %OVT'
aX&\u>ov Anpares adtipuTov aTopa. Theog- on any view of viroKeircu, the dat. is

<t>IAOKTHTHI
while the mountain nymph, babbling Echo, appearing afar,
makes answer to his bitter cries.
NE. Nought of this is a marvel to me. By heavenly
ordinance, if such as I may judge, those first sufferings came on
him from relentless Chryse; and the woes that now he bears,
with none to tend him, surely he bears by the providence of
some god, that so he should not bend against Troy the resistless
shafts divine,

needful.
For viraKovci, cp. Od. 4. 283
this less natural: and (b) a gen. after
(Helen was calling to the heroes in the
vidrifw. ought to denote the sufferer.
wooden horse; they were eager) T) efeXft-- Philoctetes was bitten by a serpent that
lievtu, 17 SvSoOev atij/' inraKovo-ai, 'to guarded the altar of the nymph Chryse,
come forth, or to answer promptly from
in the islet of the same name, near Lemwithin.' And ib. 10. 82 iroi.it.iva Toi/iiiv | nos: cp. 1326.w(i.6<j>povos, as cruelly
/)Tr6ei. eiVeXdaw, 6 84 T' efeXdux vva- punishing his intrusion. The Iliad (2.
Koiiei, 'herdsman hails herdsman as he
723) speaks of him as ?X/c /j.o%8^ovTa
drives in, and the other, as he drives
Ka.K$ 6\o6(ppovos vdpov. The relation of
forth, makes answer.' In classical prose,
Chryse to the gods is like that of Calypso
viraicoveiv more often means to 'respond' in the Odyssey. The Nymph can work
in the sense of 'comply.' But the pasher will on the mortal; but only so far
sages just cited prove that the word
as the higher powers permit.
was also familiar as = 'to speak in re1 9 6 OK &r8' US OV, SC. Trope?: for Cos
ply': nor was this latter sense confined
instead of the usual 6Vs, cp. Ant. 750
to poetry; cp. Arist. Top. 8. 11 (Berl. ed.
Ta.bri)v TOT' O6K ia9' ws eVt ><rav yaficls.
p. 157 b 14) ipomb/j.ei'oi ravavrla KO.1 TO iv This shows that we ought not to read oiyjc
dpxv TTOW&KIS vtr a K06over iv, diro- ZGTIV birois ov deCjv fj,e\T7] (omitting TOV).
Kflvovrat. (the word used previously in the
197 f. TOS |)...retvoi, 'inorder that
same passage).Other emendations of
he should not bend...' TOV /J is not to
uwoKeiTai are examined in the Appendix. be taken with /teX^ri; ('care to prevent
1 9 2 ff. 6Ca, predicate, 'from the
his bending'), but with the whole pregods': cp. 1039, :326-Koyw, I also (as
ceding sentence. This constr. occurs {a)
well as others): the KO.1 gives a modest after words of hindering, Xen. An. 3. 5.
tone; Ant.jiqn.Kai
T<i ira8rj|i. Ketva.
n 7rcts...d(T/c6s 5i;o dvdpas ei TOV fii) icaThe Mss. have TraB^fiar' iKfiva. Such TaSvvai: (b) where the notion of hinderan omission of the regular anapaestic
ing is not expressed, but only implied,
caesura is not very rare (cp. 1445, 1470),
as Thuc. 1. 23 T&S afrlas irpoiypa.\f/a...,
but is improbable here, where Keiva was
TOV /x/j Tiva fi/TT/o-af TTOTC ^f 8TOV TOSOVTOS
equally available. The KOX here = ' e'en': 7r6Xe/Aos...KaT^(TT77. I d . 2 . 22 KKKt)O'iav
its force is to mark that, from the very
OVK eTrotet..., TOV fj.^1 6pyTJ...i;vve\86vTa.s
beginning, his troubles were heaven-or{^a/xapretv. So, in affirmative sentences,
dained. This seems better than to take
TOV without /): id. 1. 4 T6 re XyariKbv
it as 'both,' answering to the KOX VVV in
...Ka0Tjpei..., TOV Tas vpoabdovs fidWov
195.rfjs w|i6(j>p. Xpvo-ns, gen. of source,
levai avrif.TIVOI...P4XT), point them,
with tTr'(3n. Such a simple gen. usu.
like sagittas tendere (Hor. C. 1. 29. 9):
denotes the place whence (O. 7'. 152 IIi;we need not suppose that a word proper
Oowos Zpas), but the idea of ' source' could to the bow ('stretch') is transferred to
easily be connected with a person also;
the arrows. T<ifl<3v,i.e., given by the
cp. 0. C. 1515 (TTpdipavTa. xt-Ps TV* dviKgods (cp. 140 Aids (SKTjicTpov), because the
ip-ov f}t\r). It is also possible to join
bow of Philoctetes was originally the
ira8ij|iaTa...Xpv(rr|s as 'sufferings ingift of Apollo to Heracles (Apollod. 1.
flicted by her': cp. 422 T& nelvwv KCKO., 4. 11 9). Cp. 943.
n.: but (a) the order of words renders

IO0OKAEOYI
irplv oS' i^rjKOL-)(p6vo<s,cp Xeyercu
Xprjval cr(f> viro TwvSe SafJLrjvat.
a-Tp. y. XO. evcrrofji l^e,

TTCU.

N E . ri roSe

2OO

XO.

TTpOV(f>dv7]

KTVTTOS,

<G)TOS

crvvTpo(j)o<; cos Teipofievov

TOV,

3yj TTOV Trjh' rj T^Se TOTTCDV.

4 ySaXXei /3aXXet JU,' erv/^a <f>0oyyd TOV cnlfiov /car'


dvdyKav
206
5 ipirovros, ovSe /xe \d9ev
6 fiapela TrjXodev avSd Tpvardvcop Sido~rjfi.a yap dpoeZ.
dvr. y.

dXX' e^e, TKVOV,

N E . Xey' o TI.

ve'as*
2 6J9 OUK ie8po<s, aXX' evTO-rros dvrjp,

XO.

<f>povTi&cvs

210

1 9 9 7rp!c 85' C|^KOI L, A, and most of the later MSS.: i^Ku V2, IKOI R. Schaefer
conj. 7rpiy b'd' i^Kri: Blaydes, Trph' av ^r/Kr}.
2OO xpvva-i r XPVV (from xpty) L.
2O1 After Trai Herm. (Retract, p. 4) proposed to add /toi, and, after TKVOV in 210,
5i}.
2O2 TT/)O^^)CI'7;] Tpovcpdvi}!. L.
2 O 3 <ri)>'T/)o0os] Wakefield conj. aiuSpoixos:
Blaydes, trv/j,p,erpos. <TOU> was added by Porson. Bergk conj. Teipofievoio.
2O4 ^ TOV L : ijrov r : ij irov Herm.Blaydes would write Tq.5' H) T$d'.
2O5

1 9 8 f. irplv...4|i]KOI,, not irplv av


eS<TTo/ia.
A r . Nub. 8 3 3 euirri/tei = ei<p-/i pel.TCTOSJ; 'what now?' So TITOVTO;
II^Kfi, although the tense of the principal
0. C. 513. Here, as in 210 f., the rapid
verb (Trove?, understood in v. 196) is
tribrachs mark excitement.irpou<f>a'vi):
primary, since a secondary tense is implied in the phrase &eun> TOV /icXery: i.e., cp. 189 rq\e(pavfis.
2 0 3 o-uvTpo(j>os; sharing his life, i.e.,
' he is suffering, because the gods ordained
constantly attending on him, habitual to
that he should suffer, until the time should
him: cp. Ai. 639 OVK^TI avvrpbtpois \ dpbe fulfilled,' etc. Cp. Dem. or. 22 i t
yais Ifiiredos, the dispositions that have
TOVTOV ^xeL Tv Tpbw
0 6 ' t
d^
grown with his growth,the promptings
T$ S-fifi,if : ' the law stands thus, that the of his own nature. Thuc. 2. 50 (the
plague) ^5i?\w<re...$X\o TL OV 7} TWV %WTphpeople might not even have the power':
<puv TI (the familiar maladies). Polyb.
where ' stands' (?xei) implies ' was made'
(MBri). -fivTp-cu would be regular there, 4 . 2O (T7}V flOV(TlK})p) <t6vTpO<pOV T0llV.
as Trplv af e|^K3 would be here: yet in The genit. ((JKDTOS), though less usual
both places the optat. is natural. The
than the dat., hardly requires us to view
speaker is tracing a present fact to a past
<rtivTpo<p'os as a subst. ('companion'): cp.
motive.XyeTai: the Trojan seer HelePlat. Phaed. 96 D ra O.VTUI> oUda, the
nus had said that Troy was to be taken
things appropriate to them.
by Philoctetes before the summer was
2 0 4 f. TJirov: cp. 215. Cavallin reads
over (1340).Tv8, rdv /SeXwp: cp. on r\ iron with a note of interrogation after
roia-de, 87.
T6TTUV : but they do not doubt that it
2O1 f. e<rTO(n.' i\i = <nya e x 6 : f r the comes from one of the two quarters.
TTJ8'...Tij8e: O. T. 857 n. The Attic
neut. pi. as adv., cp. 0. T. 883 n. Her. 2.
171 ra&rris.../wi. irtpi (TT)S Te\eri)s) evtrro- form seems warranted by the colloquial
fta KelaBw, i.e., 'it will be best to observe tone; then, with eVtfjua, we return to
silence.' Aelian De Nat. An, 14. 28 rd lyric Doricism. TOITCOV with rj5e: O. T.
108 TOV 777s;paXXet: the fuller phrase
ye Tap' i/wv lara irpbs atirovs (the gods)

*IAOKTHTHZ

43

till the time be fulfilled when, as men say, Troy is fated by


those shafts to fall.
rd
CH. Hush, peace, my son! NE. What now? CH. A s3rop
sound rose on the air, such as might haunt the lips of a man
in weary pain.From this point it came, I think,or this.
It smites, it smites indeed upon my earthe voice of one who
creeps painfully on his way; I cannot mistake that grievous
cry of human anguish from afar,its accents are too clear.

Then turn thee, O my son NE. Say, whither? CH. strophe!


to new counsels; for the man is not far off, but near;
eri/j.a r : erol/ia L. Seyffert, fru/t' d. Nauck, guided by L's reading, gives fU TOI
(instead of eri/ia) here, and in 214 dyporas instead of dy/Jo/Siras.
2O6 arl^ov L,
with A and most of the later MSS. : but a few have arifiov, as V and V2.
2O7
\&0u L : Xijflei r.
2O9 yap Opoel MSS., except those which (like T) have the
reading of Triclinius, Bpoety&p. Dindorf conj. yap 0p7)vel( 2i8yapS(iv&r). C p . 2 i 8 n .
2 11 22 (W;p] ai>i]p
L.L
m Ant.

1187 Kal /j.e <f>06yyos... | / 3 d \ \ Si'

wniv. So /3<\i/, simply, of smell, ib. 412.


iTvpa, real,not due to a hallucination
of the senses. Cp. Theocr. 15. 82 (with
ref. to painted figures), us h-vfi' iardKavn
Kai u>s Irvfi? hSivevvrt. ('move in the
dance'), j Z/iij/vx't OVK ivu<pavTa. Elsewhere the Attic fern, is ITV/MOS (Eur.
Helen. 351, Ar. Pax 114).
2 0 6 <rH|3ov...?fwrovTOs: cp. 1223: At.

wears one: cp. on 695 f. <?T6vov...[3apvfipwr'. This, however, seems very strained.
More probably the poet has boldly used
au5d rpwdvap as = avSd dvSpos rerpv/xfrov,
like alf&a dv$pb<pdopov for atfia dvdpbs <pdapfjAvov (Ant. 1022), xriiros dio^o\os for
KTOWOS dlov /SAous (O. C. 1463). C p . Ar.
Nub. \ii <f>ei8ti>\ov Kal Tpvirifilov yaarpos,

where rpvcr. seems to be pass., = Terpu/JUVOV f3lor ?x"T0S> rather than act. (as if
it imposed the hardships). 8ido-n|ia -ydp
287 e6dous ^pireiv Kevds.KCIT' dvotyKav,
Bpoet. This, the reading of the MSS.,
i.e., under stress of pain: cp. 215 vralav
VTT' dvdynas. Eur. Bacch. 88 iv uiSlvav | seems sound. As to the metre, see n.
on 218 (irpofioq. rt yap deivov).
Xox'O'S dvdynaicn.The reading orCpov
KCIT* dvaYKav would mean, ' with painful2 1 0 f. o\V i\(. In many editions
ness of movement,' arlfiov being then
XO. is printed before these words, prethe act of planting the steps (cp. 29, 157).
sumably to mark that they open the
This is tenable; but I prefer ertpov, be3rd antistrophe. But, as the part of the
cause (a) the phrase with ffrifiov seems a
Chorus is continuous from v. 202, a XO.
little forced, and (i) with the-gen. TOU...
here is confusing. It does not exist in L.
epTTovros the effect of an interposed gen. dXV, hortative, like, 'come, then.'
would be somewhat unpleasing.
?Xe...<j>povTC8as v^as: i.e. turn from thy
reflections on his hard lot (162168) to
2 0 7 ff. ovS^ |M Xd6ei: this reiteration
such thoughts as the moment of action
is natural, since the sound continues, and
demands. The effect of N.'s interpeldraws nearer. For the negative form
lation, Xy' 8 TI, is to mark excitement,
after the positive, cp. El. 222 IfoiS', ov
\dffei /j.' opyd, and ib. 131: //. 24. 563 and to bring out the reply with greater
Kal 8 <re yiyv&GKOi, Hplafj,e, <f>p<riv, ovdt force. See n. on O. C. 645.
/ue XiJSeis.Papeia, grievous, i.e., ex2 1 1 ff. OUK ^8pos: for they have
pressing pain; so Eur. Hipp. 791 r]x&
now learned that he has a permanent
papaa. Tpucrdviop should properly be
dwelling here (cp. 153)|io\irdv...?xv,
active, 'man-wearing,' like (pdiafyoip,
engaged in it; cp. Od. 24. 515 dperrjs
'man-destroying' (epith. of jr6Xe/tos, //.
nipt. Srjpi.v fx0VTes-(rvpiyyos:
cp. //.
2. 833). And so some understand ai!5ck
18. 525 (on the shield) S6ia 0' o/t' iirovra
rpvadvup as = a lament for a disease that
I
b
aipiyfy. Plat. Rep.

I04>0KAE0YI

44

3 ov /xoXnav crvpuyyos )(
4 ws TroL^av dypofioTas, dXX' r) vov nraCav vif
/cas
5 ^8oa rqKanrov l<odv,
6 77 i>aos devov avydtfiiv opfiov Trpofioa TI ya/3

dvdy215

<J>IAOKTHTHS.
rives ITOT es

/ca/c iroias irdrpas

220

2 1 3 ^oX7ra>'] /io\7r&s Triclinius.aipiyyos lxavl Blaydes conj. aipiyyi x^av2 1 4 TTOI/MJP L.aypofiaTas L : AypojioTas r. Cp. 205. Burges conj. aLyofSdras.
2 1 6 iwdx] Blaydes conj. Ivyav.
2 1 7 f. yoos] Blaydes conj. vavolv.
dJexoK aiyd fuc fyj/uw] Hermann conj. &!-evov bpi-iav | a^Ydfaif : so Bergk, but with
Spfiov.T4 7&p Seivoi' Wunder; y&p TI Seiv6v MSS. Reading Bpoei y&p in 209,
Herm. here gives wpofloq, 64 n Seivov. Blaydes, reading yd.p ffpoei in 209, here
adopts Lachmann's conj., irpo^of yd.p atkivov.
22O The readings of
the MSS. here are of three classes. (1) K&K irolas irdrpas, without indication of a

399 D \tipa b'l)ffot....KalKi0apa XetVerat,


Kal Kara Trb\iv xpMLlla' Kai a$ Kar'
dypoiis TOIS voiievai. aipiyl; an drj:a good
illustration of dypoftSras here. Theocr.

TijKairos is here applied to a sound heard


from afar. We cannot properly compare rrjKetpavris, said of the personified
Echo (189). In Aesch. Theb. 103 tcriirov
7. 27 tpavrl Tt) irAvres [ ovpiKTav Hfievcu
SiSopKa may imply the mental picture
pjy' inreipoxov (v re vopevaiv \ (v T' d/iijcalled up by the clash of arms, as Verrall
TripeGtTi. C p . aXvpos, a<t>6pf/.LKTOSy aiddapis, observes.
dxopos, as epithets of wailing, etc. (O. C.
2 1 7 vaos a|evov...6p(j.ov, ahavcn thai
1223 n.).iroijidv, not WOI/J.7JV, is surely has no ship for its guest: cp. O. C. 1383
required here, where in.6\vi.v precedes,
dir&Twp 4/iov, 'having no father in me':
and dypofibras, av&yKas, la&v follow.
and ib. 6"]"} n. a^evos is here the oppoCp. 0. C. 132, where L has ras eiffinov.
site of TroXtffo/os rather than of eflfevos.
d-ypop6Tas, h ayp$ /3<5<TKWC : cp. O. T. Thus vabs ai^evov is not less correct, while
1103 irXaxes aypovofwi, n. Philoctetes it is more forcible, than vavalv d%tvov
is returning from wild places to his
would be. The waters off the rock-bound
dwelling. This suggests the contrast
coast are a flpfios avoppos (cp. 302).
with a shepherd who, playing his pipe,
Others render, ' the inhospitable anchorcomes cheerily home from the 'otia dia
age of our ship,'which was not visible
pastorum.'
from the cave (cp. 467), but might have
been seen by Philoctetes from another
2 1 5 f. d W T( irov K.T.X. After 06
point. The sense seems, however, to
fioKvav i\av we ought to have had dXXct
...fioG>v: but a finite verb, P<MJ, takes the be:'his cry is caused, either by physical
pain, or by a feeling of despair as he
place of a second participle, as oft.: see
looks at the lonely sea.' The Chorus
n. on 0. C. 351.join vir* dva^Kas with
irraCwv rather than with fSo<j: the cw&yitT], have been dwelling on his two great
calamitiesdisease, and solitude (173 f.,
or stress of pain (206),from the ulcered
185 f.). In this closing strain, it is
foot which he drags after him (291),
natural that the two motives of their pity
causes him to stumble on the rough
ground.njWirAv Uodv, a cry heard from should be identified with the two sources
a distance. TTIXUTTOS = (1) 'of distant of his anguish.
aspect,' (u^,) i.e., 'seen afar': then (2)
irpopo(j TI yap Savov. Wunder thus
simply, ' distant,' though the object is transposes yap TI. It was hardly needful
not visible: Ai. 564 TT/jhwrbs olx^ei. It to defend the place of ydp by Eur. / . T.
is in this general sense of'distant' that
1036 (u7ro7rret5w TI yap) : cp. below,

<1>IAOKTHTHZ

45

not with music of the reed he cometh, like shepherd in the


pastures,no, but with far-sounding moan, as he stumbles, perchance, from stress of pain, or as he gazes on the haven that hath
no ship for guest: loud is his cry, and dread.
Enter PHILOCTETES, on the spectators' right.
O strangers!
Who may ye be, and from what country
variant: L, with many later MSS., as B, R, T, and K. (2) KO.K iroias Tdrpas, but
with indication of a variant: V 3 (14th cent.), yp. vavriXcp rXdr-ij. In V (13th cent.)
and L2 (14th cent.) the gloss appears, in a corrupted form, as vavrlXa K&T-Q rrj
TrXdrij Tpoa-op/utraTe [corrected to Tpoo-ii>p/j.io-aTe]. (3) vavrlXq) irXdry, without indication of a variant: A (13th cent.), Vat. (14th cent.). Most of the modern edd. give
vavriXip TXAT-Q. Nauck conj., KAK Tolas rtixqs: Wecklein (Ars Soph. em. 6) fed*
Tolas xQovbs: Seyffert, KOK Tolas ipopas: Cavallin, Kal Tola TrXdrrj. See comment.

1450 f. Heinrich Schmidt seems right


words fit the construction, he might think
in holding that Seivov here does not re- that the fault was in v. 220. The subquire BptiveX (for Spoet) in 209. Lach- stitute, vavrlXifi T\&TTI, might then be
mann's conjecture, Tpofioq. yap aXkivov, suggested by KOT&TXT' itself: cp. Ar.
hardly deserved to be adopted by Blaydes.
Ran. 1207 vavri\ij> irXdrj; | 'Apyos icaraSee Metrical Analysis.Hermann's view,
<JX&V (from the Archelaus of Eur.).
that in 209 Siao-qiia Bpoet yap should
Emendations not less arbitrary were
be read, as here, Tpofioij. Si n Seivov, in- sometimes made in early times: see, e.g.,
volves the arbitrary substitution of Si for
on 0. T. 134 and 1529. Next, suppose
yap. It would be obvious to suggest irpo- that vavriXy TrXdri; was the true reading.
j8o TI yap alvov, or Tpofiotj. yap iXeivov: It is clear and neat. To account for the
but neither is probable.
variant KO.K irolas vdrpas, we must then
suppose either (o) that a scribe wrote
210675 First iweuroSiov. Philocthose words by an oversight,his eye
tetes tells his story to Neoptolemus; who
having wandered to v. 222; which is
pretends that he has quarrelled with the
the less likely, since v. 222 did not give
Atreidae, and is sailing home. He prohim KO.K: or {/>) that, vavrtX<p TrXdry
mises to take Ph. with him. At this point
having been somehow lost, he filled the
the emissary of Odysseus (126) enters,
gap with a clumsy loan from v. 222.
disguised as the captain of a merchantNeither hypothesis seems so probable
ship. He says that the Greeks have sent
as that a double Tolas irdrpas should
men in pursuit of N . ; while Odysseus
have led to guess-work in v. 220. Anand Diomedes are coming to take Ph.
other point, though not a strong one, in
It is decided that N. and Ph. must sail
favour of Kan iroias T&rpas is that the two
at once; they then withdraw into Ph.'s
questions ('who, and whence?') are habicave.
tually combined in such inquiries: e.g.,
2 1 9 Id froi, 'extra metrum,' as 73ft
Eur. El. 779 xa'lPeT\ &ioi' rives \ iroda>
li> 6eol, O. T. 1468 Iff, wxaf, etc. Here
Topefacrff, iari T' CK Tolas x<"'s> Her.
lii is a cry of surprise. In 0. C. 822 to
I. 35 TLS re e&v /cat Ko6ev...riK(ttv '. id. 2.
f<W (within the verse) is a despairing
115 rls etri Kal OKoBev irXtoi: 4. 145 rives re
appeal ('Alas, friends...').
Kal bKoSev eltrt. On the other hand, we
2 2 0 KOK iroCas iraTpas. In judging
cannot insist on L's authority as against
between this reading and the variant
A's; for L has sometimes lost a true
vavi-CXcp irXdrn (see crit. n.), the probareading which A has kept (as in Ai. 28).
bilities of corruption must be carefully
But K.&.K volas Tarpas in v. 220 and
weighed. Suppose, first, that the poet
Tolas Tarpas in 222 cannot both be
wrote K&K iroias ir&rpas. A transcriber
wholly sound. The first Tarpas might
who found irotas ir&rpas in v. 222 might easily be corrected to x^ovbs (with Weckwell assume that there was a fault either
lein). It is slightly more probable, howthere or in v. 220 : and since in v. 222 the

46

ZO<t>OKAEOYI
KaTeo-^eT* OUT' evop[j.ov OUT' olKovfiiirqv;
Troias "fwaTpas dv ^ yivow; vfid<s TTOT
)(f " av ei/iroiv; a~)(yjfia
^j/ Jfjuev yap
yp itiAAaoos
0T0X77S virdp^i
Trpoo~<$>ikeo~TaTiq<; if
(facovfjs S' d/covcrat fiovkofiaL' Kal /U,TJ /X' OKI>O>

Seio-aires KTr\ayrJT drr^ypuoixevov,


dXX' otKTio-cwres dv8pa SvcrTrjvov, JJLOVOV,
eprjfiov wSe Ka<f>i\ov *KaKovpevov,
(jxovqo-aT, etvep (o<s <iXoi TrpooTJKere.
dXX' dvrafieLxjjacrff ou y a p ei/cos OUT' C/AC
v/xwv dfjiapTeiv TOVTO y ovff V^LO.% ifjiov.
NE. dXX', (5 ^ei'', io"#i TOUTO irpoiTOv, ovveKa
*EXX^ies icrfiev TOVTO yap /SouXet fxaOeiv.
<I>I. ft) (f>i\TaTov (ftcovrjfia' <f>ev TO Kal \aj3elv

225

230

2 2 2 Trdrpao th> ifiacr rj yipova L : Trdrpas V/J.S.S &v rj y&ovs A. Triclinius, Troias
TraTpas fti' rj yivovs irfias irore. Bergk and Schneidewin wrote irdrpas av dfj.as $
y^mvs: Dindorf gives av v/uis warplSos rj ydvovs. So Heimreich, but with irSKeos.
2 2 4 Nauck deletes this verse. To make it tolerable, he thinks, 70(05 for (rroXijs
would at least be necessary.
2 2 8 KO^>I.\OV\ Ka(pl\as Wecklein.KaKoti/ievov
Brunck: KaXoifievov MSS. Other conjectures are, naKoiixevoi (Meineke): K&Koiixevov
(Bergk): iXii/xfvov (with 7' prefixed, Toup; with K\ Erfurdt; with IM\ Wecklein):

ever, that the second Tarpas arose from


a verse like 101: or (2) that we should
the eye glancing back. Thus in Ant.
read 7ro(as av i/ias warpldos, with Dind.,
831 L has T6.KU (for ^7761), due to
who remarks that varpldos holds that place
raKOjiivav in 828. In v. 222 we might
in O. T. 641, 825, O. C. 428.
conjecture Tolas iroXtws.
(For iroXeois
2 2 3 f. TUXOIIJ.' d!v etrrcov, be right in
in the 2nd place of the senarius, cp. 0. T.
calling. Aesch. Ag. 1232 H viv raXowra
630.) The series of questions in vv. 220
$v<r<pi\ls B&KOS \ T&X.W' ""; S o Kvpw El.
ill would then correspond with the Ho663. For the doubled av, cp. O. T.
meric TU wdffev eh avSpGiv; rroffi. TOI TTOXIS
339 n . o ^ l " 1 K.T.\.
The sense is,
iJS^ TOKrjes; (Od. 1. 170.)
CX^M" <TTOX?JS {nrapx^t 'EXXijvi/coV, wpocreiP
sc
2 2 1 KOTe'trxer'. Karix
( - rav",
tptXtaraTOv ifwl.
But, instead of that,
though vrjt is sometimes added) els rbirov we have o^ni" 1 uirdpx tl ( x W 'EXXctis the usu. prose constr., but poets use
Sos OTOXTJS, and the epithet (irpo<r<pi\e'crTaalso a simple ace, as Eur. Helen. 1206
TOP) which would more naturally go with
JTOSOTTAS S' 88' avfyp Kal rroffev (caT&rxe
trx^^a, is joined to <TTOX^$ :'the fashion
ytf; The difference between K<XT{X<>> ard
is> t o begin with, (inrapxei.,) that of
xpmr^xw (236) is like that between ' t o
Hellenic garb,the garb which I love
put into harbour' and to 'touch a t ' ; i.e.,
best.' The <rxvi*a (habitus) denotes the
the latter implies a further destination;
general 'fashion,' or effect to the eye;
the former does not necessarily imply it,
<TTOXJ) 'BXXOS refers to the actual garments
though it does not exclude it (cp. 270).
distinctive of Hellenes, such as XITCJK and
2 2 2 On the grounds given i n n . on 220,
iixm-iov. Cp. Eur. fr. 479 TevffpdvTiov Bi
I conjecture iroXews instead of irrfrpas.
axv^a Mvffios XSOPO'S (the fashion of garb
But this does not affect the question of
worn by the people of Teuthrania in
metre. It is more probable that, with
Mysia). In Eur. / . T. 246 rroiarrol\
Triclinius, we ought simply to place i/ms
rlvos yr)s 6vo/i' lxownv
' &VM > Monk
after 76WS than (1) that Soph, wrote
conjectured GXVI*' f r Svop.'.Nauck reiroZas irdrpat (or iroXeus) fyuis o^, K.T.X.,
jects this verse, because the hero loves

<HAOKTHTHZ

47

have ye put into this land, that is harbourless and desolate ?


What should I deem to be your city or your race ?
The fashion of your garb is Greek,most welcome to my
sight,but I fain would hear your speech: and do not shrink
from me in fear, or be scared by my wild looks; nay, in pity
for one so wretched and so lonely, for a sufferer so desolate
and so friendless, speak to me, if indeed ye have come as
friends.Oh, answer! 'Tis not meet that I should fail of this, at
least, from you, or ye from me.
NE. Then know this first, good Sir, that we are Greeks,
since thou art fain to learn that.
PH. O well-loved sound! Ah, that I should indeed be
Karii/jLevov (Faehse): wapaiiivov (Reiske): iriaKoiiievov (Bentley): KOX <pCKui> TIJTC4nevov (Seyffert): xciiXotf/teyov (Wakefield).
23O avTayAtyaaS'} L has /3e
(meaning, aiva/xelfieaSe) written over \p by S.
2 3 1 TOVT6 y'] rovdt y'
Wunder.
2 3 4 TO KO.1 XajSeiy] Reiske conj. T6 p.' ou \afieiv : Blaydes, rb /xi; Xafjeiv.

the land, not the clothes, of Hellas; and


because he cannot yet be sure that these
Greeks are friends.

as (1) pass., 'called,'explained by


Blomfield as being here little more than
6i>ra: or (2) midd., ' invoking' you.
Soph, once uses the midd., O.C. 1385
2 2 5 f. OKVU) K.T.\.
It seems simplest
and best to construe thus: nai /J.TJ ficvif (dpas) as <roi Ka\ovfj.ai: but here the obKir\ayrjT, Selaavrts /j.e aTijypLwp.&ov (cp.scurity would be extreme.
Eur. /. A. 1535 TapfHovaa rX^faay KaKire- 23O f. dXV, appealing, 'nay' (O.C.
irKriyiiivTi (pot#); though iKirXayiJTc could237 n.).v|ia>v d|MipTtv TOUTO 7', lit., to
directly govern p.e (El. 1045 oub~h eiarXa.- be disappointed, in regard to this, on
yelaa. ae). In 0. C. 1625ffTTJatu0dj3(() your part. The gen. ii|xwv is not condelaavras eal(j>vqs Tpl%as, the dat. is causalstrued directly with afiaprecy (as though
('through fear'): in Tr. 176, <po^ijj...Tap- 'to fail of you' meant 'to be repulsed by
ftovaav, it has an adverb, force ('sorely
you'), but is like the gen. in 0. T. 580
afraid'; cp. 0. T. 65).
irdvr' tftov KOfjdfercu ('from me'), ib. 1163
dirr]7pu>)|J^vov, made like to an dypios, iSe^dfiTjv 8 TOV. The ace. TOVTO, again,
is
not directly governed by a/iapreiy, but
or wild man: cp. the description of Philocis analogous to the ace. of pronouns or
tetes, as Diomedes and Odysseus found
him at Lemnos, in Quintus Smyrnaeus 9. adjectives which can stand, almost adverbially, after Tvyx&vu and Kvpw, as
364 ff.: ava\4at 64 01 a/JL<pl K6/J.CLI irepl Kparl
^
I 0i7/>ds6Vws<5Xoo?o... | Kai olirav Aesch. Ch. 711 rvyxdvav ra wpha<)>opa.:
pro 8/J.as, irepl 8' oaTia /xoucov | pivbssee O. T. 1298 n. In L the reviser has
6X07? 5 TrapTjtdas a/j.tpxvr' a^X/^^ written els TOUTO over TOUTO, showing that
y ' pinroavros. Attius Phil. fr. 14 he understood it thus. Cp. Eupolis fr. 25
quod te obsecro, aspernabilem ne haec Xy' 6V<w 'wiBviJ.eis, KoiSiv aTuxrfcreis
i/iou (so Meineke, with Priscian 18.
taetritudo mea me inculta faxit. Cp.
1175, who has KOX oiSiv. though Bekker
Tennyson, Enoch Arden: 'Downward
Anecd. 462 gives oi yap). Thus Wunder's
from his mountain gorge | Stept the longchange
of TOVT6 y' to TOV& y' seems
hair'd long-bearded solitary, | Brown,
needless, though the double gen. could
looking hardly human, strangely clad'...
be illustrated by 1315 (cp. O.C. 1170 n.),
2 2 8 KaKov|uvov, suffering hardship.
and the phrase by Eur. Med. 867 ou ran
Cp. Eur. Helen. 268 irp&s BeCbv KaKOvrai
a/J.apTOLS Toudt y\ dXX' aKotitrofiai.
(he suffers reverses). Plat. Legg. 932 D
TSIV KanoivTOiv 17 KaKov/dviw, those who 2 3 2 dXX', in assent: 48 n.oiivca=
inflict or who suffer injury. This is a oTi: Ant. 63 n.
certain correction of the vulg. KOXOV2 3 4 f. <|>e5, expressing joyful wonder:
(MVOV, which cannot be defended either
Ar. Av. 1724 <t>tu (peu T-rjt (Spas, rod

IO<f>OKAEOYI

48

TOIOUS' dvSpos iv xpovw

235

TV<S or', a) TKVOV, Trpocrecr^e, TIS irpocrrjyayev

NE.

<I>I.

NE.
<&I.

v p e t a ; TIS opunn ; TIS dveaeov 6 <AIXT<XTOS;


yiyave ju,ot irav rova, OTTWS etocu TIS ei.
eyoi yews fJ-ev ei/u 7-775 ireptppinov
"SiKvpov irkew S' es OIKOV avSafiai Se ira
'A^tXXecos, Neo7rToXeju,os. oTo~8a ST) TO rrav.
w (jyukTaTov irai wa/rpos, w <^tX^s ydovo<;,
at TOV ye/ooiros Opifj^ia AvKOfJujSovs, T'IVI
OTOXW Trpocrecrves TijvSe y*}v, TroOev rrkiwv ;
e 'IXIOU Tot 877 Tavvv ye vavcrTokca.
7T(WS etTras; ou yap 8?) <ru y ' rjo~6a vav/Sartis
KaT* dp^TjV

240

245

TOV 7T/DOS *IXtOI' CTToXoU.

2 3 6 ris a', a rinvov, irpociaxe] For rls IT', Wakefield conj. W a'. For px
tt
fa <r' iirefupe
Blaydes conjj
/ S/ ^^ , ppfa,
fp (omitting
( g t h e <r' after rls),), or
l Ci
i
6
N
Nauck,
ris, & TIKPOV, ae riX/ia. Cavallin, rl%
Civ irpoaicrx^t
TS Trpoa-f/yayh

K&WOVS.TO Kal Xaf&iv, 'that I should


e'en, really, have'received....' Cp. Eur.

(ive/ws), avi/iwv 6 ^iXraros (iSv); the art.


emphasises the superl.: see n. on Ant.
Med. 1051 dXXct Tijs $/ITJS K&KTIS, | T6 ical 100 T6 K&WKTTOV .. .TWV Tportpwv 0dos.
irpoataBai fiaXBaKois \6yovs cppevl ('nay,
7^Y<ov, imperat. of the perf. yiywva, of
which the subjunct. yeydivia occurs O. C.
out upon my cowardice,that I should
213 (n.).SITUS I8(3 without Si>, as Ant.
e'en have admitted such soft pleadings to
my soul!'). Xen. Cyr. 2. 2. 3 eftre irpbs
776, At. 6, etc.: O. C. 889 X<?fa0', us
airrbv Trjs Tix"0$, rb e/xt vvv KK-qdivTa ei'SS T6 wav.
Sevpo Tvxeiv ('to think that...!').TOIOVS'
2 3 9 Y^vos, ace. of respect: El. 706
dvopis, not merely a Greek, but one of
Kivihv y4vos: fr. 61. 3 K&pyelo: yivos.
such gentle breeding as is announced by
Verg. Aen. 8. 114 Qui genus (sc. estis) ?
the stranger's mien and speech. i v
SKvpov: for the gen., cp. O. T. 236 n.
Xpovw p.aKpi3, after i t : cp. Eur. Phoen.
Scyros (still Skyro), the small island, about
305 XP^""f av ^ M a lM>piai.s iv afxipait \ 25 miles long from N.w. to s.E., which
irpoa-eldov : O. C. 88 n.
lies about 35 miles E. of Euboea, nearly
in the latitude of Trachis. In 469 B.C.
2 3 6 irpo<r&rx has been much suspected, because Tpo<r4x<, in its nautical Cimon expelled the predatory Dolopes
from the island, and brought the reputed
use, means, 'touch a t ' a place, not,
remains of Theseus to Athens. Scyros
'cause one to touch at it.' But irpoathen
became a possession of the Athe^x<", as = ' t o u c h at,' meant properly, ' t o
nians, in whose estimation it was a dreary
guide one's ship towards' (Her. 9. 99
irpoffcrxbvTes rhs vias),vavv being com- and insignificant little place ([Dem.] or.
52 9 ) :'Zicvplaapxi suggested the same
monly understood. Where prose, then,
The
would say, Tivos XPTlfa1' "7>0ff&rx (rty idea as vacuis aedilis Ulubris.
name means 'stony.' <r/ci5/>os (6), which
vavv); poetry might surely say, T/S x/>e(a
Curtius connects with %tieiv ' t o scrape,'
npoataxe *; ' what need guided thy
was used to denote 'chips from hewn
course to land ?' It may be added that
stones' (XaTtffl-ij). At Cyrene the <TKVirpooTiYCfyev is itself an argument for irpo<rpuri] 656s (Pind. P. 5. 93) was not a
&rxe. 'Brought thee to this shore,aye,
' p a v e d ' road, but a road ' h e w n ' out of
brought thee to m'y side.' irpoaiaxe imthe solid rock.Cp. Apollodorus 3. 13.
plies only a passing visit to the coast;
8
: 'Thetis, in the foreknowledge that
Tpoa^iyaye supplements it in a way
Achilles must perish if he went to the
suitable to the forlorn man's eager hope.
war, disguised him in woman's attire, and
2 3 7 f. TIS dvl|uov 6 <|>C\Ta.TOS; = rls

<t>IAOKTHTHI

49

greeted by such a man, after so long a time ! What quest, my


son, hath drawn thee towards these shores, and to this spot ?
What enterprise ? What kindliest of winds ? Speak, tell me
all, that I may know who thou art.
NE. My birthplace is the seagirt Scyros; I am sailing
homeward; Achilles was my sire ; my name is Neoptolemus:
thou know'st all.
PH. O son of well-loved father and dear land, foster-child
of aged Lycomedes, on what errand hast thou touched this
coast ? Whence art thou sailing ?
NE. Well, it is from Ilium that I hold my present course.
PH. What ? Thou wast not, certainly, our shipmate at
the beginning of the voyage to Ilium.
ae, vaT.
2 3 7 TU d^/tow] rlu O" avtuuv L.
2 4 1 oTtjda 5-f; r, oUO' #Sij L.
2 4 2 c3 0\?js] u V <t>i\i)s Blaydes.
2 4 5 e 'IXiou TOC\ Burges conj. e 'Wlov 'y&>.
57) Tavvv Buttmann: dij TO. VVV (sic) L.
2 4 6 ov yap Si)] In L the ist hand wrote
ov 5T) yap. The Sri has been erased, and, as there was not room to insert it between
yap and ai y', it has been written immediately over yap by S. Several of the later
left him, as a girl, in Scyros. There he
grew up, and married Deidameia (Ar/i'Sd/ieia) daughter of Lycomedes [king of
Scyros]; and a son was born to them,
Pyrrhus, afterwards called Neoptolemus.'
2 4 1 Noirro\|j.os: - ~ ~ ~ : cp. 411.
oio"8a 811 TO irdv: cp. 389: 1240: Ant.
402

TOUT

eTt'uTTOATCU, n .

2 4 2 & <f>C\t]s \8ovos, O thou (who


belongest to) a dear land. The possessive
gen. can thus be used, without a subst.,
just as the gen. of origin (a special form
of the possessive) is so used, Ant. 379 <2
5i<TTT)vos I Kal dvffrfyov irarp6s.

W e can-

not well repeat irat with a 0iXr/s x^"^si


because, though classical idiom allowed
7ra?Ses 'EW-rjyiav, it would hardly allow
7T<us 'EXXdSos in the fig. sense, ' a son of
Greece.' That would mean rather, 'a boy
belonging to Greece' (cp. 'EXXdSos veavlai, Eur. / . A. 52). It seems needless to
write <S 'K <pi\nis xSocis.
2 4 3 f. 0pe'|J.|J.a AVKO|UJ8OVS, because
the infant Neoptolemus was left to the care
of his maternal grandfather, Lycomedes
(239 n.), after his father had gone to
Troy. Cp. //. 19. 326 (Achilles speaks)
8s Xidpifi

/ioi (vi

Tpi<peraL (j>l\os vl6s.

In O. T. 1143 9pi)ip.a= 'foster-son.'


<rr6\<p (causal dat.), mission, errand:
0. C ' 3 5 8 TS a' i^ijpev olnodev CTT6XOS;

irpo<r6rxs.. .Ynv- The usual dative would


be awkward here, on account of Hn <TT6Xifj; and the ace. is warranted by the
analogy of Karix> "PF as = Kari%a eh yr\v

J. S. IV.

(221 n.): cp. 355 f. In Polyb. 2. 9. 2


4 5 ((Q \4fi)
/fi)
pX

^ 'E
\iniva, Bekker is probably right
in adding irpbs before rbv.After 77)1/ a
comma seems better than a note of interrogation: cp. T(S trbdtv eh, etc. (220
n.).
2 4 5 IJ 'I\.ov TOI 8^ K.T.X. Here TOI
= 'you must know,' and 8r| = 'then' (i.e.,
'since you ask me'). The effect of the
particles (which could be properly represented only by voice and manner) is to
give an easy, ready tone to the answer.
Cp. n. on 0. T. 1171 (though the tone
there is somewhat different) Kelvov y( TOI.
ST] irats iK\jj^e6'. Burges thinks that TOW
Si], without a preceding ye, is strange,
and conjectures 'ya 81). But rot and drj
have each their proper force, which does
not depend on ye: and here a ye before
TOI would have over-emphasised 'IXi'ou.
2 4 6 f. ov -yap 8T) a-6 y : (How can
you be coming from Troy?),for you certainly did not go there with us at first.
For this use of oi yap 5rj...ye in rejecting
an alternative supposition, see O. C. n o
n.The order of the words almost compels us to join KttT* ap\ijv TOCO-TOXOU:
cp. Plat. Legg. 664 E Kar' apxas rdv \6yoiv. Then r)a$a vavfSarqs (cp. 1027)
i)iuv (dat. of interest) = 'sailedst in our
fleet.' But it would also be possible to
join pai)/Sd77)s with roC OT6XOU (partitive
gen., cp. 73), taking /car' apxfy as = 'originally.'

IO*OKAEOYI
NE.
<&I.
NB.
3>I.

r) yap fJLereo~)(e<; Kal O~U rouSe row TTOVOV ;


w TEKVOV, ov yap olcrOd fi ovriv' eicropas j
7T<W5 y a p /caroiS' ov y eiSov ouSeTrcoTrore ;
ouS' ovofju ap' ouSe T W e//,e3i' KaKMV (cXeo
rjcrOov ITOT ovSev, ol<s iya> 8
N E . ws [j.y)8ev etSoV LO~6L fi &>v
<&J. <3 TTOXX' ey<w fio^diqpo^,
S
/
ov ju/^Se KXTJSWV WS' e^ovros oi/caSe
/ATJS' 'EXXaSos yrjs fJ.rjSafji.ov SurjXde ^
aAA. ot fi,ev eKpakovre's avocrtws e/^e
ye\c3(Ti crty' )(OVT<;, rj 8' e/x/>) vocro?
aet Tedr/Xe Kairl fieitpv Ip^erat.
w TeKvov, d) Tral vaTpos i '

2 50

255

260

MSS. have 01) y&p without 8rj.


2 4 9 oXaBi, /i' L: offfffa 7' r.
25O tv 7'] 7'
was omitted by Triclinius. Hence it is absent from T, and from other Triclinian
MSS., as R; also from the ed. of Turnebus, who followed T (see O. C, Introd.,
p. liv.). The Aldine, based on A, retains 7', and so Brunck.
2 5 1 ovb' 6vo/i'
ovSi L, with most of the later MSS.: oiS' oSvon' A. Erfurdt's insertion of ap' has

2 4 8 ^ ydp in eager question: 322,


654, 0. C. 64.irovov, of warfare, the
peculiarly Homeric use (as //. 11. 601

was merely a late attempt to mend the


metre.Ph. here asks, in effect: 'Find
ing me, a lonely sufferer, here in Lemnos,
cannot you guess who I am?'and the
elcrop&uiv T6VOV aliriiv IWK& re daKpv6e<T<rap)y
also freq. in Herod. (9. 27 tv roTtrt Tpoil'- youth answers, No. This is quite conKoiai. irbvouji): cp. Eur. Cycl. 107 i%
sistent with 261, where Ph. assumes that
'TKlov re Kawb TpwiVfiv irovwv.
his name, when announced, will be re2 4 9 f. ov vdp...; As in fi -yap (248) cognised. Neoptolemus might have heard
and 7TWS yap (250), the -yap marks sur- of him as possessing the bow of Heracles
(262), and yet not have heard of him as
prise ('your words are strange, for...'
etc.).ottr0o...K(iTOi.8', as Ant. 1063 f. suffering on Lemnos. We could not join
t<rdt....K&Ti(T0t; El. 922 HA. oix oTirfl' Sxot 6vo/t,a, a s = ' mention,' with KaitiZv.8iu\yijs ovS' &Troi yvwfxt)S <f>4pet. XP. Truis 5'\V|IT]V, all these ten years, while my former
comrades have been active at Troy.
o i l iyib K&roid' a y' elSov tiMpavuis;
ir<3s...KaToiS'; 'how do I know?'='of
2 5 3 ?o~0i |M us |xr)8iv ciSoV, rest
course I do not know.' This form is assured that I know nothing. <&s marks
more emphatic, because more direct, than the mental point of view ('regard me in
jrios Bv ^6TJ ( o r cldeii)v), o r Truis <=fiK\ov
the light of one who knows nothing'):
elShai; But it is rare except in affirmation distinguish this use of it from that in 117
(i.e., with 7rfis 0 i...), as in El. 1. c.; Xen.
(n.). p.r)8iv is generic (170 n.), not due
Oecon. 18 3 TOVTO [J.v ottrda...Tt S' OVK,
to the imperat.: cp. 415; Ant. 1063 &>%
$4>r)v eytl), olda; See, however, Her. 1. 75 fir] '/roXij<rG' tffOi T7)v i^v
<ppiva. For
KQS yhp...$itf$riaa.v airov; ( = ' h o w can
<os cp. also below, 567 : 0. T. 848.

they have crossed the river?').


2 5 1 f. ovo|x' dp is better than 6vo/id 7'

2 5 4 ir6XX',adv., 'very': O.C. isi4n.


iriKpds: schol. ixOpos. Cp. Eur. Phoen.

(cp. fr. 315 v/teis /xh> oiK dp' fare T&V

Q55 (a soothsayer) iju /tin i%6pa a-riii.-fivas


T^xVt I 7rtKp6s tcadeerrix' oh av oltovoffKo-

Jlpo/iijdia;). The variant otiS' ofro/i'


might seem to favour ov TOIIVO|JI*, but the
latter (without apa) would be too abrupt:
ovS* is clearly genuine.- More probably
oCro/t' (a form unknown to Tragedy)

iTTJ,' odious.' Hence the conject. orvyvos


(Nauck) is wholly needless. The active
sense, 'hostile,' is mora freq., as Ai. 1359
VVV (pi\oi KaWtS TLKpoi.

<t>IAOKTHTHS

NE. Hadst thou, indeed, a part in that emprise ?


PH. O my son, then thou know'st not who is before thee ?
NE. HOW should I know one whom I have never seen
before ?
PH. Then thou hast not even heard my name, or any
rumour of those miseries by which I was perishing ?
NE. Be assured that I know nothing of what thou askest.
PH. O wretched indeed that I am, O abhorred of heaven,
that no word of this my plight should have won its way to
my home, or to any home of Greeks! No, the men who
wickedly cast me out keep their secret and laugh, while my
plague still rejoices in its strength, and grows to more !
O
my son, O boy whose father was Achilles,
been generally approved.
0O6"

Bothe conj. ai8' 6vo/j.a 7': Martin, ov TO0KOJU': Blaydes,

6vofia Toujude ov' e/j.wi> KaKwv kkias.

253

dviGTOpels] an 'urTope'ur L .

2 5 5 f. Nauck brackets uS' lx<"'T0S---yys> so as to leave one v., oB /xijSt KXIJSCIW


fjLT]8a[j.od SL^\0^ TTOV.For M1?^' 'EXXdSoy, Herm. reads fj.rj6i'E\\ddos, with the Aldine.
For irov, Blaydes gives TTW (conjecturing also [i,7i8aij.oT...woT). For di7j\$4 vov, Nauck
2 5 5 f. o3 |U]8^ K.T.\., a man of whom
lav (i>8a{ = of) xpjifo^ec.ITO should prob.
be read instead of irov. The long lapse
no report (the generic M^I I7on.).oftcaSe,
of time imagined renders TTW forcible;
to Malis (4 n.),where the tidings would
have had a special interest: 1*118' ' E W a while TTOV could mean only, ' I ween'; it
80s 7js |U)8a|Jiov, nor in any part of Helcould not go with /j.r]5a/j.oS as = 'to no
las (for the gen., cp. 204 rySe roirwv n.). place whatsoever.' In 0. C. 1370, where
irw is certain, L has trou from the first
As Neoptolemus is coming from Troy,
the words have more force if we suppose hand. In fr. 465, again, \oy<ji yap ?X/cos
the poet to use 'EXXds in the larger sense
ovStv oTdd TTOV rvxeiv, the correction wai
which was so familiar in his own day,
(Dindorf) is clearly right.
as including all lands inhabited by Greeks.
2 5 8 f. o-ty ?xovres, i.e., saying noThus the 'BXXds of Her. comprises Ionia
thing about Ph. 's fate, but allowing it to
(1. 92) and Sicily (7. 157); and Soph,
pass out of men's minds. Cp. Ai. 954 rj
himself (7>. 1060) has ov0' 'EXXAs OUT'
pa KeXaivibirav
dvfibv <pvflpi.fL
ktiX
dy\u)<T<To$. The thought will then be,avfip, I ye\q. 5e rotffde
i x a i
'he had not heard of me from the mainTTOXIV yi\ura.T8T]\6:
El. 26
land of Greece before he left Scyros; nor
OdWovra fxdWov rj Karatpdivovd' opw.
has he heard of me, since he has been at
Kdirl |xetov ?PXTOI: cp. 0. T. 638 {06) ,irj
Troy, from any part of the Greek world.'
TO /j,7]8iv 11X705 els ixiy' otaere; Thuc. 1.
It is no objection, of course, that the Ho118 iirl /jjya ix^PV^"-" Svva/ieuis: 4. 117
meric poems do not recognise the Greek
iwl /aeifo>' xwMcaKTos avroO (when he had
colonies in Asia Minor; the Attic drama
made further progress).
was not careful in such matters. Even,
26O ff. qj: cp. 910: Ant. 193 valhowever, if we restricted'EXXdSos yrjs to
Suiv run air' OiUwov, n.08' et|i' kya <roi
Greece Proper, it would still be natural
(ethic dat.) Ketvos: cp. El. 665 ^Se 0-01
that Ph. should say, 'neither to Malis,
KehiT) w&pa.: O.C. 138 6'5' iKeivos yi!>, n.
nor to any part of Greece.' Nauck, thus
xXveis, pres., knowest by hearsay: cp.
limiting'EXXds, pronounces the distinction
591 : 0. T. 305 d Kai /J.T] K\ieis T&>V dyytunmeaning; he further objects to <S8' ?xov\wv'. O. C. 792 6V(fJ7re/) KCLK ffa<pe<TTpoiv
TOS (because Ph. means that, not merely
KK-IIW.T<3v'Hp....oirXa>v: the bow given
his plight, but his existence, is unknown); by Apollo to Heracles, and by him to
and therefore rejects u3' Hx<>VTs oticade |Ph., as a reward for kindling the pyre
/iijS' 'EXXdSos 77)5.|IT)8OHOS need not be on Oeta : cp. 198 n., 670 n.8<nroTt)V :
changed to fnjdafj.oi: cp. 0. C. 1019 65o0 cp. Aesch. Th. 27 ToiQsvSe Se<nr6Tijs nav...TTJS itce? ( = e/ce?<re): El. 1099 oSoiiropov-

TCV/J-ATUV. SO dominus.

42

20*0KAE0YI

52

08' etfi iyco croi Kelvos, ov /cXueis icrois


TCOV 'Hpa/cXeutw ovra SecnroTrjv OTTXCOV,
6 TOV IIoiaVTOS 770(1? $>Ck0KTrjTr)<S, OV 61
8LO~O~OI o~TpaT7jyol va5 Ke^xxXXipow avat;
ippixjjav ato-^pws wo epr^fjiov, dyptq.

f6

^ ^
dypiw
yapayiuxTf
rj ft eKetvoi, TTGU, vpodevres
ivddSe
' epr)fj,ov, rjVLK e/c vrjs Troirias
/ j
Karicr^ov Sevpo vavj3d.Tr) CTTOXW.
TOT' acr/xevoi /A' WS etoov e/c TTOXXOI; craXou
S ' eV aKTrjs iv KaTiqpefal *ATreTpa,

^ ,

265

js dv8po<f>66pov

270

f p p

p j TTpodivrts jSaia Kai TI Kal jiopd<s


iTT0)(f>\.7)[ia O-flLKp6l>, 6V aVTOLS TU^Ol.

2 75

proposes SrfXvBep, or
r SifjXSe
5IT)X0 yrp.
2 6 4 2 6 9 R. Prinz, suspecting an interpola:hese si
six vv. to three, viz., Siaaol (TTpa.Triyol...&va | trk-r\yivT\..
tion, would reduce these
K T S oiVxpws,
V * * '7 i o"T/as | .
2 6 5 ayplrf^ Wakefield
d
V
Xpyp
|2
2 6 6 rrfi is due to J. Auratus (who proposed 8ev8po<p$6pov): rrjtrS'
conj. aff\iq..

2 6 3 f. Sv ot: for the art. at the end


of the v., see on Ant. 409 rj nareixe rbv |
vtKvv.\co Kt<()aXXi]Viov dvaj: cp. //. 1.
63 [ airap 'OSvaaetis rjye KeipaWijvas /j,eyaOifiovs: who are there described as
inhabiting Ithaca, Zacynthus, Samos
( = Cephallenia, first so called in Her.
9. 28), and other islands off the coast of
Acarnania, as well as part of the mainland itself. So Od. 24. 378 (Laertes) Ke(paXMiveffinv avaaaav. Buttmann thinks
that both here and in 791 (iS ve Ke0aXXif)
the name is used scornfully. Its Homeric
associations, at least, are honourable (cp.
//. 4. 330, Ke^aXXijcwj' a/iupi orixes O6K
aXaTaSval). To assume that the Cephallenians were despised because the
Taphii, their neighbours, were pirates
(Od. 15. 427), seems a little unfair to
them. But it is very likely that the name
is used, if not with scorn, yet with a tone
of dislike,'king of those crafty islanders.'
The Athenians had experienced
the skill of Cephallenians in laying a
deadly ambuscade (Thuc. 1. 33).
2 6 5 ayptq. is followed by d-ypo> in
167. The effect is certainly unpleasing.
But with regard to such repetitions it

must always be remembered that ancient


poetry was far less fastidious than modern:
see n. on 88 (irpdatreiv). On the other
hand, Eustathius, the witness for <|>oivC<j>
in 267 (cp. cr. n.), was frequently loose in
citation: see Ant., append., p. 249. The
recurrence of ipi\\Mv in 269 offends less,
but is noteworthy. It is not surprising
that interpolation should have been suspected. Three views have been held.
(1) Prinz would reduce vv. 264269 to
three (see crit. note). This reconstruction is too violent to be probable. (2)
Nauck would omit the words fyjij/ttw,
tiyplq. I v6aip KaracpBivovra. But fiV $
in 268 confirms vbay. it could not refer
to i%\.hvqs. And fiV if would hardly have
become {flv rj. (3) A. Jacob proposed to
omit vv. 26870. This would obviate
the repetition of Ipij^ov, and of (fxovr'
(273); but it would also suppress the
notice of Chryse; which, however, Ph.
would naturally mention, as he supposes
that the whole story is new to the youth.
I believe that there has been no interpolation, though Soph, has written with
some verbal negligence. The point of
vv. 264267 is the putting ashore (Ip-

cMAOKTHTHI

S3

behold, I am he of whom haply thou hast heard as lord of the


bow of Heracles,I am the son of Poeas, Philoctetes, whom the
two chieftains and the Cephallenian king foully cast upon this
solitude, when I was wasting with a fierce disease, stricken
down by the furious bite of the destroying serpent; with that
plague for sole companion, O my son, those men put me out
here, and were gone,when from sea-girt Chryse they touched
at this coast with their fleet. Glad, then, when they saw me
asleepafter much tossing on the wavesin the shelter of a
cave upon the shore, they abandoned me,first putting out a
few rags,good enough for such a wretch,and a scanty dole
of food withal:may Heaven give them the like !
MSS. The conject. of Musgrave, T5' (to
3 6 7 aypiif MSS.: (pou>l<p Schneidewin,
<p~ avion x&pzyt"1'
2 6 8 wpoBivres]
MSS.: eur/ievoy Dindorf.
2 7 2 wtrpa

pi\)/ai>): that of 268270, the desertion

agree with voaq), is received by Seyffert.


from Eustath. Opusc. 324, 60 TO TTJS txi&vqs
Tournier conj. TrpoSivres.
2 7 1 aa/ievoi
Blaydes: irirpiji MSS.

rough passage from the islet of Chryse to


Lemnos (see on 8 ff.). Cp. Ant. 150 ex
...ToXi/xav: ib. 163 iro\\$ <rd\tp adaav2 6 6 f. Ti]S...lxC8vr|S,
that
which
res.
guards Chryse's shrine (1327). The definite art. is sufficiently natural, as Ph. is
Ka-rnpec|>H, roofed over, i.e., here,
following the train of his own memories,
over-arching,forming a cave; cp. Ant.
even if he supposes that N . has not
885 n.ireVp^, ' a rock,' is a necessary
heard of the txl$"a before (cp. 255).
correction of irTpo), 'a stone.' Trirpos is
Xapd-y|ia.Ti, the rent left by the serpent's
never used in the larger sense, nor could
bite: cp. Anacreontea 26 irvpbs x^Pay^'
the epithet here justify such a use. Cp.
(brand of fire,on horses) : [Eur.] Rhes.
Xen. An. 4, 3. n kv ircrpq. avrpw73 VQTOV xapax@eh (wounded).
Set: but ib. 7. 12 ouSels irtrpos
{i.e.,
none of the \Woi mentioned in 10) avw2 6 8 ff. vv $, referring to x6<r<j>,
^ ^
'in company with' it, = $ !-w6i>Ta, cp. 0
j x V
1022: O.T. 17 aiv yr)pa jiapeU.#x0VT'
2 7 3 ff. ola, adv., = us, cp. 293, O. T.
would properly follow Jpi)|iov, but gains
751: <jxTi Sva-|i6pa>, as for some poor
emphasis by coming first; for the irreguwretch, some beggar, for whom their
lar order of words, cp. O. T. 1251 n.
least gifts were good enough. Cp. Ar.
Tijs ITOVTCOS XpiS<rT]s, the small island
Ach. 424 d \ V y\ ^CKoKTf]TQV ret TOU TTTOJnear Lemnos (see n. on 8 ff., and Introd.).
%oO \iyeis;
(sc. p'&Kij). Not, ' r a g s such
Ka/Wirxov: 221 n.
as my wretched state required' (i.e. for
2 7 1 f. a<r|j.voi, because they could
dressing his wound, cp. 39).KaC n Kal:
now slip away without being vexed by
cp. 308 : fr. 304 Kal Sri TL KO.1 wape'tica r&v
his entreaties and reproaches. The word
aprvjitLTav. T h u c . 1. 107 Kal TI (adv.)
adds an effective touch to the picture of
KOX TOV Sf)jj.ov KaTaMaeais viroipia : id. 2.
their heartlessness. Dindorf's do-(j.evov
17 KO.1 TL Kal Xi.vdi.Kov /tavTelov d/cpore\et/(received by Nauck and Blaydes) is far
TIOV : Pind. 0. 1. 28 Kai wot TI (adv.) Kal
weaker; nor is it suitable. In Lys. or. 1
ppoTwv 0dns K.T.X.popds: to avoid the
13 eKaBeuSov aa/iievos means, ' I gladly pollution of directly causing his death by
went to sleep' (inchoative imperf.). Here,
starvation : cp. on Ant. 775 ipopfirjs TO<Showever, &rrp.evov elidovra would mean, OVTOV UJS ayos \i.6vov irpoOels.of auTOts
not 'gladly going to sleep,' but 'gladly
T&x ot: C P' 315: Xen. An. 3. 2. 3 o(o/j,ai
sleeping,' as though with conscious
yap av rj/xd^ TotauTa iradeiv ola Toits 4x~
satisfaction.4K iroWoJ o-oXou, after the
dpOVS 01 deol TTOlT}<TUaV.

((foW).

IO*OKAEOYI

54

crv 817, T4KVOV, noia.v JJL dvdaracrLV


avTuv fiefiiaTGJv i vwvov (TTrjvai Tore;
Trot' ii<8aKpv(rGU, iroV aVoi/xtofai /ca/ca;
opaivTOL jxkv vavs, a s exuiv ivavcrrokovv,
Tracras 0e/3a>cras, dvSpa 8' ouSeV ZVTOTTOV,
ov^ ocrrts dpicdcreiev, ovS' ocrris vocrov
KO.[WOVTI crvWdftoiTO'
waivTa Se CTKOTTWV
rjvptcTKov ouSeV TTX^V dvidcrdau napov,
TOVTOV Se 770X^7)1' evfidpetav,

a> TCKVOV.

6 /Jikv xpovos S17 Sid )(povov irpovftaLve


/caSei r i y8ata 777S' VTTO cniyrj fjuovov

'

280

/JLOL,

285

yacrrpX ph> rd <TV/jL<f>opa

2 7 6 <ri Srj\ Kvicala conj. 08 drf. Blaydes writes Kai IXT]V.


2 7 8 Burges conj. iroi'
ov datcpuvai', irota 5' olfxHo^ai KO.KO.', (ircua fj.' ol/xw^ai r.) F o r KaKa Nauck conj. narT]V.
2 8 1 i>6ffov L, with most of the MSS.: vbtxov or v6<rq r.
2 8 2 o-v/ipdWoiTo L, with
the first X partly erased, and XXa,8oiro written above by S.
2 8 3 eiipuncov L: cp.
3
05
288.
2 8 5 x/ '"'s &h A : XP^
'" L. Wecklein conj. xp^"05 y l "''^"^

2 7 6 f. <ri 81^ (which has been needoix bpg. oCTii ipKitrig: (i) after a secondary,
lessly altered, see cr. n.) suits the earnest
oix iiipa otrris apaiaeie. And here bpuvra
appeal: ' try to imagine for yourself what
(279) = 8TC eilipwv. In Attic practice,
I felt.'dvocrTao-iv, cogn. ace. with
however, this optative is rare, except
<rrr\va.\. as = di/a<?T?jvcu (cp. O.T. 50 orapwhen the principal verb is an optative
res T is.ipdbv).
with av: as Ar. Ran. 96 yovifwv di iroit)TT)v av oix evpou ? I tiT&v a", Sans
2 7 8 irot' eKSaKpva-ai (d&Kpva): c p .
Eur. Ph. 1344 &<rr' iicSa.Kpvcra.1 7 ' (burst p7j[j.a yevvaiov Xd/cot. The ordinary construction was with the fut. indie, which
into tears).iroi' diroi.(j,(3gai Kaicd, ' what
was usually retained (instead of becoming
woes I lamented.' This version is recomfut. optat.) even after a secondary tense;
mended (a) by the fact that the following
verses develope a picture of the K<IK&: (6) as if here we had dp/c&rei, cruXX^i/'erai.
Cp., however, O. T. 72 {bvaalixrjv), 1257
by the ordinary use of diroijitufeu' with an
(KX'): Ant. 1^1 (Tpd^aifiev).
ace. of the object deplored, as Ant. 1224:
Eur. Med. 31: Ale. 635, 768: Aesch. fr.
vocrov Kd|xvovTi o-uXXdpoiTO. put a
134. But another version is also possible:
helping hand to the disease, i.e., help
'shrieked out reproaches.'1 Here, howto lighten its burden, for me in my
ever, he is speaking rather of his misery
suffering. As \afif}avo/j.a.i Tu>os = to lay
than of his resentment.
hold on a thing, so crvWa^dvo^ai TIVOS
nvi=to lay hold on it along with another
2 7 9 f. opwvTa vavs J*^v j8e/3w<ras, dvSpa
Sk K.T.\.: cp. 1136 bpv /iiv alcrxp&s dwd- person; i.e., to help him with it. Eur.
ras, GTvyvbv Si (pur' ^x^8o?rdi'. In both Med. 946 (TuXX^i/'o^at di rouSe uoi Kdyk
irbvov. Thuc. 4. 47 i;vveka.fiovTo Si
passages the irregular place of ixiv is due
TOV Toioirov oix vK^raj
they mainly
to the writer having begun as if he intended to repeat the partic. of 6pdu>: as contributed to such a result. Cp. id.
4. 10 oi vvapa.[jLvoi ToOSe rod KtvSOvov.
here, opQvra fj.tv vavs.. .bp&vra. bk avdpa.
TTOVTO Sk (TKOirwv: Si here = dX\d: Ant.
Cp. 0. 2] 25 (pdivoviTa /xiv...cpdlvovpa
85 n.
S', n .
2 8 1 f. ovx 6'0-Tis dpK&raev. The di2 8 3 f. ir\i)v dvidirSai: forthe absence
rect question is, ris ap/day; (deliberative,
of the art., cp. 0. C. 608 n.: Antiphanes
or 'interrogative,' subjunct). The indifr. incert. 51 naraXdweB' oiSiv erepov rj
rect question is, (a) after a primary tense,
TtdvqKivai. 7rapov: cp. El. 959 trdpvsn

<t>IAOKTHTHI

55

Think now, my son, think what a waking was mine, when


they had gone, and I rose from sleep that day! What bitter
tears started from mine eyes,what miseries were those that I
bewailed when I saw that the ships with which I had sailed
were all gone, and that there was no man in the place,not one
to help, not one to ease the burden of the sickness that vexed
me,when, looking all around, I could find no provision, save
for anguishbut of that a plenteous store, my son !
So time went on for me, season by season ; and, alone in
this narrow house, I was fain to meet each want by mine own
service. For hunger's needs
Xpt>vov\ Nauck conj. dia TSVOV. Blaydes writes, 6 /nb> xpvov wovs &l ftjaSus
fioi.
2 8 6 KaSei. TL]
Weckleing gives eSei re( (ed. i88r).
In his Ar
pptip
]
)
(
osed KCI S-q n /3cua ri}5' ixb artyr) fi' edct (omitting /x6vov).
/x6vov)
Soph, emend. (1869)
he proposed
paig. r: |8ai?? L.
2 8 7 aifupopd] I. G. Patakis conj. Hififierpa : Nauck, irpotr-

fiiv ffT&eiv [ ... ] TapeffTt 5' dXyelv. Mus(i.e. a new month began). Render, then,
grave cp. Hor. Sat. 2. 5. 68 invenietque
'Time went on for me, season by season'
Nil sibi legatum praeter plorare suisque.
Cp. Tennyson, Enoch Arden: 'Thus
a!|j.dpaav, ease (704), hence, abundance. over Enoch's early-silvering head | The
Cp. Aesch. fr. 237 KOVTTO) ris 'A/cratw^' sunny and rainy seasons came and went [
ddijpos ijfiipa. I Ktvov, irbvov ITXOVTOVVT', Year after year.'Ellendt, rightly starting
lire/iif/ev oiKade. The author of the ' Let- from the sense of Sid XPVOV a s 'after an
ters of Phalaris' had this passage in mind,
interval,' wrongly explains it here as
Ep. 33 (Schaefer) kSi]kaaev &n irdvrav
simply tarde, 'pausenweise': i.e. 'time
cvSects eari irXty Xi.fj.ov KO.1 (pofiov TOJJTWV
went on with many a pause': as if, to
Si [cp. TOVTOV h\ here] vfj,as KOX Xlav ei> Philoctetes, time seemed, at moments,
fiotpeiv \v. I. euwopetv],
to stand still. The error here consists
2 8 5 6 fiiv xpovos Si[ Stdxpovou K.T.X. in excepting the intervals denoted by
Sib. xpovov from the whole progress deThe text has been boldly altered by some
scribed by vpoHfiaive.Not: ' time kept
editors (see cr. n.), in order to get rid of
vo
dia XP<>VOV'- but the iteration is itself a moving on through time': as if 6 xp *
were
the
moving
point,
while
Sib.
xpo"ov
proof of soundness. Such iteration is condenoted its course.For irpoiipcuve, cp.
stantly employed in expressing a succesHer. 3. 53 TOV XPVOV TrpofiaLvovTosl Lys.
sion of seasons or periods; 'day by day',
ITOS ds ITOS (Ant. 340), irap' it/Map Tjixipa or. 1 11 TTpoiovTos Si rod xpo'ov.
(Ai. 475), Mod. Gr. XPVO "^ XPPO ('year
2 8 6 f. Ka8a TI. The sense of TI here
after year'), truditur dies die (Hor. Carm. is nearly %Ka.a~Tov rt, just as ns sometimes
2. 18. 15), etc. The phrase Sid xpovou
= e/ca<rrds TIS (Thuc. 1. 40 TOV$ fu/i/iaxous
regularly means, 'after an interval of
avrov TWO. KoXafeiv); a sense which the
time': cp. 758: Lys. or. 1 12 afffiivq
impf. ?8ei brings out, by implying sucfj.e etopaKvta TJKOVTa Sia xpo^ov'. Xen. Cyr.
cessive needs at successive moments.
VOV
1. 4. 28 ifjKa Sib. XP - So, here, o
Pcua, of size, as Aesch. Pers. 447 y^iros...
Xpovos irpoiipaiW (101, time was ever
I paiA.
moving on for me, 8ict ^povov, as (each)
SuiKoveurScu, midd.: schol. i/iavrip
space of time was left behind. (The
i%vin)perel(rffai. That the midd. would
' each' is implied in the imperfect irpoiS- suggest, to an Attic ear, ' serving oneself,'
/Sawe, which denotes not a single admay be inferred from Plat. Legg. 763 A
vance, but a series of advances.) SupSiaKovovvrts re KOLI diaKovotifxevoi iavrols,
pose that the interval denoted by Sta
'serving (the State), and serving themXpovov is a month. 'One month having selves' (cp. Ar. Ach. 1017 airif SmKovelelapsed' (Bib. xpopouas each month
TIU). In later Greek, however, the midd.
came to an end), ' time kept moving on'
is sometimes no more than the act.; e.g.

56
ToS'

ir)VpL(TK,

TCtS VTTOTTTepoVS

TreXetas" irpos Se TOV8\ O /ACH /SaXoi


S) a.Tpa.KTO<s, auros av raXas
fjv,

SvcrTTjvov

i^dXKcov

os TOUT' ai^1 et r ' eSet TI zeal TTOTOV Xafielv,


/cat Trou irdyov ^v^eWos, ola ^etyxan,
ijvkov r t dpavcrcLL, ravr' dv e^epnoiv TaXas
ifxrjxavafji'rjv etra TTU/3 av ou irapyjv,
aXX' ei' TrirpoKJi Ttirpov iKTpifScov /AOXIS
e ^ z ; ' a^avTov

290

TTOSO.

295

<$>><;, o /cat cr<wei //,' aet.

oiKovfjieur) yap ovv cnyr\ irvpos fjuera


vdvT eKiropitjei irXrjv TO firj vocrelv i/xe.
<j>ep\ d> T4KVOV, VVV KOA TO TTJS

wjaov

300

0p
2 8 8 Qeipurxe r: eiipuTKe L.
2flO The schol. on 702 substitutes 7ro<ri>'
for raXas in quoting this verse; but he also omits avrbs, thus showing how carelessly
he quoted.
2 9 1 Siicm/cos MSS. (so, too, the schol. on 702, and Suidas s. v.
drpaKTOs) : SiGrqvov Canter.
2 9 2 Trpbs TOVT' dv e{ r' ISei] L has a point after
TroSa in 291, but none after irpbs TOUT' dv. And so Wakefield would write, iroSa.
irpbs TOUT1 av et ft' [for et T'] i:det. Blaydes gives, wpbs TOVT1 dv. elr' 5ei K.T.X., with

Lucian Philops. 35
\nrt\piTd KOX arrow: Tr. 714: Thuc. 4. 40, where a
B '
i)
Laconian uses it, and Thuc. explains it
2 8 8 iiroirr^povs is perh. meant here by TOV O'USTOV. Aesch. adds the qualifying
to suggest 'shy' (and therefore hard to
epithet ro^uctf (fr. 135).avT<5s, having
no dog to fetch it.
shoot); for the word often implies 'taking
wing': cp. Eur. Helen. 1236 /xeBl^ni j/el2 9 1 f. ct\v6|j.'nv (cp. 702), 'crawl';
KOS rb <FOV, troi 5' viroTTepov: id. fr. 424cp. Plat. Tim. 92 Aairoda...Kal l\v<nr<J)tiei>a
vTr6irTpos 5' 6 T\OVTOS. SO Ai. 139 ire- iirl yijs. The word suggests that each
(pofirmai., I TTTI)VT)S c!>s fyijua 7rcXcas.
step with the sound foot is followed by a
slight halt, while the other foot is dragged
2 8 9 f. 8 (ioi pdXoi.: for the optat. reafter it. Thus the notion is different from
ferring to an indefinite number of acts in
that of elXtwodes (/3oCs), where a 'rolling'
past time, cp. Lys. or. 23 3 ovs re efeupl(TKO{.iMAeKe\iti>v,eTrvv6av6ii.i}v: Xen. gait
Cyr.is meant. Cp. on 163. A cornelian
intaglio in the Berlin collection shows
5. 3. 55 o5s /life Uoi.,...-qpiliTa.
Philoctetes thus dXvofievos, with the help
vtupoo-iraSrjs, ' with drawn string,' i.e.,
of a stick in his left hand, while the right
' drawn back along with the string.' The
holds his bow and quiver; the left foot is
epithet pictures the moment of taking
the wounded one. (Milani, Mito di Filotaim, and thus suggests, though it does
not literally express, the idea, ' sped from 4ete p. 78: see Introd.) It is clear from
215 (irraiow) and 894 (6/>0c6cret) that the
the string.' Not, 'drawing the string
poet imagines him as striving to walk
back' (by the pressure of the notch).
Cp. Ant. 1216 apfj.bi'...\i8o(nra.57}, an erect, and not as creeping prone, with
the knee of the sound leg against the
opening made by dragging stones away;
where the adj. implies \iffav iffrraj/j.^ixiii', ground.civ with the iterative impf. in
apodosis, after optat. in protasis, as oft.:
as here the adj. implies dwb vevpas
cp. Isocr. or. 6 52 TOV irapekBovTa xpoVoi/,
i
el...eh /j.6vos AaKedatfj,ovl<ov ^oTjd^jixeiev,
arpaKTOS. If the d be for d/x0 (as
iiirb TT&VTUV av &/j.o\oyeiTo ('it used to be
Curtius suggests, comparing a-/3o\os,
cloak), the word meant,' what turns (Tpeir) allowed') 7rapa TOVTOV yev4<rdcu TT]V <rwTfipiap auToTs. Cp. 294 f.8uo"Tt]vov, as
round'; hence (1) spindle; then (1) shaft,

<t>IAOKTHTHZ

57
this bow provided, bringing down the winged doves ; and, whatever my string-sped shaft might strike, I, hapless one, would
crawl to it myself, trailing my wretched foot just so far; or if,
again, water had to be fetched,or if (when the frost was out,
perchance, as oft in winter) a bit of fire-wood had to be broken,
I would creep forth, poor wretch, and manage it. Then fire
would be lacking; but by rubbing stone on stone I would at
last draw forth the hidden spark ; and this it is that keeps life in
me from day to day. Indeed, a roof over my head, and fire
therewith, gives all that I wantsave release from my disease.
Come now, my son, thou must learn what manner of isle this is.
a point (and not merely a comma) after dpavcrai in 294.
2 8 3 Nauck would delete
this v., and read {.ffkov re for fiiXoc TI in 294.
2 9 6 iKTpifiuiv A: eicBXifiiiip L, with
rpi written over #Xi by the first corrector (S). A few of the later MSS. (L2, Vat. b, K)
have indXiflLiiv, but most of them agree with A. Blaydes conj. evrpifiwv, or av
rpifiuv.
2 9 9 ifii] Nauck conj. In : Gernhard, TOO: Blaydes, fiovov: Burges,
(for voaeiv i^e") votrif irovetv.
3OO TO rrjs vt\aov\ Linwood conj. ret T9\S vqcov.
/j.6.6ris L, with A and most of the others. /jjiSt (R, V2) may have been a mere
conjecture; T and a few mote have /*<x0ois. Burges, Nauck, Wecklein and Cavallin

1377 Sv&rrivip TTOSI.!'\K<OV: cp. Eur. fire by striking a piece of iron pyrites
Phoen. 303 y^ipf^ rpofiephv XKW TTOSOJ fiatnv. with a piece of quartz (instead of flint);
irpAs TOVT' dv: for the repetition of OK,
the Alaskans of North America, and the
cp. 223 n.: that of irpbs TOVTO emphasises Aleutian islanders (in the North Pacific),
the limit of the painful effort.
use two pieces of quartz, smeared with
native sulphur. (M. Elie Reclus, in
2 9 3 f. ird-yov \D8^VTOS: cp. Tr. 853
Encycl. Brit., art. 'Fire.') lierpCpwv
Kixvrai vbaos, 'hath spread abroad'
might, however, cover the case of a slant(through his frame). Attius, Prometheus
fr. 1 profusus gelus. Psalm cxlvii. 16 : ing or scraping blow. In Lucian Ver.
Hist, r. 32 TO. irvpeca (rvvrplxpavres refers to
' He giveth snow like wool: he scattereth
rubbing sticks together.2<|>T)V' d<|>avTOV
the hoar-frost like ashes. He casteth
<j>s, made the invisible light visible, i.e.
forth his ice like morsels.'ota: 273 n.
drew the spark forth from its hiding
Nauck would delete this verse, because it
place in the stone. Cp. Ai. 647 (Time)
is unreasonable that the hero should delay
0!/et
T ' a 517 X a KCLI <paveyra KptiirreTcu.
providing himself with firewood until the
Blaydes compares Synesius Ep. 138 <nrivfrost has set in.i\ov TI. Lemnos is
Bijpa Kenpvui/Arw KaX ayaTrQivra \av66.vei.v.
now almost devoid of wood, save for a
Verg. G. 1. 135 Ut silicis venis abstrusum
few plane-trees in the water-courses, and
excuderet ignem.d(j>avTov could hardly
a little undergrowth.For dv with iterabe, ' barely seen,' as if the sense were that
tive impf., cp. on 291 f.
the feeble spark instantly vanished again.
2 9 6 f. Iv ircTpouri iriTpov. For the
2 9 8 f. olKovjxt'vr] yap o8v, ' for inchange of quantity, cp. 827 (iixce): 0. C.
deed...': cp. Ant. 489 n. Remark oSv
442 ol rod irarpbs TI} rarpl: ib. 883 dp'
ovx O^pis r&d';Oflpis: Ant. 1310 f. 5ei- in the thesis of the 3rd foot; so 5q (O.C.
23), and even irep (ib. 896).|M has been
Xcuos...SeihaLq.: El. 148 a "ITVV, alev
*ITVI> 6Xo0i5peroi. tKTpCpwv, rubbing hard suspected. But it serves to qualify the
general sentiment by a reference to his
(K=' thoroughly,' i.e. till the spark comes).
The v. I. iicBXlfiuv would mean, 'pressing' special circumstances:' shelter and fire
give all that a man needsexcept, in
or 'squeezing,' and is unsuitable. Cp.
Xen. Cyr. 2. 2. 15 CK ye aov irvp...paov av my case, health.'
TLS eKTpl\j/eiev
The
3OO <j>^pt...[J.a8T]S, L's reading, prepj
j yrj y\u)Ta e^ay&yoiTO.
^yy
l suggest concussion
sents an unexampled construction. Elseuse of two stones would
where the subjunctive after (pipe occurs
rather than friction. The Eskimos kindle

58

I04>0KAE0YI
ov yap TIS op/Mos iariv, ouS' 07701 nkewv
ie[nro\ri(rei. /cepSos, 17 ijevoio-erai.
OVK ivddS" ol TTXOI TOLCTL arci(f>pocrw fipoTcov.
r a ^ ' ovv TIS a/c<wv eo^e- TTOXXO, ya/3 raSe
iv rw paKpto yevoir av dvdpoincov xpova>.
OVTOL fju, OTOLV /AoXwcriv, w TIKVOV, Xoyois
eXeoutrt jueV, K<U TTOU r t

305

KCU fiopa<; fJ.epo<s

irpocreSocrav OLKTipavTes, yj TLVOL crTokrjv


e/ceu'o 8' ouSeis, 77V1V av yLvrjcrdu), Odkei,
crtucrat /x' es oucous, dXX' a7roXXv/x,at raXas
eros TOS' 178^ Se'/carov > XI/AW re /cal
i fiocTKow TrjV d8r)(j>(iyov vocrov.

310

are among those who adopt iwjOe. Seyffert gives Kav.../w.ffou.


3O4 Bergk and
Herwerden suspect this v.<r(b<ppo(nv~\ aii<f>po<n L.
3O5 rax* ofe] Hermann conj.
:
Ta%' " " Campbell, /car' 08cTLS] TI<T L.
3O6 av, omitted by the ist hand
only in the first person, sing., as 1452, Ar. absence of a safe 8puos is compatible with
Nub. 787 <pkp' tdu: or plur., as id. Vesp. the existence of Xi/iives (936 n.); and Philoctetes knows only the coast near his
1516 (pipe vvv...^vyx^p^(T0i)iev. On the
other hand, rj>4p' dwi occurs eight times cave. If the Iliad calls Lemnos ivKTijiivq
in Soph. (433: O.T. 390, 536, 1142: (21. 40), it also calls it d/ii^aXoeiro-a (24.
753)> which was probably understood in
Ant. 534: El. 310, 376: Tr. 890). In
Her. 4. 127 <j>ipere, roirovs avevpbvrm antiquity as 'inhospitable' (/tfyiw/u); though
crvyxiew ireipairOe airoiis, the 2nd verb is a modern view connects it with fux~-.
imperat., not subj. If <p4pe...tiA.8r)S bedfilx^y, (our mist,) as = 'smoky,' i.e., volcanic. In the time of Sophocles, Lemnos
retained, it can be defended only as an
irregular equivalent for ipipe...cppa<Tw or possessed two towns,Hephaestia, on
the like (cp. Her. 2. 14 (pipe di vvv Kal the N. coast, of which the site has lately
been identified by Conze (Reise auf den
avroiffi. AlyvTrrioun (is ?x <pp&<ru).
Aeg. Inselri); and Myrina, now Kastro,
Several recent editors (see cr. n.) cut
on the w. coast. There was once an
the knot by reading |id8e. It is, however,
excellent harbour at Hephaestia; there
improbable that, if jio8 had been the
still is one at Kastro, the present seat of
genuine readinggiving so plain a contrade. Good anchorage is also afforded
structionit would have been corrupted
by a deep bay on the N. coast (now 'Purto the unparalleled |MX6T|S. A more atnia'), and by another on the s. (now
tractive conjecture is Seyffert's K<IV...
'Mudros').
(J.d0ois- If KOV had once become KaV (a
most easy change), then pdBois might
ouS' oirot ir\&ov: nor (is there a place),
have been altered to (J.CL8T)S by a postsailing to which, IjjtpiroX^o-ci Ke'pSos, a
classical corrector. For the optat. with
man shall sell off his wares at a profit.
av in courteous proposal or request, cp.
Ther.e is no ip.vopi.ov. The ace. nipdos
674 : El. 637 KMOIS hv r/Sr).
seems to be 'cognate' ( = Kepda\4av efe^irb\Ti<nv), rather than objective (as if ic/tir.
TO Trjs vijcrov, its case, condition: cp.
Thuc. 8- 89 OVK iSoKei y-bvifiav TO Trjs meant, 'achieve by trading'): cp. Her.
6\iyapxtas lo-e<r0ai: Plat. Legg. 712 D TO 1. 1 i^efj.To\7j/j.ivoiv (Ion.) o~<pi axedov
yh.p Tthv e(p6poiv...TvpavvtKov...yiyove : id. v&vrav: cp. Ant. 1036 i^qixv6kqp.ai n.
Gorg. 450 c TO TTJs TixvTjs: Eur. Ale. 785 (We cannot compare Tr. 92 TO 7' e5 j
irpaao-eiv... icipdos ifj.iro\q., ' brings in' gain.)
T6 T-iJs Tiix^s. Hence T& is a needless
The subject to ^e/iurbXiJo-et is TIS, easily
conjecture.
supplied from vavfidrys (301).
3O2 f. ov yap TIS 5p(J.os iirrlv. The

<J>IAOKTHTHZ

59

No mariner approaches it by choice; there is no anchorage;


there is no sea-port where he can find a gainful market or a kindly
welcome. This is not a place to which prudent men make voyages.
Well, suppose that some one has put in against his will; such
things may oft happen in the long course of a man's life. These
visitors, when they come, have compassionate words for me ; and
perchance, moved by pity, they give me a little food, or some
raiment: but there is one thing that no one will do, when I
speak of it,take me safe home; no, this is now the tenth year
that I am wearing out my wretched days, in hunger and in misery,
feeding the plague that is never sated with my flesh.
in L, has been added by S.cu/Bptbirwv]
3O8 Kal irov] K&TTOV L.
avdpilnrtp.

Schubert conj. dvBptbirots: Blaydes,


3 1 3 KaKo'urC] Wecklein conj. Karoun:

life; cp. Ani. 461 et 5e rod XPVOV I


irpovOev Bavovixai, 'before my natural
term'. Cp. Her. 1. 32 iv yd.p T /j.aKp(f
Xpovip TroXXa fikv <TTI Idetv rk /MTTJ TLS
TroWh 5e Kal Tddeiv. is yap @8oiriiiireiv TJTISTOUT'iper Kal irapiffrai TOIS
Irea oSpov rijs fo'ijs dv6pilnr<jj
irpayiiauiv.
fii. Id. 5. 9 yevoiTO 8' av way kv
pf XP<1'"1>- A reminiscence of these
3 0 4 ivBoiS' = Sevpo'. cp. 256 fiTjdafiov f
phrases may have been in the poet's
n.irXot: this nom. pi. occurs also in
mind.
Xen. An. 5. 7. 7 raXoi ir\oi: the dat. pi.

6V<oo-Tai, pass.: cp. 48 n. In Lycophron 92 this form is fut. midd. There


is no class, example of Sjevufffoo/iou
For the fut. indie, in a relative clause of
purpose, cp. Dem. or. 1 2 wpwfidav

in Antiphon

or. 5 83 TTXOIS.

In L's

o-otypoo-i the omission of the v <?0eXwariKov is doubtless a mere error; though


Soph, sometimes lengthens 1 before /3/> or
/3\ in compounds (Ant. 336, O.C. 996 n.).
pporwv: cp. 0. C. 279 irpbs Toy ei5<r/3^

3O7
definite

ff. OUTOI referring to the inTIS (305) : cp. Ant. 709 OSTOI

referring to OVTIS in 707 (n.).Xoyois


\>i)(ri...<HKTCpavTs. As a general rule,
i\eetv = ' to show pity or mercy in a c t ' ;
oLKripeiy, ' to feel pity.' Thus Dem. or.
fipOTWV.
28 20 trt&rare, iXe^aare. [Dem.] or.
57 45 ^Xeot^r' dv...diKcuorepov T\ irpoa3 0 5 f. Tax' ^V Tts...lo"xe: 'perhaps,
uiroXkioivTo. Lys. or. 31 19 oh eVepoi
indeed, some one has put in'. oSy has a
5i56yat 7rap' eavr&y TL (i.e. iXeeiy) Tporjconcessive force; cp. 1306 d\V oiy n.
pouyro, 5ta rj\v dwoplav oiKTlpavres
When r&xa stands without In, it usu. =
'quickly ' : but cp. Plat. Legg. 711 A i>,as avrois. See Heinrich Schmidt, Synonyhk r a ^ a ovhk rediacrde Tvpavvov^Avqy iro- mik der griechischen Sprache, vol. III. pp.
577 ff.Kalirov TI : see on 274.oroXtjv:
\iv (where rax' &v is impossible). Here
cp. 223 f. n.Kivo...9eXei sc. iroiTjaat.:
the force of Td%a is, ' I grant that visitors
cp. 100 n.
have come now and then; let us suppose
such a moment.''i<r\e = 7rpo(T(Txe' appu3 1 1 ff. o-ucaC |i ESOHKOVS: cp. Aesch.
lit: Thuc. 6. 62 ftrx" " '1/J.epav. Cp.
Pers. 737 wp&s TJireipov <reow0ai: Ant.
221, 236.iroXXA ^dp K.T.X.: 'for such
189 n.Iv Xi(iw rt Kal KaKouri. Some
things (viz., such necessities as &KWV im- critics suspect Ka.Kol<n as not distinctive
plies) are likely to occur often (iroWd.
enough (see cr. n.); but it can surely
predicative adj., here practically equiv. to
denote those ' hardships' of his life which
the adv.) in the long course of human
were superadded to the Xipos and the
life.' Now and again in the course of
VOITOS. For Kai at the end of the v., cp.
his lifetime, a sailor might be driven
0. T. 267, 1234.POO-KWV : cp. 1167.
to seek shelter even on such a coast as
d8T)ij)d'yov: so 7 hia.$bp<f. 745 ftpi/co/tat.
that of Lemnos. 6 pa/cpos avdpilnrwv
The coVos is personified, as in 759 by
Xpovos is the long term of man's normal

60

ZO0OKAEOYI
r

Arpetocu fx rj T Oovcrcrews p i a ,
SeSpa/cacr'* of 'O\uju,moi #eol
V TTOT' aurois avriTroiv ifiov iraOetv.
loiKa #cdya> rots d^iy/oieVots icra
eVois iiroLKrCpew ere, IIoiavTos TKVOV.
eyw Se Kauros TotcrSe [ulpTvs iv Xoyois
GJS etcr' d\r)deis olSa, avvTv^ayv KCLKCHV
dvSpcov 'ArpeiSoiv rrjs T 'OSucrcrews yStas.
77 y a p TI Kal crv rois ira.v(n\46poi% exeis
ly/c\ijju,' 'ArpeiSais, wcrre OvyuovaOai va0<6v;
0V[JL6V yivono X61/3'1 ^X^pwcrai rrore,
' a t MuK^vai yvotev 7^ ^TrdpTrj 0' o n
S
dBS
OKKC[J,O)V fnjTrjp i(f>v.
eu y , w TCKVOV TLVOS ydp (SSe
SSe TO^ f fieyav
YOXOV
X /car'' aurali'
l iiyKakav iXtfd
iXtfXvdas;
ci Trai IIoia^Tos, iepci), /AoXts S' e/3<u,
aywy' OTT' aurwi' e^e\o)/3T]0r]v [JLoXdv.
TTCU,

XO.
NE.

<I>I.
NE.

NE.

3J 5

320

325

33

Nauck, irocoKTt: Mekler, Kt\Kiau


3 1 5 f. ol' Porson: o!s MSS. Wecklein (^4
p. 17), keeping ofs, would change airois in 316 to aWis: Tournier, to dXyovs.
wriiroiAi' r : avraTotv' L.
3 1 8 iwoucrdpeui Mss.: Nauck gives iTroiKTipetv.
3 1 0 e X0701S MSS. In L the 1st hand has written OIL over our. Gernhard conj.
we Xo7ois.
3 2 O f. a\rj$e1s altered from d\i;0r)s by 1st hand in L.<rwTuxci]
Meineke conj. TrpoaTVx&v. The v. 1. y&p TI<X<"' is cited by Camp, from Vat. (cod.
Pal. 287, 14th cent.), and by Blaydes from Ven. ( = Campb.'s V 2 , cod. Marc. 616,
prob. of 14th cent.): adopting which, Blaydes writes:ro'urSe ixaprvpQi X6701S | us

3 1 4 ff. p ( a : cp. 321: Tr. 38 'I0!TOV


fllav.of, Porson s correction of ols,
is certain. The sufferer prays that their
sufferings may be like his own: cp. 275
n.: Ant. 927. With oh, both airoTs (as =
'themselves') and dprtiroiy' become comparatively tame.^|ioJ: cp. El. 592 us
TTJS $vyarpbs avTivoaia \afiJ3ai>eis.
3 1 7 f. tira, could imply either (1) ' a s
fully as they pitied you in their hearts,'
the sense in which the speaker means Ph.
to take it: or (2) 'only as much as they
showed you pity in their deeds': cp. Ant.
516 n. on cj icrov.eiroiKTipiv is much
better than Nauck's liroiKTipstv, which,
as expressing a presentiment, would call
too much attention to the ambiguity of
ifiro.
3 1 8 f. iv Xo'yois. If iv is sound, the
phrase must mean ' a witness present at
(the utterance of) these words.' Cp. Plat.
Phaedo 115 E fi.ifik Xy?j iv rij Tcuprj, 'at
the funeral,' i.e., .while it is taking place.

The expression is unusual; but I hesitate


to receive Gernhard's conject. av.
<ruvTvx<iv, 'having .found them bad
men in my intercourse with them (cri5i-).'
The force of the simple rvx<iv here
prevails over that of the prep., and so
a gen. replaces the regular dat. Since
in 0. C. 1483 <roO rix01!11 must be read
for avvrixoifu, there is no other extant
example of awTvyxdvw with gen. But
there are analogies for the exception:
in 1333 ivrvx&v 'AO-KXIJTTISSI' is the only
instance of a gen. (instead of dat.) with
ivTvyx&"<0, except Her. 4. 140 XeXup.hn)S T?}S -/((pipys ivrvxavres.
Again,
552 wpoaTvxbvTt. r w ttrwv and El. 1463
cfiov KoXaaroO TrpotTTvx&v are isolated
examples of a gen., instead of dat., with
that compound. In 719^01865 vTravrfoas
(instead of 7reu5) is also unique. It may
be added that here, where <rvvTvxibv expresses, not merely a meeting with the
men, but an experience of their character,

*IAOKTHTHZ

61

Thus have the Atreidae and the proud Odysseus dealt with
me, my son: may the Olympian gods some day give them the
like sufferings, in requital for mine !
CH. Methinks I too pity thee, son of Poeas, in like measure
with thy former visitors.
NE. And I am myself a witness to thy words,I know that
they are true; for I have felt the villainy of the Atreidae and
the proud Odysseus.
PH. What, hast thou, too, a grief against the accursed sons
of Atreus,a cause to resent ill-usage ?
NE. Oh that it might be mine one day to wreak my hatred
with my hand, that so Mycenae might learn, and Sparta, that
Scyros also is a mother of brave men !
PH. Well said, my son ! Now wherefore hast thou come in
this fierce wrath which thou denouncest against them ?
NE. Son of Poeas, I will speak outand yet 'tis hard to
speakconcerning the outrage that I suffered from them at my
coming.
eta' dXijfois. otSa yap T\rxfi>v K.T.X.Kaxdv \ avbpdv 'ArpeiSwi1] Toup (keeping awTu%(b^) conj. KIXKOIV avdpdiv 'ArpeiSaiv Trf r' '05. fila: so, too, Erfurdt, but with
ixtlvoiv for 'ArpeiSaiv. For avSp&v Blaydes conj. SiaaGv r' or airrwv T'. 3 2 4 Ov/ibv...
X/>' Brunck: 6v/jA^...xeipa MSS. Nauck conj. et /ioi yivono Ov/ibv cfnrXrjaai TTOTC.
3 2 7 cS5e TOVJ Erfurdt conj. wd' t\wv.
3 2 8 KO.T' airi>] In L the letters KO.T'
have been inserted by S, after an erasure. The ist hand seems to have written
KavTuv: then /car' was written above the line, but again erased, when (car' was
substituted for K in the text.iyKaXQv] Blaydes conj. (inter alia) rovS'
lxav:

the gen. has a special excuse.We canwith (having provoked) the great anger
not make awrvxilw mean, = ' having found
(which you show)?' TCVOS, causal gen.,
them bad men, as you have done' (i.e.,
not with rbv-.-x^ov alone, but with the
civ aoi).
whole sentence: cp. 751,1308: 0. 7'. 698
3 2 2 f. 1^ Y<*P 248 n.Tots irovwX^SlSa^ov KafC,dva^,&rowoTk
| pvrjvivrocrfp/Se
Spois : cp. Eur. El. 86 XV TWiiXeSpos |
irpdy/j.aTos <TTT)G0.S ?xel*. <3S, ' t h u s ' (not
infynip.iraBmv, and not merely KXSW.
'hither,' as in O. T. 7).\6Xov iyKaKuv
3 2 4 f. The corruption in the MSS.,
Kara nvos = to make one's anger a subject
6vp.$...xtipa is of the same nature as that
of accusation against a person, i.e. to
in O. T. 376 (/iie...croO for ere f/>0). Cp.
charge him with having provoked it.
Plat. Sep. 465 A et TO6 T'IS TQ $V/M>ITO, iv
The causal TCVOS helps to explain the pregT Toioirnfi TKTJP&V Tbv Bvfibv (sating his
nant sense. Cp. O. T. 702 My', ei crawrath) yiTTOP eirl /leifovs av toi (rrdcreis. 0ws T6 vetnos iyKaXSv {pels, 'speak, if
Muicijvai, as the city of Agamemnon:
you can make a clear statement in imSirapTij, as that of Menelaus. yvoiev,
puting (the blame of) the feud.'
after the optative 7&01T0: cp. Aesch.
3 2 9 f. 4|cpca, (J.OXLS 8' Ipu. In such
Eum. 297 X0oi ('may she come!')... |
phrases^i6Xisusu. stands in the first clause,
SITUS ytvoiro T&VS' efiol \vrrfpios: and
viith/i^v: Ant. 1105 /o6Xis nh>, Kapdias S'
O. T. 506 n.
e^iffTa/iai., n. For e%epQipu, cp. 249 f.
3 2 7 f. rf 7', euge: Ar. Eccl. 213 eS y\
The feeling is like that of Odysseus when
eS ye cij Al', eS ye' Mye, X^y', c37aS^.
asked by Alcinous to tell his story: Od.
There is no other example in Tragedy of
9. \i crol 8' epa io}5ea $vfit>s eireTpdthis colloquial e8 ye without a verb.TIVOS
irero arovlievra, \ etpeaO', 6<pp' I n nciXKov
7<ip: lit., 'Now (ydp, 249 n.), on account
oSvpo/j.evos arevax^1^-|AOX<5V:
to Troy,
of what have you come thus chargingthem
353.

IO<t>OKAEOYI

62

yp
ivel ydp

fioip'
X fp

da
aveiv,

<f>pdcrr)S JJLOL /AT) irepa, irplv dv j


irp&rov TOS' 1 77 TedvT)-^ o ITijXeajs yovos;
NE. Tedv7)Kev, dvSpos ouSevos, Oeov S' viro,
^
X
6 S y
e/c
d\X'
j /
o KTavciv r e ^<u davatv.
he worepov, <5 reKvov, TO <TOV
eXey^ct) irp&rov, rj KeZvov <niv<a.
NE. olfjiai jk dpKelv croC ye Kal Ta cr', w raXas,
yjfaff,
ajcrre /LIT) r a TWV TreXas cnivziv.
SpOcos eXefas' roiyapovv TO croi' (frpacrov
av8u<; Trd\iv fiot. irpdyfi, OTCO cr' ivv/3pi,crav.
NE. TJ\66V [j,e vql TroifaXocrroXft) juera
Stos T' 'O8wcrcrei5 x ^ T/>o^>eu rou^iou
OLJXOL'

335

340

Tournier, C (taXip VeXiyXuSas.


3 3 3 i; L, ei r.
3 3 4 f. Burges would change
ovdevoi to ou Sa/j.ds, and omit v. 335. For rojeuros Blaydes conj. ro^oicnv. 3 3 8
irpuroj'] Naber conj. irporepov.
34O This verse is rejected by Th. Gomperz.
3 4 1 TOI yap oSy L, an accent on yap having been erased.
3 4 2 Rejected by
Burges, Gomperz and Otto Hense.Srif a' ivijipiuav] 6Vs iv tippi/rav V; whence

3 3 1 ?<rx. The pres. ?%e' would mean


'constrains'; cp. Eur. / . T. 1065 rpetsida
rixv robs <pi\rdrovs, | rj 7^5 xarp^as vtsaros, rj Baveiv, %eI- The aor. (' ingressive')
= 'came upon him with constraint': cp.

(//. 11. 359) Sre Ktv ae Hdpts Kal /


'ATTOXXUV I iad\bv kbvT1 Shtauxnv errl
S/caiJo-i irti\ri<Tu>. Verg. Aen. 6. 57 Phoebe,
...Dardana qui Paridis direxti tela
manusque \ Corpus in Aeacidae. Another
account speaks of Apollo without
1117: fr. 529 TOI)S Si SovKelas... | uyi>v
naming Paris: so //. 21. 278 Achilles
fax' avdyxas: E u r . Hec. 4 iirel Qpvywv
ir6\iv I tdvSvvos ioxe Sopl ire<reiv'~EiX\iii>iK<}. says that Thetis had predicted to him
3 3 2 <j>pacrr|S...|jLT) ire'pa: for the place that he should die 'ATTAXXWVOS fiekteaaiv.
Cp. Aesch. fr. 340 (Thetis speaks of
of fi^, cp. 67 n.
3 3 5 To|wris...8o|Ms = T6fois 8a/j.ds. Apollo) aOrSs kvriv 6 Kravtbv j riv iratda
The adj. here defines the instrument, as rbv [i6v. So, too, Hor. Carni. 4. 6. 1 ff.
oft. elsewhere the place (0. T. 1411 6a- Quintus Smyrn. 3. 61 (Apollo, hidden
irpoirjKe fHXeft.\6.(X<nov I eKpiipar'), or t h e manner {0. C. in a mist) arvyepiv
vov I Kal k Qo5>% oih-qae Kara a<pvp6v. As
1637 Karrfveaev rdS' SpKios).

us Xyovo-iv implies that there was


something mysterious in the death; Paris
might seem to have inflicted it, but, in
men's belief, the true slayer was Apollo.
K, however, does not here denote ulterior,
as dist. from immediate, agency ('&y doom
of Phoebus'; 0. T. 1453); it is here no
more than uird.According to one account, Paris shot Achilles, but with the
aid of Apollo (as Athena had helped
Achilles against Hector): so //. 19. 416
(the immortal steed Xanthus to Achilles)

to the vulnerable heel of Achilles, cp.


Statius Ach. 1. 269, where Thetis says:
progenitum Stygis amne severo \ Armavi
(totumque utinam!). Hyginus (Fab. 107)
fused the two versions by making Apollo
take the guise of Paris.The 'cyclic' epic
which related the death of Achilles was
the Aethiopis, ascribed to Arctmus of Miletus, c. 776 B.C. (Introd. to Homer, p.

53>
3 3 6 aM VY6vi)s |iiv: dXX< = ' well'
(said as if with a sigh); /i(v has a reflective
dXXA (7oi at/nj) | fjUtp<rifi6v iffrt &<$ r e Kai tone, 'certainly,''it must be granted.'
avipi tyi Sanijvai: and Hector's prophecy Cp. Plat. Gorg. 460 A dXX' eyci ixiv otfiai,

<HAOKTHTHZ
When fate decreed that Achilles should die
PH. Ah me! Tell me no more, until I first know this
say'st thou that the son of Peleus is dead ?
NE. Dead,by no mortal hand, but by a god's; laid low,
as men say, by the arrow of Phoebus.
PH. Well, noble alike are the slayer and the slain ! I scarce
know, my son, which I should do first,inquire into thy wrong,
or mourn the dead.
NE. Methinks thine own sorrows, unhappy man, are enough
for thee, without mourning for the woes of thy neighbour.
PH. Thou sayest truly.Resume thy story, then, and tell
me wherein they did thee a despite.
NE. They came for me in a ship with gaily decked prow,
princely Odysseus, and he who watched over my father's youth,
Blaydes writes STTUS It ff' iiflpurav.
3 4 3 7roaXo<j-ToXcf>] In L the second X has been
made from /x. TroudXy arokif Vat.: iroiKi.\o<TTOiJ.tp A : ToXvuXriicrTy Harl. (Brit. Mus.,
cod. 5743, 15th cent.). Burges conj. woiKiXoarepvos. Nauck, iieT-ri\v66v /j.e v-ql
XdX
3 4 4 Sws T'] Valckenaer conj. SoXios T'.Tpo<peti$ L (and so A ) :

K.T.X. (The SI in 337 does not answer to prow': not simply 'gaily drest' (like \evthis fiiv.) Cp. 524 dX\a.../xivTOi. n. K6<TTOXOS, etc.). Cp. Aesch. Pen. 408
KTavv...8avwv: A frequent
^^
etiObs 6 vavs iv vrfc xa\Kripti <TTO\OV | ?7raiq
6
l \ davdvras <rev, where ITTOXOS poetically=?ytij3oXo>', the
Ant. 1263 (5 KTav6vTas
re Kal
pXirovres efupvXLovs. Eur. / . T. 553 i] beak or ram, which was attached to the
KTavovoa. X" Oaviiv. Ale. 488 Kravtuv ap' ship below the prow. The term &Kpo(TTOKLOV was sometimes applied to the
7/s TJ OavCcv avrov Revels.
' figure-head' (such as the head and neck
3 3 8 Xi'yX<i'---<rT"o: delib. subjunct.:
of a swan). Here, woiKiXoaTohq seems to
for the pres., cp. O. T. 651 n.
3 3 9 otpcu |liv, as 0. T. 1051: so OOKQI denote some special adornment, intended
pjv, 0. C. 995 n.Kal Tel cr', 'even...'. to mark the solemnity of the mission.
Cp. Tr. 1216 dXX' apice'vet Kal raura. For These envoys came, not only to announce
the death of Achilles, but to salute his
the elision in 17', 0. T. 64 n.
heir. Cp. Pind. P. 2. 62 eiav$ia d' dca3 4 1 t. TOi-yapovv ('so, then') occurs
jSdffOjCtai (TTOXOV: where (whether O-TOXOK
also in 0. T. 1519, Ai. 490, El. 1257.
be taken as 'prow,' or, more tamely, as
a30is irdXiv (0. C. 1418 n.) refers to 329
'voyage') the epithet refers to the adorn331. He had there intimated that, on
ing of the ship with garlands on a festal
reaching Troy, he had suffered some
occasion. So, too, when the Salaminia
grievous wrong. Yet it has been prowas about to leave Athens on the annual
posed to reject v. 342 on the ground
deupla to Delos, the priest of Apollo
that Ph. could not ask for the repetition
crowned the stern with garlands (Plat.
of a story which he had not yet heard.
OT(J), 'wherein,' dat. of respect: cp.Thuc. Phaed. 58 c).Others regard TTOIKIXO2 . 6 5 <T<pa\e'vTs...a\\'ri re irapaffKeuij Kal (TT()X<f) as merely a constant epithet,
equiv. to the Homeric ntXroirdprios (now
TOV vavTiKov T(f irXelovi. ixopiif : id. 4. 73
T4> (SEXTIVTIJ) TOC OJTXITI/COO fi\a<pdTJvai. explained by some as referring ' to a
literal
painting of a face upon the bows';
The dat. #T<J> has not been influenced
Leaf, / / . 2. 637). The v. I. ITCHKIXOO-T6|J.UI
by the iv in the compound. For the ace.
with ivvfiplta, cp. Kaibel Epigr. Gr. 195 is merely a prosaic corruption.
1 jj.i\ /ju>v evvfiplfcris ctypdi' ratpov. The 3 4 4 Stos T' 'OSvoxreis: this is the
iv has the same force as in e77eXSi<:
Homeric TroXtfrXas dtos 'Odvatxefc. The
cp. Eur. El. 68 iv TOIS i/xois yap OVK
epithet 5?ot ('bright') may be rendered
evtifSpuras KaKots.
' princely,' or ' noble,' when applied to a
chief (the idea of personal comeliness
3 4 3 iroiKiXoo-ToXu), 'with gaily-decked

64

ZO*OKAEOYI
Aeycwres, eir aA^fes CIT ap out1 ^arr}v

345

ws ov defits yCyvoiT', iirel KaT<j>dt,TO


/Aos, Ta Tripyafi aWov rj 'fi
<3 feV, OVTCJS evvenovres ov TTOXW
Xp
/x' i-nio-ypv \x,r\ fxe vavo-ToXeiv
/x,aXicrra jxev Srj TOV Oavovros ifJbepa),
OTTWS LBOL/M ddavTOV
ov yap elh6fj/rjv'
enena [ACUTOL ^OI Xoyos /caXo? irpocrrjv,
el Tanl Tpoia mpya/jJ aip^croi//,'
TJV 8" rffxap yjSrj SevrepoP irktovri

35

fp
r.
3 4 7 17 V e\ew L, corrected from rj [not i;] /*' i\eir either by the
rst hand or by S. A too has ij'/j.' e\elv.
3 4 9 tirecx""} Schneider conj. Itraaxov
(A has eTrctffxoj'): Blaydes, (ireiBov or cTr^yoy.Hartung writes, ravr', w iv\
V
0 1
ivvtirovris ov iroXiV XP<""> I eiriax / ^ M /ceicre yaDtrroXefy Ta%i;.^ /xe] Seyffert

being included therein): or by the more 83 /til Vow irpordp^a.


3 4 8 f. ov iroXiSv K.T.\. : 'they did
general word, 'goodly,' in other cases.
not cause me to make any long delay,
Cp. Note 2 to Butcher and Lang's Odysor to refrain from sailing at once': ansey: 'Froissart and Brantome apply reother way of saying, 'they filled me with
spectful terms of moral excellence to
burning eagerness to sail at once.' He
knights and ladies whom they describe
speaks with a certain bitterness, meaning,
as anything but moral.'
'they well knew how to act their part,
ya Tpo<f>evs: Phoenix, who, having
when they put the matter in that light.'
been driven from the house of his father
For eirtxl>> Ta>& a s = ' t o cause one to
Amyntor, was received by Peleus, and
entrusted with the care of the infant pause' see Thuc. 4. 5 nal TI Kai aitrous
6 ffrpards In ev rats 'Aflijvcus c5x eir^irxf,
Achilles: to whom he says in //. 9. 485
Kai <re roaovrov WT)KO. (reared thee up to ' partly, too, the fact that their army was in
manhood), 0eo?s indxeX' 'Ax'XXeO, j eic Attica caused them to delay' (instead of
$v/iov 0iVra>. Another legend represents marching out at once). Id. 1. 129 Kai <re
juiyre ei>{ ixife ri/iipa iiruTxiTia (pres.
Achilles as brought up by Cheiron (//.
imper.) afore dveTvai irpafraeiv Ti. This
11. 832).
sense of the trans, tirix and iTltrxu is not
3 4 5 f. eh' dp' oSv, 'or, after all
(S.pa), it maybe (oSi)': for odv with the precisely the same as that in El. 517 Ss
second elre, cp. 0. T. 90, and n. ib. 1049. <r' iTe?x' <*ei | /tijTOi Svpalav odaav al<xxiveiv tj>l\ovs, ' restrained thee' (by comaXr)6^s does not occur as = A\i;0<2s,
though T6 (or T6 ye) aKijdes is so used, pulsory detention): i.e., 0$ wo\vv xpovov
n'
iviaxo" is not, 'they did not suclike re vera. Here it has, indeed, an
ceed in restraining me long' (as if they
adverbial force, but is properly the ace.
had been trying to do so); but rather,
governed by Xeyovres. So in Eur. Ion
'they gave me no cause for delaying
275 we may point thus: W 5a! r6d';
a/)' &\7}0er$; rj fi&TVjv \6yos ; F o r fid.rrfv^ long';not, 'non diu me cohibuerunt,'
but 'effecerunt ne diu morarer.'
/also, cp. also Soph. El. 63, 1298.
yCyvoiT': they said, ov 84/us yiyyerai,
Instead of JJLT] jt vav<rTo\eiv, we
it becomes unlawful (by the fact that
might well prefer, with Blaydes, |i.T|
Achilles is now dead): cp. 116 n.
oiyjL vav<TTo\eiv, were it not that palaeographically it is so improbable. And
3 4 7 diXXov TJ 'n'. If there had been
for jinj where JJ.T] OV might be expected,
any previous indication of Neoptolemus,
the reading SXKov fj |i' would have been cp. 0. T. 1387 OVK av iirxo/iriv \ rb /j.i)
'voKKriGai, n. The repetition of JM, as
tenable (see on 47 eXoird 1*'): as there is
none, we surely require rj '|i'. Cp. Ant. subject to vavuToXetv, may seem slightly

<J>IAOKTHTHI

65

saying, (whether truly or falsely, I know not,) that since my


father had perished, fate now forbad that the towers of Troy
should be taken by any hand but mine.
Saying that these things stood thus, my friend, they made
me pause not long ere I set forth in haste,chiefly through my
yearning towards the dead, that I might see him before burial,
for I had never seen him; then, besides, there was a charm in
their promise, if, when I went, I should sack the towers of
Troy.
It was now the second day of my voyage,
conj. /JJI oB us: Blaydes writes ^ ovxl3 5 1 ov ycip eldofa-riv] Seyffert writes ovS'
ap' elioiafv. Meineke suggests SITUS tdoi/u' i>v y&p off va> elSoiiijv but would rather

inelegant; but it is not grammatically ob6av/*d<rcu /iiv &%la, \ avovSrp ye pivTOi


jectionable.See Appendix.
K.T.X. In Eur. Med. 1145 ff. irplv /xev...
iwetTa iiivrot is not strictly similar, since
3 5 1 ov yip clB6[>.T]V, 'for I had
(never) seen him.' The comment ffivra, tirara is there temporal.\a Xdyos
written after elSS/j.r]v in the margin of L, KaXds irpoa-fjv, 'there was a further
represents the simplest and best interpre- charm' (KOX6S predicate) 'in the reatation. Neoptolemus was born in Scyros, son suggested,if indeed I was to take,'
and remained there, under the care of his etc.: o Xo^os is the reason for going,
maternal grandfather, Lycomedes (243), suggested by the envoys, (as distinguished
until he went to Troy (see n. on 239 f.). from the natural tfiepos in the son's
Soon after the birth of Neoptolemus, his mind,) and is explained by u...alpyiaoiiJ.'.
Not,' the fame, too, was attractive.' For
father Achilles had returned to Phthia;
whence, some eight or ten years later, he irpo<rr}v cp. Xen. H. 3. 1. 28 IUCTB&S nh
7iiuv...etpya<rTat...,
rjv Si ri irpotjepyaGibwent to Troy, without revisiting Scyros.
For a
Hence Neoptolemus can say that he had [ie0a, /cai Tavra irpoffiffrai.
different use, cp. 129 n.cl...<uprj<roi|i.':
never seen his father. In this conception
he said to himself, el alprqaoi. For the
Sophocles is following the Iliad. From
//. 11. 765782 it appears that Phthia, fut. opt., cp. Xen. Cyr. 3. 1. 3 el
not Scyros, was the place from which Ttva <f>e{iyoVTa XTJ^/OITO, Trporyyopevev 8TL
us wo\eid(fi xpfooiro (he said, el Xrjif/oncu
Achilles went to Troy. And in //. 19.
...Xprpro/jiai). For el with optat., where
331 f. Achilles speaks of his son as
having never seen Phthia; for, apostro- one's own former thought is indicated in
phising the dead Patroclus, he says. ' my dependence on a past tense, cp. Lys. or.
3 3 ai'ffxwojueeos, el /liWoiev TroWoi fiot
soul had hoped that thou should'st return to Phthia,'iM &v /MOI Tbv irdiba. avvdaeaBai, Tjveirxow (his thought had
been,
alcxiW/xcu, el fj^Wovai). rdirl
0ori evl ("7)1 |Ue\aii>7) | 2nvp68ev e^aydyois, KO.i oi 5eeias Ixaffra, | KTTJCIV i^v Tpo<j. ir^pvaii' (cp. 611), the citadel which
d/xuds re KOX vipepetpes fiiya 5&fia.Apol-crowns the city of Troy, the Jlepyanos
&Kpi) of Homer (//. 5. 460, 6. 512),who
lodorus (3. 13. 8) follows a different
uses only the sing. Hence Ilios is called
version, according to which Achilles had
abrcurq, ixppvoecraa (II. 22. 411): cp.
remained in Scyros till he was brought
thence to Troy by Odysseus. For the Introd. to Homer, p. 148. For the prep.
midd. l8o|i-nv in dial., cp. El. 977 tSeaBe, iirl, cp. Pind. 0. 8. 32 (Apollo and
ib. 892 KaTeiS6/J.n]v, Tr. 151 elalZovro: inPoseidon) 'IXiy peWovres eirl aritpavov
lyrics, below, 1113, Ai. 351; and in ana- revl-ai. (sc. vtipywv).lav, oft. added to
paests, Tr. 1004. Cp. bpati.tv-q (midd.) a verb denoting enterprise: cp. Ant.
768 n.
in dial., Tr. 306.See Appendix.
3 5 2 f. iinvra (M'VTOI, answering to
jiidXurra niv (350): cp. O. T. 647 f. fid\iara nfr...tireiTa (without 64): ib. 777
J. S. IV.

3 5 4 ff. ITX&VTC |M)i: dat. of relation,

as oft. with ref. to time: cp. Xen. H. 2. i.


27 kirei r\v rjfiepa TrefATTTri e7ri7rXeor( rots

66

IO<t>OKAEOYI
Kayo) irtKpov %[yeLov ovpC<a Tr\drrj
355
KaTrjyoiJ/rjv Kai fi evOvs h> KVKXCO crr/aa/ros
eKySavra mxs rj<nrd,l,er, 6fjLi>vPTs fiXeireLV
TO OVKIT ovra. tfivf
'A^iXXea TTOXLV.
/ceivos fiev ovv e/cet/r' ' iyo) 8' 6 Svcrfiopos,
eirel 'BaKpvcra Kelvov, ov fiaKpco -^pova)
3^
ikdav 'ArpetSas Trpos (iXovs, a5s ei/cos ^v,
r a C7 OTTA a/irr)TOVv TOV iraTpos r a r aAA ocr 171>.
OI 8' eiirov, olfioi, T\rffjL,ov4<JTWTov \6yoV
d> cnj-ep/j,' 'A^iXXews, raXXa jxev Trapecrrt <TOL
Trarphi' iXecrdav, TWV 8' OTTXWV Keiv<av dvrjp
365
aXXos Kparvvu vvv, 6 AaepTov yovosKayai SaKpvcras evOvs efavicrra/iat
opyrj fiapeta, KCLI /caraXy^cras Xeya>'
d> o-^erXt',

rj 'ToXfxrjcraT'

OLVT' C/AOU

TIVL

reject the verse.


3 5 5 K&y& Tticpbi>] Burges conj. Kayw V aicpov: Blaydes writes
Ka.y& 's aKpov.irXdrrj] Nauck conj. woy or Spojuy.
3 5 7 Tjo'7raf"eT'] TjffirafeTO L.
For such neglect of elision cp. comm. on Ant. 1146 f.
3 6 O Sdicpvaa MSS.:
'Satcpvaa Heath.
3 6 1 irpds 0iXous] Bothe conj. 7rpo<r0tXc3s. Blaydes writes irpos
SMTXOOS.
3 6 2 TO T' t U ' 8(r' /JP] Nauck conj. KO.1 T&Tnw\a.
3 6 3 01/ioi from

'ASijyafois. The distance from Scyros to


3 5 7 f. o|-iivTes after
p s
Sigeum is about 125 miles.Ka-yw: for / / . 17. 755 TWV 5' &rre \j/apwv ve<f>os
Kai in temporal parataxis (instead of Ipxerai qi KO\OIWV, | OSXOI< KeicXyyovTes:
cp. Ant. 1021 f. n.Xfi>vr' ' A \ . iroCXiv:
fire), cp. O. T. 718 n.irixpov SCyciov.
Sigeum, the N. w. promontory of the legend naturally revived the image of the
Troad (now Yeni Shehr), is fitly named,
father in his son; Nauck cites trag. fr.
as being the point for which he, coming
adesp. 295 01) ireus 'AxiXX^us, dXX' a e i from Scyros in the S.W., would make;
vos airris el.
and also because the tumulus, tradition3 5 9 f. ?K.T\ 'lay low in death,' a
ally known as the 'tomb of Achilles,' is poet, equiv. for 'had died' (not = 7rponear Sigeum. It is 'bitter' or 'cruel'to
Aceiro, 'lay on the bier,' ready for the
him, not only on account of his father's
iK<popd). Cp. El. 1134 SITUS daviiv IKSUTO
death, but through the memory of his TTJ T68' rip.4pq., | ri/i^ou Trarpipov Koivbv
wrongs. The epithet is here a fine ei'Xijxcbs ^pos. Ant. n 74 Kai ris (poveiei;
dramatic touch : while the conjecture
rh S' 6 Kd/j.ei>os; Simonides fr. 60 Keurai
Kaya V aKpov, which many recent edd. ffiy tn /j.a\\oi> TUV inrb 7a? eKdvoiv. It is
adopt, is tamely prosaic. Cp. Od. 17. natural to suppose that the son's wish to
448 /u-ij r&xa mKpi)v AiyvTTTov Kai Kiirpov
arrive before the burial (351) was fult/cgai.oipia irXdTfl, instrum. dat.; sped filled; for the tidings of the death would
by oars, while a s.w. wind also filled his have been sent at once, and he would
sails. Cp. 'velis remisque,' 'ventis re- have reached Troy not later, perhaps,
mis,' etc.KaTTVY<Sp]V, was coming into
than five days after it (cp. 354). In Hecharbour at, with ace, instead of the usual
tor's case the funeral took place only on
ace. with els: cp. 244 trpoaeoxes...yijv the tenth day after his remains had been
(n.). Poetry is bold in its use of the brought home (77. 24. 785). The consimple ace. after verbs of motion ; cp. ciseness of the narrative here, which does
1175 : O.C. 643 Sbfwvs OTelxew.
not refer to the obsequies (unless in 'SdK-

cMAOKTHTHZ

67

when, sped by breeze and oar, I drew nigh to cruel Sigeum. And
when I landed, straightway all the host thronged around me with
greetings, vowing that they saw their lost Achilles once more alive.
He, then, lay dead; and I, hapless one, when I had wept for
him, presently went to the Atreidae,to friends, as I well might
deem,and claimed my father's arms, with all else that had been
his. O, 'twas a shameless answer that they made! ' Seed of
Achilles, thou canst take all else that was thy sire's; but of those
arms another man now is lord,the son of Laertes.' The tears
came into my eyes,I sprang up in passionate anger, and said in
my bitterness,'Wretch! What, have ye dared to give my arms
otjuoi L.
3 6 6 AO^/JTOU L, with most of the later MSS. : Aapriov T (after Triclinius).
3 6 7 Kayui da.Kptiaa.ij L (with A and most of the rest): Kttyii VSaxpiio-as B. Bothe
conj. Kaywy' aicoiicras: whence Blaydes gives K&yii 'feiKoi5cras: Nauck, Kayii 'iraKoitras:
Wecklein, eyib 5' d/cotVas.
3 6 9 <S (7%ir\i rj ToKfiriaar' L ('ToX/*?J<raT' Vauvilliers).
Heath conj. ffx^rXioi, ij 'TOX/M^OT': Musgrave, w <rx^r\ioi, 'roX/i^ffar': Tournier, w
ffxerXiw, VoX|UijeraT': Blaydes, <3 <7^TXI', 77 T6X/X^O-OS (recognising, however, that it is

pvaa), is Sophoclean: cp. Ant. 415 n.


aor. part., cp- Plat. Phaed. 116 D KOX a/xa
The welcome by 'all the host' (356) can5a.Kpiaas, fieTa(rTpe<p6fii>os air-foei.) Many
not be considered as a direct allusion to
recent editors change this to cUoiVas, or
the funeral rites; cp. the reception of
a compound of it (see cr. n.). But the
Teucer by the army (At. 721 ff.).*8dK- traditional reading is incomparably more
pvo-a: for the prodelision of the augment,
forcible; it is also thoroughly Homeric in
cp. O. C. 1602 rox 'Tdpevaav: Ant.
spirit; / / . 23.385 (Diomedes, when Apollo
457 n.ou |uiKpcj> x.pvo>, after it: 0. C.
strikes the whip from his hand in the
vi
1648 xpb p jSpct^e? (TTpa^>4fTs.
chariot-race) rolo 8' d?r' d<p6a\/JMiv X^TO
Sdxpva xwo/^xoio. Cp. Iuv. 1. 168 Inde
3 6 1 f. us IKOS ^v goes closely with
irae et lacrimae.4avoTa|JLai: he had
<)>CXou$,'friends, as it was reasonable
been seated, as in converse with friends.
to suppose them.' The only peculiarity
is that us eiK&s TJV here refers to a just 6pY{j: modal dat., 0. T. 405 n.: papeia,
vehement: cp. /J.ijvw flapeiav (0. C. 1328,
hope felt at a past moment, and not to the
Ai. 656).KaTaXTtfcras : cp. Ant. 767
fitness of a past fact (as if the sense was,
vovs 5' eori TTJXIKOVTOS a.\y/iffa$ flapfa.
'friends, as they naturally were,'or,
This compound (in which (card is in'having gone, as I naturally did').
Cp.
Plat. Menex. 247 B (pi\oi irapa, <pi\ovs Ti/xastensive) occurs elsewhere only in later
Greek.
&<fiie(r$e.rot T* oXX' 6V ijv: Homer
describes the KXUTIO, of Achilles as hand3 6 9 f. co <r\ir\C is said to Agamemsomely furnished (cp., e.g., II. 24. 597),
non: ij 'To\|MJcra.T* (cp. 360 'fi&Kpvaa)
and it now contained the treasures which
refers to him and Menelaus: so O. C.
Priam had brought as the 'BKTOP^S xe<pa- 1104 7rpoff4\8r\ u> TraX (said to Antigone,
X?}s aTrepeiaC awoiva (ib. 228236: 579). entering with Ismene).irpVv paSetv 4(i,ov,
before ye had heard from me (that ye
3 6 3 T\T||i.ov&rTaTov Xoyov, here = dcmight do so). The phrase is so far unGUS^OTGITO*', most audacious, shameless
usual that, when fi.av6a.voi takes a gen. (of
(in Eur. Hec. 562 the same phrase = ' most
the
person) only, it usually = 'to undercotirageous s p e e c h ' ) : El. 439 el /AT) TXTJstand,' as Plat. Gorg. 463 D ap' ofiv hv
lj.ove<rT&T7] yvvT\ \ TTO.<T(OV ^jSXatrre: Aesch.
/j.a.0ois aTOKpiva/iivov; Id. Phileb. 51 C a*
Cho. 383 r\dfiovi Kal iravoijpy^j Xtptfiov fiavdaveis. Similar is O. T. 545 JMV3 6 4 ff. irdpeorC 0-01, 'it is open to
8dvetv...crov, to comprehend thy teachings.
thee,' 'thou hast free leave'; cp. Ant.
Cp., however, 541 Cov fxaBbyres, = ' having
113 n.Aalprov: cp. n. on 86 f.
made inquiries of them.' So here fiadeiv
3 6 7 f. SaKpvcras, the tears of pain
is little more than aKovaai or
and anger started into his eyes. (For the

52

IO<t>OKAEOYI

68

8ovvai ret Teuyy) Tafia, irplv /xadelv ifiov;


6 8' elir' 'OSucrcreus, TTXTJCTCOV yap u>v *Kvpei,
vox, irai, SeStoKacr evSuccos OVTOL raSe"
ey<w yap avT ecroxra KaKelvov Traputv.
Kayco yoXadels evdvs yjpacrcrov /ca/cois
TOZS Tracriv, ovhev evSees TTOIOU/ACVOS,
ei Tafxa, /ceivos OTTA.' d^cu/OTjcroiTo //.e.
o o evuao rjKcav, icanrep ov ovo~opyo<s a)V,

S0l

S8'

^ij

LV OV cr eoei'
rjcru iv j / , ctA\ airrjcrt)
j
i TavT, evretSTj Ka! Xeyets dpacrvcrTOfiiov,
ov iirjiroT is Trjv ^Kvpov e/cirXeucrys
' aKouo-as KafoveiSicr^eis ica*ca
7rpos 01/covs, Taw e^iwv Tiyrw/Aev
1T/3OS TOV

/Ca/CICTTOU K(XK KaKtoV

375

380

'OS

aiTiw/mi Kelvov (o<s rows eV reXei"


385
yap eorrt 7racra TC3V rfyovfievav
p
TC crvfj.TTa<;' oi 8' a/co<r/AOui^res fiporcav
SiSacTKaXtuv Xoyoicri yiyvovrai /ca/coi.
not necessary).
37O xpiv ^aflefi' e/iou;] Tournier conj. Trply /xaflfii' ^ ^ ; Hartung
writes 7rplv IMKSV ipi; Wunder conj. irpiy Bavetv e/xi;
3 7 1 6 8' r: S3' L.w (from
(Jy in L) Kipa MSS.: u>>' /cupet Porson: T\V nvpwv Brunck.
3 7 2 8e8tl>Katr'] Nauck
conj. Sedpdxaa'.
3 7 3 irapdiv] Burges conj. ifropwv. 3 7 6 d0aipii<roiTo] In L

3 7 1 f. 6 8" tir' "O8vo-(rrfs. Here 6


is a substantival pronoun, and the proper
name is added as by an after-thought: a
Homeric use, as //. 2. 402 airbp 6 fiovv
lepevatv,

eipaf &vdpun> 'Aya/xf/xvuv

moment': cp. 1405: Ar. Lys. 283


5 . . . | e y i i oiic &pa axfjiroi

irap&v

\^/

TOS roo-otSrou; Eur. Hipp. \i^i

TU dv8p'

apurror /3di)XeTai owaai iraptiv; (i.e., to go


(cp. and save).Ace. to Arcttnus in the Ae-

Monro Horn. Gram, 258). Similarly


Plat. Phaed. Jo B rj 8' 8s, 0 ZMirpdTTjs.
v Kvpci. Hermann objected to the historic pres., as unsuitable to a parenthetic
remark; but without cause. Cp. Ant.
253 f., with n.: Eur. Hec. 963 ff. ax&'
Tvyx&vw
f&P & fi&ois Opt/Kris Spots |
d7rwc,&r' tf\0es Sevp' eirel 8' acfuKd/niiv,
... [ ^s rairrbv ijSe trvfiirlTvei.
Brunck's
f[v Kvpuv (cp. 544) is smoother, indeed,
but could hardly have generated the MS.
reading.TOSS does not imply that the
arms are present (oneof Nauck's grounds
for preferring SeSpoKCur'), but only that
they are the subject of conversation.
3 7 3 irapuv, not merely, 'being here
at Troy' (while Neoptolemus was absent,
379), but, 'being present at the critical

thiopis, it was Ajax who carried the body


of Achilles out of the fray, while Odysseus kept the Trojans off (Proclus p. 479).
In Od. 5. 309 f. Odysseus speaks of the
day, Sre fwi irXeurTot xa^rfpea Sovpa |
Tpues htippiipav irepi n^Xeiuxi davdvn. In
Ov. Met. 13. 284 he says: his.,.humeris
ego corpus Achillis \ Et simularma tuli.
3 7 4 ffa if|pacro*ov : cp. Ai. 725 dvclde<nv \ t\paaaov tvdev KOUBO/:

for the lit.

sense, O. T. 1276.KaKois TO!S irdaiv:


the art. properly means, 'with all the
taunts that exist': cp. Tr. 716 <p6eipei rd.
irdvra KvdSaWovS^v 4v8ci$ iroiov|uvos,
making (on my part) nothing deficient,
i.e. leaving nothing unsaid that occurred
to me. For this use of the midd. ircuoO/uai,
cp.

O. C. 1144 " "t^P 'Mrfouyi T&V ploy

<t>IAOKTHTHS

69

to another man, without my leave ?' Then said Odysseus,for


he chanced to be near,' Yea, boy, this award of theirs is just;
I saved the arms and their master at his need.' Then straightway, in my fury, I began to hurl all manner of taunts at him,
and spared not one, if I was indeed to be robbed of my arms by
him. At this point,stung by the abuse, though not prone to
wrath,he answered,' Thou wast not here with us, but absent
from thy duty. And since thou must talk so saucily, thou shalt
never carry those arms back to Scyros.'
Thus upbraided, thus insulted, I sail for home, despoiled of
mine own by that worst offspring of an evil breed, Odysseus.
And yet he, I think, is less to blame than the rulers. For an
army, like a city, hangs wholly on its leaders ; and when men do
lawless deeds, 'tis the counsel of their teachers that corrupts them.
there is an erasure after d<p\ leaving a space equal to two letters before at.
382
Ka^ovetSmdeU} Wecklein (Ars p. 76) conj. Kdfoj/aS/ffas.
3 8 5 airtQ/j.' eKeivov L.
3 8 8 Xbyotfft] The rhetor Nicolaus (circ. 480 A.D.) in his Progymnasmata (Walz,
Rh. Gr. I. p. 294) has, rbv'2,o<j>OKhtaffavfidfcaSatdel irbXtv dwajav TCIV iiyov/j.4vuiv
ctirbyra, robs 5' 6,KO<TJXOUVTIXS dvdpibirovs StdatTKaXwi' Tpbirots Trovqpovs ylveadat.

(nrovSd^ojxev \ XafiTpbv Toetadat.el...


d<j>atpijo-oiTo: he said, (Setvbv (<rru>) d
dtpaiprfaeraf. cp. 353 n. For the double
acc.,cp. Eur. Andr. 613 afalXov wartpas
...rtKva. Since the idea of the taker's interest is usually implied, the middle voice
of this verb is more freq. than the active.
3 7 7 ev8d8" <JKWV, brought to that
point,provoked so strongly: cp. 0. T.

tras, and also 'cognate' ace. with


^tdurdeis.
Wecklein's ingenious KOovi8Ccras seems unlikely, since N. is
dwelling on his wrongs rather than on his
own heat in resenting them irpos oiKOVS: the plur. implies, 'the home country,' as 60 ii- CUKUV fioXeiv. The sing, (suggesting rather the private home) occurs
in 58, 240, 488, 548.TT)T(O(VOS: O. C.

1200 n.K<1K KaKuv, as the reputed son


?&eis.ov 8ii<rop7OS: as his mother speaks of Sisyphus, 417 n. Cp. 0. T. 1397 KaKos
of his &yavo<ppo<r!n>i} (Od. n . 203).irpos
T ' &1> KaK KO.KWV.
dgijicovo-EV with 8r]x8efe, not with TJ|C3 8 5 ff. TOVS Iv T&ei, the Atreidae:
<|<aTo. irpos with ace, as = 'in view of,' cp. Ant. 67 n.iro<ra and <rv|jLira$ have
can always represent the cause of a feel- here an adverbial force,'wholly': cp.
ing; cp. Tr. 1211 a'XV et 0o/3 irpbs TOVTO. Ai. 275 Keivos re XOTTTJ 7ras eX^Xarai Ka/c?/.
& !iiKOU<rV, the taunts which had been OTI...TO5V TJYOU|M'V<">V : is under their inaddressed to him (382): here <Mf merely fluence: cp. O. T. 917 iarl rod Xtyovros,
strengthens the notion of 'being reviled,' n. (But in Ant. 738 ov yap Kparovyros i)
as in ii-ovetdifa: cp. 676.
irbXis vo/iifcrai; 'is deemed his property.')
o-Tparos, ' army' (with reference to the
38O f. irei$ij Kal \eys, 'since thou
Greek army at Troy): not = STJ/XOS,a
must speak thus,'Kal emphasising X<?yets: cp. 0. T. 1129: but ib. 412 liretSr) sense which occurs in Aesch. and elseKal rv(p\bv /i' wrel&uras is different, Kal wliere (Ant. 8 n.), but which is nowhere
goingwith TV<j>\bv.ov |iijiror': 103 n requisite in Soph., and which would be
r^v iKvpov (240): the art. is scornful: weak here, just after irdXts.01 8' aKOor(IO5VTS pporwv (the gen. as in 304), the
cp. 1060.4KirXe<i<rfls implies a further
taunt: having come out so late, he will unruly; those who violate the rights of
others, as Odysseus has done: cp. Ant.
not even now stay and fight.
730 and 660.
3 8 2 ft. The words aKOvo-as KagoSiSacncdXuv XOYOUTI. This play was
vtiSurOcCs form a rhetorical climax,
brought out in the spring of 409 B.C. The
'having been addressed, yes, insulted,
with such taunts': KOIKCI is object to Revolution of the Four Hundred, in the
687 opas tv' ijicets: ib. 1158 dXX' eis rbb"

2O0OKAEOY2
Xoyos XeXe/crai Tras' d 8' 'ArpeCSas
ijjLoi

ff

CTTVJWV

dju,ot<ws KOLL #eois en? (i\os.

XO. opecrrepa 7ra/A/3am Fa, fiarep avrov Aios,


a T W fieyav HaKT(o\6v ev\pvcrov ve/xeLS,
ere /ca/cet, ju,arep TTCJTI'I,', iTrrjvSdfjbav,
OT es TOVO Arpeioav vppus Tracr e)(O)peL,
ore r a na/rpia. reu^ea irapeBCSocrav,
i<w fiaKaipa TavpoKTOvuv
Xeovrwv <f>e8pe, TW Aapriov,
o-eySas vweprarov.

39

395

Hence Schneidewin read rpditvun.


3914O2 L divides the vv. thus: operrrepa [ fiarep | a TOV | <re K&Ki | irorvC j 6V es TOVS'
vftpis | 6Ve...
TV-\xe | iiiTavpo-\KT&vwvl(f>e-\dpe | <reflas vTrepraTov.
3 9 3 a TO>>
ue7<i>']
Wecklein
writes
a7i<6c/u.^7'a:
Lindemann
conj.
a
T/xaXiof.
3 9 9 wapeSi/
summer of 411 B.C., was emphatically a
case in which oi yp/oiixevoi.Peisander and
his fellow oligarchshad corrupted or intimidated a 7r6\. T h e A r m y at Samos
had illustrated the same process in the
case of a orparos,the oligarchic officers,
in correspondence with Alcibiades, having
been t h e first agents of mischief. (Thuc.
8. 47 and 7 5 : Grote v m . p p . 9 and 63.)
Thus, to the ears of an Athenian audience, the poet's verses might well suggest
a lightly-hinted apology for those citizens
who, against their will, had been compromised by the conspirators.Cp. 0. C.
1537 n.
3 8 9 f. \6yo%Xt'XeKTCu irds : cp. 241 n.
'ATpcCSas. W e notice the art with
which, all through his story, Neoptolemus
has. contrived to throw the chief odium
on t h e Atreidae. T h u s , after calling their
speech rXT/jaovecrraTos (363), he remarks
incidentally that Odysseus was a goodtempered man (377); and though he calls
him, indeed, KAKUTTOS (384), he hastens to
add that the higher powers were more to
blame (385). And now, at the close, he
names the Atreidae alone. T h u s he acts
in the spirit of his mentor's advice (64 f.),
but refines upon it.<)>CXos: c p . 585 f.
3 9 1 4 O 2 Mindful of their young

deity of the land, the great Earth Mother,


the Phrygian Cybele to punish our
prince's wrong.' The interposition of
the Chorus is admirably effective for the
purpose of making their master's indignation appear genuine.
This strophe, to which vv. 507518
form the antistrophe, is a uiro'px^a, or
'dance-song' (0. T. 1086 n.). The dochmiacs of which it is mainly composed (see
Metrical Analysis) are accompanied by
animated movement, expressive of the
lively resentment which these memories
suggest.
From a mythological point of view the
verses are of singular interest. The attributes given to the goddess belong to three
groups. (1) Trafifiwri Yd. recognises her
in the primary character of an Elemental
power. (2) fj.S.Tep...Aws identifies her
with Rhea. (3) opearipa, XeoVrax l<peSpe,
and the mention of the Pactolus, present
her as the specially Phrygian Cybele.
But these three characters are completely
fused in the unity of the /iarrjp TTOTVUI.
3 9 1 t. opeo-T^pa: cp. Eur. Helen.
1301,

where the dpela... \ /larrip $eui> is

identified with Demeter. In order to


appreciate the large significance' of this
epithet in relation to the ' Phrygian
chief's preceptveipw rb irapbv 0epa.ireieiv Mother,' we must remember that
'Phrygia' originally denoted the whole
(149)the Chorus seize this moment in
order to deepen the impression left on the interior highlands of Asia Minor west
of the Halys (Kiepert, Anc. Geo. 64).
mind of Philoctetes. It was in the land
irapf&oTi: cp. the epithets fiidSupos (1162),
of the Trojansoften called 'Phrygians'
<pepe<r(3tos,
7roiXo/3oTe(pa, <pvfri'$oos, Kovpothat Neoptolemus was wronged by the
Tp6<pos, e t c .
Ati-oiHoe.
'Then and there'say rt<p
the
Atreidae.
avrov Aios: the MyTpfov at
Chorus'we invoked the most awful

*IA0KTHTH2
My tale is told; and may the foe of the Atreidae have the
favour of Heaven, as he hath mine !
CH. Goddess of the hills, all-fostering Earth, mother of Strophe.
Zeus most high, thou through whose realm the great Pactolus
rolls golden sands,there also, dread Mother, I called upon thy
name, when all the insults of the Atreidae were being heaped
upon this man,when they were giving his sire's armour, that
peerless marvel, to the son of Lartiushear it, thou immortal
one, who ridest on bull-slaughtering lions !
8o(rav r : irapadldocrav L.
lib rapy' 1S0O.
4 O 2 <r

4 O 1 Xaprtov T: Xaepriov L.'Bergk conj. Xeovroip


as] Nauck conj. y4pas or KXAJS.

Athens was sacred to Rhea Cybele : see


3 9 5 ff. KaKEi, at Troy also (as now
on Ant. 1070 ff. The name Rhea (proin Lemnos).irrvu8u|xav = eireKaXoifiT/v :
bably connected with (pa, earth) was the only classical example of this comdoubtless older than Cybele (see Welcker
pound.'ATp8aviSppisirdo-', 'all' their
Gotterl. 1. 221), and in Crete the ancient
insolence,referring to the full account
cult of Rhea seems never to have passed
of it which N. has just given (363 ff.).
into that of Cybele, while in Asia Minor
Others understand: (1) ' the complete' or
Rhea and Cybele came to be identified.
'consummate' tippis: cp. 142 irav Kpdros
Hence Demetrius of Scepsis (in the
(n.). Or (2), making iraa' predicative,
Troad) could say that Rhea was not
'went with all its force' (cp. 385 n.).
worshipped in Crete, because, by Rhea,
3 9 8 ra iraTpia, which had belonged
he understood Cybele (Strabo p. 472).
to his father, Achilles: a rare poetical
The legends of the Cretan Ida were use of irA.Tpi.as as = irarpQos: cp. Pind. O.
easily transferred to the Mysian: there
6. 62 irarpla &aaa, the voice of his father
was a Afen7 in the Troad (Strabo I.e.) as
(Apollo). In 0. T. 1394 ra irdrpia...
well as in Crete. Cp. Apoll. Rh. r. bui/xar' =' the house of my fathers,' jrd1139 po/xpy Kai TVTr&vip "Peiijv $p6yes T/MOS having its usual sense. But that
IKduTKOvro. Propertius 3. 1. 27 Idaeum sense is impossible here, since Achilles
Simoenta (the river at Troy), lovis cuna- had been the first possessor of the arms
btda parvi.
wrought by Hephaestus.irapeSCSocrav:
3 9 2 IlaKTuXov: mentioned here as cp. 64 n.
the river on which Sardis was situated,
4OO f. im calls on the goddess to
that city being a famous seat of Cybele's note the wrong: |xcu<aipa, i.e. 6ea, as
worship. Her. 5. 102 SdpSies fiev eve- Sappho fr. 1. 13 TI) 5', w /xo/catpa, | p.eiirpr\aBt](yav (during the Ionian revolt in 5ta(ratff' adavasnp irpoaibircp.ravpoKTO502 B.C.), h> Sk avTriai. Kai Ipbv eirixupliis
vwv, a general epithet, marking the
0eov KUJS^T/S* rb (TKijTrdfievoi oi Xltpffai
fierceness of the creatures whom the
varepov avTevewiiJ.irpa.aav TO iv "~EXXri<nv goddess subdues: cp. //. 18. 579 anepSaipd. Hence an Athenian poet might well Xtio 8k X4ovre dtj' iv irpiWrr^fji fibetjtjiv I ravthink of Sardis in speaking of Cybele. pov ept/y/MjXoc fX^TVv.XedvTwv &fePE is
Lydia was included in the older and
best taken literally, of riding on lions.
larger meaning of Phrygia (cp. Ant. 825
Cybele riding sideways on a lion was
v<rov
n.).eif)(P
holds the place of a pre- often represented in works of art (statues,
dicate, but is clearly not intended as such reliefs, coins). Pliny 35. 109 says that
('rulest so as to make it rich in gold'): Nicomachus painted deum...matrem in
it is merely a second epithet, added as leone sedentem. This painter belonged to
if by an after-thought, or as if XlaKTOiXhv- the Thebano-Attic school, and flourished
eSxpvaov formed one notion : see on 0. T. c. 360 B. c.: we may well suppose, then,
1199. The Pactolus brought down gold
that the lion-riding Cybele was familiar
dust from Mount Tmolus, the range just
in the time of Sophocles. Cp. Eur. Ion
south of Sardis (Verg. Aen. 10. 142 :
202 TTepovvros ttpe&pov lirirov (BelleroHor. Epod. 15. 19, etc.).
phon).But, as the Homeric 'Lirirwv

eyovrei,

cos eoi/ce, crvfjifiokov

Xu777js TT/OOS ^ f t a s

<w evoi

Trpoa&Sefl', axxre yiyv<a<jKiv o n


'ArpeiScav ipya icd 'OSucrcrews.
TOLVT
Sa y a p i w iravTos aV Xoyou KOLKOV
aarrj dvyovra. KOX iravovpyias, dxj> 77s
f)kv
SLKOLLOV es reXos /i.e'XX.01 Troeiv.
aXX' ou r t TOUTO dav^L e/xoiy, aXX' et irapdiv
Aias o /i,eieov Tav^" o/awi' rjvetvero.
NE. owe i p ert ^wi', c3 feV" ou yap av irore
COVTOS y' iKeCvov r a v r ' iavkrjd'qv
eya.

405

410

4O5
Tournier jconj. wpofffSov.yvyv&OKtiv
4O5 Ktu/101]
/ ] Linwood conj.
j K&twi.Tpotrq.5e8']
t
p
q
]
p
f
y
UKCUO
yivdxncetv L . Blaydes conj. yiyi>i*><TKeu> fi'.
4 O 9 /j.rjdev (sic) L ; in which UKCUOV
h
b
d from
f
d i fiaiov
f
( i ) by
b S.,uAXoi
S A X
h i h Blaydes
B l d
i
l ffrom
has
been
made
di
(sic)
L : which
cites
also
emfSas (II. 5. 328) refers to chariot-driv- juxtaposition is forcible; 'to himthose
ing, so here \ebvrav tyetipe might also peerless arms.' The long separation of
mean, in a car drawn by lions. An altar- the verb from its dative is excused by
relief of the Roman age, reproduced by
the fact that the interposed Iw /naicaipa....
Baumeister (Denkm. p. 801), from Zoega's 2(p(sdpe prepares the indignant emphasis
Bassiril. (1. 13), shows her thus: two on r< Aapriov.
lions draw her car; she wears a shortWe should not, then, change rlfias to
sleeved chiton, while the long veil at- yepas. As Nauck remarks, the two words
tached to the back of her mural crown
are confused in the schol. on Eur. Or.
flows down like a mantle; in her right
383 (vol. 2, p. 122, 18 Dind.). L affords
hand is a laurel branch; her left rests an instance of 7 corrupted to a in 571
on the rim of the tympanon, holding it
(i-eo) for iyii). In uncials criflas might
upright on her left knee.It is less likely
have originated from B for P. But the
that \e6vTon> itpeSpe means, ' seated above sense given by ykpas would be tamer.
lions'; i.e., on a throne with lions crouch4O3 f. <n5p.(3o\ov.. .Xvirr]S, a griefing below at each side. Arrian (Peritoken, i.e. a token consisting in your
plous 9) mentions such a representation,
grief (defining gen.; cp. 159 OJ/COC...KOIT77S,
which, like the other two, seems to have n.). av/ipoXa were tallies, sometimes
been frequent.
consisting of dice (Xr7rcu, Plat. Symp.
193 A) or knuckle-bones (aarpdyaXot)
4O2 o-^fias must be ace. in appos.
with reixea: it cannot be (as the first sawn in two. A message or request, purporting
to come from a friend at a disschol. suggests) a vocative addressed to
tance, could thus be tested. The bearer
the goddess. The armour of Achilles,
was asked to produce the other half of
made by the god Hephaestus, is a <rtj3as,
the divided token. See Her. 6. 86. 2
an object on which men gaze with reverrb. (n)/ij3oXa, airatTeov rot
ent wonder. So Thetis describes these
d 613
6l
h

arms as /caXd /jt&\', of oiiru TIS av-ijp


p r a : Eur. Med.
w/M>icri (poprjacv (II. 19. 11). Cp. El. <nfyij3oX', = to give one credentials to friends
685 (Orestes) ei<rr}\$e Xaytwrpos, van rots abroad. When two persons established
exei <re/3as. The dat. T<J> Aaprlov must
such signs between them, they were said
be taken with irapeStdocrav, which re- <rv/j,(3o\a iroieur9au: C. I. G. 87 Trwq<jA.oB<i>
quires it. And it seems best not to take
Si teal crv/j,j3o\a 17 j3ouXrj Trpds T&V (iaaiXia
that dat. with fft/Sas also. If we did so, TOV SiSuWuv, STTUS hv 6 STJJIMJS 6 'Adrivalav
the phrase would mean, 'an object of
elSfj av r i wixirri...de6p.evos rijs x<S\i>s.
reverence' to Odysseus; not, an 'honour' As each half was called trtifipoXov, the word
or 'glory' to him. But, though r y
can mean 'counterpart': Plat. Symp.
Aaprtov is not construed with ffiftas, their 191 D f7jrej STJ del rb airov e/caoros fi)/i-

*IAOKTHTHI

73

PH. It seems that ye have come to me, friends, well commended by a common grief; and your story is of a like strain
with mine, so that I can recognise the work of the Atreidae and
of Odysseus. For well I know that he would lend his tongue to
any base pretext, to any villainy, if thereby he could hope to
compass some dishonest end. No, 'tis not at this that I wonder,
but rather that the elder Ajax, if he was there, could endure to
see it.
NE. Ah, friend, he was no more; I should never have been
thus plundered while he lived.
K (cod. Par. 28!
i4
Porson.

u A, with most of the rest.

411

MSS.

be tenable: cp. Ant. 375 n.).|i.i)8iv here


jSoXox.Musgrave (ed. 1809) first compared Aristeides 1. 416 ( = 625 Dind.) Sib admits of two distinct explanations,
though the sense is virtually the same
teal TcLffiv AvOpwirois iKavbv 4ffn Tpbs ain^v
with either. (1) It is 'generic'(170 n.):
(Athens), wairep 4\Xo n
aiii.fio\ov,
s
i.e. fir/Siv Sixmo? = a thing such as to be
aiirb rb O'XV"' "7 driblets. Cp. Plaut.
not
just. Cp. 4436V0U I /ij;5eis ifa: Ant.
Poen. 5. 2. 87 Ego sum ipsus quern tu
quaeris.Si ita est, tesseram conferre si 4 9 3 6 0u/xos... I TWV fvqbkv opdSis V GK6T<
rexva/ievav. I prefer this view. (2) It is
vis hospitalem.
' final': i.e. /tiWoi iroeiv = wor/aoi: ' from
4O5 f. irpo<r^88', ye are in accord
which he shall not effect anything just.'
with me, i.e. your complaint strikes a
When the fut. indie, in a relative clause
note which finds an echo in my own
mind. Cp. 0. T. 1113 fwpSei T<$8e denotes purpose, the negative is /}: cp.
ravdpl (rififierpos (in respect of age), w- O. T. 1412 iKplij/ar', (vda M^TTOT' elcrbfe<T0'
q.deu> is properly said of two or more r< (n.).Is T&.OS, ultimately (though his
voices which harmonise; Ttpo<rq.$av of a X670S may be plausible at first sight):
vocal accompaniment which harmonises cp. Her. 9. 37 oi fiivroi. h ye T\OS oi
with music. Cp. Eur. Ion 359 irpoaipSbs awqpeiKe rb fyfios ('in the end,'though
j rixt TiifUf wd8eiTavT'ipYa
= TaCTa for a time he prospered).iroetv: for the
spelling, cp. on 120: for the pres. inf.
T& Ipya (O. C. 471 n.).
4O7 ff. 6tv...8iYOVTa = clri #1701 aV. after ptWoi., 0. T. 967 n.
4 1 1 f. 6 \ult,av, the son of Telamon;
cp. T h u c . 7. 42 bp&v...d
iinKpariiaeii
Ajax the son of Oileus (the leader of the
ns...p<fSlus av avrb \ri<p$iv { &TL pq.Sias
western Locrians) was fieiwv, 08 TI TO<TOJ
dv \ritp8eltj). O. C. 761 /ccford iraAnbs an
<pepwv I \6yov Simlov /irixdvri/w. TTOIKCKOV, 76 ocros TeXa/iibvios A t e (//. 2. 528).
OUK ijv in iv. Soon after the death of
n.With iravovpyCas, despite its derivaAchilles, and either just before or just
tion, micros must be supplied: so in Ant.
after
the coming of Neoptolemus, the
300 f. Ttwovpylas is followed by jrairos
Atreidae had awarded the arms to
gpyov.
Odysseus. The suicide of Ajax followed
<<(>' r]S (j.Ti8iv...iroiv: from (=as a reclosely on the award. He died, then,
sult of) which he would be likely, in
the end, to effect anything not just. His either just before, or just after, the arrival
of Neoptolemus at Troy. Neoptolemus
objects have always something unjust in
implies that he left Troy for home just
them; and he is unscrupulous in the
choice of means. When the optat. with after the award (382). Since his indignadv (as here the implied ffiyai. &v) stands tion is feigned, it might be supposed that
the interval between the award and his
in the antecedent clause, the optat. (without dv) often stands in the relative clause: sailing (for Lemnos) had really been
cp. n. on 0. C. 560 Suvip ydp TIV' &V longer. But, even if that interval had
been as brief as he represents it, he might
Trpa^iv T6XOIS 1 W|<s broLas tl-atpiGTaiiL-qv
still have known, before leaving Troy,
iytli. This usage confirms L's |iAXoi
that Ajax was dead.
against /UAXM (though the latter would

74

ZO*OKAEOYZ

<3?I. TTOIS eiTras; aXX' fj ^ouros ot^erai 6ava>v ;


NE. &5s fjL7)KT OVTCL KUVOV iv <aa voei.
<J?I. olfioL TaXas- aXX' ou^ d TuSews yovos.
ovS' ovfJLTro\r)To<s %ucrv<f)ov Aaepria),
ov jj/rj Bdvaxri' rovcrSe yap fir) tfiv eSet.
NE. ou STJT'1 imcrTO) TOVTO y' dXXa /cal jiieya.
6d\\ovTe<s eicri i/uv ep 'ApyeCwv crTparco.
<M. Tt 8'; *ov TraXaios Kayados <iXos T ifios,
NccrTap 6 LTuXtos, ZCTTLV ; ouros y a p r a ye
KeCvov K6.K i^yjpvKe, fiovXevcov cro<f>d.

415

420

4 1 4 d\\' ^ x8Tos] o ^ ' has dropped out of L, which has only y x^T0^- Hence
Seyffert (in Zeitschr. f. d. Gymn., 17, 588) conj. TJ yap xofrros (which Nauck adopts);
also, in his ed. (1867), apa X6TOS4 1 5 poei] Burges and Blaydes conj. <pp6vei.
4 1 7 \aepriov L (made, as some think, by erasure from XaepWij), but this is at least
extremely doubtful); A (with y written above); and most of the MSS.: \aepritp Vat.
The x s e t against this line in L is understood by the schol. as calling attention to the
recurrence of the form Xaiprws: but it may also have meant that, with the double
gen., the construction was found obscure.
4 2 1 In L the 1st hand wrote ri 8' Ci

4 1 4 dXX'i]...; In this formula TJ asks


the question: dXXd marks surprise, as
it so often marks remonstrance ('nay,
can it be so?' or, 'what, can that be
true?'). The fact that dXX' is absent
from L, (see cr. n.) has led some editors to
prefer the conjecture i) ydp. But it may
be observed:(a) dXX' rj was a comparatively unfamiliar phrase, and therefore the fact that the other MSS. have it is
presumptive evidence of its genuineness.
(b) The preceding mos eWos cannot be
urged as an objection: cp. Eur. Ale. 58

Odysseus, with whom the tenth book


of the Iliad associates him in stealing the
horses of Rhesus. In / / . 6. 230 it is
Diomedes who proposes to Glaucus that
the latter should exchange 'golden armour
for armour of bronze.' Lesches,.in the
Little Iliad, and Euripides, in his Philoctetes, made Diomedes come to Lemnos
to fetch Philoctetes : see Introd. Cp.
5924 1 7 ov|J.iro\'nT&s 2iorv<f>ov AtMpTiw,
'the son of Sisyphus, bought by Laertes,'
because Anticleia was said to have been
7ru)s ei7ras; dXX' 7} KCLI trotpbs X^XyjOa^
pregnant when Laertes married her. The
av; It is true, however, that such a pre- word kp.irokiyrb% probably means that
face to dXX' ij is unusual: cp. El. 879: Laertes gave a large 'bride-price' (?5j>a)
Aesch. Ch. 220: Eur. Ale. 816, Helen. to Anticleia's father, Autolycus. So the
490, Heracl. 425, Hipp. 933, [Eur.] scholiast, 7roXXa 5oi>s xpV/laTa 'hyayeTO.
Rhes. 36.Remark that in O. C. 26, This is simpler than to suppose that i/iwowhere dXXd and yj are separated, the Xrirbs is merely 'acquired' (as a bad barpeculiar force of dXX' ^ is not present.
gain), like Xuf3ijTbv i/irbXr/ixa in Tr. 538.
416
(us |i/nKr' OVTO: see on 253,
The legend is not Homeric, but is al4 1 6 otp.01 ToXas, 'woe is me' (not, ready known to Aesch. (fr. 169), and is
'alas, poor Ajax'): as O. T. 744 n. congenial to the spirit in which the dradXX' o i \ : the negative is repeated, for matists often conceive Odysseus; cp. Ai.
greater emphasis, in 418: cp. Ant. 5
190, fr. 143 (ws 6 S<7D0os TOXVS \ ivdriXos
birotov ov \ TS>V a&v re K6,/J.UV oiic STTUTT'
iv aol): Eur. /. A. 524, Cycl. 104: Lycoyi) icaK&v, n.6 TUS&DS 70V0S, Dio- phron 344 (rrj! Xurvtpdas $' dyKiXris
medes. Philoctetes had no personal Xa/iirovplSos, 'crafty fox'): Ov. Met.
grievance against him, but dislikes him
13. 31 sanguine cretus \ Sisyphio, furtisas being a man of the same stamp as que etfraude simillimus illi.

<t>IAOKTHTHI

75

PH. HOW sayest thou ? What, is he, too, dead and gone ?
NE. Think of him as of one who sees the light no more.
PH. Woe is me ! But the son of Tydeus, and the offspring
of Sisyphus that was bought by Laertesthey will not die;
for they ought not to live.
NE. Not they, be sure of it; no, they are now prospering
full greatly in the Argive host.
PH. And what of my brave old friend, Nestor of Pylos,
is he not alive ? Their mischiefs were often baffled by his wise
counsels.
a, and then changed ii to w, also writing "6" above it. The only variants for a
are 8s (6s in A), and 6 (as in V). Among the conjectures are:(i) Badham (on
Eur. / . T. 517) H yap 6. (2) Hermann, rl 5' 0 araSaios { = irpi}os, Hesych.). In his
Retractationes (1841), p. 6, he prefers, however, rt 8' Ss iraXmos, aYaflos 0(\os T'
i/ws. (3) Schneidewin TI 5' ai. (4) Burges and Meineke, rl 8'; OU... ; (5) Hartung,
TI Si) 6. (6) Mekler, ri 8'; f0' 6.
4 2 2 jn5\<o<r iariv L.rd yf\ rdxa F: whence
Hartung gives T&X' &" ' Blaydes, rdS' an.
4 2 3 K&K'] rdb" V, which Herm. adopts,
writing eifTJpi/fe instead of the MS. e|?jpice, on the strength of the schol. in L, yp. icdfe-

With regard to the order of words,


n o t e : ( T ) 6 /j.7ro\T]Tbs 2i<7i5$ou = 6 /jur.

SKTU08I;S, the simple gen. of origin being


placed as HuriQov Trots would have been ;
though usually such a simple gen. comes
immediately after the art. (as Ai. 450 T]
Aids yopySiins iSd/iaros 6ed). (2) Aaeprlt^
merely supplements /jnro\riT6$, and hence
can be placed as though it were an afterthought ; the principle is the same as in
O. C. 1514 ai woWh

fipovTai

BiareXeis:

cp. n. on 0. T. 1245.The genit. AaepTIOV (see cr. n.) cannot be defended by


understanding, (1) 'the son of Laertes,
bought from Sisyphus'; or (2) 'the bought
son of Laertes-Sisyphus,' i.e., of a father,
nominally Laertes, but really Sisyphus.
4 1 9 f. KCU iieya 8dXX.ovres, full greatly
prosperous: cp. Plat. Rep. 272 D TOOTO...
Kal /j.d\' e&c/HToe.

4 2 1 ff. T 8"; ou K.T.X. The fact that


the first hand in L wrote a (sic) is a good
reason for believing that either oii or aS
was the original reading. With ai, the
proper punctuation would be,rl 8 oS
7ro\oi6s K&yadbs ct>l\os T' ifios, | Siffrwp 6

IIOXios, Iffriv; ' And then, again, what of


Nestor,is he alive?' Cp. Ai. 101 elev,
TL yap Sfy TTCUS 6 rod AaepWou, [ TTOU <rot

r i i ^ s iffrriKev; and ib. 983. But the context strongly favours ou. Philoctetes is
wondering how the Atreidae and Odysseus had been allowed to work their will

without hindrance. 'How could Ajax


allow it?' ' H e was dead.' 'Well, but
is not Nestor alive ? He used to restrain
them.' For TC 8', cp. 0. T. 941 rl 5';
oi% irpiafivs Hi\vpos iyxparrjs tri;
With respect to the reading TI 8* Ss, we
observe:(1) Ss might easily have been
generated by the unmetrical conjecture o
which has been written in L above c5:
(2) the ellipse of ecrrl after Ss would be
peculiarly awkward here, where the principal verb is l<rn.iraXaios,simply 'old':
not, (as some take it,) 'one of the good
old school.' For Kal...rt, cp. 581, 656.
T1 7 KCCVUV Ka.K(i, their misdeeds, at
least: cp. Tr. 773 TOS <rou KOKOU, thy
crime. The yt means that, if Nestor
could not ward off all troubles from the
army, at any rate he was able to prevent
acts of flagrant wrong on the part of
such men as Odysseus and Diomedes.
Placed thus between rd and Kdvav KOKA,
ye must emphasise that phrase only; it
cannot here be taken with the whole sentence ('restrained, at least,...'), as in 0.
C. 1278 (n.). Philoctetes alludes either
to what he had seen on the voyage to
Troy, or to what his occasional visitors
had reported.For the place of the art.,
cp. Ant.

67 ri> yap ] 7rept<r<ra Trpdffaeiv, n.

IgijpvKe: the compound occurs only


here. For ipiKeiv asarcere, cp. Theocr.
7. 127 T& IXT) Ka\a vt>acj>iv ipixoi.

76

SCXfrOKAEOYI

NE. KCO'09 ye npacrcrei vvv KCIKGJS, eVel davcov


'AVTIXO^OS avT&5 (f>pov8o<s *os iraprjv v o w s .
<Pl. OL/J-OL, ov
au TWO a w p eAefas, OIF ey<a
TJKLCTT' av rjdihqcr okoikoroiv
Kkveiv.
<peu <pev TL orjTa oei (TKOTTUV, off oioe /x,ev
Te.dvacr, 'OSucrcrevs S' ecmv av Kavravd', Iva
XPVV Q-v TOUTWJ' a v r w avBacrdai veicpov;
NE.

425

430

cro<f)o<5 TraXaioTTjs KCIVOS' a W d ^ a t <ro<f>al

<&I\OKTT}T',

i h i l

Od

K-qpv^ev. 4 2 5 8<rwep yjv 70C0S MSS. The schol. in L notes iwvos as a v. 1. for yovos.
4 2 6 5i5' at TUKX (from aOrair) Sei' :fiiefao-L, with
See comment, and Appendix.
an erasure of two letters after delv', to which the apostrophe has been added by S.
The other MSS. have either dii' aOras Seta' Xeas (as A), or the same with airas. Schol.
in margin of L : yp. Sff airii 5' e|^Setfas, SmK&s. Hence Porson, 8ti' aS T<iS' e^Sei^as.
In Journ. Phil. n . 72 (1869) I proposed Si' ai TiliS' avSp' Ae|aj, which Blaydes

4 2 5 "AVTCXOXOS- Pindar is our earliest


authority for the story of Antilochus
saving his father Nestor's life: he brings
it in a propos of a son who had driven his
father's chariot in the Pythian games, and
won the race (Pyth. 6. 38 ff.). Memnon
was pressing Nestor hard, and one of the
horses in Nestor's chariot had been wounded by Paris. Nestor called for help to
Antilochus, who diverted Memnon's attack from his father to himself, and was
killed; thus winning the fame, vimros
afupl Tonevcnv t/i/ur

jrp&s aperav.

The

Odyssey notices that Antilochus was slain


by Memnon, but does not say that he fell
in saving his father (4. 188). At the end
of the Iliad Antilochus is still living (23.
785 S.); in //. 8. go it is Diomedes who
rescues Nestor (from Hector). Pindar's
source was the Aethiopis of Arctinus, in
which Achilles avenged Antilochus by
slaying Memnon.
os irapTJv -yovos, the son who was at his
side:not (I think) with direct reference
to the saving of Nestor's life by Antilochus,this is more than irafrqv could
suggest, without further explanation (cp.
373),but rather in the general sense
that the son was the stay and comfort of
his father's old age.The MS. reading,
oo-ircp ^v 76VOS, would clearly imply
that Antilochus was Nestor's only (or last
surviving) son. The Iliad describes Nestor as having two sons at Troy, Thrasymedes and Antilochus (17. 378); and
according to the Odyssey (3. 413ff.)six
sons were left to Nestor after the death of

Antilochus, one of these being Thrasymedes. If it be suggested that the Aethiopis may have represented Antilochus as
the last surviving son, we may reply that
this is extremely improbable, when it is
remembered that several Ionian colonies
claimed to have been founded by the Neleidae, descendants of Nestor who emigrated from Pylus (Introd. to Homer,
p. 167). The same consideration condemns Seyffert's 8s y IT' ^V.
Cavallin's
Ss ITOT' rjv is free from this objection, but
is somewhat weak.See Appendix.
4 2 6 f. 8u' at T8' avop' 2\cgas, a
correction which I published in 1869 (see
cr. n.), still appears to me the most probable. Porson's 86' a5 T8* ^Sei|as is
founded on the schol. in L, yp. Si' airii $'
^5ei|as, and may be deemed certain so
far as the words 86' av TiiS' are concerned.
But no one has justified the use of e|^5|as.
We see the proper uses of the word
in 0. C. 1021 iV avrbs ^/t5ei|j;s e/wl (point
them out, discover them, to me): El. 348
rb Toirav /tros 5eeias av ('manifest').
Eur. Hipp. 1298 vaiSbs iKSei^ai <ppiva \
TOV aov SiKalav. But here the word is
strangely inappropriate, 'thou hast pointed
out' instead of, 'thou hast named.' And
SXdjas, the most natural word, is in all
the MSS. It seems very rash, then, to
assume, on the strength of the schol., that
?\eifas is spurious, and i^Sei^as genuine,
especially when we remember the quality
of some of the variants which rest on the
same authority; e.g., in v. 423, the schol.
o n KCLK' i^pVKe
g i v e s yp. K i ^ i

*IAOKTHTHZ

77

NE. Aye, he has trouble now ; death has taken Antilochus,


the son that was at his side.
PH. Ah me! These two, again, whom thou hast named,
are men of whose death I had least wished to hear. Alas!
What are we to look for, when these have died, and, here
again, Odysseus lives,when he, in their place, should have
been numbered with the dead ?
NE. A clever wrestler he; but even clever schemes,
Philoctetes, are often tripped up.
(1870) reads from his own conjecture. Kaibel (Hermes xix. 254) Si' airii nbS' 2Xefas.

4 2 8 0eO <f>eu' ri Sijra] Heimsoeth (Krit. Stud. p. 284) conj. <pevm Beois rt Sijra [not 0eO
<t>ev- Beois H Set, as it has been quoted].
4 2 9 ftmx (itrriv L) ad tcavraSB' Iva MSS.
(iarlv b/ravB' 'tva R). Bothe conj. tariv avK ivravB' iva: Blaydes, lart-v evBdS', 6vnva.
43O XPV"] Xpty L.avSaaBai] Cavallin gives av iB
L's reading, Si' avTws Stlv' JXeas, with
an erasure of two letters after Sdv', may
well have arisen from Iff av riiS' &v [8p]
Xeas. The word AEIN would easily
have been suggested by AAN if the AP
had from any cause been obscured: or,
again, a misreading of AAN as AEIN
may have led to the omission of AP. In
minuscule writing the process would have
been hardly less easy.
As to the reading Si' OUTWS 8V' Xcgas,

two things seem clear. (1) avrots, or, as


it is better written, avrws, yields no fitting
sense here. It could not mean, ' in those
few words.' It would rather mean, 'just
as in the former cases.' Cp. 0. T. 931 n.
(2) Sio...Selt>' Xeas, dlv, would be most
awkward, whether rendered (a)' thou hast
told dreadful news about two persons'
(Sio masc), or (i) 'thou hast told two
calamities concerning persons,' etc. (Sio
neut., with roiroiv understood from oh).
Si'.. dv8p: Ajax (415) and Antilochus.
Prof. Campbell says that v. 415 is 'too
remote to allow of this': but vv. 416
420 form merely a parenthetic contrast
suggested by the death of Ajax, and with
v. 421 we come to the father of Antilochus. If Si' dvSpe are to be Nestor and
Antilochus (as Campbell holds), OXWXOTOIV
has to mean 'desolate' in the case of the
living father, and 'dead' only in the case
of the son. But surely otSt in 428 must
include both the men mentioned in 426.
4 2 8 crKoiretv here=7rpoo-5oKa, a rare
use. More often <rKOTrew='look for' in
the sense of gryreiv: Xen. An. 5. 7. 32
(TKOiretre travXav Tiva.ot8t, Ajax and
Antilochus; perh. he thinks of Achilles
(33i) too.

4 2 9 'OSvo-o-cvs S' ttrriv

'while Odysseus survives in this case


also,'outliving Ajax and Antilochus
(ol'Se, 428), as he had already outlived
Achilles (371). Once more, death has
spared the worse man (436). According
to other views, (t) KavravBa = 'and' [not
'also'] 'in a case where'; i.e., 'not only
does he live, but he has survived men so
much his betters.' (2) KwravBa = ' and
in such a crisis as this,'i.e., when, Achilles being dead, the Greeks at Troy could
ill spare true men. (3) The schol. explains Kavravd' by (v rots f<3<ru/: but this
ignores K<U, and makes ivravBa weak.
Some think that the phrase used by Philoctetes was intended to have a second
meaning ('here in Lemnos') for the spectator ; but this is improbable.
4 3 0 avr&v, ilium, not ipsum: the
latter would be fitting only if Odysseus
had been responsible for the deaths of the
others. a'uSa<r8ai: cp. El. 1478 fflvras
Bavovaw OVVCK' dvravSq.s t<ra, speakest of

the living as if they were dead.


431 f. iroXaicTifc: cp. Ar. Ran. 877
p

^/p/

\ tXB

p /3X

<n iraXalfffJLafftv avTiKoyovvres ('when

they enter the strife, contending with


subtle, tortuous tricks'). Aeschin. or. 3
205' 7rd\ar/Mt TOUT' earl SiKatrrr/plov, a

trick of the law-courts.l|iiro8CJovrai:


the word seems to have been suggested
byfl-aXawTijs,alludingto a wrestler
tripping up his adversary: cp. Ar. Eq.
262 (with ref. to the tricks by which
Cleon outwits his simple victims), SiaXa/3i6p, ayKvpi<ras,
| etr' avofrTptyas rhv
wp.ov avrbv eveKoX-qfia<ras ( ' y o u put one of

your legs between his,hook it round

SO0OKAEOYS
<$>!.

xp' etTre Trpos Oeaiv, TTOV yap "fjv ivravdd croi


nctrpo/cXos, os crov Trarpo? r/v TO. ^ t X r a r a ;
NE. XOUTOS TedvijKCJS rfv \6yw Se cr' eV /Spa^ei
TOUT' e/cSiSaf&r 7roA.e/i,os ouSeV avBp' CKCJV
alpel Trovrjpov, ak\a TOUS XP^OTOUS act.
^vfjLfjLaprvpoi) crof Kal KCLT* avTO TOUTO ye
dva^iov /i,e> <a)Tos i^eprfo-ofiai,
ykaxrcrr) Se Sewou /cai, cro(j)ov, TI VVV KvpeZ
y 'OSucrcreiws
NE. TTOLOV Se TOVTOV W\T]V
] y

435

44

ov TOCTOV eTirov, aXXa epcriT^s TIS iji',


os OUK av eiXeT* eicraTraf etireiv, oirou
CWT;
TOVTOV oto-ff ei t,wv Kvpel;
4 3 4 <roO Hemsterhuys (Lucian vol. I. p. 147): <roi MSS.
4 3 S ff' ev fipa-xci
Erfurdt: a-f fipax^ MSS.
4 3 6 TOUT'] Wecklein conj. TOUT' (Ars p. 55).01)5^'
has been made in L from oiS' iv (or iv) : this might suggest oi55' v\
4 3 7 alpel
V2 (aipef Suid.): aXpei L, with the rest.
44O 8] Campb. ascribes TE to L
here, but doubtless through a misprint of 440 for 441. In this verse L, like the
other MSS., has 5.vvv] Blaydes conj. dpuv.
4 4 1 iroiov Si Florens Christianus,
them,force his shoulder back,and fall
fr. 101 "Aprjs 5' 01/K dyadwv falderal,
heavily on him').
dXXct KaK&v. The same thought is implied in the phrase of Andoc, or. 3 30
4 3 3 f. Oeiov, amonosyll.: 0. C. 964 n.
iroWobs fiev 'Adtjvaiiav diroK^ffavres dptuwoO 7dp: for yap, cp. 249 f.<roi, ethic
rivSi)v,as if the dpiffroi had been
dat., implying, 'how was it that you did
selected.
not find him ready to help you at that
crisis?' Cp. O. C. 81-17 ptj$r)Kev i]/j.iv 6 4 3 8 KOT* avTO TOOTO ye, in accordance
ivos;TA (juXTaTa, of one person, as with this very thing, = 'on this very
Eur. Ion 521 T& <j>i\Ta6' ebpibv (i.e. rbv
ground': cp. Isocr. or. 18 34 OVK afioc
vlbv): but of several persons, 0. C. 1110 ouYe Kara X&Plv o" KaT' iirulictutv ouVe
etc.
K O T ' aXXo oiiSev rj Kara TOI)$ ftpicovs irepi
4 3 5 f. Xo'-y(|i...!v Ppox I: CP- EL 673 a&T&v ipi](pUra.o'da.t.
Ti8vt))C 'OptaTtp iv /SjOaxef <jw9d% \iyu>. 4 3 0 f. 4>UT6S, about him (gen. of conAesch. P. V. 505 /Spaxei 8 iubf)i$ irdvra nection): cp. 441: n. on O. C. 307.rl
crvW^^dTjv /j.d$e. TOVT', instead of rbS', . Kupet. Kvpea, in ref. to a person's forreferring to what follows: cp. n. on O. C. tunes, can be either (1) intrans., with
adv., as El. 1424 HA. 'Opiara, TTUS Kvpel787.
Tr6Xe|ios K.T.X. : the ymi/iri stands as Te; OP. rdv 86p.oi<ri pep J Ka\ws'. or (2)
trans., with ace, as Aesch. Ch. i\\ eirel
an independent sentence, unconnected
with the prefatory TOUT' eK&Sdfw: cp. ri vvv fciTi Sai/jJ>vwv KvpQ; ('what do I
Ant. 612 eirapicecei V6/J.OS 88'' otidiv tpvei obtain?'). Here Kupct seems to be inK.T.X.IKV, 'by choice': i.e., war has a trans., while TC is virtually adverbial: cp.
0. C. 1704 Iwpa^ev otov rj$e\ev ( = 8irws
marked preference for killing good men,
though, of course, it kills some bad men ij0c\cv), 'he has fared as he would.'
too. The word CKWV does not involve a
4 4 1 iroCov 8i TOUTOU : cp. 572: O. C.
definite personification of iro\e/ios (like 67 SB. c/c TOU Kar' aarv (SacriKe'uis rdS'
that in Ar. Pax): we can say, ij (ptiais dpXCTai. 01. OSTOS Si rts \6yiji re Kal
/SotfXeTCU woteiv TI (Arist. An. Gen. 4), trdevet KpaTe't; ( = Tts ZGTIV OSTOS 6S Kpare?;)
without writing ii^m. Cp. fr. 652 TOUS -where, as here, 84 continues a conciryeveis yap Kayaffotis, w irat, <pi\el | "Aprfs
versation by putting a question which the
evaipeiv' oi Si T yktliaar) Opacreis | <pei-last speaker's words suggest.epets, i.e.,
yovres a/ras KT6S cUn TWV KO.KG>V' "ApTjsof whom do you mean to speak. Cp. O.
yap oiSfr TUV KUKUV Xwriferoi. Anacreon C. 595 0 1 . iriirovBa, Qrjffev, Seiva irpbs

4>IA0KTHTHI

79

PH. NOW tell me, I pray thee, where was Patroclus in this
thy need,he whom thy father loved so well ?
NE. He, too, was dead. And to be brief, I would tell thee
this,war takes no evil man by choice, but good men always.
PH. I bear thee witness;and for that same reason I
will ask thee how fares a man of little worth, but shrewd of
tongue and clever
NE. Surely this will be no one but Odysseus ?
PH. I meant not him:but there was one Thersites, who
could never be content with brief speech, though all men
chafed :know'st thou if he is alive ?
T, Vat. b : iroiov re L, with A and most of the others; woiov ye T, B, Vat.roirov]
Brunck conj. TOOTO.(pets'] \(yeis V 2 , which Nauck prefers. Wecklein gives iroiov ye
rovrov ir\ty [instead of irkijv 7'] '08. (pete, ascribing it to Nauck: who, however, in
his 8th ed. (1882) has 5e...irXij> 7'. Blaydes gives, on his own conject., iroiov av rovS'
aS ir\-fpt 7' '05. (pets',
4 4 3 ei'Xer' elaaira\ Blaydes gives rjdetr' eis aTravr'.
In L eiaairal; is written as one word.
4 4 4 (<fr\ r (including A ) : (ibv L, with yp.
edin (sic) in marg.

KaKOLS KCLKOU 0 H . 7/ TTJP TToKathv

i?UjU0O-

pav y(vovs (pels;

'never used to choose.' Xen. Cyr. 7. 1.


10 OTrore irpoafiKe'Tpeie' Tivas...eTirev civ. I n

this use the aor. differs from the impf. by


marking a moment; as e'Ckero expresses
has been preferred by some; because,
the making of the choice, while ripeiro
where a verb of speaking or asking thus
would express the sentiment of preference.
takes a simple gen., the object of the
verb is usu. represented, either () by an
(2) 8irov in)8ls Icjn], ' in a case where no
a c e , as in El. 317 TOU Kaaiyvifrov ri
one was for allowing him to speak': the
<j>'qs; or (i>) by a relative clause, as aboveoptat. denotes indefinite frequency (as
in 440 by ri vvv Kvpet; But in 0. C. 307 289 S ixoi /SaXoi). Cp. irpoafiXtyei.e in the
KMUV aov ('hearing about thee') is an ex- example just cited, pr/dels is 'generic,'
ception to the supposed rule. Further,
i.e. marks the occasion as being one of a
(pets is here merely a short expression for class: cp. 170 n. And since OVK eu = ' dis(%epi}O~ei ri VVV KvpeT.
suade,' 'remonstrate,' Sirov /ir/Sels lift)
4 4 2 0PO-CTT)S= 'the bold one,' 6(paos = 8TOV iravres /j.$i-e<pevl 'where all were
protesting.'
Cp. At. 1184 Ta<pov ,ueXi7being the Aeolic form of Bapaos (Bekker
Anecd. p. 1190. 1), as Kpiros of Kpdros: 6eU Ti$5e, Kav i;5eis eg., = K$J> iravres /*);cp.'A\t6(pa/rjsi O(paavdpos. Here he sur- tSo-iv, 'though all the world forbid.'
vives Achilles. But, according to the
(3) ' H e would never choose to speak
commoner legend, he died before him.
(only) once'= 'he would always choose
Achilles had slain the leader of the Amato speak often';a fteiuo-is of the same
zons, Penthesilea. Thersites thrust his
order as ov\ fiKurra for fitiXuTTa. Thus
spear into the eyes of the corpse, and
the whole sense isad av et\ero iroWaicis
taunted Achilles with his love for her; \(yetv, UTTOV iravres <nyav tceXetiotev. Rewhen the hero killed him. This was the mark that, in the negative form actually
version given by Arcttnus in the Aethiopis
used, the aor. inf. (eiireiv) suits 'cro7ra
(Proclus, Chrestom. p. 478). It was the better than a pres. inf. (Kiyeiv) would
subject of a play (prob. a satyric drama)
have done.
by Chaeremon, called 'AxiX\ci>s Qepai.roSophocles here reproduces the two
<
KTOVOS (Suidas, s.v. irapx' "'>calls it simply salient traits of the Homeric Thersites:
6ep<rh~ris). See Nauck, Frag. Trag. p. (1) he is irrepressible: //. 1. 111 Qepo-l607.
TIJS S' In fiovvos a/xeTpoeirTis eno\ij>a, |
Ss p' iirea <j>pealv rjaiv aK0<7)xa re iroWa. re
4 4 3 f. Ss OVK &v etXcr' K.T.X. This
rjSri: (2) he disgusts those whom his
sentence deserves study as an example of
Attic expression. (1) O$K av eli\eTo = bluster was intended to amuse or flatter;
Brunck's conjecture, TOCTO for TOVTOV,

80

IO*OKAEOYI

NE. OVK etSov avTov, rjcrdofi'qv 8' ef ovra viv.


$ 1 . e/xeXX'* iirel ovSei/ ir<o /ca/coV y diraX
dXX' ev TrepLcrTekXovcriv aura, oaif
/cai TTOi<5 rd fx,ev iravovpya /cai
p
~)(aipova dva.<TTp4<$>ovT<; i "AiSou, r a Se
Si/caia /cai r d ^/aijcrr' a7ro<TreXXovcr' dei.
TTOU xpi} rideadat
ravra, TTOV S' aiveiv, oVav
r d ^ei' iiraivav TOUS deov<s evpco /ca/cous ;
NE. eyci joiev, S yevedXov OlraCov irarpos,
TO XOLTTOV yjBr) Tr)\66ev TO T' "iXioi'

/cai TOUS 'ArpeCSa's eiaopav ^vXdfo/iai1

oVou ^ d -)(eCpcov rdyapov fiel^ov crdevei


Kavo(f)dCvei, Ta 'xprjcrrd ^<u *8etXos KpaTet,
TOVTOVS eyw TOUS dvSpas ov arep^w

445

45

455

trori'

dXX' 7) nerpaia %Kvpos itjapKOvad fxoi


TO Xotiroi', wore TepTrecrdcu SO/AW.

460

445 OOTOK] aur6s Burges and Nauck.8' IT'] Si T' L.


4 4 6 ovdtv TU R
45O XP^'T1
and Suid.: oiSiiru L, A.
4 4 8 Kal iraxr from Kai trda L.
Xpijffr' (not xp5ffT') L.dxoo'TAXoi/cr'] Suidas (s. v. TroXii'Tpi/3^) reads aTrayyAXowr'.
Nauck gives 5rpou(reXoO<r'.
4 5 1 xpfy| %p^ L.vov S' alvttp] Blaydes gives
irws 5' aiveiv.
4 5 2 ^jraii'wi'] Schneidewin conj. epewwr, which Nauck and
Blaydes adopt; while Schneidewin himself afterwards returned to braivuw. Musgrave

ib. ill rif 8' ap' 'A^aiol | eKTayXoit ding esp. to the story of Sisyphus cheating
Koriovro.TOVTOV otcrfl': for the con- Pluto: "cp. 621 n.ret $k: cp. 422 n.
struction, cp. 534, 544, 549, 573: 0. C. diroorr&Xow': cp. O.C. 1664 ee7r^/reT'
(of Oed.): Plat. Symp. 179 E (8eol 'A%i\1197 f., Ant. 1242 f.
4 4 5 oilrdv should not be changed to \ia) els fiaKapw v^aovi aTrire/j.^/av. Eur.
atlros, which would be too emphatic here. Ion 1274 apdr/v dv e^Treyn^as eis "AtSou
86/wvs (ME). The word is so natural after
He speaks in a careless tone. The foldva<rrpi<povTes that Nauck's alteration of
lowing vw, though it was not necessary,
it to irpoweXow is strange indeed.
affords no argument against avrdv.
4 5 1 f. irou XP1! T'8o"9ai: where am I
4 4 6 f. ?u*XV, sc. etvtu: cp. Ant. 448 n.
to place these things (in a theory of divine
btrA ov8v: the synizesis as in 948,
1037; fr.479. 3 eirei ovS' 6 Kpdtjatav.Cp. government), i.e., what am I to think of
frag, adesp. 276 (Nauck) ovS&r Kaxbv them? For this use of the midd. HSe/Mai,
cp. 473, 876: Dem. or. 18 299 (ravTa)
<7&p> faSluis dirdWvrai.iMpwreXvbppw jiivroi irou ran i/iol irtiro\i.Tevii^vwv
Xotxriv, cherish, protect (as Her. 9. 60
etc.), a sense derived from that of 'dress- rlBe^ai ('rank them far below...').irov
8' alvctv: and in what respect to praise
ing' or 'wrapping up' (cp. Ant. 903).
them: cp. O. T. 390 irov ai panns &
4 4 8 ff. ret iravovpYa: for the neut.,
instead of robs KaKotipyovs, see on 0. T. aatprfs; and ib. 355 n.orav K.T.X. The
simplest
form of question would have
1196.1raX.ivTp1.pTJ, lit. 'rubbed again
and again,' hence, thoroughly versed in been:'What is one to think of these
knavery (cp. vb(U>usu> evrpiffis, Ant. 177).things, seeing that they conflict with one's
So Ar. Nub. 260 Xtyctv yev-fiaet. Tplp./x.a, belief in beneficent gods?' This is amKp&raXov, Tanrd\ij: ib. 447 eipTiaierfy, plified into'What is one to think of
i
StKwv.dvao-rp^KPVTts: allu- these things, seeing that, while one praises

<t>IAOKTHTHZ

81

NE. I saw him not, but heard that he still lives.


PH. It was his due. No evil thing has been known to
perish; no, the gods take tender care of such, and have a
strange joy in turning back from Hades all things villainous
and knavish, while they are ever sending the just and the good
out of life. How am I to deem of these things, or wherein
shall I praise them, when, praising the ways of the gods, I find
that the gods are evil ?
NE. Son of Oetean sire, I, at least, shall be on my guard
henceforth against Ilium and the Atreidae, nor look on them
save from afar; and where the worse man is stronger than
the good,-^where honesty fails and the dastard bears sway,
among such men will I never make my friends. No, rocky
Scyros shall suffice for me henceforth, nor shall I ask a better
home.
conj. rd $el\ ewatvojv robs deofc, eVpoj /ca/ca;
4 5 5 elffopwv~\ elaopaf Y, and
so Blaydes.
4 5 6 STTOV 6' L, with y written over 6 (by S, I think, rather than
by the ist hand): Sirou $' A : Sirov y' B, T, and others: STOV 8' Herm. and Burges.
4 5 7 5u\bs Brunck: Seicos MSS.
4 5 8 Nauck agrees with K. Walter (Emendationum in Soph. fab. specimen, p. 17) in rejecting this verse. In 456 he would
then read Sirov TO xefpoy.
46O 8bfi(p] ixbvif Suidas (s. v. <rrep|w).Nauck
thinks that this v. was added by a grammarian, in order to furnish the finite verb.

the dealings of the gods, one finds (by


these facts) that the gods are bad?'
iitaxvav is best taken in a simple temporal
sense, ( = ' at the same time that one
praises,') rather than as tentative ('while
one tries to praise'), or concessive (' though
one praises').
4 5 3 hja |Uv: Ant. 11 n.OlraCou,
since Poeas was king of the Malians;
cp. 411.
4 5 4 f. TT)XO8V ... elo-opuv,' eyeing them
from a distance,' i.e., holding aloof from
them. The phrase is figurative; it is not
an oxymoron, like h axbTip bpav (O.T.
1273), as though it meant 'never seeing
them.' This rrjKbOev daopav is a poetical
counterpart of irbppwdev dfrirdfetrdat,
familiar in Attic as meaning ' to give a
wide berth' to an objectionable person
or thing: Plat. Rep. 499 A o'iwv frreiv

fr. 4 2 8 oVirci y&p 0i/Xd<r<reTOi, | <pl\u>v re

nifiApw Keh Beois afiaprdvuv.


4 5 6 ff. &nov = Trap' OTOIS, followed by
TOVTOVS : cp. Ai. 1081 8wov 5' ippifav
Spay 0' a jHoiXtrcu irapy, | Tair-qv vbiufc
T^V irb\iv

K.T.X.

SEIXOS is rightly restored by Brunck for


Seivos of the MSS. It alludes to Odysseus
as a trickster (407) and a coward (1025).
Cp. Ant. 326 T& b~u\h Ktpdi}, where, again,
L has the false reading Suva. Seivo's, by
itself, would mean simply 'able.' As
Arist. says, Seivbrrjs is the faculty of finding means to an end; av ovv 6 <TKOTT6S fj

Ka\bs, tiratveTT) <TTIV' dp 8t (pavXos, iravovpyia (Etk. N. 6. 13). So, in v. 440,


the bad sense of deivov is hinted by
y\aaa-ri. Campbell quotes Isocr. or. 12
48 to show that SEIKO'S could, by itself,
mean 'a clever rogue': there, however,
Suvi)v
(said of Sparta) means 'formidable'
ixkv rb aKijOis.. .T& Si KOfi\j/d re icai ipurriKa
...vbppaffev d<7?rafo/x6'wj\ Eur. Hipp. 102 ( = <po(3ep&i> just before), and the sense of
irpb(TO)6cp airrjv (Aphrodite) ayvbs we 8ayijv...vo/j.ieiv is presently repeated in
dirn-dfo/iai. Antiphilus (c. 60 A.D.) in
i d d
88U
Anthol. 9. 29 (speaking of the golden
4 5 9 f. SKVpos: see on 240.ttapage), eSr' dird xipaov \ TrfKbSev, iis"Ai5t;s, Kovcd |iov...wo-r6 (yue) Tc'pirco-6ai Sofuu,
TTOVTOS direj3\6rero. Cp. the phrases, sufficient to make me content with my
tinged with a similar irony, in O. T. 795, abode (and resigned to seeing no more
997.(}>u\do[Mu, midd., sc. abrotis: cp. of the army).
J. S. IV.

82

I04>0KAE0YI

vvv S' elfu irpos vavV /ecu CTV, ILoavro<; T4KVOV,


X(up* cos fidyicrTa, Xc^Pe' Ka'L < r e S /
vocrov fieTacrTrjcreiav, <us a w o s 0eXeis.
rjneis o icofiev, cos OTTTQVIK av ueo<5
vXovv tf/juv eLKy, TiqviKavff 6p^(iifie9a.
4^5
<J>I, yjSr], T4KVOV, areXXecrde;
N E . Kaipos yap
X
TTXOVV fj.rj ' airoTTTOv [laWov rj 'yyvOev
<I>I. 77/309 vvv ere irarpos 7rpo<s re fjLTjTpos, o> TCKVOV,
irp6<; T et TL croi /car' OIKOV ecrn Trpocr^itXes,
i/cerr/s iKvovfiai, fjnij Xvirys ft OVTOJ JXOVOV,
47
eprj/xov iv KaKoicri Toicrh' otots o/aas
ocroicrt T ef^Koucras ivvaiovTa. /x,e'
a W ez/ irapepyw dov /u,e. Svcr^epeia /nev,
efotSa, TroXXf) rouSe rou ^ o / o ^ a r o s 1
O/AWS Se TKTJ6L' TOLCTL yevvauoLcrt TOL

TO T ' alcrxpov i^dpbv

KOLI TO xfir)a'T0V

475

ewcXeej.

4 6 5 c?Kj)] 17V1; (V) L.


A mark written over ^ merely calls attention to a
scholium in the left marg. (which has the same mark prefixed to it), diSur
<ri/yxpi5<n;. F has ^KEI, and the Harleian T\KOL. A has elicy, but the seems to have
been made from i).Cavallin conjectures iy, not observing that the i of l'ij/ is always
short in the pres. subjunct.; see comment, on O. C. 1279.
466 arAXtf]
<rW\e<r0e L, with the second X added above the line by the 1st hand.
468

4 6 2 f. \atpe is repeated, as Ar. Pax


for the semi-personification, cp. 1450;
5S2 xaipe x a 'p'> $> 1?f>Z XalpTe XaLpeT>
-&? 75 Kaipbs ydp, flo-irep avSp&<nv \ p.eetc. us |^'YKrra: cp. ixiya xaipe (Horn.
yurros Ipyov iravrbs ear' emffTdriis: ib. 39
hym. 1. 466, etc.).|ieTO<rn]o-iov: Eur. tirav ac Kaipbs eltrdyri. xaXci, as Eur. Hec.
Helen. 1442 fihifov irp6s i]/w.s KO\ fierd1042 {3oti\e<r8' iTreunrd<runei>; us aKfj.ii
ari\<jov KO.K&V.cSs awrds 8e\i.s : Horn.
xaXet \ 'Eicci/Sj; irapavat.. Lucian (Demohym. 3. 417 peta /idX eirprjvvev itcr/jiiXov, nactis vita 65) quotes, as a familiar stage
OJS ^eV atiros.
*t^g>' Kaip6s di /caXet fiTjKtri fiiWeiv.
4 6 5 irXovv ij|J.lv &KJ\: a very rare in4 6 7 ir\ovv...<rKOirtv, to watch for
stance of etna TU>1 TI as^concedo aliquid
(428 n.) favourable weather: cp. Antialicui. We cannot compare O. C. ill
phon or. 5 24 (the speaker had been
eiKovras a 8ei, or Ai. 1243, eticeiv a rots
detained in port by adverse winds) TTXOVS
TTOWOIGIV ijpeffKev KpiraZsj where the ace.
i)p2v iylyvero, Kal dvfyyero irXoia aTavTa.
merely denotes the things in regard to
Thuc. 1. 137 I^XP1 TXOOS yivijTai..pi\
which one is to yield. Still, / / . 23. 337
'J diroirroi), not at a distance (from the
ship); strictly, so that the quarter in
dai ri oi Tjvla ('to give the horse rein')
seems to confirm eturi here. The analogy
which their ship lies shall not be awoirroi,
of -wapeticw suggests to me that the constr.
i.e., 'seen (only) at a distance.' Cp.
here would be somewhat softened if, inGalen 3. 222 e{ dwbirTov $ea<rd/j.evos, and
stead of irXovv, we might read ir\Ev: cp.
append, on O. T. 762 (p. 230, 2nd ed.).
At the cave they are close to the sea,
Plat. Legg. 934 C 6'TCOS av T\jxa> irapeiKun
6eol... vonoBeretv.
But the change,
and can judge of the weather as well
though tempting, is not necessary.
as at another point on the coast. But he
4 6 6 Ktupos, the need of the moment;
means that they must be close to their

4HA0KTHTHI
Now to my ship! And thou, son of Poeas, farewell,
heartily farewell; and the gods deliver thee from thy sickness,
even as thou wouldst! But we must be going, so that we
may set forth whenever the god permits our voyage.
PH. DO ye start now, my son ? N E . Aye, prudence
bids us watch the weather near our ship, rather than from
afar.
PH. NOW by thy father and by thy mother, my son
by all that is dear to thee in thy homesolemnly I implore
thee, leave me not thus forlorn, helpless amid these miseries
in which I live,such as thou seest, and many as thou hast
heard! Nay, spare a passing thought to me.Great is the
discomfort, I well know, of such a freight;yet bear with it:
to noble minds baseness is hateful, and a good deed is glorious.
re... | vpos T'] Blaydes would prefer irpos <re... | irp6s o"'.
4 7 O i/cenjs] Meineke
(0. C. p. 287) conj. &T?;S or krijp.Xi7T7)s] XaVijis L, with t written over a by the
1st hand.
4 7 1 roiaS' ofois] rotaSi y' ofs Suid. (s. v. ivpbs vvv). Dind. conj.
ToiffiS' oh. Blaydes writes TOI^S' ev oh, and in 472 ev ol<rl T' for b'aoial T'.Wecklein
adds 0' after ol'ois.
4 7 2 ivviovra L, with at written over t by S.
4 7 4 Nauck
suspects this v.
4 7 8 TO T' altrxpbv exSpbv] Herm. Retract, p. 7 conj. TO T'
i%6pbv alcrxpbv.eik\e&] Vauvilliers conj. evQiXis: Dobree, eixepis: Nauck, eifiapCs:

rate, let this good deed be an accident of


ship, in order to sail as soon as ever the
your voyage.' Cp. Eur. El. 509 rjKBov
wind changes. At present it is adverse
yap U&TOV Trpds T&fiov, irdpepy'
odov (as
(640) for a voyage to Scyros: i.e., it is
an incident of the journey). Thuc. 1. 142
south or south-west (cp. 355).Others
(with ref. to naval skill) OVK evSix^ai...
take airlyirTov OKoireiv as = ' t o watch
K waptpyov /ieXeraaSai.ev traplp'ycp = ev
from a place where one cannot (pron-apipyov
fdpet. (Plat. Rep. 370 c).8wrperly) see,' a sort of oxymoron, like iv
X^fMui: cp. 900.
<TK&T<I> bpav.
4 7 4 ggouia, by the bitter experience
4 6 8 f. irpos viv trt iroTpos...'irp6s T*
to which he alludes in 1031 f.i|>opi]|i.ad TI K.T.X. : cp. n. on 0. C. 250 irpos a'
TOS, freight, as <popiu> is said of ships (Od.
on (rot (pt\ov K otdev avro/xcu.
2. 390).
4 7 0 f. IK^TTIS strengthens iKvolfKii
much as in 0. T. 760, e^iK^Tevcre TTJS e/irjs 4 7 8 T<5 T' atcrxpdv K.T.X. The ob%eip6s Biythv, the verb is strengthened by jections which have been made to this
verse seem idle. Philoctetes is appealing
the added phrase, which serves to mark
to the generous instincts of the young
the attitude of formal supplication. Cp.
below, 930. F o r licvei<rBai = lKeTeiei.v, c p . man. ' To noble natures, what is (morally) shameful is hateful, and what is worthy
932, O. C. 275 and i o n : Ai. 588: El.
appears glorious.' OJKX'S implies, 'even
136.
if there is no applause to be gained, the
4 7 1 f. otois op<js ... ewaCovra,the
yevvdios is rewarded by the sense that he
disease, and the wretched dwelling:
has merited true eftcXeia,i.e., that his
oarourt T* ^Kovcras,the painful prodeed is, in itself, honourable.' Then, in
vision of food, water, fuel, and fire (285
vv. 477479, Philoctetes passes to a
299). Cp. 174 f.
different and a lower argument,viz.,
4 7 3 b> iropp7co 8ov |u, lit., regard
that Neoptolemus will incur reproach if
me (451 n.) as a secondary task: i.e.,
he refuse to do this act of mercy, and
'give me a place, however lowly, in thy
that, in the other case, he will have men's
care.' The thought is: ' I should not
praises. All the difficulties which have
have asked you to alter your course for
been raised have come from failing to s_ee
me; but since you are going home at any

62

IO*OKAEOYI

84
croi o ,

eKMTTOVTi TOVT , oveioos ou KOLKOV,

Spdaavri, 8', w 77cu, n-X.eio-Toi' ewXeias ye/>as,


eav /x.oX<u 'yw ^tup vp6s Oiraiav ^(6ova.
tff- .rni4pa<i TOL fio^Oos ov)( 0X775 /x.ias.
roX/JLTjo-ov, i/xftakov JX ovy #e'Xets dyav,
eh dvrXCav, eh npapav, eh irpvfivrjv, oirov
rJKicrTa fxiXko} rous (jvvovras
akyvvelv.
vevcrov, TT/JOS avrou Z^vos IK<TLOV, TCKVOV,
ire.Lcr0r)TL' irpoo-niTvoi cre yovacri, Kaiirep Sv
aKpdTwp 6 TXTJIICHV, ^WXOS. aXXd ^r\ /A' a ^ s
eprjfiov ovTco \&)/3is dvdpc&ircov (TTC^OV
aXX 7^ TT/aos OIKOV TOV CTOV eKcroxTov fji o/yatv,
rj np6<s ra XaS.K(6SovTos EuySoias crraQ^a.'
KaKeWev ov pot /xaKpos ei<s OLTTJV (TT6\O<S

480

485

49O

Tournier, evirerh.
4 7 7 f. TOVT'] Blaydes writes TOVS', and in 478 changes
Sp&aavn to otliaavri. Nauck adopts the latter conjecture, though not the former; but
he should have received both, or neither.
48O Id'} 68' Triclinius.TOI] Burges
conj. <roi. 4 8 1 e/x/3aXoO r, lKpa\ov L. Meineke conj. eiff/SaXoO.Swri] Sn-qi L :

(1) that the subjective sense of


justified by the fact that Town ^cvva
is an ethic dat.,'in the sight of the
generous,'not a dat. of interest: and
(2) that the considerations urged in 475
479 are of two distinct orders.
477

IKXIITOVTI TOVT' = ikv

e/cXiTnjs

TOVTO, if thou forsake, abandon, this deed


(which is a duty laid on thee): cp. Eur.
/ . T1. 750 ' 5', itcKiinbv TOV 6OKOV, Aducotyis
efU.ov&8os is strengthened by ov KOXOV,
as in 842 by ala%pbv, in O. C. 753 by
dS\iov,m 0. T. 1035 by Seivbv. Ellendt,
indeed, is with those who trace here an
original 'middle' sense of 6veidos a s = ' a
thing said of one' (good or evil). It
would be equally reasonable to infer a
neutral meaning for tciip from Tr. 454 ))/>
TrpbffeaTiv ov /ca\ij.
4 7 8 f. irA.io-Tov=/u<fy'<""oc: cp. Ant.
1051: Od. 4. 697 at yap Si], /SarriXeto,
T6SC irXeXaTov Kaicbv ttrf \ dWa iro\i>
/tetfoe K.TX(i6X 'yd: cp. El. 472 el
p.il 'yd.
4 8 0 W, in entreaty; cp. 750, 0. T.
1468 n. ij|Mpas...u.ias. The distance
from Lemnos to Scyros is about 75 miles;
and, ace. tov. 354, the voyage from Scyros
to Sigeum (about 125 miles) took less
than two whole days.
4 8 1 T6X|II)O-OV: cp. 82 n.8irr), L's

reading, is here not less good than #71-01:


it goes with e^paXov only, ayov is added
as in 488,0.C. 910, 1342: here it expresses
how passive he is content to be in the
hands of Neoptolemus.
4 8 2 f. dvACav, the hold of the ship,
where he could be stowed away beneath
the rowers. Cp. Athen. p. 37 D Kara/3aX<i ifiavTop virb rods $a\d/tovs (the
places of the 0a\afi.iTai, or lowest rank of
rowers) us tvi nd\i<TTa HOTWTIITU
e/cei/t^K. Dionysius comicus (350 B.C.)
Bea/Mxpbpos fr. 1. 40 describes a seaman
as e| dvrXtas y\KovTa, i.e., the man was
one of the BaXa/uTai. Cp. Her. 8. 118:
Xerxes is making a long voyage in stormy
weather; but he and the numerous Persian nobles with him are all on the deck
(eTrl TOV tcaTa<FTpw[iaTos), while only the
Phoenician sailors occupy the part below
(KOIXTIV via). So, too, in [Dem.] or. 32
5, during a voyage of many days, all
the passengers live on deck, the Kot\r)
vavs being used by the rowers only.
irp^pov...irpv(ivi]V. Lucian (Navig. 5),
speaking of a large vessel, mentions at
Kara irpi/wav oUrjcreis, but ordinarily only
the KvfiepvriTris would be located at the
stern, as the Tpippetis at the prow, rpi/jiva
was the later Attic form; but irpifivri is
used by Attic poets for metre's sake,

*IAOKTHTHI

85

Forsake this task, and thy fair name is sullied ; perform it,
my son, and a rich meed of glory will be thine, if I return alive
to Oeta's land. Come, the trouble lasts not one whole day:
make the efforttake and thrust me where thou wilt, in hold,
in prow, in stern,wherever I shall least annoy my shipmates.
O consent, by the great Zeus of suppliants, my son,be
persuaded! I supplicate thee on my knees, infirm as I am,
poor wretch, and maimed! Nay, leave me not thus desolate,
far from the steps of men ! Nay, bring me safely to thine own
home, or to Euboea, Chalcodon's seat; and thence it will be
no long journey for me to Oeta,
Brrr) r : 6V01 Wakefield.Nauck changes aywv to vet&s. 4 8 2 eh (thrice) MSS.:
els..,4s...h Dindorf.irpwipav (u made from ii) L.irpiiwav L : Tpi/J.vrjv Elmsley.
6V01 L, with A and others: 8wov V.
4 8 3 rois %vv6vTas] TOO irapbvros V2, whence
Blaydes conj. rois TtXiovras.
4 8 5 Tpoinrlrpu L.
4 8 9 Eu/3o/as] Musgrave
conj. EiijSoip : O. Riemann, Eii/Soifis.

7n)vos tyiaTov wayov. In / / . 2. 536 ff.


as Ar. Vesp. 399 rjv TTWS ITpipwqv <WKpoiarp-ai. Cp. 1451.8irou (or QTrrj) is Elephenor, son of Chalcodon, figures as
the leader of all the Euboeans in the
necessary: oiroi could not stand either
for &T01 fiep\rifi,faos, or for eicei<re Hirov. Greek army, who are called "AftavTes, and
represent six towns, including Carystus
The corruption of u to 1 is one of
at the extreme south of the island, Chalthe commonest. |iAXw...dXYiiviv, instead of aXyvpQ (the relative clause, with cis at the middle point of its west coast,
and Histiaea in the extreme north.
the fut. indie, expressing purpose): cp.
409. For the fut. inf. after /tAXw, cp.
Schneidewin remarks that Philoctetes,
0. T. 967 n.
the former comrade of Heracles, might
naturally name Chalcodon, who had been
4 8 4 f. occcrCov: cp. 1181: Aesch. Suppl.
616 Zijpds IK<TIOV K&TOV \ pAyav wpoipwvwv: the companion of Heracles in an exOd. 13. 213 Zeis <r<pelas rtiraiS' UeT^nos pedition against the Eleans (Paus. 8.
15. 6). But that was merely a local
(see Introd. to Homer, p. 54).ydvcuri :
Arcadian myth; and Pausanias finds it
cp. Eur. Phoen. 293 yovvirereis Sdpas
inconsistent with the better-known TheirpoffiriTVia a': and n. on 0. T. 2.
ban tradition, according to which Chal4 8 6 dxpemop. As O. C. 12361s the
only extant Attic example of aKparrfs as codon was slain by Amphitryon in a war
between the Euboeans and Thebans (9.
= 'weak,' so is this the only example of
aKparup in that sense. Plato uses aKparap 19. 3). At any rate the Attic poet might
in the regular Attic sense of ajcparrit as think of the Attic legend, according to
which Theseus had sent his sons for pro=-impotens sui (Rep. 579 c eau7-o5...aKparwp). The scholium here (if it be not tection to Chalcodon's son Elephenor,
before retiring from Athens to Scyros
rather, a fusion of two distinct scholia)
recognises both meanings: curBevty, eav- (Plut. Thes. 35).
TOO Kparclv nil Swa/xevos.
49O cts OJTTJV. The three names
hereOetaTrachisthe Spercheius
4 8 8 f. TJ irpis OIKOV TOV crov K.T.X.
mark
the great features of the region.
He asks N. to convey him, either merely
Typhrestus, at the southern end of Pindus,
to the youth's own home (Scyros), or,
throws off two ranges towards the eastbetter still, a little further, viz., to Euboea
ern sea. One runs nearly due east, and
(cp. n. on 240); whence it will be easy
skirts the s. borders of Thessaly: this is
to reach Malis (492).
Othrys, the lofty 'brow' which looks
TO. XOXKUSOVTOS EuPoCas crraO|ia, the
down from the north on the plain of
Euboean abode of Chalcodon, i.e. Euboea, his realm. Cp. Tr. 1191 TOV OITTIS Malis. The otherOeta, the 'sheep-

86

I04>0KAE0YZ
Tpa)(LvCav re SetyactS' *TJS' es evpoov
Xirep^euov e o r a i , warpi p OJS SeC^r/s
ov 8r) *TTa\ai6v i6rov SCSOLK eya>
fit] pot /3efi-r]Kr). iroXXa yap rots lyp
io-reWov avroi' i/cecrtovs iriinrav Xiras,
auroaToXov 7reyxi//avra JU,' eKcrwcrat *So/aous.
aXX' 17 TiOvTjKev, 77 r a
^ S

495

4 9 1 'ipax'.via.v re SeipdSa Kal TOP eUppoov MSS. See comment, and Appendix.
4 9 3 7raXam^ L, with two dots (:) above the second a, referring to a note in the
right-hand marg. by an early hand, : iraXai &v. The later MSS. have either iraXai'
494
av (as A, L2, Harl.), or iraXeu ac, as B : iraXaibv Triclinius.

pdSa is sound, and that the corruption


land'runs s. of Othrys, and parallel
lies in the words KOI T&V. I conjecture,
with it at first; then, turning s. and E., it
throws out cliffs which enclose the plain of T/raxtWac re StipaS' i]8' 4s eSpoov. Soph.,
Malis on s. and W. Trachis' the rugged' like Aesch. and Eur., admitted i^sl in
stood below those cliffs; they themselves iambics (see n. on Ant. 673). The corwere called ' the Trachinian Rocks.' ruption might arise from the fact that A
(Her. 7. 198 Spea vtf/rjXa Kal aflara vepi- was the second letter of two successive
KX?Jei irdtrav rty "NLifKlba yTJf, Tpijx^iai syllables. A scribe, copying AEIPAAEA
(or, after 403 B.C., AEIPAAHA), might acirirpai. KaKeo/ievcu.) The Spercheius
'the vehement'rises at the base of cidentally omit EA (or HA). The verse
Typhrestus. As it runs eastward, its would then stand, TPAXINIANTEAEIPAbroad valley separates the ranges of AESEYPOON. A subsequent transcriber
might easily suppose that AEIPAAE2
Othrys and Oeta. It passes through the
(taken for Beipafies, not Sapdd' is) was a
plain of Malis, and enters the Malian
Gulf. Its old mouth was about five mere blunder for SetpdSa. And, AEIPAAA
miles N. of Trachis: the present mouths having been replaced, the copula would
next be supplied, and the verse patched
are more to the south.
4 9 1 Tpaxiv(av...8cipaSa, the chain up, by inserting KAITON.For other conof heights which bounds the plain of Ma- jectures, see Appendix.
lis on s. and w.,the Tpr/xi-viai. iriTpcu eiipoov. Tragic iambics sometimes
of Herod, (see last n.), the oSpea MrjKldos admit uncontracted forms in -oos: e.g.
alrji of Callimachus (Hymn. Del. 287). Aesch. fr. 37 SnrXcSoi: id. fr. 275 xaV&P~
Ace. to Thuc. 3. 92 the dwellers in Malis poov: id. Theb. 493 irvpirvdov: on the
were classed as Tpaxlvioi (highlanders,
other hand, id. fr. 293 eirrdpovs: P. V.
like the Attic 'Twepdnpioi), tlapdXioi (by
852 irKartippovs: ib. 91? iripxvovv.
the Malian Gulf), and 'Iep?;s (a doubtLike the Homeric tvppoos, iiippelnis,
ful name).
the epithet refers simply to the beauty of
the river, not to that swiftness (<nrep%oAll MSS. have ScipdSa Kal TOV, making
it takes its name (//. 16.
an anapaest in the 4th place. Toup pro- fiai) from which
176 S7repx6"? AKA/JMVTI: Lucan 6. 366
posed SepaSa. As Sipi] was the Attic
form of Seifnj, an Attic poet might possi- Ferit amne citato \ Maliacas Spercheus
bly have ventured on depds. But there is aquas). Rising at the foot of Typhrestus,
no trace of such a form, while deipas is and fed by affluents from Othrys and
frequent. Further, Aeip&des was the name Oeta, the Spercheius has a considerable
of an Attic deme of the Leontis tribe volume of water even in the hot season
(Tozer, Geo. of Greece, p. 81).
(Bekker Anecd. p. 240, 26), and Seipis
would thus be familiar to Attic ears in
4 9 3 Tra\a.tov=Tra\ai6i> (4<rTu>)i!iTOV,
ordinary life. Thus Toup's remedy,
a parenthetic clause equiv. to a simple
though attractive by its simplicity, is adverb (irctXai) going with S&ouca. Cp.
really a very bold one.
Isocr. or. 5 47 odroi yi,p apxopres rS>v
v
I am more disposed to think that 8ei- 'EXX^vwi' oi) woXis xp6 <>s [sc. iarlv) ef

<t>IAOKTHTHI

87

and the Trachinian heights, and the fair-flowing Spercheius,


that thou mayest show me to my beloved sire ; of whom I
have long feared that he may have gone from me. For often
did I summon him by those who came, with imploring prayers
that he would himself send a ship, and fetch me home. But
either he is dead, or else, methinks, my messengersas was
L, with A and most of the later MSS.; but a few have ^e^Kij, as B, Vat. b , and cod.
Flor. 32. 2 (the N of Blaydes, Dindorfs Lc). R and T have /Se/Sijxei.
Elmsley
conj. ftifiTjKe.lynivois] IXIUVM% L.
4 9 6 irifi.-tyavTa\ Blaydes conj. irXeiaavra.
S6/J.OVS Wunder : Sopois MSS.

ov Kal Kara yr\v Kal Kara OdXaTTav els


roaairriv fiera^oX^v TJKSOV. Ai. 600 iyw
5' 6 T\&/J.O)V vaXatbs d<p' od xpbvos j . ..ei5vw/j.ai.In L iraXaidv is manifestly a
mere blunder for irakaibv. Those who
read iraXaC* dv explain it in one of two
ways. (1) ely is to be supplied with it,
jSqS^Kj;, or /S^fy/ce, being read in 494.
Such an ellipse of eti) is impossible. (2)
The dv is to go with /Je/SiJ/coi in 494. Cp.
7V. 630 didouca yap | ,117) Tp Xtyois av:
Thuc. 2. 93 TrpoaSoxla oiSefila (rjv) fit) av
Trore oi irohiiuoi....iinifKe6<jei.a.v. But in
this constr. the av which belongs to the
optative verb could not precede the /).
In Eur. Med. 941 01k 0X0 av el irelaaifu,
the place of av has a special excuse, viz.,

the analogy of sentences with the inf.

wafted,'answering to the word vector


in Ovid's parallel v., Idem
navigium,
navita, vector ero (Ep. 18. 147).If avTOOTOXOV were understood as = 'setting
forth in person' (cp. novforoXos, O/JUKTTOXos), then ir|u|ravra would be best taken
as 'having escorted m e ' (cp. 913, 1465),
and would go closely with cKowai.
Nauck, interpreting airbaroXov in this
second way, substitutes ir\v<rovTa (the
conj. of Blaydes) for vifvpavTa. This
would certainly make the v. easier; but
it is not necessary.
S6(j.ous is a clearly true correction of
8d|iois. The latter could not mean, ' to
my home,' but only, 'for the joy of the
house' (dat. of interest). On the other
hand cp. Ant. 810 dXXd p.' "Aidas.,.ayu
I rav 'Axipovros aicrdv: O. C. 1769 0^/3as
5' i]fids I ...irififov.

(such as oik av 01/xcu TreSrai).


4 9 4 f. |irj poi ppT]KT]. p.oi is ethic
dat. (Ant. 50 n.) The subjunct. is right
4 9 7 ff. After r d TWV 8KIK6VCI)V we
here: cp. 30 Kvpy, n. The indie. j3^/3j//ce might have expected iifieXaTo or the like
would also be correct (Dem. or. 19 96
('the messengers' part was neglected'),
S^Boma /lit XeXtf/ffa/xev), but would express but iroioi|iVoi follows, as if he had writconviction rather than anxious fear.For
ten oi SidKovoi. This is one of the ir/S^Tjxa as = o?xo/". of death, cp. Eur.
regularities which often arise from a
Andr. 1026 ptflaKe 8' 'ArpdSas a\6xov
change in the form of the writer's thought;
ira.Xdfi.au.TO!S iY|i.vois, instr. dat.: for it is not merely a case of constr. KOTIX
JerreXXov, cp. 60 n.The partic. iy/jievos aiveaw (like Ta...fieipdKia...diaXey6fievoi,
occurs only here. In Tr. 229 we have
Plat. Lach. p. 180 E). Hence it is no
t6
objection to this view that ret TWV Siaxdvav,for ol SidKovoi, would be unexampled.
4 9 6 CHJTOOTOXOV ir|j,i(ravTO, having
Others take rd TWV SiaxSvuv as an adsent with his own oroXos, i.e., having sent
verbial parenthesis: 'or (as is the way
a ship of his own. Cp. Anthol. 7. 585
with messengers) they forgot me,' etc.
(on a fisherman who died by the burning
The objection to this is that, in such
of his boat at sea), airSaroXos rj\6ev \ els
aT 0)v
ephrases, the sing, TO is used, never the
'Aidyv, vetctiwv Tropdfj.lSos ofi x ^ y * ^
plur. TCI: e.g. Plat. Phaed. 77 D SoKeis
went to Hades in his own ship' [because
ai re Kal Zi/A/ias...5e5i&'ai, Tb TWV iraLdwv,
it perished along with him],not needing
fiij...6 dvefws airrrjv.. .SiaQvo-a': id. Soph.
to use Charon's bark. Musaeus Leandr.
255 airbs ii>v iperi}S, airbtjToXos, airdfia- 261 B axoX'S TOU, Tb Kara TTJV vapoifdav
XeySfievov, 6 ye TOIOVTOS dv Tore ?Xoi
TOS cijos, where, similarly, airSnToXos
TT&XOI.
='providing his own <rr<S\os,' i.e. 'self-

20<t>0KAE0YS
as eifcos, oXjxai, TOV/JLOV eV cr[UKpa> fiepos
iroiovfitvoi, TOP OLKaS" yjireiyov crrokov.
vvv

S', ets ere yap

irofnrov re KOXITOV ayy

cry crwerof, crv /x,' iXerjcrov, eicropcov


ws iravra, Seiva K<1TTU<I,VVV(O<; yS/oorots
Ketrai, waOeiv fi,kv ev, TtaBziv Se Owrepa.
& e/cros cWa 7rr)[JLa.T(t)v TO. Sei^' opav,
n s ev 77, r^viKavra rcV ySioi'
X
rj hi,a<f>dapi<i \ddrj.

500

T)KO),

aivr. X O .

5O5

hvcroicrTcav ir6von>

3 ei Se vLKpovs, <xva%< ^xPeL<s '


4 eyw ju.et' r o KZIVWV KO.KQV rwSe
5 fxeTaTidifievos, evdatrep i

5i5

4 9 8 ot/itu] Valckenaer conj. ot/iot./ifpos MSS., and Suid. s. v. ordXos. /iipei the
ist hand in A, and Suid. s. v. StaKovos: and so Brunck, Hartung, Blaydes.
6O2 wavTa Seivb. MSS. Wakefield conj. iravr' a5r)\a: Dobree, iravra KOIVO.. 5O5
rbv /S/oi'] Blaydes conj. TO.K Beav.
5O7518 L divides the vv. thus:OZKTUP'

<os CIKOS expresses that such neglect


'had himself brought the first news,' i.e.,
might have been expected, while o!|icu no dyyeMa had preceded him. See n. on
conveys the belief that it was actually
O. C. 1511 (airol ffeol K^pvxcs).t)Kw:
committed; tautology cannot be pleaded,
after vainly appealing to others. The
then, as a ground for conjecturing oCpoi. word is tinged with the fig. sense, ' I
ev (TjUKpcS: cp. 875: Her. 3. 154 h have been brought by my fortune to thee,'
t\a<ppQ Toiritri.ii.evos (Tac. Ann. 3. 54 inetc.: cp. 377 6 8' v9db" TJKWV. [Dem.]
levi habendum).|upos.
The reading
o r . 4 5 8 5 To&rifi fiev x a ' P " Xiya, ovs d'
H^pei would be tenable: cp. Dem. or. 2 0 wa.T'qp fj.ot. irapidtaKe fSotfOovs, els Tofrrovs
1 8 ^ ovSei'ds etvai ixipu. And it is true 7JKOJ.
that Toi/ibv ixipos is usu. adverbial (quan5O2 f. Seivd KairiKivSvvus...KEiTai,
tum in me est, or quantum ad me attinet: are so ordained (by the gods) as to be
cp. Ant. 1062 n.). But here pipos gives full of fear and peril: (for the combia much finer verse.rjirei^ov, trans, (cp. nation of adj. and adv., cp. 345.) The
1451). When the act. iwdyoi seems ininfin. rraOetv follows this phrase as it
trans., it is so because the ace, like aromight follow KtvSvvos <TTIV or the like
\ov here (e.g., Spo/wv, bhov) is understood: (Plat. Crat. 436 R ov o-fUKpbs KIVSW6S
El. 1435 yoeis, in-aye vvv.
iffriv ^a.iraT7j6T]vai). T h e general sense
is:'There is always a danger for men
SOO f. iro|iir6v Te KavToy a7yXov, at
that,
after they have been prosperous,
once escort and, in thine own person,
messenger: i.e., Neopt., when he brings they may be unfortunate.' Not: ' I t is
always doubtful whether men are to fare
Ph. home on board his ship, will at the
same time bring the earliest tidings of well or ill,'like Plat. Prot. 313 A iv
Ph.'s fate. Ph. had asked his former vdvr itJTi ra <r&, rj ev 17 KaK&s irpdrreiv.
Of the two co-ordinated clauses, iraSctv
visitors to act merely as ayye\oi: and
they had failed to do so. Now he has |j,4v S, ira0ctv 8 Sarepa, the second is
found a man who will be his XOJCITOS, and, that on which the emphasis falls; the
thereby, also his first ayyeXos. Cp. Her. first serves for contrast with it:'that,
as they have fared well, so they may fare
1. 79 (Cyrus) 4\d<ra$.. .TOV arparbv is TT]V
ill.' Cp. Ant. 616 woWois idv ivcuris
Ad
t)rds ayye\os
K i
\\30

*IAOKTHTHI

89

likelymade small account of my concerns, and hastened on


their homeward voyage.
Now, howeversince in thee I have found one who can
carry at once my message and myselfdo thou save me, do
thou show me mercy,seeing how all human destiny is full of
the fear and the peril that good fortune may be followed by
evil. He who stands clear of trouble should beware of dangers;
and when a man lives at ease, then it is that he should look
most closely to his life, lest ruin come on it by stealth.
CH. Have pity, O king; he hath told of a struggle with Antisufferings manifold and grievous; may the like befall no friend strophe.
of mine! And if, my prince, thou hatest the hateful Atreidae,
then, turning their misdeed to this man's gain, I would waft him
I o r ' evTrdpov | peibs | 86/iovs | viixeatv eK<pvy<iv.
5O7 Xeep] Xefe L.
5O9 ota] &<T<ra L, with A and almost all others: R (14th cent.) and Harl. (15th)
have &Ga.ota, Porson's conj. (Adv. p. 200), has been generally received : but he
himself afterwards gave the preference to <S<rcra (Adv. p. 237). Dobree conj. iL$\ovs,
Seyffert gives Xaxoi. Herwerden made the same
& ('qua/ia.6s pro ofos').rtixoi]
conj., which is received by Blaydes, Cavallin, Nauck, Wecklein.
51O TiKpoii]
Nauck conj. iriKpus : Blaydes, SurXovs.
5 1 1 eyO) /j.ev] B. Todt conj. iyii vai.
5 1 5 lieraTiBiixevos] /xtya Tt6i/J.evos L, A, and most others: /iercmW/ievos r and
schol.Ivdairep] tvB&irep L.iirifit/wvev r : eirei pi/iovey L.

dxSpfic, I TTOXXOIS 8' avdra ('though to


many a blessing, yet to many a false
lure'): 0. C. 1536 eS iiiv, 6\W , 'though
surely, yet late.'OctTepa: Dem. or. 22
12 dyadd 77 Sdrepa, Iva fafikv etvw
(pXavpov.
5 0 4 KTOS Svra: 1260: Ant.

619 n.

r d 8ev' opav, to keep one's eye on dangers


looming in the distance, as a steersman
watches rocks ahead: cp. / / . 23. 323
(the wary charioteer) aid ripfi bpbwv,
keeping his eye always on the Ka/txrijp,
as he drives round it. Thus the schol.'s
evXafSeladai is true to the sense.
5 0 5 f. (v f, lives prosperously, as
maws t^i> = to live unhappily (El. 354).
So Pind. (P. 4. 131) calls festivity evf<fias
&UTop. But in 0. C. 1535 e8...oi/q/ =
'lives aright.'TOV pCov, the fortunes of
one's life: the subject to Xd8t) is 6 jSJos.
C p . El. 207 (x^pes) at TOV effJbv et\ov
filov I irp6Sorov.
5 O 7 5 1 8 : antistrophe to 391402.
The pity expressed by the Chorus may
well be sincere ; but, in this utterance of
it, their first aim is to aid their master's
design. Verse 510 shows this.
5O7 f. ir<5v<ov <J8Xa, ordeals consisting
in TTOVOI, sufferings. Cp. Tr. 505 aeflX'

ay&vwv. The plur. 50Xa can thus be


used in the sense of &8\oi: but the sing.
adXov does not occur as =0.8X0$. In
Aesch. Suppl. 1034 T68' d0Xoc = 'this
prize'ota, Porson's correction of &<raa,
is probably right. It is the more natural
word in such a wish: cp. 275, 315. And
6Wa may have been suggested by TroXXiw.
An iambic trimeter set in lyrics might,
indeed, tolerate 8<r<ros,as the corresponding trimeter (392) has the Doric a for 17.
But faca in Aesch. Pers. 864, roaaav in
Ag.

140, and TOGGOV in Soph. Ai. 185,

seem to be the only instances of these


forms in Tragedy, oto is clearly better
than &o-era ( = anva): for which cp. O. T.
425 n.For the ace. ola with TTSXOI, cp.
O. T. 1298 n. The conject. Xdxoi is
unnecessary.
51O iriKpovs, odious; cp. 254 n. This
sense seems more suitable here than
'bitter against thee,' when micpovs...
?X<?s would be like /MGOVVT' i/itaei (Ai.
II34)5 1 2 ff. e-yw (uv (^P- 453)" -iropevcrcuiJi'
oiv is a respectful suggestion,' I, for my
part, would convey him,'i.e.,' If I were
you, I would do so.'-TO xdvuv KaKov,
the evil done by them: cp. 422.pera-

S04>0KAE0YI
6 in evcrroXov r a ^ e i a s
7 TropevcraLfJL oiv is SO/AOVS,
8 vepecnv iK(f>vycov.

TO.V

decov

NE. opa cry pr) vvv fiev r t s ev)(epr}<; Trapfjs,


OTCLV Se ir\ri(xdfj<; Trj<s vocrov ^vvovcria,
TOT OVKiff

52O

aVTOS Tol<S XoyOtS TOVTOLS


TOVT' OVK e<rff OTTCOS TTOT'

XO. rJKiora'
ets
rowetSos efeis evSi/cws dveiSicrai.
NE. a \ \ ' alcr^pd pivroi crov ye fi ivSeecrTepov
ev(p <f>avT)i>aL 7T/3OS TO Kaipiov iroveiv.
dk\' el So/cei, irXecofjiev, opfidcrOat
^rj vaxis ydp dfei KOVK
d O
\iovov 6eol o-<ti,oiev ec *re r^crSe
J
OTTOI T' ivOivhe ^ovkoifiecrOa
5 1 7 TOLV dewv Herm.: rkv iic Sewu MSS.
622

TJKHTTCL TOOT' L.

523

525

5 2 1 T68' OVK40' auToff (sic) L.


L has iji written over ei by S.

5 1 9 viv |iJv...Srav 8J: i.e., 'beware


Ti8e'|evos- This compound regularly
lest, though now thou art facile, yet,' etc.:
takes one ace. only, meaning to 'transcp. n. on 503.v)(epiis, easy-going (cp.
pose,' 'shift,' a thing; and hence, either
875): TIS gives a slightly contemptuous
to 'adopt' or to 'discard.' Here the
tone; cp. Aesch. P. V. 696 xfKjS 7c arecompound is used like the simple verb,
vdfets Kal tpdflov T\ia rts els. For its
and the force of the prep, is adverbial,
rifl^iuexos TO Keivoiv Kaicbv ri^Se KepSos =position, cp. Ai. 29 Kai pol -ra OJTT^/).
irapfjs, as a spectator who is not yet
' counting their misdeed as his gain': cp.
Od. 31. 333 TL 5' iXiyx^a raura TiBetrde', required to make any personal sacrifice.
Not from vapi-rjiu, as = 'comply.'
If, after the word 'counting,' we inserted, 'by transference,' this would give
5 2 0 f. TT}S v&arov with irXTjcrfl^s:
the force of /ierd. The KO.K6V is to be ^wovtrCf., causal dat.: sated with (wearied
shifted from the reckoning against the
of) the disease, through consorting with
Atreidae to the reckoning in favour of
it. It is also possible to join the verb
Philoctetes. Their demerit is another
with Iwowr/p, and to make the gen.
reason for benefiting him.ri|j^|M>vcv:
depend on the latter: when the omission
the only instance of /j^fwva in Soph.
of T?} would be an instance like TWV
(Cp. Aesch. Theb. 686 pi\imai: Eur. / . A.
ixBp&r KaKa (Ant. 10 n.). The objection
1495 and / . T. 655 /j^/j-ove.)
is that, though TrXriaBnvat can take a dat.
when it means simply 'to be filled' (Thuc.
5 1 6 6<rr6Xov, hereprob., 'well-equip7. 75 Scucpvffi vav TO o-Tpdrev/ia vKriadiv),
ped'; though at v. 780 eitTTaXfy (the
it usu. takes a gen. when it means 'to
commoner form) = ' expeditious.'
Cp.
be sated.'
Apoll. Rh. I. 603 Sairov is tvHiov mv
euoroXos oXras dvtiffacu.For the double
avTos TOIS \o"yois TOTOIS, the same
epithet, without copula, cp. Od. 7. 34
with ( = consistent, in your action, with)
travel Sorjin ireToMres uKeC^n: Ai. 710
these words. Plat. Euthyd. 298 A rj <rb
el 6 CLVTOS Ty \idcp; If TO^ITOLS were absent,
veav.
then TOJS \6yois could be a dat. of respect,
5 1 7 f. Tav 8<uv W|iriv. Hermann's
'the same in regard to your words,' like
deletion of K after rav is necessary, since
TOW Bewv Aapriov in 401. Possibly the airos d/u T j3ouX5,uaTt (0. T. 557 n.).
But roiirois shows that the other constr.
iK arose from a reminiscence of Her. 1.
34 SvojSe ix Oeov vefiejis /ieydXi; Kpotaov. is meant.
Cp. 601 f., 1035 ff.

522

OVK K(r9' OTTOS: cp.

196.

4>IA0KTHTHI

91

in thy good swift ship to the home for which he yearns, that
so thou flee the just wrath of Heaven.
NE. Beware lest, though now, as a spectator, thou art
pliant, yet, when wearied of his malady by consorting with it,
thou be found no longer constant to these words.
CH. NO, verily: never shalt thou have cause to utter that
reproach against me!
NE. Nay, then, it were shame that the stranger should find
me less prompt than thou art to serve him at his need.Come,
if it please you, let us sail: let the man set forth at once; our
ship, for her part, will carry him, and will not refuse.Only
may the gods convey us safely out of this land, and hence to
our haven, wheresoever it be !
5 2 4 aov yi p.'] <TOV y' l/j.' Brunck.
5 2 5 irpos TO Kaipiov] Blaydes conj. rcpSe
irpos Kaipov.
5 2 6 dXX' el] Nauck conj. el 5^: Hense, d 5' oiv.
5 2 8 IK re]
The ist hand in L wrote &8e (sic): S then wrote y over 5. (K ye r: /c re Gemhard.
5 2 9 povkoifieaBa MSS., except B, which has f!ov\6[ie<r6a, the reading
preferred by Brunck and Hartung.
524f.<iXXd...(UvT0i:cp.^A567. The
or (2) 'he shall not be refused his wish.'
fact that d\Xa recurs so soon, in v. 526,
This second version is inadmissible. Clashas caused a corruption to be suspected
sical Greek allows atrapvovnai. Sovval n,
in the latter place (see crit. n.): but there
but not airapvodfw.1 rbv alrovvTa. And
it has a different tone ('come, now').
with either version the change of subject
This elasticity of meaning in a\\d is one
would be harsh. Rather the verb is dereason why classical poetry so readily
ponent, with 17 vavs for subject. Prof.
allows it to be repeated at short interRidgeway, supporting this view (Trans.
vals (cp. e.g., 645, 647, 651 : 0. C. 238 ff. Camb. Philol. Soc. I. p. 244), illustrates
aXX' ftrd...a\X' ^ . . . d \ V fre). As to the
the personification of the ship from Od.
tolerance of such repetition generally, cp.
10. 131 cunrafflois 5' es irovrov iinjpe^as
762: O. C. 554 n.oioxpd: for the plur., (fiiye irirpas, and Arist. Pol. 3. 13 16,
cp. 1395, 0. C. 485 n.o-ov yi |i' is better
where the ship Argoendued by legend
than <rov 7' ?|i': the latter would imply
with a voiceis described as refusing to
an ungraceful emphasis on the speaker's
carry Heracles (01) yap iOiXeiv airbv dyeiv
personal dignity.irpos T6 xaCpiov: cp.
r-qv 'Apyw).It is true that the classical
Ai.^S1^... irpos Kaipbv TTOVW ;iroviv, epex- fut. of Apviofiai, where it occurs, is apvijegetic of ivdeiorepov, 'in respect of toila-o/xai (O. T. 571, etc.). But there is no
ing': cp. 0. C. 335 ol S' ai66jj.rn.iJ.oi vov classical instance of apvTi8riaofi.ai as fut.
veaviai iroveiv;
pass. And since the aor. T)pvi)drp> is always deponent, analogy suggests that a
5 2 6 f. op|iacr9(i>, let Philoctetes set out
deponent use of api>rj8-/i(TOfiai. would have
with us for the ship at once. Taxtis=ra1
been possible. Cp. diaX^yo/iat, aor. 5ieX^ws: cp. 808, 1080.x ! vavs, the ship,
Xe'xOw
(deponent),.. fut. SiaKexfffeo/iai.
on her part. If the sick man's shipmates
(deponent), as well as SiaX^o/xai. In
make no difficulty, the ship will make
later Greek apvrjOfoo/iai. occurs, indeed,
none: i.e., it will be easy to find room
as pass. (St Luke xii. 9, awapvriB'fiaeTai,
for him on board (cp. 481). Neoptole'he will be disowned'), but also as demus is on his guard against betraying
ponent (LXX., IS. xxxi. 7 airapv-qd-qaovTai,
elation. He speaks as if the granting
with v. 1. aieapvrYtovTaC).
of Ph.'s prayer was now a simple matter,
and one which did not greatly interest
5 2 8 f. y.6vov=modo, as oft. in wishes
him.
or commands (Tr. 1109 irpoaiiMKoi. pbvov,
dirapvT)8TJ<reT<u is usu. taken as passive: etc.).|3<roXoC|j.r0a: the optat. in the
relative clause, because aiffaev stands in
either (1) 'the boon shall not be refused':

ZO<t>OKAEOYI

<1>I.

ty uku tffiap, ^Sioros 8' dvrjp,

<f)i.\oi Se vat/rat, THUS dv v/xlv e ^ c u ^ s


epyw yevoifx/qv a s /A' edeade vpo<T<f>iky).
ta)fiev, a> iral, irpocrKvcravre TTJV ecro)
doiKov elcroLKTjcnv, ws /u,e /cat f^ddys
d<f> wv Sie^cov a s T <f>vv eu/capSios.
otju-at ya/3 ovS' aV O\L\LO.(TIV /JLOVTJV diav
aXkov \a/36vTa TTXTJV i/iov rXfjuai raSeeya> S' dvdynr) irpovpadov (nipye.iv * /ca/ca.
fiddco/xev'
dvSpe
8vo,
XO. ii
/
p yap
y
Sd
6
8'
vea)<s ^
^ s vavfSdrr)<5, 6 8'
(OV

53

535

540

CLV0L<i l(TLTOV.

5 3 3 f. irpoaKvaavTe'a L (the dots meaning that a should be deleted): and so A. But


the later MSS. generally give vpoGniaavTes. T (13th cent.) irpoo-Kv&ovTes.e&robn)<ru>]
The scribe of L intended (I think) ela oftcqaw, not eUrolKrjinv. He has written, indeed,
ei<rotKT\<nv(sic), as in 0. C. 739 ei airKelaTov, with a disregard for the division of words
which he often shows (see O. C., Introd. p. xlvi). Further, the smooth breathing is
indistinct in form, being an almost round dot; but, in his writing, it often approximates to such a character : thus the breathing on ovS1 in 536 is hardly different:

the principal clause: as 961 SK01.0 ix^ww I now doubt whether the classical usage
wplv /iiffoi^'. Cp. 325 n.: 0. C. 778 n.
of irpotTKivTiis would bear this. We may
S 3O ff. a 4>\TaTov \ilv K.T.\.: for the
rather believe that Soph, hazarded the
epanaphora, with change from (piKraros otherwise unknown word eUrolK7]<n.s, much
to a synonym, cp. Ant. 898 0(XT; fih... as in O. C. 27 he ventured on ejouo)<ri,uos.
irpo<ripi.\ris Si...(pl\ii Si, n. For the nom. It implies a verb tiaoiKia (nowhere found,
IJSHTTOS av-fjp after the voc, cp. 867, 986. except as a v. 1. for ivouciu in Anthol. 7.
m3s olv...YevoC|i.T|V, a wish; cp. 794: 320), capable of being used thus,Syrpov
0. C. 1457: soil. 1100 rts av...Solri...;
daipKritre, 'he entered the cave and made
5 3 3 f. I'copiev clearly means, 'let us be his dwelling there 'cairpov e'ure\8&v ipicria
going' (from Lemnos). Cp. 645 x P&~ ire. Then eiVoiKijcris would be properly,
iuec. It expresses his joyful impatience the act of so making a dwelling, or the
to avail himself of N.'s offer here, and dwelling made. (el<roud$u, to bring in as
naturally follows the preceding verses. a settler, is irrelevant.) See Appendix.
If, on the other hand, we take l'io|xev to irpoo-Kiio-avTe, a farewell salutation (as by
mean, ' let us go into the cave,' we shall kissing the soil), because the cave had so
have no direct expression of Ph.'s eager- long given him shelter: see below on
ness to leave Lemnos: and the invitation 1408.ci>s...Ka.i: cp. 13.
to enter the cave will come with an awk5 3 5 d<)>' c5v: Her. 1. 216 airo KTT\viwv
ward abruptness after the first words of fc6ou<rt Kal ixOiw.SUgwv, sustained life
gratitude. But if CCI>|MV means, 'let us be (under difficulties), as Her. 3. 25 Troiij^agoing from Lemnos,' then we must accept ytovTes di(uov: so SiaTptfo/Mi, Siaylyrol<roiKii<riv, unless we can substitute for
irpo(TKattVT some partic. which could go /
5 3 6 f. olpai Yap K.T.X : for I think
with <ls otKT|<riv. For wpoiTKiuavre ei's
oixri<nv could not mean, 'havinggone into that even the bare sight would have dethe dwelling to salute it.' I once sug- terred anyone but myself from enduring
gested rrjvde irpotrKtitj/avT' ?rw j aoucov ets these things: oideis SXXos av ITXT; T6.SC, d
<XKT}<TI.V, i.e., 'after one l o o k ' into i t ; but 0iav fi6vT)V Xa/3e. The first glance at
such a dwelling would have made any

*IAOKTHTHI

93

PH. O most joyful day! O kindest friendand ye, good


sailorswould that I could prove to you in deeds what love ye
have won from me! Let us be going, my son, when thou and
I have made a solemn farewell to the homeless home within,
that thou mayest e'en learn by what means I sustained life, and
how stout a heart hath been mine. For I believe that the bare
sight would have deterred any other man from enduring such a
lot; but I have been slowly schooled by necessity to patience.
\Neoptolemus is about to follow Philoctetes into the cave.

CH. Stay, let us give heed :two men are coming, one a
seaman of thy ship, the other a stranger; ye should hear their
tidings before ye go in.
\Enter Merchant, on the spectators' left, accompanied by
a Sailor.
and a comparison with the breathing on oiiojtrur, as written by him in Ant. 892, seems
to confirm this view.For conjectures, see comment, and Appendix.
5 3 8 KO.K&\
ride MSS.: but S has written in the marg. of L yp. KO.K&, whence Valckenaer adopted
it (on Phoen. 430).
S 3 9 /udda/iev] Wakefield conj. /xhu/iev : Blaydes, ix.eLvusii.ev:
Hense, aTad&nev.dvo] Svui L.
54O Hense, with Nauck's approval, rejects this
v.d\\66povs] Wecklein (Ars p. 58) conj. a\\odev.
5 4 1 avOis r : affris L.
Blaydes conj. O.MK\

other man renounce the attempt to live \68pou J 'ypc6/Aas=merely dWarpias yvihin it. Instead of Kal $n/i,a.<nv pJ>vi]v Btav
/ii)s.<Sv |ia86vTs, i-t; having learned
\a(S6vTa, OUK av rXrjvcu, we have ov8' o/j.- (their news) from them: cp. 370 n.avluunv...T\9jvai,oiiS' thus serving to weld 8is='at a later moment,' as Ai. 1283.
the sentence into a more compact whole. Aa-vrov (imperat., not indie): for the
fvi\v need not be changed to povov, dual, after faaBovres, cp. Plat. Laches p.
though the latter would be more usual: 187 A airol eiperal yeyovore: and n. on
cp. O. T. 388 ev -rots ntpSetnv \ y.bvov U- 0. C. 343.
SopKe: Ant. 361 "Aida f/avov <pev%iv OVK 5 4 2 Odysseus said that he would
ir&tferai.Some govern rdSe by 8a.v \ a - send back the (TKOITOS, disguised as a merpovra as = Heaadfievov (cp. 0. C. 223 n.), chant captain, if N. seemed to be tarrying
and take TXTJVOII with the partic.: ' endure too long (126 ff.). The actor who now
to have looked upon.' This is forced. comes on as Ifnropos would not, however,
For Thr/va.1. with simple ace, cp. Tr. 71, be the same who played the <r/coiros (a
0. C. 1077, etc.
mute person), but the tritagonist, who
5 3 8 irpov|xa6ov, by painful steps played Odysseus. The sailor who accompanies him is a mute person; and
(Trpd): cp. on 1015 TpovdiSa^ev.
that part may have been taken by the
5 3 9 ff. eiri<r\erov is said to N. and
Ph., who are moving towards the cave. former representative of the crK0ir6s.
(id8w(iev, absol., let us learn,viz., what
As N. has already ensnared Ph., and is
tidings the new comers are bringing. on the point of starting with him, there
The conjecture /j.ivoi/j.ev (or /j.eivoi/j.ev)
is no actual need for the intervention of
would merely repeat the sense of i-rlffxethe tywopos. But Odysseus, at the ship,
TOV.This hortative subjunct. occurs even could not know this; and we are to supin the 1st pers. sing., as Eur. Hipp. 567
pose that he had become impatient. The
eirlffxiT\
ufi&yi' TWI* Zaoidev K/J.&6O> : id. scene which follows heightens the dramaH.F. 1058fft-ya,irvoas 1x6.803.aXXoOpovs,
tic interest by bringing out the horror
prop., speaking a foreign tongue: here,
with which Ph. regards the idea of resimply = d\XoT/)ios, just as in Tr. 844 dX- turning to Troy.

94

ZO*OKAEOYI
EMII0P02.
^

vai, roVSe rbv

o? TJV i>e<ws crqs c r w Suou> ctXXow (f>v\a,


e/ce'Xevcr' ejnot ere 7rot> Kvp&v etr)<; <f>pdcrcu,

C
dvreKvpcra, ho^dtfiiv fikv ov,
V
' r t U 5 vpos ravrbv 6pfjuo~0elis irioov.
av yap cos vavKkrjpos ov TroWai OTOXCO
an' '1\LOV TT/>OS OTKOV is Tiqv evfiorpw
JlendprjOov, cos r)Kovo-a TOV<S vavra<s o n
aol Trdvres etev ^avvvevavcrToXrjKOTe'S,
ISofe juoi /A^ o~1ya, trp\v c/y>acrca/iu croi,
TOV TrXouv iroeio'dai, irpocrTV^ovri T<5V io~oiv.

545

5 50

ovSkv crv ITOV Koroio'da TCOV o-avrov


a TOIO-LV 'ApyeCoio-iv d[if>l aov vea

^ovkevfiaT

iaTL, KOV povov ySouXeu/Aara,

555

aXX' epya Spcifiev', OVK4T i^


5 4 6 84 Iras'] Blaydes conj. Si Tip.rau'rov] The ist hand in L wrote avror, to
which T has been prefixed by S.
5 4 7 TrXiuy] Reiske conj. irXtui, and in 549 as
5' iJKOvffa.
5 4 8 aTr' L : ^ r.
55O uvvvevav<7TokT)K6Tes Dobree : ol vevavaroXrjKdTcs MSS.
5 5 2 Tpo<rTx6vTi] Cavallin conj. irpoarvxivTa : Brunck, irpoaTVXOP TI : Hartung, irpoarvxeiv re: Heath, irpoffTvxdv TI, changing taav to
taas, and taking rav as relat. with oiSiv (' a thing that happens to have come to

Jvv^|Mropov, fellow-traveller, as Tr.


318, etc.
5 4 4 <j>pd<rcu (re, irtra K.T.X. : for the
constr., cp. n. on 443 f., ad fin.Kvpuv
ST]S: cp. 0. T. 1285 ovSiv ear' axov.
5 4 5 t. 8odwv [ikv ov: cp. Ant. 255
Tu/ij3^/37js {LIV off, n.6p(u<r8cls: the same
constr. with the pass, in Xen. H. 1. 4.
18, irpds r^y yijv opfiurBeis, = dp/ultras TT)V
vavv, or opfuffd/ievos, having brought one's
ship to anchor. TavTov...ir^8ov, the same
land (Lemnos); not, strictly, the same
'spot.'
5 4 7 o iroXX^ rrd\cj>, with no large
company (i.e., with one ship, and only
a small crew to handle it): as Tr. 496
aiv iroX\<f <TToXif)='with a numerous
train,' If arSha were taken as 'fleet,'
the phrase could hardly be a mere
equivalent for ixiq. vrji, but would suggest
at least a plurality of vessels.
5 4 9 f. IlirapT]0ov (now called S(co7re\os), a small island near the Thessalian
coast, about 12 miles E. of the south end
of Magnesia. The island of Sciathus lies

between it and the mainland; Euboea


is only 20 miles distant to the S.W., and
Scyros about 40 to the S.E. The name
is well-chosen, then, to make Philoctetes
feel that he is listening to a neighbour
of his old home. Peparethus, though
not more than some 12 miles in length,
with a greatest width of 5 or 6, contained three towns. Its famous wine is
ranked by Aristophanes with those of
Pramnus, Chios and Thasos (fr. 301).
The author of [Dem.] or. 35 35 names
Peparethus, along with Cos, Thasos and
Mende, as a seat of the wine-trade with
the Euxine. An Alexandrian physician,
Apollodorus, recommended the wine of
Peparethus before all others, adding that
its repute would be still higher, did it
not require six years to attain perfection
(Plin. H. N. 14. 9). The epithet eSfJoTpuv here is peculiarly fitting, since
Pliny speaks of the island as quondam
Evoenum dictam (ib. 4. 23). And so
Heracleides Ponticus fr. 13 says of it,
avrrj i) tnjaos eioivos itrrt KO.1 etidevdpos.

<t>IAOKTHTHZ

95

MERCHANT.

Son of Achilles, I asked my companion here,who, with


two others, was guarding thy ship,to tell me where thou
mightest be,since I have fallen in with thee, when I did not
expect it, by the chance of coming to anchor off the same coast.
Sailing, in trader's wise, with no great company, homeward
bound from Ilium to Peparethus with its cluster-laden vines,
when I heard that the sailors were all of thy crew, I resolved
not to go on my voyage in silence, without first giving thee
my news, and reaping guerdon due. Thou knowest nothing,
I suspect, of thine own affairsthe new designs that the Greeks
have regarding thee,nay, not designs merely, but deeds in
progress, and no longer tarrying.
my knowledge,one of the facts which thou, perchance, knowest not'). Musgrave
approved this, only keeping TpoarvxovTi as = 'since I have chanced upon thee.'
TUX fcrwx] In L made from TOV taov by S.
5 5 4 aov via Auratus: afupl a' ovveica
L, and so (or dn<pl aov 'v(Ka) most other MSS.: dfiipls eiVe/ca V, with yp. dfi^ls ov [i.e.
d/upi aov] dvrl TOV irepl aov. The fact that d/xtpl aov Iveica. (or ovveKa) could thus
pass muster as a pleonasm deserves notice.
5 5 5 iari] ian L, and so Blaydes.
It also produced good olives (Ov. Met.
7. 470).In the Iliad the Greeks at
Troy import wine from Lemnos (7. 467)
and from Thrace (9. 72).
TJKOucra TO4S vavros 8TI : cp. Ai.
1141 ai 5' dvTanotiaei TOVTOV US re$d-

Xen. An. 1. 1. 2 ?5oec oSx airols avaKeva.aafdvois...irp6ivac. The ace. is,


however, more usual, as id. 3. 2. 1 5oev
avrois TrpocpvXaKas KaTaarijaavTas avyna.\tiv TOI)S ffTpanuTOS, since it excludes
a possible ambiguity: cp. Ant. 838 n.
^CTCU: Xen. M. 4. 2. 23 TOV AalSaXov The use of irpoo-ruxoTi ('havingobtained,
OVK dmJKOas, STI rivayK&feTO BovXeiav; met with') is like that in El. 1463 e/ioC
irdvres: and therefore he could not have KohaaTov irpoaTvx&v. TCUV itrtav: by T&
been anticipated in bringing the news. taa is meant a reasonable recompense for
his trouble. This sense of taos (aequus)
Dobree'sconjecture,m>vvevavoToXi)KdTes,
is virtually the same as in such phrases
has been generally accepted by recent
edd. If the MS. 01 vtvavoToXr]K6Ts is as e7ri TOTS taois ml ouolois (Thuc. 5. 79),
retained, then <rol is possess, pron.: 'that etc. Similarly the messengers in O. T.
1005 and Tr. 190 expressly say that they
all those who had made the voyage were
thy men.' The objection to this is the have come in the hope of being rewarded.Others
join irpoorvxdvn with
want of point in the participle.
5 5 1 f. ?8o| (ioi K.T.X. The constr. of eroi, 'when thou shouldst have received
irpoo-mx^VTi is made somewhat awkward (the information) due.' Nauck underby the negative before iroetirflai.. ' I de- stands, 'since I have met with the same
cided to sail, not in silence, or before fortune as thine'i.e., have put in at the
I had told thee, (but only when, having same coast. (Cp. El. 1168 fix aol fiere?told thee,) I had received a due reward.' %ov T&V taw.)
It would have been clearer to have writ5 S 4 a Toto-iv K.T.X. The antecedent
ten either: (1) ldoi /xoi <ppi.aa.vTi rbv
to d is not T&V aavrov in 553 : rather the
irXovv TroeTaBai, vpoo'TvxovTt T&V tawv. orrelative clause is epexegetic. . 'Thou
(2) 5o%i fioi /ir] alya TOV TT\OVI> iroeiaOcu,knowest nothing of thine own affairs,
irplv <ppdacu/u KQI vpoaTix01^1
" i.e., of those new counsels (sc. irepl nti'iaiiiv. The justification of the actual form TOJV) which,' etc.vo, in addition to the
is that (J.TJ cri-ya, irplv 4>pcu>"<u|u, is felt as former wrong (60).
a more emphatic equivalent for a simple
5 5 6 ovKeV l|ap-yoij(j.tva, deeds which
tpodaavTi. For the dat. irpoerrvx^vri are no longer allowed to remain dpyd,
(instead of an ace.) with the inf., cp. i.e., in which the doers are not slack.

Z04>0KAE0YS
N E . d X X ' rj X^P^ fL*v

T1 s

p i q

el /AT) KraKros ire<j)VKa, Trpocr^iXrjs

fievel'

<f>pdcrov 8' a/7rep y ' eXe^as, a5? fiddo)

ri

JU,OI

veo&repov fiovXev/ju' air' 'Apyetaiv ex^is.


E M . (frpovSoi

SiGJKOvTes ere vavTtKto

56

crroXft)

^cnvi^ o vpecrfiw; ot Te screws Kopoi.


NE. ws eK ySias /A' afovres 17 Xoyois TTOXIV ;
EM. OUK olS'' a/coucras S* ayyeXos napei^C croi.
NE. ? Taura 81} <3>oii>if re ^01 wvav/3dTcu
ourw /ca^* opfirjv Spcocriv 'ArpeiSav yap1" 5
JiM. &s r a v r eiricrrft) opcofiev, ov peKkovT ert.
NE. 7rws o w 'OSucrcreus TT/SOS xaS' OUK aurayyeXos

5^5

5 5 7 T^S] Seyffert conj. <r^s.


5 5 8 Ti<j>vKa, irpocr^iX'J/s] Desiring d(T<pa\ty,
Burges conj. iriQvtc' anp' ('consummately'): Blaydes, Trt<pvic& y': Mekler, ir<j>v)
8S'.
5 5 9 a7T6/3 7' fXefos A : a7rep IXe^as L, with most of the other MSS.
Hartung conj. awep irpoCXeJos: Herwerden, airep WXo/cas : Wecklein, arrep iT^S^
Seyffert, dy' dwep g\e%as: Weil, OJTOI' (Xe^as: Nauck, 6'7rus l\e%as.
56O
After the fSovXetiixaTa had become Ipya, L seems, however, to have lost 76 in some
other places (cp. 105 n.): and here the
by the taking of the first steps, the action
particle appears defensible, if regard is
might still have been sluggish. But these
had to the tone of the passage. Neo?p7a are Sp<o|ieva,advancing towards
ptolemus,
mindful of his part, receives
completion. So Plut. Mor. 1 E yrj...
e!*a.pyr)0eiaa, land which has been al- the (supposed) stranger's announcement
lowed to lie fallow. Arist. uses the pf. act. with politeness, but without manifesting
much concern. ' I am really very much
i^qpytlKivai a s = ' t o have become torpid'
obliged to you for the trouble which you
(Eth. N. 1. 8: Pol. 5. 10). Cp. 0. T.
have taken. But perhaps you would
287 dXX' oiK iv apyois oiSi TOUT' iirpakindly say what, precisely, it is to which
you allude.' So chrep 7'='just those
5 5 7 f. dXX*, 'well': cp. 232, 336.
things which,'the y( merely adding a
i] xdpis...Tt}s irpo(iiiOas, the favour of
(conferred by) thy forethought; cp. 0. T. slight emphasis to aircp.
f
764 tppeu'...xd-pu i Tr. 1217 irpdcri'ei/J.a.t 56O vcuTepov, not simply vtov (554),
5t /wi | xdpw j3joaxac. irpo|ii)9Cas, the but 'startling,'ominous of some new
poet, form (cp. Ant. 943 n.); for the
wrong: cp. Thuc. 4. 51 ^rjBif wepl <rtpas
sense, ('kind thought for one,') cp. 0. C. pet&Tepov f}ov\eti(rai>.air* 'Ap^eCwv with
332 0%, ir&rep, irpo/j.ri6ig..el |M| KaKds poiXevp.a, not with ?xs,a plot on
ir<f>uKa: Xen. Cyr. 5. 1. 21 x^P'" Toitheir part: for this dird, cp. O. C. 293.
TWK e7<<j ti/uv x> M^i e ' W iSiKiS. ?X'lS with |i.oi, 'hast for me,' i.e., an7rpo<r<|>i\i]S, grata, well-pleasing,gratenouncest to me. Cp. Ant. 9 n.
fully remembered. Aesch. Theb. 580 f/
5 6 2 *otvi|: cp. 344.oj re 0T]O-&I>S
TOiffiv izpyov KO.1 deoi<n irpo<r<pikis. The
Ko'poi,: Demophon,the ruler of Athens
difficulty felt as to irpo<r(pi.\^s (see crit. who figures in Eur. Heracleidae,and
n.) has arisen from the assumption that
his brother Acamas, who in the same
Xdpis here ='gratitude.'
play is a mute person at his side (v. 119).
These Qr/aeiSa, 6fa 'A.6n)vG>v (Eur. Hec.
5 5 9 airep y. It is not surprising that
125), are plausibly represented as foes of
ye should have been suspected here, since
L has airep IXefas. But the emendations Neoptolemus, since their father Theseus
was treacherously slain in Scyros by Lywhich have been suggested (see cr. n.)
comedes (Paus. 1. 17. 6). Arctinus of
are improbable. If any were to be made,
Miletus (c. 776 B.C.), the author of the
I should rather suggest fiirep KdXe|as.

*IAOKTHTHZ

97

NE. Truly, Sir, the grace shown me by thy forethought,


if I be not unworthy, shall live in my grateful thoughts. But
tell me just what it is whereof thou hast spoken,that I may
learn what strange design on the part of the Greeks thou
announcest to me.
ME. Pursuers have started in quest of thee with ships,
the aged Phoenix and the sons of Theseus.
NE. TO bring me back by force, or by fair words ?
ME. I know not; but I have come to tell thee what I have
heard.
NE. Can Phoenix and his comrades be showing such zeal
on such an errand, to please the Atreidae ?
ME. The errand is being done, I can assure thee,and
without delay.
NE. Why, then, was not Odysseus ready to sail for this
tptpeis r .
5 6 2 0oiei from </>oivil; L.
S 6 3 X6701S] Nauck conj. 86\ois.
5 6 6 Ka6' o/j/t^x] Nauck conj. KO0' TJ/IUV.
5 6 7 us TOUT' em'orw Spd/iev'] Nauck
conj. ai for u s : Blaydes, as Spibpev' tadi ravr', or TCIUT' ^ f o
B i '

'I\lov Hp<ns, made Neoptolemus the hero


of his epic, and introduced the two sons
of Theseus in the episode of the wooden
horse.
On the Acropolis of Athens
Pausanias saw the Sotipeios IVjros commemorated in bronze. 'Menestheus and
Teucer,' he adds,' are peeping out of it,
and the sons of Theseus' (1. 23. 8).
These Theseidae do not appear in / / . or
Od.; nor does their father, except where
Nestor speaks of having known him (//.
1. 265), and in a doubtful verse of the
viicvia (Od. 11. 631).
5 6 3 CK pCtts: cp. 945.X0701S is
changed by Nauck to 86\ois, because
the antithesis between force and persuasion is not suitable here; ' since Neoptolemus must assume a hostile intention
in the SIUKOPTCS.' But why should he
not suppose that the Atreidae, finding
him indispensable, wish to entice him
back by smooth \6yotl (Cp. 629 \6youn
fia\6a.KoU.) In v. 102 ri 8' h 56X Set
/xaWov fj Trelffavr' ayew; the antithesis
is between a false story and persuasion
by honest argument. But X670S (whether
true or false), as a means of prevailing,
can also be contrasted with force, as in
593 f-> V Xoyw I iretffavres afeip, rj irpbs
iVX<!os Kpdros. And that is the antithesis meant here.
5 6 6 KO.8" opfj/qv, impetuously, like

J. S. IV.

icari. aitovSty (Thuc. 1. 93): cp. &TO


/Aias bpixrji (id. 7. 71).
567 us TOVT' eirC<rT<i> 8poi|iey'. Where
(is occurs in such phrases with an imperative, it regularly belongs to the
partic.: cp. 253 ws iiti^ev et'56r' lade fi'
(n.). But here cis TavTa...8p<i/jieva could
not strictly stand for (is dpdi/j.eva...TavTa.
The suspicions which the text has excited are, so far, natural. Yet I think
that it is sound. The irregularity seems
to have arisen from the fact that us,
prefixed to an assurance, could either
(a) belong to a partic. (as in 253, 415,
etc.), or (?) introduce the whole sentence,
as 117 (is TOVT6 7' Zp^as $io <pipa Supijixara. Thus the Attic ear had become
accustomed to us as the first word of
such an assurance in either type. And
so &>% could be given that place in a
sentence of type (a), even though the
partic. did not immediately follow. That
is, I do not suppose that us TO.VT' eVtaTw
dpwfieva is for us Spu^uex' eTrforu TauTa:
but rather that, instead of saying simply
TOUT' iirlcrTW Spiifieva, h e can prefix 019,
because the associations of type (i) had
blunted the feeling for what was essential
in type {a),viz., that the partic. (or
partic. with /ity should immediately
follow us.
568

irpos rd8*.

After

o?c, it is

98

ZO<t>OKAEOYI
n\e2v TJV eroifios;

yj <f>6/3o<; TIS elpye

viv;

EM. KCTVOS y eif d\\ov dvSp' 6 TuSews re ircus


NE.
EM.
NE.
EM.

NE.
EM.

eoTeXXoi>, rjviic i^avrjyofnjv iya>.


777305 TTOLOV *av TOVS' avros ouSucrcrevs eVXei;
rjv Zrj TISdXXa ToVSe fioi irparov <j>pd(rov
TC<S iariv
av Xeyr/s Se n-rj (fxovei fieya.
oS' icrff 6 /cXewos trot ^iXo/crrfr^s, eVe.
ju.77 vvv fx eprj rd irXeCov, dXX' ocrov
e/orXei <xeauToi> vWa/3a)v 4K T-rjaSe yrjs.
r t (pr/o-LV,
m irai;
p
i i rif fxe Kara (TKOTOV TTOTC
p/
SSte/X7roXa Xoyotcri TT/DOS cr'' dd vavfidrrj<s;
fid
ou/c oTSa TTW TI (jyrja-C- Set S' auroi' Xeyeiv
eis <^>ws o Xe^et, TT^OS ere :a//,e roucrSe re.
<2 enrepfji 'AyiXXews, ju/>7 fie Sta^aXys arpaTW
keyovo a fiij oet* 7roXA. eyco KZLVODV VTTO
Spcav dvTLTrdcr^o) -^piqcrTd *d', oV dvrip Ttivt)<i.

57^

575

5 80

5 6 9 etpye] etpye L (made from elpye?).


57O Ke?yos 7'] Benedict conj. Keiv6s T\
5 7 1 eyd> B : l<ru L, A, etc.
5 7 2 irpis TOIOV &v TOVS' MSS. Dobree's conjecture
of aS for ftc is adopted by Dindorf, Blaydes, Nauck, Wecklein, Cavallin.Dissen
and (independently) Wecklein also conj. ovv.oidvaaeis] In L the 1st hand wrote
obvaatba : v (very small) was then inserted after 0 either by that hand itself, or by S.

slightly better to take these words a s =


'for this purpose' (0. T. 766 irpbs rt;),
rather than as = 'in view of these facts'
(=Tpbs ravra, O. T. 426). avVd'yYXos, carrying his own message: 0. C.
333.
57O f. KttvoS y: the ye throws a
slight stress on the pron., 'oh, h e ' : cp.
424.6 TuSc'ws ira.Es, Diomedes, who,
in the Philoctetes of Eur., accompanied
Odysseus to Lemnos (see Introd.).
IOTCXXOV = ear&CkovTo: cp. 640: Her.
4. 147 ZareWe is aTroiKii)v.
5 7 2 irpdsiroiov ovTdv8'...2irXa; 'who
was this other person in quest of whom
Odysseus himself was sailing?' atf is oft.
thus used after interrogatives: cp. Ant. 7
ri TOUT av <f>aal vavSifiuf TT6X | K^pvy/ut
Beivai...; (Forirpt>sTro7ov...T6vdeas=Trolos
T/V Sde, irpbs Sv, cp. 441.) Not 'was sailing again' (with ref. to his former voyage
toScyros, 343). If ai is a true correction
here (as it has been deemed by almost all
recent edd.), the corruption ov in the
MSS. is the reverse of that which has
probably occurred in O. C. 1418 (n.).
If ov is kept, it must be explained in

one of two ways. (1) Taking &v with


ZirXei: 'who is this, for whom he would
Aaw<fo?.ra:*7?K-?'( = 'presumablysailed').
Cp. Od. 4. 546 rj nev 'O/J&TTIJS I KTUVCV,
'or Orestes would have slain him,' = 'or,
it may be, O. slew him.' (2) Taking &
with TMOC -rbvSe, as if 6rra were understood: 'Who might this man be, for
whom he sailed?' On this view, S.v
does not affect iir\a, and irpbs iroXov av
rbvSe = iroios &Se av eir], irpbs Sv fwXei.
This is possible: though here irpbs voiov
av r6vde would more naturally suggest
irotos o5e &v r/v. See Appendix,
5 7 5 <roi, ethic dat.: cp. 261.
5 7 6 TO ir\Cov', the further details
which N. might naturally wish to learn:
cp. 0. C. 36 irplv vvv ri. T\eiov' 'urropeiv
(n.).<rowrAv {juWafituv, a phrase of
colloquial tone (cp. Shaksp., 'be packing'): Ar. Av. 1469 diriw/jiev ijfiets (rv\\apovres ra wrepd, and n. on O.T. 971:
Ant. 444 av /jiiv KO/jdfris av aeavrbv j?
64\eis.
6 7 8 f. ri |M...Sie|iiro\...irpas <re,
what bargain is he making with thee
concerning me ? From the words dXXa

cMAOKTHTHI

99

purpose, and to bring the message himself? Or did some fear


restrain him ?
ME. Oh, he and the son of Tydeus were setting forth in
pursuit of another man, as I was leaving port.
NE. Who was this other in quest of whom Odysseus himself
was sailing ?
ME. There was a man... But tell me first who that is
yonder,and whatever thou sayest, speak not loud.
NE. Sir, thou seest the renowned Philoctetes.
ME. Ask me no more, then, but convey thyself with all
speed out of this land.
PH. What is he saying, my son ? Why is the sailor
trafficking with thee about me in these dark whispers ?
NE. I know not his meaning yet; but whatever he would
say he must say openly to thee and me and these.
ME. Seed of Achilles, do not accuse me to the army of
saying what I should not; I receive many benefits from them
for my services,as a poor man may.
5 7 4 av Brunck (writing a "): av MSS. (in L an). The same error occurs in O. T.
281.
5 7 6 )i.ii vw] iJ.ii vvv L.
5 7 7 lKv\ei veavrov] Paley conj. ?Kir\ev<rov
avTov.
5 7 8 rt /e] Seyffert reads rl di, and so Cavallin. Nauck conj. rl<n
5 7 9 7rp6s <r'] In L the 1st hand wrote irpo <r': S inserted
(with \dyois /j.e in 579).
another a after 0.
58O f. Nauck places in the text his conjectures oIS' iyii for
olSd re, and <ra05s for els (pas. He further suggests xpvfa f r W5 8 3 Sia5 8 4 XPWT& 9' Dobree, and so most recent edd.:
r : Sia^dXKrja (sic) L.

rovSe in 573 onwards, the pretended


jecturally substituted aatpas. He wishes
1/j.wopos has spoken to N. in lower tones;
also to replace X#f by xpvfc1- But for
while N. has taken care to pronounce
the fut. cp. O.C. 114 &>s hv eK/i&doi \
v. 575 loud enough for Ph. to hear. The
rlvas \6yovs ipovmv. So here Wei=
object of this by-play is to quicken Ph.'s /tiXku \4eiv.For KaC.rc cp. 421.
interest in the coming story (603 ff.), and
5 8 2 ff. <nrip\t : cp. 364.<rrpa.T(p:
his anxiety to leave Lemnos. Seyffert's
the dat. as Eur. Hec. 863 'Axat-ois el
change of TC |ie into TC 84 is no improve5iafi\r)$ii<rona.i, etc. In prose usu. irpos
ment. It is natural that Ph., the avyp TWO. or eh rira: also iropa TOU, or (v
UUWTIJS (136), should suspect some de- run.S. |ii) St, quae non oforteat (gesign against himself. The l/jaropos had
neric /ir/).8p<3v dvTiirdo"x: the emsuddenly assumed an air of mystery; and,
phasis is here rather on the verb than on
on learning Ph.'s name, had urged N. to the partic.: ' I receive many benefits
save himself (creavrbv <Tv\\a.ptl>i>). The
from them, in return for my services.'
Sid in SWIMTOX^ expresses traffic: cp. fr.
The schol. has : inr' eKelvap eiepyeroi521. 7 (a woman bewailing the lot of ixevos drrevepyerS airrois, JJS Sivwrcu irivris
her sex), <hdofiiie6' ?|w Kal 8ie/j.To\(bfAe&a edepyeruv, Stikovbrt vTTiperetv. This
(as by a bargain between suitor and
makes dpuv more prominent than dvnparents).Cp. 978: Ant. 1036.
irdux^t evidently because the schol.
5 8 1 tts <|xs, opp. to Kara (TKOTOV thought that of dvijp ir^vr|s referred only
(578): cp. 1353: El. 639 oiSe T&V tbato Spun,'so far as a poor man can
TTi^anrpivei \ irpbs (pu>s\ 0. T. 1229 els confer benefits.' But that clause refers
T6 0ws tpavei: fr. 832 irdvr' iKKaXiirruv to dvri.irdcrxu also: the benefits which he
6 xpvoi e^s T^ 0 " s *7. Yet Nauck has
received were important for such as he
ejected els <p&s from the text, and conwas. Cp. O. T. 763 afios...of dxr)p |

72

IO<J>OKAEOYI

ioo

585
OVTOS he
NE. iyd> eifi 'ArpeiScus
iXos /Aeyioros, OOVVCK 'Ar/aeiSas aruyel.
<iXos
*\oy<ov
oei 817 <r, ifioiy'
ifioiy' iXdovra Trpocr<j)i\rj,
j
d/aj/coas.
Kpv\\tai irpo<; 77/ms fj
j
EM. opa TI iroteis, irai. N E . CTKOITCJ Kaya ira\<u.
E M . <re dr/crofiai TtuvS' OZTLOV. N E . m>iou
E M . Xeyw. 'rri TOVTOV avSpe T<WS' a>irep X
6 TvSews TTCUS 17 T ' 'OSvcrcrews /3ia,

Xeycov.

590

SKW/AOTOI TrXeoucru/ 77 JU,TJV 17 Xoy<w

Tretcra^Tes oi^euv, rj irp6<s icr^uo?

Kal rawT* 'A^aiol iravTes TJKOVOV


^
'OSucrcrews Xeyovros* OUTOS ya/o ifkiov
TO 0dp<ros etx e 0<""e/3ou Spdaeiv raSe.
NE. Ttvos S' 'ATpeiSai TOVS' ayav OVTW

JS'

595

i f

Xpj
y' MSS.
5 8 5 yi6 rf/*' L ist hand, altered by S to eyt!) '/*' Most of the
other MSS. have iyili ei/j.' (as A), or eyili V (as B): iy& /xkv T. Nauck conj. ?77'.
6 8 7 irpo<r(pi\7j, \6yoi>] Trpoa^CKyj \6yov L , e t c . : irpo<r<pi\ei \6yy in H a r l . (15th cent.),
which Burges adopts in his text, is an isolated v. 1. For \6yov Burges conj. \6yiw,
received by Nauck, Wecklein, Mekler.
5 8 8 After ri/ias two letters (Si?) have
59O jroioO]
been erased in L.in.r]Siv' MSS. : Lin wood conj. /tijS^v, and so Blaydes.

SoOXos ('for a slave'), a n d id. 1118 irurrbs


at vo/xeis dv-qp.xPTl<rTt' '* T O ^ ^ ^ (or
TroXXd re) Kal xfrr)aT&. is commoner than
7ro\Xct xjpwi\ard re (though c p . Aesch.
Theb. 338 jroXXa ydp, eSre 7TT6X 8aHaadij, I &J, dvffrvxrj r e irpda<rei): a n d on
the other hand we find jroXXci...nd\d (fr.
79), iroXXA.,.ffo0d (fr. 99), etc. Still,
6* seems more probable here than
P
y
5 8 5 f. y<u ei|n'. This synizesis is extremely rare, though that of w and ov is
less so (0. T. 332 ey& oft-', n.). Indeed
there is no other certain instance in
Tragedy; for in Eur. El. 1332 ouS' e7<b
els <rdv fik&Qapov 7reXd<rw ought not to
compared. There ovS' eyOi is a dactyl,
by epic hiatus, as in / / . 1. 29 rty 5' iyii
ov \vffto. In Comedy we have Ar. Vesp.
1224 eyoi etffofiai, where Burges reads
Tax' efoo/xai.<j>CXos (I^YUTTOS: cp.
1331 tplKov c ' iyd fjL^yuTTOv 'Apyelwv
5 8 7 f. Xo"y<i)v appears slightly prefer-

able to the MS. Xoyov here: and either


would have been written AOrON in the
poet's time. <Sv is most simply taken as
=TOVTWV OBS : though, if \6yov were retained, it might also represent (rrepl) TOUTtav a.
5 8 9 Spa K.T.X. Some take this verse
as an exchange of veiled hints between
the accomplices. But why should the
1/j.iropos fear that N. was likely to trip in
his part? Rather it is merely a piece of
acting, like the feigned 'aside' in 573,
and with the same objectviz., to impress Philoctetes.irdXai, referring back
merely to the moment at which he began
beto press his question,i.e., to 580: cp.
0. T. 1161 n.For the dvrChafiri, marking excitement, cp. 54, 466.
5 9 0 iroiov, instead of rtffov. Cp.
0. T. 54 $ etirep aptis rijaSe 7?s,
wairep Kpareis, n.X^Yv: cp. 0. C. 1038
Ai.
(n.) xwpwj' direXet vvv, threaten (if you
will)but set out. So here, 'hold me
responsible if thou wiltbut answer.'

<t>IAOKTHTHI

101

NE. I am the foe of the Atreidae, and this man is my best


friend, because he hates them. Since, then, thou hast come
with a kindly purpose towards me, thou must not keep from
us any part of the tidings that thou hast heard.
ME. See what thou doest, my son. NE. I am well aware.
ME. I will hold thee accountable. NE. DO SO, but speak.
ME. I obey. 'Tis in quest of this man that those two are
sailing whom I named to thee,the son of Tydeus and mighty
Odysseus,sworn to bring him, either by winning words or by
constraining force. And all the Achaeans heard this plainly
from Odysseus,for his confidence of success was higher than
his comrade's.
NE. And wherefore, after so long a time, did the Atreidae
turn their thoughts towards this man,
Wecklein (Ars p. 62) conj. 0o rot: Reiske, irddov or indov. 591 wirep L : &awep r.
6 9 2 Herwerden would delete this v., because the names have been given already (570).
594 irei<ravTcs] irelaavri y' B,
5 9 3 )j] T\ L. For tf ia\v 7; Elmsley conj. % \vlp> vat.
and so Brunck. Burges conj. iretaavr' &wdHeu>. 5 9 8 f. ourai L 1st hand, but the 1
has been erased Nauck would reject the words from 'ArpetSai to TOOLS' inclusive.

691 \yu. So in Ant. 245 (where the P. V. 212 tiis ov (car' ia%iv ovSi irpot
reluctant speaker is at last brought to the TO Kaprepov XP^V' S6\ij> Si TOVS vweppoint) leal S3) Xtyta <roi.'irl TOVTOV. Such<7XoVras Kpareiv. where KCLT' layiv exaphaeresis after a stop is rare: but cp.
presses the available strength, and irpos
Eur. / . A. 719 piXKw VI TOIJTIJ KOX TO Kaprepov the triumphant exertion of it.
KaBiara/^v TVXV- [Eur.] Rkes. 157 17'^w (As to Trpos l<?%vos %apiv in E u r . Meet.
538, see on Ant. 30.) For irpos cp.
VI Tourots TOVS' v<j>l<rTa/Mi irovov: Ar.
Nub. 1354 eyo) tppcurw. 'veidi) yap K.T.X. 90 n.
TOVTOV, this man here, (=T0i>8e,) Phi596 f. irXfov, predicate: cp. 352, 601.
loctetes.
8aT^pou = iJ 6 %Tepos: cp. O. C. 568
TrXoi>..,(rov = irX4ov ij <roi ( n . ) .
592 Although Odysseus and Diomedes had been named in 570, it is ob5 9 8 f. TCVOS. . .irpdypxtTos \dpiv; cp.
viously natural that their names should
0. T. 698 6Vou irori \ ...Tpdyfiaros.
Xp6V(gi TOCWSC = did, xpovov TOO~O6TOV, after
be repeated in this more explicit statement.
so long a time: cp. 722: El. 1273 ^
XPO"V M<"fpiy cpiXTaTav \ 6Sbv ivaiiiixras...
5 9 3 SuopoTOi. The adj., not found
tpavfjvat.reo-rpe<()ovTO, bethought them
elsewhere, answers to SU/wviu {Tr. 255)
or S161j.vvp.ai (ib. 378, At. 1233) a s = ' t o (impf.) of caring for: Dem. or. 10 9
ovdiv ({ppovrlaaTe oid' iireaTpitfrifTe oiStv
swear solemnly.'ii| iii'v, prefacing an
oath, as Tr. 256 {Sioiiitxrev) ij /irjv... Toirwi. C p . O. T. 134 irpb TOC BavovTos
TTJVS' ideal)' iTi<TTpo(prii>.cvyav OBTW :
dov\uxreiv: ib. 1185 oixvv... \ rj pty rl
Ml. 884 <35e TurTetieis ayav.
Sfxurav; The formula occurs first in
//. 1. 76 8/MW<roi> I ^ jUv (Ion. for ixyv)
The order of the words is remarkable,
iu>t...aprfieu>. It is used also in threats, not only because TCVOS is so far from
O. C. 816 f ixty.-Xvirtidds foei (n.).
irpd-ynaTos, but also because it is closely
5 9 4 ireCo-avres K.T.X. : cp. 102.irpos followed by TOVS', SO that, when the ear
lo-^vos KpdTos. i<rxvs is the physical caught the first words, the sense expected
strength at the disposal of the captors; might naturally be, 'Who was for this
tcpdros, the mastery which this strength man for whom' etc. (cp. 441). The
will give them. Thus the gen. defines motive has been the wish to emphasise
the source of the Kparos. Cp. Aesch. the pron. referring to Philoctetes (TOVS').

102

lO^OKAEOYS

oV * y ' elvov 77817 vpoviov iKfi


ris o TTOC/OS awrous i f e r , 77 fecuj/ p i a
KOX ve/iecrts, OMrep epy' afivvovcTiv /ca/ca;
EM. ey<u (re TOUT', tcrajs ya/D owe aKtjKoas,
irav efcSiSafa). /AOVTIS 17V TL<S evyevtfs,
Hpudfiov fiev vio<s, ovofia 8' tavo^aX^ro
"EXei'o?, 6V OUTOS I'VKTOS itjekdatv fjuovog,
6 TTOVT (IKOVWV alcr)(pa /cat \<a[Hr)T hrq
SoXios 'OSucrcreus etXe1 SeoyuoV r aycov

600

605

eSetf 'A^atots es fxdcrov, drjpav Kakrjv


os S17 T< T' aXA.' auTotcrt TTCII'T' idecrmcrev,
/cat Tarn TpoCa irepya/ji' cJs ou jai7 TTOTC
iripcroitv, ei JUT) Toi'Se TreLoravTes Xoyw
ayovvro vqcrov rrjcrh' i(j> 77s I'atet Ta O

610

6OO 6V 7' Heath and Erfurdt: 6V T' MSS.


6O1 /Sia] Above this word L has
the gl. 00 >os. Nauck conj. SiKrj: Pallis, the same, or fiXd/Hrf. Mekler, dpa.
6O7 Xu/3^r'] \W/3?;T' L,
6O2 oiVep] ^Vep (for ^Tre/)?) Harl.Pallis conj. atirep.
with a further dot on the T. Dindorf (ed. i860) treats this dot as the accent,
written over r instead of ij: but -q is accented (^).
6O8 Siff/uov T'
L, and most MSS.: Siaiuov d' A, Harl.
6O9 & pio-ov] Blaydes conj. h

A somewhat similar instance is Ant. 944


Symmetry with Upid/wv /JI> vl6s required
rAa Ka^ Aavdas obp&viov <pws | aXXd^at ovo/Mfofieros: cp. 215 n. {ftoa for fiowv).
Sinas iv xu^KoSirois ai)Xa?s.
6O6 "EXsvos,distinguished as Hpia600
etx.ov EKPCPXTIK6TS : cp.
EL
ja%s from Helenus son of Oenops,
590 eKpakovtr' Jxeis. The perf. part. (0.7 1 . a Greek hero slain by Hector (//. 5.
701) is much rarer than the aor. part, in
707),figures in the Iliad as at once
mere periphrasis. When joined to the
a seer and a warrior. He gives counsel
perf. partic, ?%w has usu. a separate
at critical moments to his brother Hector
force; as Xen. An. 1. 3. 14 TTOXXA XPV~
(//. 6. 76, 7. 44); with his brother Deii0
jxara Ix ^"
ivvprnxires ('have carried
phobus, he leads a third of the Trojan host
off, and hold'). So ib. 4. 7. 1 ev ofs Kai
in the attack on the Greek camp (//. 12.94).
T& ewiTydeia irdvTa ava.KenoiuaiJ.tvoi (had The story of his capture by Odysseus
VIOV
(masc.):
carried up, and kept).XP
does not belong to the Iliad, but was
O. C. 441 n.
probably included in the 'IXids Minpd of
Lesches (c. 700 B.C.),the epic which
6 0 1 f. TS 6 ir69os: cp. 0. C. 205
rls 0 Troktiirovos Hyei; (n.)VKCT': / / . 1. contained the return of Philoctetes to
Troy (see Introd.). Ovid associates this
24O TJ TTOT' 'AxtXX^os wodij t'^erat vtas
exploit with two other similar feats of
'A.%a.i.Giv.8(3v Pia, constraint imposed
Odysseus,the capture of the horses of
by the gods; an unusual phrase, but
Rhesus, when their master, and the
suitable here, where spontaneous yearnTrojan spy Dolon, were slain, (//. 10)
ing (TT<S0OS) is opposed to the external
and the theft of the Palladium: Met.
pressure of destiny. Cp. fr. adesp. 424
13. 99 Conferat his Ithacus Rhesuni
oi yap irpb fwlpas 17 T6\V /Sidfercu (i.e.,
imbellemque
Dolona, \ Priamidemque
one does not die before one's appointed
Helenum rapta cum Pallade captum. In
time). Ant. 1140 /3tas...vbaav.W|MVerg. Aen. 3. 346 ff., Helenus, then
cris: cp. 518.d|ivou<riv, requite, punish:
settled in Epeirus, prophesies to Aeneas.
0. C. 1128.
6O5 ovopa 8' uvopagero: Eur. Ion
The statement of the 1/x.iropos is only
800 ivo/xa bt iroiov airbv ovonafri trariip ; part of the truth. Helenus had indeed

<t>IAOKTHTHI

103

whom long since they had cast forth ? What was the yearning
that came to them;what compulsion, or what vengeance, from
gods who requite evil deeds ?
ME. I can expound all that to thee,since it seems that
thou hast not heard it. There was a seer of noble birth, a son
of Priam,by name Helenus; whom this man, going forth by
night,this guileful Odysseus, of whom all shameful and dishonouring words are spoken,made his prisoner; and, leading
him in bonds, showed him publicly to the Achaeans, a goodly
prize: who then prophesied to them whatso else they asked,
and that they should never sack the towers of Troy, unless by
winning words they should bring this man from the island
whereon he now dwells.
ju&rois (cp. 630).
61O eBiamaev Triclinius : ediairure L, A, etc.
611
us ov /irj] (is oilfrtiHarl.iripaoiev L and most MSS.: wipaeiev r.Elmsley conj. its ov
/M^TTOTC I Tripaeiav : Blaydes, <Ss OVK OK TTOTC | irifxroiev. Nauck would prefer to read
(taking Sr) from the Harleian MS.) <Js oi df) irore | irtpaoiev.Mekler conj. its ov /n}
wore I IXoiev.
6 1 3 ayoivro MSS. Blaydes reads aydyoivro: he also conj. aifoipro.
been captured, and had said that Troy
could not be taken without Philoctetes.
But he had also said that Troy was
destined to be taken that summer,as
if he knew that fate had decreed the
return of Philoctetes,who was then to
be healed by the Asclepiadae, and to share
with Neoptolemus the glory of the victory
(13291342). Odysseus, however, believed that Philoctetes would not listen
to persuasion, but must be brought back
by a stratagem (103). And so the object
of the l/iiropos in referring to Helenus is
merely to convince Philoctetes that Odysseus is coming, in order that the sufferer
may become still more anxious to depart
with Neoptolemus for Greece, as he
supposes.
6O7 dicovW, with ref. to general
repute, as 1313.XpT]Td &irn, insulting,
contumelious words: for the act. sense,

353 n.oi |i ITOTC irep<roiev. Helenus


said, oi uri irtpaere. It is certain that
ov |j was used with the 1st or 3rd
pers. of the fut. indie, in strong denial,
having then the same force as 01) /M) with
the subjunctive, which was the commoner
construction. There is no need, then, for
changing oi /irjii^po-ouvinto ov/j,ijtr(p(r(iav
(as though he had said oi /J.ij trifxniTe).
In oratio obliqua after a secondary tense
this fut. indie, with ov iiA\ could be retained (as if here we had iripo-ovaw): or
it could be represented by a fut. inf. (as
if we had t</n) airois ov /j.^Trore ri/xretv).
See the examples in n. on O. C. 177.
ow 8ijiroTe irepo-owv would be a weaker
reading.
6 1 3 otyoivTo: he said, iav p.% ayrio-ffe,
if ye shall not bring. Blaydes places his
conjecture ciYayoivTO in the text, and also
suggests dUjoivTO. Either would serve;
but
dtyoivTo is right also. In a concp. Tr. 538 X&jjSjp-Ai' {/j.Tr6\r)/j.a, a bargain
ditional sentence, the pres. subj. can
that ruins one.
6O9 h }Utrov with &>', rather than have either of two meanings: (1) i&r
aytjerde, raXSs ?|ei,'if ye shall bring,
with S(aiuov.,,ayu)v: cp. Pind. fr. 42
it will be well'a particular supposition
referring to the future: or (2) id.v dyri<r0e,
p
|
el
e
6 1 0 T(t T dXXa...irdvTtt, including Ka\&s ?x >' 'f y (ever) bring, it is
(always) well,'a general supposition
the command to bring Neopt. from Scyros
referring to the present. Here, of course,
(cp. 346). This phrase serves to emphadyou>TO represents (1). Cp. Xen. Cyr.
sise the statement introduced by ical: cp.
3.*2. 13 rjv /iiv TriKe^ov alprjaSe,
^
Ant. 506 d\V ij rvpavris iroXXd T' dW
TJKere bevpo dvev oirktav.. .ijf fi p^j
eiSai/iovei, \ Kal-e<rTu> airy K.T.X.
e
Setadai,
avev
Swkiiiv
^/cere:
ib.
6 1 1 t. T&irl Tpo($ vipya\t : cp.

104

Z0*0KAE0YZ
/cat T0.V& OTTCOS TJKOV<T' 6 Aaeprov TOKOS
TOV fidvTiv elirovT, evOews virio-yero
TOV dvSp' 'A^aiots rovSe ST]XCOO-LV dyav
OLOLTO fJ.ev paXicrff

615

KOVO-LOV Xaficov,

el /irj OeXot, 8', O.K0VT0.- Kal rovrcav K<pa


Tefiveiv i<f>eLTO ra> deXovru firj TV^CJV.
r
qKovo~a<5, <o Trot, irdvTa' TO o-trevBeLV Se (roc
620
KavTto napcuvto KCL TWOS /a^Sei
<&L OLfiOL raXas 1 rj Keivos, r irao-a
fi ets 'A^atous tofx.oo~ev iretcra?
7retcr^cro)u,ai yap tuSe KO "AISOU davcov
Trpos (f>to^ dvekdeiv, wcrirep ovueivov Tra.Trjp.
625
EM. OUK oio

eyw r a w a U

eyw /iev ei/i

ETTI

raw, o-(f>qiv S' OTTft)? apiaTa avfjifyipoi 8eo<;.


<E>I. OVKOVV TaS', w mxi, Setva, TOP AaepTuov
eft ikirCcrai, TTOT av Xoyoicrt fiaXdaKols
at vecis dyovT' kv 'Apyeiois /xecrots;
6do~crov av Trjs irXelo~Tov e)(6io~rrj<s ifiol

630

6 1 4 iJKovff' r : i)Kov<m> L.rckos L, A, and most MSS. : 70^05 B, R, Lc.


6 1 5 eMvr' from eiir6v$' in L.
6 1 8 f. Nauck conj. Kal KaparofieTv | e^eiro T%>
6(\OVTI ruvSe 1*7) TVX<W.
6 2 1 KI}57)I L.F. W. Schmidt conj. id/Soi' In.

5. 3. 27 e&c o8x fjjs vSc, Trire ?<r o?/cot;


For similar instances of this pres. subj.
to the future)) represented
by
((referring
g
p
y
h optative
i
i oratio
ti obliqua,
bli
D
the
in
cp. Dem.

irbwrjaos eli), IX6VOI. yhp airox&oves iv


airy oUoiev.|xaXio-Ta with otoiro, indicating
most likely:
g what he thought
g
y
El 932 fy
K ' ^-ydrye,
^
d
cp. El.
ofywu ixaKurr'
and

or.

O. C. 1298 n.

18

148

/A&V TOIVWI TOVTO...TG>V

eicetvov <rv/x/j.dxoy eiatpioirb ns (represent618 f. TOTV with |uj rv\dv (=et


ing iav d<rriyTJTai ns), iir6ipe<r6<u TO p)] TI)X<>') the place of the pron. is
irpay/w. i>6/ufc (irdyras). Xen. Anab.
emphatic; cp. 598 n.Kapa T'|J,V6IV =
6. I. 25 iSSKei dij\ov etvcu in alp^aovrai
Ke<t>a\riv carori/iveiv (or poet. Kaparonetv).
avrbv, el TIS iiri\f>T}<plfroi (=edc TIS iwiThe Homeric Odysseus twice uses this
fyfoftl)-vii<rov, gen. after a verb of
expression; / / . 2. 259 /ITIK^T' ftrcn-'
motion: 630, -7. 324 S6iiO>v...h'T&<j>ia..,
'05w?}t K&frq w/ioicnv iireiijif he does
<p4povirav: 0. T. 142 n.
not chastise Thersites; and Od. 16. 102
6 1 7 The words otoiro |iiv naXwrra are
avrW (weir' da-' e/j,eio xdpy rd/iot dWorpios
parenthetical, just as if we had eUSrws /niv
<piisif he should not punish the suitors.
eKoinov \afiil>v: and the optat. is used
|tTO, usu. 'commanded'or'enjoined';
as if direv tin Si;Xi6iroi had preceded.
here rather,' gave leave.' [In Xen. An. 6.
Cp. Lys. or. 13 19 W-yei STI, iiw avrbv
6. 31 ^ arpand aoi {/(fteiro S n lfioti\ov
'4\y)tr0 Tepl rrjs eipi)vris Trpetr^evriiv auroTrot-^irat, i<j>etTO is only a doubtful v. 1.]
Kpdropa, iroffi<retv [irreg. for xoojtrei or
62O f. TA cnrevSciv: for the super-<roi] ciVre iff/re T&V TeixSv SteXeiv /ttjre fluous art., cp. 0. C. 47 (rov^avurTiwai.)
SX\o T7ii> TTO\I.V iXarTuxrai injdtv ofoiTo
n.croi KavruJ: the /caf = 'both,' yet can
Se Kal SK\o TI dyaBbv...evp^<re<r0ai. Simifollow <rot because the thought is, ' I relarly a clause with ydp can take the optat.
commend haste to you, both in your own
in oratio obliqua: Xen. H. 7. 1. 23
interest and in that of your friends.'
\iyuv ws p.bvois nh airroTs irarpk IleXotripi: a very rare addition to the gen.

4>IA0KTHTHI

105

And the son of Laertes, when he heard the seer speak thus,
straightway promised that he would bring this man and show
him to the Achaeans,most likely, he thought, as a willing
captive,but, if reluctant, then by force; adding that, should
he fail in this, whoso wished might have his head.Thou hast
heard all, my son; and I commend speed to thee, and to any
man for whom thou carest.
PH. Hapless that I am! Hath he, that utter pest, sworn
to bring me by persuasion to the Achaeans ? As soon shall
I be persuaded, when I am dead, to come up from Hades to the
light, as his father came!
ME. I know nothing about that:but I must go to ship,
and may Heaven be with you both for all good.
[Exit MERCHANT.
PH. NOW is not this wondrous, my son, that the offspring
of Laertes should have hoped, by means of soft words, to
lead me forth from his ship and show me amidst the Greeks ?
No! sooner would I hearken to that deadliest of my foes,
6 3 3 rj\ V L.
6 3 5 vpbs </>Ss aveKdeiv] Nauck writes eis (j>ws av i\$uv.
63O dyovr' from ayovS' L.
6 3 1 oil'] oi)" 1st hand in L : S added the accent,
but in front of the breathing. Seyffert, from the margin of Turnebus, gives oi

with KijSo/tcu: as a general rule, however,


6uv is confirmed by the context: cp.
verbs of 'caring' can take either the
Ar. Pax 445 eh </>(os ave\8eiv, etc.: and
simple gen. or gen. with prep, (as ippov- (<) it gives a more direct and forcible
rifa, ixiXei, etc.).
sense.OVKICVOV itwr^p, Sisyphus. The
scholiast gives the story as it was
6 3 3 T^ ireura pXafSi), that utter pest.
told (probably) by the logographer
In this phrase iracra is justified by the
Pherecydes {flor. 470 B.C.?), who is
figurative application; i.e., when a man
is called a f}\afiri, instead of saying 6 was quoted in ref. to Sisyphus by the
fiXd/jr/ iSv, he who is altogether a bane, we schol. on / / . 6. 153. Sisyphus had dican say T\ waaa j3\ay3?;, the bane which is rected his wife to leave him unburied.
On reaching the shades, he denounced her
altogether such. The tendency is the same
which appears, e.g., in X4yei....eli><u rai- impiety to Pluto, and obtained leave to
TI\V (instead of TOOTO) dpdoTrjTa 6v6/j.aTosgo back and punish her. Having thus
returned to earth, he stayed there,(as
(Plat. Crat. 433 E^ O. C. 88 n.).So
Aegisthus is 6 iravr avaXms ofrros, T) iraaa (adds the scholiast) per' dvayKTjS KarffK6ev. Theognis (v. 702) is the earliest
/3Xd|8?j, El. 301. Cp. 927 Trap 5jua.
witness:2i<n50ou kioklSew, | os re Kal
6 3 4 f. iriar9ij<ro|MU. No entreaties
c
'AtSea iro\vXSpiritnv ai>i)\0a>, \ welaas
can recall the dead to the upper world;
HepaetpSvtjv al/j.v\toiat Xoyots.
and no entreaties will recall him to Troy.
We need not object to iruadi]<roixai. that 6 3 7 o-u(J.<f>epoi, be your helper: a sense
a Greek would think of the departed as
derived from the idea of sharing a burden:
glad to revisit the sunlight. The point
El. 946 i*vi>oi<7u> irav oaovirep av cdtvu.
is that the dead are deaf to the voice that
Not, 'be in accord with you' (vobiscum
would bring them back.Y<*P implies
conspiret, Herm.: Ar. Lys. 166 av/jp,
the suppressed thought, OSTOI areXel. iaf IXT) rfj yvvaiKl <rv/juj>{pTi).
iS8 = 'at this rate' ( = 'if I go to Troy'):
6 3 8 rdSe: for the plur. cp. 524 n.
so oft. oiira.irpds <Jxos dv\0eiv. Nauck
6 3 0 vos otyoyr', leading him ashore
writes &v eXdav, taking the sense to be:
from his ship : cp. 613 n.
' I shall be made to believe that I could
6 3 1 oii- is clearly right: cp. 993, 997,
return,' = 6'n l\$oi/u av. But (a) aveX- Tr. 415. Welcker's o5 ( = 'whereas') is

106

IO*OKAEOYS
Kkvotp! evlhvqs, rj JJL i0i)Kev wo airovv.
ctAA. ecrr e/cetvo) Travra. Ae/cra, vavra oe

fj

NE.
<3>I.
NE.
<I>I.

Kai vvv oIS' 69ovve)l i^erat.

aXX', 3 TCKVOV, -^oipw^ev, &5s T^aas TTOXV


TreXayos opitfl T779 'OSucrcrews J'ews.
ta>fiev rj rot Kaipios cnrovSrj TTOVOV
XT^GIVTOS VTTVOV Kavdiravkav
yjyaryev.
ou/couv eVetScb' trveujxa TOVK Trpcopas dvfj,
Tore o-reXou/Aev i w y a p avTioo-raret.
ael /faXos TTXOUS ecr^5, oTaz/ ^euyys Ka/ca.
ovr, aXXa KaKeCvoicri r a u r ' ivavrCa.
OUK e o r i Xijcrrats Trvevfi
ivavTiov^evov,
OTCLV Trapr} K:Xet/at Te ^apirdcrai

635

640

/Sia..

NE. aXX' et So/cet, ^wpw/iev, evhodev \afian>


OTOV ere XP^a Kai 7r@S fiaXicrr' r^et.
<I>I. dXX' eo-Tti' (Si/ Set, Kaiirep ov TTOWCOV OLTTO.
NE. Tt TOV0" o jxTJ vea><i ye T^S C/M^S *e7Ti;
<&I. <f>vXkov TL /iot Tr&pecrTW, w jotaXtcrr' aet
TOS' eX/cos, wcrre Trpavveiv irdvv.

645

650

<?o<nroi'...; Welcker conj. o5 Saaaov, and so Dind., Wunder, Hartung, Blaydes,


Wecklein.Schneidewin conj. ? Baaaov.
6 3 8 Trdi/ra S^] Wakefield conj.
Trfana. re.
6 3 6 6p(fj Reiske, Brunck : 6p(f MSS. (xwpifc Harl.): marg. gl.
in L, ditcrrrjaiv.Buttmann retained ws (as = 'since') opifci: Hermann gave ?ws...
opifei.
637 f. Hermann would assign these two vv. to the Chorus. Blaydes
follows Bergk in rejecting them.
6 3 9 roik r : rov L.i.v Pierson: d-rji L,
with gl. Trap^i: ayy A (with gl. viar), 0pav<T0y, showing that the annotator took
it from Uynv,'be broken,' i.e. 'fall'!).
6 4 2 ofc'- SXkb. (sic) L.Seyffert
reads, oix aura...; Meineke, OVK apa...; (and so Cavallin): Wecklein (Ars p. 40)

much weaker: so, too, is i) Baaaov, or


6 3 9 f. TOVK irpiopas: cp. 1451 Kari.
ov 83.<rffoi>...aTovv;irXetoTov x"<"Tls:
irpiiwav.ovf, as in 764: and so 705
cp. O. C. 743 ifkiiafov... I KaKtirTos, n.
i^aveiTj. Cp. Her. 2. 113 oi yap avia
6 3 2 airovy, deprived of the use of (pres.) ret irveiixara.0-TeXoCp.tv: 571 n.
U
one's feet, X X6K: cp. Arist. Metaphys.
6 4 2 OUK, dXXd, K.T.X. The tone of
4. 7.1 \4yeTai...airovv
Kai T<p 11% ixeLV
this idiomatic phrase would be nearly
SXus ir6Sas Kai T!# <pa6\ovs.
rendered (here, at least) by ' nay, but.'
633

irdvTa XCKTCI, K.T.X.

For the

omission of /UP in the epanaphora cp.


779: Ant. 806 n.
635 f. <os...6p{gi|. The MS. 6pji
cannot be defended here, either with
<!)s as = 'since,' or with the conjecture
?ws as='while yet.' The words clearly
express the eagerness of Ph. to put a
space of sea between himself and his
pursuer. And he has no reason to believe that his pursuer is still distant.

The OVK refers to del xaXds TTXOUS K.T.X. :

' This is not a case of flight from imminent peril; but (on the contrary) our
pursuers also are being delayed.' Cp.
Plat. Euthyd. 277 A Spa ai ov fui,v$dps;...oftc, dXX', fj d' 8s, iiavSAva.I do
not think, then, that any alteration is
necessary. Of the conjectures (see cr. n.)
Doederlein's otS" is perhaps the best,
O. Heine's dXX' ovxV...; is also possible,
6 4 5 xwP"(i6v...XaPv. The subject

4>IA0KTHTHI

10;

the viper which made me the cripple that I am! But there is
nothing that he would not say, or dare; and now I know that
he will be here. Come, my son, let us be moving, that a wide
sea may part us from the ship of Odysseus. Let us go: good
speed in good season brings sleep and rest, when toil is o'er.
NE. We will sail, then, as soon as the head-wind falls; at
present it is adverse.
PH. Tis ever fair sailing, when thou fleest from evil.
NE. Nay, but this weather is against them also.
PH. NO wind comes amiss to pirates, when there is a
chance to steal, or to rob by force.
NE. Well, let us be going, if thou wilt,when thou hast
taken from within whatever thou needest or desirest most.
PH. Aye, there are some things that I need,though the
choice is not large.
NE. What is there that will not be found on board my ship ?
PH. I keep by me a certain herb, wherewith I can always
best assuage this wound, till it is wholly soothed.
OVK ap' a/M...; O. Heine, aXX' ovxl...\ Schneidewin (formerly), aXX' earl...: Doederlein, oI5'- aXXa (and so N a u c k ) : Mekler, ev y'' dXKa.Paley would justify O9K
by a transposition, arranging the vv. thus : 643, 644, 642, 641.
6 4 4 K\e\j/ou
re] Bergk conj. /cX^ai .
6 4 S XajSuv] Dobree conj. \abvd', and so Hartung.
6 4 7 <nro] Reiske conj. dyav: Burges, ou voWSiv ye, irai.
6 4 8 TL TOO0'] Blaydes
conj. TI 3' l<rS'.In MSS.: fin is conject. by London ed. (1747), Heath, Wakefield, etc.: airo by Hartung.
6 4 9 /iciXior' del] Hense conj. /juHKi/jra, val:
Tournier, T&xjtar' del.
6 5 O Tavv] icbvov R (16th cent.), which Hartung adopts.
Reiske conj. irbvov : Wecklein, 7r65a: Nauck, vakiv: Hense, 71-0X1): Meineke, raxv.

to the plur. verb being eyw Kai ai, the


sing, partic. agrees with ai,a constr.
harsher in form than in reality. C p . A r .
Av. 202 Sevpl yap <r(}as... \ Iweir' &t>eyelpas
rty i^v
ariSbva, | KaXovfiev
airotis.
Aesch. Eum. 141 aviffTW, K&WOXaK-rfffcw' iwiiov I L5ib/i.e8'. E u r . Med. 564
KOL gvvaprriffas yivos \ e6Sai/M>vol/iev (so
Elms., for -olt\v). D e m . or. 14 15
airtfiMij/aTe rrpis cLWyXovs, us avrbs /iit>
itcatjTos ou Toiiiirijiv.Dobree's
conjeeture, Xa.pdv0', was suggested by O. C.
1164, where the MSS. give pok/an' at the
end of the v . : but that should prob. be
jiioVox.
6 4 7 KaCircp oO iroXX<5v airo: and so it
will not take long to choose them out.
For the use of the prep., cp. Thuc. 1.
110 6\lyoi awb TTOAXCSC.
6 4 8 vos Ve T ' i s 'PIS 2iri. The correction of the Ms. ivi to ihn is necessary
and certain. Of 2vi (=&<e(m) only three
explanations are possible, (r) Some hold

that the gen. vs depends on the idea of


l<ra or ivSov implied in <!vi: 'is contained
in my ship.' C p . Ai. 1274 epKiwv...
yicac\riiJ.&ovs: E u r . Ph. 451 TOVS' elireS^fw reixtwv. But there the notion 'withi n ' is implied far more clearly than by
Zvi here. (2) Or vais is an absolute local
gen., ' i n the ship' ; cp. El. 900 iaxarrjs
5' opw Trvpas..,^lxrTpvxov.
(3) Others
take 2vi with \afleiv supplied from Xa/SwK
in 6 4 5 : 'what is there which it is not
possible to obtain from my ship.' N o
one of these views is tenable,
6 5 O irdvu is fitting enough, where he
is dwelling on the value of the herb to
him; and it certainly is not weaker than
the substitutes which have been proposed
for it (see cr. n.). Meineke (Analecta
Soph. p . 317) makes the arbitrary assumption that T&VV was not used by
Soph, in dialogue; though it is certainly
used by him in anapaests (0. C. 144).

108

ZO*OKAEOYI

. aAA. K(pep avro.


4>I.

et /

Tt, yap ex aAA epas

kapew;

qf

irapeppvrjKev, ws XITTO) JUT? ra ^


JNJii. i\ ravTa yap ra Kkeiva rog a vvv x
*I>L ravT, ov yap akk' ear, a W a fia<TTat,a) -^epoZv.
NE. dp' <TTiv OMTTe KayyvOev- diav Xa^elv,
Kal jSacrTacrat ju,e Trpocncvcrai ff acrirep 0e6v;
<I>I. crot y', w TCKVOV, Kal TOVTO KaWo Tav i
OTTOIOV av croi vfjL,<f>epr) yevTjcrerai.
NE. Kal fJLTjv ipco ye* T W 8' I/3W^' OUT&)9 exet /not de/Ais, 6e\oL[jL av ei Se /x^, Trapes.
<1>I. ocrta Te (fxoveis ecrrt T', W TIKVOV, 6i\Li%,
os y 7]A.iov TOO eicropav e/noi <pao9
fjiovos Se'Sw/cas, os x ^ v ' OiTatav iSetv,
os narepa Trpecrfivv, os ^>i\ovs, os Taiv e/A&5v
t\6p<ov p euepOev oi^r' aveo-r^cras
6 6 4 To'if
a (3offTafw
(i) A, 01
idTiv d\\':

655

665

a] rd^a Aid., with A.


655 ravr' ov yap a\X' {sic, not dXX') &r0'
xeP^v L. Two modes of completing the v. appear in other MSS. :
yap a\\a y' I<r9': (i) V, o W t<rd' dW.-Hartung conj. ravr', ov yA.p
Hense, TOUT', ov ykp &W' IT' Z<r8': Mekler, ravr', ov ybp aXV, Qur6\

651 TC yap ir: 'Now what else...?'


by dropping from the quiver); not, 'has
Yap introduces the question, as oft.,
slipped from my memory.' Cp. Xen.
when a speaker turns to a new point:
An. 4. 4 akeeirov r\v 77 x^" irnreirrtaKvia,
cp. 1405: Ai. 101 eUv rl yap 51) 7rais 6 &rtf pJ)] wapappvelr) (slip off). Plato has
rod Aaepriov, | wovffoiT6XV* '^(rTijicev; the word in a fig. sense, Lzgg' 781 A
6 5 2 f. & poi TI T6V ('I fain would
7roXXA vfiv irapippu, TO\V d/iavon av
fetch) any of these arrows that may have
(xovTa e ' "op.av lrv%ev y rk vvv (escaped
been overlooked and may have slipped
your care).ws XCirco y.r\ = &s /AT) X.: cp.
away from me.'The vaguer interpretation,
67 n.: Xafictv : cp. 81.
'any appurtenance of this bow,' is not
655 01S Yap oXX' for', d W cE K.T.\.
the best here. Philoctetes, who has been
L's reading, ou yap dXX' {sic) e<r6' a clearafield in quest of game, carries his bow
ly points to the reading in the text, since
and his quiver (cp. 291 n.); but he is dXV might easily have been omitted by
afraid that one or more of the arrows
a scribe who mistook it for a repetition of
may have been accidentally left behind
&Xk'. And F confirms this. For #XXos
in the cave. T6a, in poetry, can mean
closely followed by a\\d, Seyffert cp.
either (1) bow, (2) bow and arrows, or
Od. 8. 311 arap off rl fioi alrios oXXos, |
(3) arrows. For sense (2), cp. //. 21. dXXck To/ri/e dva (cp. id. n . 558). Re502: Leto picks up the arrows which
mark that this reading is further corrohad dropped from the quiver of Artemis
borated by the form of the statement. It
(492 rax&s b"form-Tew6'Ccrrol):trvval- is peculiarly Sophoclean to have three
VVTO KafjLTrvXa T6a, \ ireirrwr' dXXuSts aXXa clauses, in which the second is opposed
p\era crTpo<pa\iyyi. Kovh)% (where KajinrvKa to the first, and the third repeats the
is the epithet of the bow only). For (3), sense of the first,as here & (3ao-Tda> =
Eur. Ion 524 et<rw r6fo rvevp.6vav Xa/Sefc.
TOOT' : see on Ant. 465.A's reading
din||K\T||Uvov, a rare compound, of dXXo -y' &rfl' & is weaker, and also less
which this perf. partic. occurs in Her. 3. likely to have generated L's.
129.irappptii]Kv, has slipped aside (as
6 5 6 f. <8crre after io-riv, as sometimes

cfHAOKTHTHI

109

NE. Fetch it, then. Now, what else would'st thou take ?
PH. Any of these arrows that may have been forgotten,
and may have slipped away from me,lest I leave it to be
another's prize.
NE. IS that indeed the famous bow which thou art holding ?
PH. This, and no other, that I carry in my hand.
NE. IS it lawful for me to have a nearer view of it,to
handle it and to salute it as a god ?
PH. TO thee, my son, this shall be granted, and anything
else in my power that is for thy good.
NE. I certainly long to touch it,but my longing is on
this wise;if it be lawful, I should be glad; if not, think no
more of it.
PH. Thy words are reverent, and thy wish, my son, is
lawful; for thou alone hast given to mine eyes the light of life,
the hope to see the Oetean land,to see mine aged father
and my friends,thou who, when I lay beneath the feet of my
foes, hast lifted me beyond their reach.
6 5 6 ap'] ap' L.
6 5 7 pe] Blaydes gives a<t>e- 6 5 9 fv/^epr;] crvixipipov T.
6 6 1 et ftoi\ Reiske conj. el iiiv.Trapes] Nauck and Blaydes conj. ov flAw.
6 6 3 TOS' r : TOT L.
6 6 6 iripai L. Burges conj. /x' uVep : Blaydes, the same,
or iraKtv, or %ep: Cavallin, Kapa.

after Svvardv, iO\ai, Siojiai, ireWoi, e t c . :

cp. O. C. 969 n.9e6v. So the Arcadian


Parthenopaeus swears by his spear-head

(ai'xM^), V" %Xei HaXkov 0eoO | <rieiv n -

iruffiis (Aesch. Theb. 529). Idas, one of


the Argonauts, says, oib" V 60AX |

Ant. 1193 Kovdiv irapriaa.. tiros. Plat.


Legg. 754 A ftii TOIVVV yifVilxTKOVTh ye
Trapoijuey abrb dpprjTov. Pind. P. 1. 86
/XT] iraplet

KaKd.

6 6 3 f. 6's -y', as 1215, O. T. 35, etc.


The relative, with this causal force, refers
Zei)s TOGOV, boa6.Tt.bv xep ifibv S6pu (Apoll. to an antecedent (<roi) which is underRhod. 1. 468). Mezentius: Dextra mihi stood : 0. C. 263 n.4>aos, life, in place
deus et telum, quod missile libro, | Nunc of imminent death.SeSwKas, followed
adsint (Verg. A en. 10. 773). Capaneus: by an aor. (666): cp. 928 f.\96v' 01Ades 0 mihi dextera tantum: \ Tupraesens raCav : 490 n.The repetition of the
bellis et inevitable numen ; ] Te voco, te so- pron. os has much the same rhetorical
lam, superum contemptor, adoro (Statius effect as the repetition of the verb (oV5u>9. 548). Here, however, Neoptolemus re- Kas) would have with us.
gards the bow as a 'god,' not so much
6 6 6 dve<rri]cras ire'pa. If irc'pa is
because it is invincible, as because it had
genuine, the sense is :' When I was
belonged to Heracles.For the fig. use under the feet of my foes, thou hast lifted
of 0e6s, cp. O.T. 27 n.
me up, (placing me) beyond their reach.'
6 5 9 u|i<j><=pT) cannot mean, 'what is Tre'pa could be either prep, with ex^pav,
pleasing to you' (as Nauck takes it, 'was or adv.: the former is best for contrast
genehm ist'), but only,' what is profitable with ivipQtv. While suffering in Lemnos,
for you.' The latter sense, however, is P h . was Ivepdev TUV ixOp&v. If he is
restored to his home in Greece (and he
quite consistent with epw in 660.
6 6 0 f. K<u |ujv...7: Ant. 221 n. assumes that this is certain), then they
can touch him no more. Thus iripa
irctpes, 'let it go,' 'think no more about
it.' There is no real ground for thinking blends the thought of conveyance across
this word corrupt. wapUvai can mean the sea with the image of 'uplifting'
which is expressed by dWoTTjo-as. The
omittere no less than concedere. Cp.

no

ZO*OKAEOY2:

ddpcrei, irapicrTai ravrd crot /cat Oiyydvew


leal 86VTL oovvcu Ka^eTTev^aadai fiporSv
aperfjs I/cart TCOVS' eTrn/ravam fiovov
evepyerwv yap KOLVTOS avr' kKTr\crdy^)v.
670
NE. OVK d^0o[iaC cr iScov re /cat Xaficov tftlXov
OCTTIS ya-p ew 8pav ev iraOaiv iiricrTaTau,
jrairos yevoiT oiv KTTj/jLaros Kpelcr<r<av <i\os.
^wyoots dv eicrci). <3>I. KCU ere y etcra^w TO yap
vocrovv TTodel ere ^vfnrapacrToiTrjv Xay8ew\
675
arp,>. a'. XO. \6yq) fJ-ev i^rjKovcr,

oTrama 8' ov fidXa,

667 f. Hense would omit from ravrd <roi to Sovvou. inclusive.


6 6 8 Kal Sovn Sovvai]
Musgrave conj. xol GTOHUTI Sovvai (as Blaydes reads): Herwerden, K&XOVTL Sovvai.
67O afo-'] our (sic) L : cp. on 607.
6 6 9 iwvov] Nauck conj. /iovep.
671673 OVK axBo/j.at...<pi\os. The MSS. give these three vv. to Philoctetes.
Doederlein first restored them to Neoptolemus. They are rejected as spurious by
Dindorf and Wunder, whom Nauck and Campbell follow.
6 7 4 f. L rightly
gives xw/>ois av etcrw to Neoptolemus (the words forming a line by themselves), and

very fact of such a blending seems in


favour of ir^pa, Sophocles not seldom
admits a partial fusion of the figurative
with the literal: see on 0. T. 886,
1300 ff., Ant. 117.No emendation is
satisfactory. If we read ixfipGiv ivepffev
SPT' aviffrrjerds |i* vircp, we should have
to suppose that the loss of the letters
ji* B had led to the expansion of irep
into irtpa (iripai in L). But such a loss
is not very likely. In Ant. 1301, where
ir^pi prob. arose from irepi f[^i]> t n e
lost letters were the last of the verse.
I had thought of dvacrrqiras irdpi: but
prefer to retain ire'pa.Cp. El. 1090
$T]S fioi Kadvircpdev I xtpl Ka^ Tr^o&rip
T<xr6v5' exOpuv, Suov \ vvv vTr&xcip valets.

6 6 7 TOCTO (nom.) irapforai <roi, (w<rre)


Kal 6iyyaveiv (avrav). diyydru never
takes an accus. in class. Greek : Ant.
S46n.
6 6 8 Kal 86VTI Sovvai. These words
are not only genuine, but mark a delicate turn of phrase. Instead of saying,
' You shall be allowed to handle the bow,
on condition of returning it,' he says,
' You shall be allowed to handle the bow
and to return it.' The clause Kal Sbvri
Sovvai coheres closely with diyyivav.
The condition which qualifies the boon
is thus lightly and courteously hinted,

being inserted between the words (0iyydveiv, Ka^eirei^ao-Bai) which express the
privileges conceded. Cp. 774 ov SoBif
<Terai \ irX^/v <roi re Ka/xoi. T h e

aorist

Sovvai expresses the moment of giving,


and eirEvgao-6ai the moment of vaunting;
while the pres. Oiyyaveiv denotes the continuing act of touching. Cp. Dem. or. 2
26 TTOXI) yap pq.ov
fyovTas
tpvXdrreiv
ij KTTjcraaBai irdvra. irk<j>vmv.

6 6 8 The ace. |i.oVov is correct; it


represents the nom. of the direct form,
euxei eTu\[/avo~ai fwfos. Here, however,
after 80W1, it is slightly awkward. Nauck
wishes to read |H6VCJ>. I should prefer to
keep (idvov and insert cr' after aperijs.
The direct form implied would then be,
vxi cr Tri\[/avffai iwvov. C p . Plat. Gorg.
474 B iyii yap 5T) ol/xcu Kal i/ii Kal o-...
rjyeiadai.

67O cvEpYcrmv, by kindling the pyre for


Heracles: cp. 801 ff.
671673 These three verses, called
'manifesto spurii' by Dindorf, are clearly
genuine. If they are rejected, thenwNeoptolemus deigns no reply beyond x po's
etc efooi to the gracious and cordial speech
of Philoctetes. In proof that the verses
are pointless, Dindorf says:'Neque
enim quidquam beneficii a Philocteta
accepit Neoptolemus, ut e5 va$dv dici

*IAOKTHTHI

in

Be of good cheer; the bow shall be thine, to handle, and to


return to the hand that gave it; thou shalt be able to vaunt
that, in reward of thy kindness, thou, alone of mortals, hast
touched it; for 'twas by a good deed that I myself won it.
NE. I rejoice to have found thee, and to have gained thy
friendship; for whosoever knows how to render benefit for
benefit must prove a friend above price.Go in, I pray thee.
PH. Yes, and I will lead thee in; for my sick estate craves
the comfort of thy presence.
[ They enter the cave.
CH.

I have heard in story, but seen not with mine eyes, ist

strophe.
KOX ai y' eurdgu to Philoctetes. Bergk reverses this attribution. Cavallin gives the
whole two w . to Philoctetes. Hermann, following L as to the persons, places
vv. 674 f. before vv. 671673.KO.1 at 7' ei'erafu] Toumier conj. xai a' iweuxdgw.
67669O L divides the vv. thus :\6yif /lev | rbv | Trori | dpofidSa | i\af}' |
OXXOK 17' otSa | TOOS' 18<r oft-' | dXX' | w\\v$' | rdSe | Tua irore | poBlwv |
apajfiioTCLVKdrtax^v.
6 7 6 e^Kova'] i^ucova' L.

possit.' Blaydes, though he does not


bracket the verses, assents to this argument:'Certainly eS iradoiv cannot well
apply to Neoptolemus.' But eS iraBwv
refers, of course, to Philoctetes. Neoptolemus means:'I am not sorry that
chance drove me to Lemnos, and thus
enabled me to gain your friendship.
One who is ready to requite a benefit
(viz., conveyance to Greece) by such a
kindness as this (the promised loan of
the bow), must indeed prove to be a priceless friend.'
6 7 2 f. iv Spav eu iraOtov: O. C. 1202

that he needed for the voyage.T6 ^dp |


v<xrovv: for the art. as penult, word of
the v., cp. 0. T. 231; 0. C. 265, 351:
Ant. 67,78. To...vo<rovv, my sick estate:
cp. Thuc. 1. 36 rb /iti> SeBibs avTov...Tb
Si Bapaovv (his mood of fear or courage).
6 7 6 7 2 9 The only proper aTdai.fi.ov
of the play, ist strophe (676690) = ist
antistrophe (691705): 2nd str. (706
7i7) = 2nd antistr. (718729). For the
metres see Metrical Analysis.
We have already had two short choral songs,strophe and antistrophe,in
which the Chorus sought to aid Neoptolemus by confirming the story of his
(ov Kahbv) avrbv fi&v ev irdax&-Vj iraObvra.
quarrel with the Atreidae (391402),
8' ou/c eirlaraadai rlveiv. T h u c . 2. 40 01!
Tes e
yb.p Trd<rx"
" &XXA 5p(oi>Tes KTiS/xeffa and by affecting to believe that Greece
Tois <pl\ovs.So, of injury, O. C. 271 is indeed the goal of his voyage (507
518). We need not suppose that the pity
iraBCw /lev avriSpav.Ki-qiiaTos: cp.
Ant. 701 f/Kol 5^ (Tov irpdaaovros evrvx&s, which they expressed in vv. 507 ff. was
irdrep, | OVK ianv oidiv KTTJfia nfuilrrepov. wholly feigned; still, that particular expression of it belonged to the part which
6 7 4 f. x.(i>poCs dv et(r<o: Tr. 624
they were acting.
(rrelxois dv qSr). Cavallin gives these
words, as well as the following, to
It is otherwise now. The Chorus are
Philoctetes, because the invitation to
alone. Down to the end of the 2nd
enter the cave ought to come from him,
strophe (717) they are simply uttering
whose home it is. But then the words
what they feel. Then at v. 718 PhilocKal a-i y clo-agco lose their proper force;
tetes and Neoptolemus reappear from
for we have to understand Ph. as saythe cave; and in the 2nd antistrophe
ing,'Pray enter:or ratherI will
the Chorus once more seek to help their
lead you in.' But ye can only emphasize
master's design.
<ri: and therefore x.upols dv <ri> must
6 7 6 tijiiKOw', as if by rumour from
be said to Philoctetes. In these words
a far-off place: cp. Aesch. Eum. 397
Neoptolemus reverts to the wish which
Tpoaoi&ev i^Kovaa K\TJ86VOS fiofy. Above,
he had already expressed (645, 651) that
in 378 and 472, this compound was
Ph. should fetch from the cave anything
merely a strengthened AKOVU.oiroira

I04XDKAE0YI

112

2 TOV ireXdrav \4KTpoiv vore TCOV Atos


3 /cara Spofidh' d^TrvKa SeV/Aiov s efiakev
KpOVOU 7TCUS"
OVTIV eyar/

4 a W o ^ 8'

5 TOVS' \6iovi

68O
oTSa

K\VO>V OV8'

TIV,

*'rou T I vo(T(f)C<xa<s)

(xvvrv

6 6vaT0)v, os OUT' ep^


7 aAA. to-os GW icois

i
fJ-oipa

055
6 7 8 irore TUK Aids] TTOT Sids MSS.: Triclinius inserted TOO (and so Buttmann):
Porson (on Eur. Phoen. 145), TSIV.
6 7 9 f. l^iova KO.T' dfnrvKa STJ \ Spofidda Siafuov
iia I l\afi' 0 TayKparrja Kpdvov iraXa' L. So the other MSS., except that, for nar'
d/iirvKa, Harl. has K&imvKa : for IXafi', Vat. has tfla.\ei>: and T (with Triclinius)
omits 5ij. For the conjectures see comment, and Appendix.
6 8 2 iviSiiv] The
1st hand in L wrote icrldav: the corrector has made ifflSov by erasing the second limb
of w.fxoipai made from fioipai in L, with gl. TI)X?;I above.
6 8 4 8s otfr' ?pfas TIC'
8' oO |iaXa.

Cp. Xen. Hieron 1. 12 oi

omitted here. I prefer to omit 'ICova,


for two reasons.
deapias ixovmv. The emphasis contrasts
(1) The text of Sophocles presents at
the sufferings known only by hearsay
least one other instance in which a proper
with those which have just been so vividly
name, originally a marginal explanation,
placed before their eyes.
has crept into a lyric passage where the
metre did not obviously exclude it: viz.
67 7 f. T6V ireXotrav. Ixion treacherousTr. 839, where the viirov (L) or viaaov
ly murdered his father-in-law, Aijiweiis,
of the MSS. was a gloss on /leXayxafra
and, when no mortal would minister the
(gen. sing.) just before,alluding to Nesrites of purification to him, was cleansed
sus. The poet's tendency to omit the
of his crime by Zeus. He requited this
proper name in mythical allusion, when
grace by attempting the bed of Hera; and
the context made his meaning clear, might
Zeus then commanded Hermes to bind
be
further illustrated from Ant. 13 3, where
him on a wheel of fire in the lower
Capaneus is described, yet not named; and
world.
from 966987 of the same play, where
The comparison with Ixion is the more
Cleopatrawhose fate is being compared
forcible here, since reference has just been
with Antigone'sis only indicated as
made to the gratitude shown by Philocthe mother of the Phineidae (980) and
tetes (672). Ixion was the great example
of ingratitude. Cp. Pind. P. 2. 21 dewv the daughter of Boreas (985).
8' tyer/mis 'IifJoca cpavrl ravra fiporois |
(2) 8[<r|uov is not, indeed, necessary
\4yeiv ev TrrepoevTi rpoxQ \ iravrq, Kv\tv~ to the sense. As in prose we have dvaSdfjievov' j rbv ebepytrav
dyavats
fkfta$uv eirl rhv Tpoxov (Andoc. or. 1 43),
ajttotjSaTs eiroixofi^vovi
rlveffdat.
so, here, the sense would be adequately
given by KOT' d|iirvKa...8PaXtv. And it
\impav.. .T<3V Aios: cp. 1406 [itkeai
might fairly be suggested that Siaiuov had
Toh ']IpaK\4ovs. Buttmann preferred the
crept into the text from the schol., KO.T'
Triclinian TOS AI6S,which is admissible
d/iwvKa S17] Kara rbv rp6xov (which should
(cp. Ant. 10 n.),as emphasising the
be rpoxov, see Ant. 1065 n.) SeSefitvov.
proper name; but T<UV is clearly right.
Then, omitting 8co-|uov, we might keep
6 7 9 f. Kard 8po|id8' di|Jnri)Ka...Kp6vov irats. As given in the MSS. (see cr. the order of the MS. words, merely changing KOT to dv :'ICov' dv' d(jnrvKa 8ij
n.), these verses are longer than the cor8po(id8' <5s SpoXcv (where 5^ = ' a s men
responding w . of the antistrophe, 693 f.,
say').
But, on the other hand, poetical
Tap' (Jarbvov...alixarqpbv. If both'IJCova
considerations seem in favour of StVfuov.
and 8cV|J.iov are to be kept here, the
It adds force to the picture of a terrible
antistrophic verses must be expanded.
doom imposed by an irresistible power.
But those verses appear to be sound
Other views are discussed in the Appenas they stand. The question is, then,
dix.
whether 'I(ova or 8fo-|uov should be
5 rfipavvoi ov fiaXa (nequaquani)

d/xtpi

4>IA0KTHTHI

"3

how he who once came near the bed of Zeus was bound upon a
swift wheel by the almighty son of Cronus; but of no other
mortal know I, by hearsay or by sight, that hath encountered
a doom so dreadful as this man's; who, though he had wronged
none by force or fraud, but lived at peace with his fellow-men,
MSS. (?pas Harl.): Musgrave conj. Ss othiv' Zpas: Erfurdt, Ss oi tpdiaas TIV':
Cavallin (after Blaydes), 8s otfre (cX^as: Bergk, 8s oi? n pi^as.off TI yoo"0i<ras]
Schneidewin conj. Bergk would insert oSrcv' before othe voatpiaas, and in 699
read fj el TIS 6pvis instead of el TIS.

6 8 S &ros wv fcrois] Icronr (sic) iv laom L :

l<ros iv foots r. Bothe conj. tiros elr lews: F . Schultz and Lachmann, ?<ros uv laois:
Hermann, tvos Iv y' laois: Burges, tiros, el TIS, UV avrip (and so Blaydes in text).

d(iiruKa, here, the rim of the wheel;


elsewhere always 'head-band.' But its
etymology (a/xiri = d/Kpi) might easily
suggest this poet, use, esp. as SpOfiaSa
(perh. suggested by rpoxos) helps it out.
The schol. seems to have read dfiirvKa.
Cp.

Hesych., a/nrvices, Tpo%ol'

oiha

So0o/cX^s ev ^CKoKrip-rj. Musgrave's


dvrvya is certainly tempting, and may
be right; but it does not seem necessary.
6 8 2 ToC8'=i5 T6VS': cp. 597 Bartpov, n.

father-in-law, and had sought to steal the


love of Hera.
6 8 5 t<ros <3v to-ois, lit. 'equitable towards the equitable' (laois dat. of relation),
respecting the rights of others, as they
respected his. In describing a man of
peaceful and estimable character, the
Greek tendency is to say, ' he neither did
nor suffered wrong'; i.e., he was not
aggressive, nor was he forced into unpleasant relations with his fellow-men
by their action,since he provoked no
enmities. See, e.g., Lysias or. 12 4

6 8 4 OUT' pas TIV', OV TI vocr(j)o-as.


A partial reminiscence of Od. 4. 690 ovftevi TrwiroTe o#re T)p.eis oOre {Ketvos dtKr/v
oihe eSiKaadfieda otire icpiyo^ev,
dXX'
ovTe Tivh pi^as e^alffiov ovre TI elirdiv, as
Eustathius saw (p. 763, 2 ) : 'O/tripiKov 54 OVTOIS <pKov/j.ev 5T][/.OKpa.To6iievoi wffTe pvfyre
TI teal waptii. So<j>OK\et iv $IXOKT^TJ; TO eh Tois dXXous e^afiaprdvetv p.i)Te tiiri
adiKetodai.
This is the
OIJTC r t p ^ ^ a s , KCLKOV S^jKadr/' oiirta y&p T&V &\\uv
Athenian ideal of the XPV<^T^> iricucfc,
voflroi, el Kai Tavre\Qs ene?
(riararai

aTrpdyiuw. And this is what tcros <8v


t<rois expresses here. It does not imply
that he dealt with t<roi in one way, and
TL
with ddiKoi in another, but merely denotes
that reciprocity of fair dealing which his
fairness caused. Hence the version,
'living at peace with his fellow-men,'
is truer to the sense than (e.g.), 'just
among the just.' Cp. Ai. 267 KOIVOS
iv Koivoitn \vireio6cu, to share the grief
of friends who grieve. For fo-os as
= aequus, said of persons, cp. O. T.
677 n.
L has t<r<o<r (sic) iv i<rour. The objection to reading iv y' is twofold. (1) The
249 OVT TOV yevijSos i\v \ irXr/y/ji.', 01! idea suggested would then be the same as
SiKt-XXijs e/c|8oXi;, and 0. C. 972 n.
in Eur. fr. 693 (quoted by Schneidewin),

T6 p'exSiv.
Here the last three words
prove two things,viz., that Eustath.
read OIJT voa<j>'uja.$, and that oi5Ve
piiias in his citation of Sophocles was
a mere slip for OST' Ip^as TIV': since,
if his text of our verse had really
contained n, he could not have said,
ffiWTraTai TO pex^^v. (He has other
such slips: see Appendix on Ant. 292.)
Schneidewin's emendation, ov TI for
oure, appears certain. ipZeai nv& TI
can mean, 'to do a wrong to a man':
ipSetv Tivd, without TI, could not possibly
mean it. Ought we, then, to write OVK
(for OCT') lpas? Probably not. Cp. Ant.
voo-cj>o-as, robbed, defrauded.
not

W e find

only vo<r<plfci.v TIVA TIVOS, but also

rots pev SIKCUOIS ivStKos, TOIS 5' aS KaKoU |

...7roX^/uos. Here, however, the point is


the generally inoffensive life of Ph.,not
the distinction between his conduct toand this is the constr. here. The an- wards just and unjust men respectively.
tithesis is between pla (pas) and SoXos
(2) The participle wv, though not indis(voo-(j>C<ras): Ixion had murdered his pensable, is very desirable. It is possiif
TIVA TI (as Pind. N. 6. 64 ci T'
p . . . \ K\S.po$...avde' 'O\v/jnrid8os);

J. S. IV.

20*0KAE0YI
8 aiWvS'' cSS'
^
9 roSe < TOL > davyud /x,' ^
10 TTOJS wore mus 7TOT' d^^nrkaKTOiv po9io>v
TTWS a/aa TravSaKpxrrov OVTCO PLOTCLV
Xv auTOS r\v irpocrovpos, OVK e^cuv fidcriv,
2 ovSe rtv' iyxapcav KaKoyeirova,
3 Trap' <w UTOVOV avrCrvirov (3apv/3pci)T
alfiarqpov
6 8 6 <SK\vff aS' draf/wcr | rSdeffavf/.'?x M L.
antistr. (701), see comment, and Appendix.
TK&KTWV Erfurdt.KKiiav r : icMfav L (with A
Nauck conj. dw-rXa.
6917O5 L divides the

K\V(OV,

690

695

For the conjectures here and in the


6 8 8 &f).<f>iT\-/iKT<av MSS.: d/upiand others).
69O Kariixx^
vv. thus: tv' airrba| oi55^ TO'

KaKoyetrova | papvfipuT'airoK\ai\<Teiev | rav ffepnoTarav | alfi&da | bB'fipov


Karevv&ffeiev | (popfiadoo- | ^prei | T&T' S.V j x<us | oSei/ | irbpov | Sa.Ktdvp.os OTO,

ble that the blunder tawa in L may be


connected with the original presence of
<iv in the text.
6 8 6 f. wMuO': for the impf., cp.
252 SutiK\ifirji>.

near his cave (1455). Hesych. defines


p66iov as KUfia i^erb, \f/6(pov yiv6/j.vo>>: cp.

Ant. 259 n.The corrupt KXVJJWV in L


(for K \ I W ) , which violates both sense and
metre, was taken by the schol. as =K\Vft/xevos. (Buttmann strangely accepted
this, comparing, for the gen., the Ho-

The MS. text here is cSXXvO' <J8"


dvo^iws' TOSC 8av(j.' i^a |ic. A commeric \otie<r0<u...iroTaiMoio.)
parison with the antistrophe (701 f.)
strongly confirms Erfurdt's transposition,
6 9 0 PioTav KdT&rxv, oblinuit, 'kept
BavftA p (xei, and Dindorf s insertion of his hold upon' the life which might well
Tot after r65e, since ToSt TOI 6aJ(j.d |i' have slipped from him. This is a common
i\(i then corresponds with the certainly
sense of KCIT^XW> though a bold applicagenuine words in 702, TOT dv IXTOtion of it. Not, sustinuit, 'endured,' as
|ievos. The next question is how wXXvO* Dindorf renders.
cSS* dva^Cws should be reconciled with
6 9 1 iv CIVTOS i{v irpocrovpos, where
the MS. words Ipnei yap dXXor' a\\<f in
he was his own sole neighbour. So when
v. 701. Hermann's change of elpire yip a man sends no dyyeXia before him, he is
to elpre
8' has been ggenerally received;
said to arrive as his own 776X05: when
iit is
i pgentler
l than
h that
h off coXXu
XXuB' to X ^ O ' no herald precedes him, he is avrbs Krjpvi(n. on 500). Cp. Aesch. Cho. 866 fihvos
(Dindorf), or to aiXXvro TTJS' (Campbell).
It is less easy to decide whether dvaijCcos dv (ipedpos j Si<T<rois,' his own sole supporter
or dXXcj. should be altered. Keeping against two foes,' i.e., there is no Z<pedpos
a\\a, Dindorf changes dvatjlws to dri/iws, at his back, to fight the man who vanand Wecklein to detk-(2s: Linwood pro- quishes him. Lucian Timon 43 6eois
dviro) Kal eiurxeiaBu, /J.6POS cavrij) yeirav
posed dvolKTws. We must then suppose
K<d H/iopos (where S/topos strongly suggests
that Aval-lus was a gloss, since such a
that Lucian was thinking of our passage).
corruption of the letters would be diffiMartial 5. 24. 8 Hermes (the gladiator)
cult. But it seems better to keep dvafiws,
suppositicius sibi ipse, 'his own substiand to suppose, with Campbell, that
SXKj. has come from dXX(axJ.See tute,' i.e., never requiring one, because
never defeated. Seneca Here. Fur. act 1
Appendix.
6 8 8 d|uJHirXdKTav: the Doric form sc. 1 Quaeris Alcidae parent? \ Nemo est
is clearly required in a strophe which nisi ipse. Massinger, Duke of Milan
contains ireKarav, fiotpq, dvarwv, {3LOT&I>.act 4 sc. 3, 'And, but herself, admits
Cp. Ai. 597 a\lT\a.KTos, El. 484 x a ^ o - no parallel.'Remark that iavrlf (which
7rXaKTos. For the active sense, cp. O. T. Meineke sought to represent by changing
969. n. T h e apcpiirKaKTO. p68iq are those ijv to 01) is not needed, since irpdo-ovpos='near the borders,' i.e., 'neighbour
which beat around the rocky promontory

<I>IAOKTHTHZ

was left to perish thus cruelly.


Verily I marvel how, as he listened in his solitude to the
surges that beat around him, he kept his hold upon a life so full
of woe;
where he was neighbour to himself alone,powerless to walk, str0
ist antiwith no one in the land to be near him while he suffered, in Pnewhose ear he could pour forth the lament, awaking response,
for the plague that gnawed his flesh and drained his blood;
6 9 1 tv' (tiros iji> Trpoffovpos MSS. Meineke conj. tv' afiros ol Trp6<rovpos: Bothe, tv'
avros r)v, irpoaovpov: Seyffert, tv' .airbs rjv, TpodovXov : Blaydes, tv' airrbt ijv oUovpos:
Cavallin, tv' offris i)v wpotrovpos.fiAaui] Oberdick conj. Kaaiv.
6 9 2 iyx<hp<w
made from iyxiplwv in L. Vauvilliers conj. Zyxwpov, and so Blaydes. Cavallin,
after Bugge and Hartung, gives oihtv' es lyxupov, taking it with fidcriv.
KaKoyeiTova,] Seyffert reads dro yelrova.
6 9 3 f. irap' $.. .alixar-qpov. For conjectural insertions here, see Appendix on 678 f.

this xaxo- represents a gen. or d a t , deto the place' (in which Ph. was), and
pending on another noun: thus KaKothus represents, not yeirwv simply, but
a
r tne
IMVTIS, 'prophet of evil' (Aesch. Pers.
yelroiv rrj x^P ' F
Ionic form cp.
8/wvpos, tivovpos, rrjXovpbs (O. T. 194 n.).10 etc.) = caK!' fidvris. Cratinus used
KaKodovXos as = /caKds BoiXois ('cruel to
OK tyav Pcuriv, without the power to
walk; cp. 632 awovv.Bothe'sirpoeroupov slaves'), Qpfrrai fr. 7. And so KO.KOyehav could belong either to (1) b, = nands
oiK $\av pcuriv ('hearing no footstep
ydrwv: or, as it actually does here, to (2)
of neighbour') is plausible at first sight.
Then airbs ?K = 'he was alone' (O. C. b, Ko-K&v yelroiv. Cp. aXi/yehav, aiTTpoyelriov, affrvydrav.
1650 n.). But the vulgate is far more
forcible. By his irpdSovXov... pciuriv SeyfThe schol. joined KaKOYeCTOva as epithet
fert meant, 'having no foot to serve
with OTOVOV : Trap' $ Si] rbv KaKbv yehova,
av
him.'The conjecture, otfx lx
P&rtv | rbv aliuiTT)pbv (TTOVOV, diroKXatio-eie. And so
OUTIV' is 2iyx'Pov ('having access to no
Cavallin. Bugge, again, takes KaKOY^TOva
neighbour') is very weak. Those who
as a subst., 'his evil neighbour' {i.e. 'his
adopt it (cp. cr. n.) join KaKoydrova with disease'),governed by orocoj'...aVoarbvov: see next n.
K\ai<reie: comparing El. 123 r&Keis...
oljxwyav \ ...'Kyaiiifivova.
6 9 2 KaKOYc(TOva=/ucu>e (or KaKoii)
6 9 3 ff. irap* <a: in the negative stateyelrova, a neighbour to his sufferings:
i. e., one to be near him while he suffers. ment Trap oTifi would be more usu.: cp.
Ant. 220 n.avTCrmrov: Lucian De
The word does not imply (as some have
dopio 3 TTJS (frwvrfi itravtotjatji Kara rb
objected), 'a neighbour in (i.e., sharing
avrirvTrov Kal Trpbs airty dvaaTpecpoiin) his sufferings.' Nor is there any
ground for saying that naKoyelroiv could o-qs. The force of the epithet here is
proleptic,'so as to excite a responsive
mean only ra/cos yeiroiv.
lament.' It reminds us that the cries of
Compounds to which ica/cos gives the
Ph. were answered by Echo alone (cp.
first part are of two classes, according as
the Kaito- element is (1) adj. or (2) subst. 1459).
In class (1) there are again two types.
PopvPpSTa...at(i.OTnpov: the epithets
(a) The commonest is that of Kaicdflws, = of the coiros are given to the irroi/os
KaKov filov i%wv. i.e., the compound
prompted by it: 'a lament for a plague
denotes ' possessing' the subst. as qualithat gnawed his flesh and drained his
fied by KO.K6S. (b) A rarer, chiefly poet., blood.' This is not too bold for the
type is that of KOKOHUOS as simply = Kaidi style of tragic lyrics; and the boldness
"IXios. In class (2) (a) the KOKO- is most
was perhaps somewhat softened to a
often equiv. to the subst. KaKbv or icaicd Greek ear by the fact that O-TOVOV was
in the ace, governed by a verb: as rain the ace. For, though this ace. is
KoToiis = Kana TTUCIV. (i) But sometimes really 'cognate' to cwro/cXaiJtreie, yet the

82

SO<t>OKAEOYI
4 os Tai' 6e.piioTa.Tav al[idSa KrjKLOfievav e
5 h>dr\pov TTOSOS rprioi.cn
6 <vXXoi,s KaTewdo-ei-ev, et n ? e
7 (f>op/3dSo<; IK * y a i a ? *eX(uv"
8 elpire * ' CIXXOT'

d\X

j
9 TOT'
10 TTCUS aTep tus <iXas Tidr/pas, o0ev

iropov, dviK iavL7) S d


OT/D. j8*.

7
wap^oi,

75

ou <f>opl3a,v lepas y a s criropov, OVK aXK(ov


2 atpoiv TCOV ve/xofiecrff dvepes dX<^ijo"Tai,
6 9 5 oi55' 8s T&V MSS. : Hermann omits oM': Erfurdt, rav.
6 9 6 a!/m5o] Reiske
conj. iK/xaSa.
6 9 8 eVtfijpou] Vauvilliers conj. i/itrfipov.(piXKocs r, 0i)XXori L.
6 9 9 et TIS e/a-tcroi MSS.: Brunck conj. cf TIV' iiiiriooi: Dindorf rf TI iniriaoi (assuming hiatus after TI to be permissible; cp. his n. on v. too): Seyffert, et TI
ort//r&roi: Gleditsch, et re <rv/j.wi<roi: Hartung, et T' efiiricoi, as in 684 he reads
oi (for otre) voaQlaas.
7OO IK re 7SS MSS. : Turnebus conj., &c 7c 70s, and so
Seyffert: Hartung, IK TI 70s: Dindorf, ex 70/as: Brunck, wore yas.For cXer?,
Schneidewin, after Reiske, gave e\<bt> (reading et TIS i/iire'aoi, sc. alfi&i): and so Nauck.
Paley, Xoi. Wecklein writes <f>opfia8os eKriinoi. TI yas.
7O1 tpnei y&p dWor'aWa \
TOT' an eiKv6/j.evos MSS. (ipvoi V : &XKOVT' aXXdi L.) Bothe restored etpve. For conjectures see comment., with Appendix on 686.
7O2 us] c5<r L.
7O3 inrapxoi

itself might help to suggest that


fppp

and oiyuaTTjpoV described t h e

class. Greek (Ap. Rh. 4. 600 fiapiv


waKr/Kiei aTp.6v), while Plat. Phaedr,
251 B suffices to show that the intrans.
Kr/Klu was familiar in Attic. There is no
other example of Krinloncu. Cp. 784 KIJKIOV. The 1 is short in Homer (//. 7. 262
dvaK^Kiov, Od. 5. 455 /07/cie).!\K&I>V, a
disyll. by synizesis.EvOijpov refers to
the angry appearance of the ulcer, which
has not been assuaged (r}ixep<b8ij) by proper
treatment; cp. Aesch. Ag. 562 ivBi)pov
Tpiya.'. Dioscorides 3. 11. 1 TedTjpita/x^vov
IXKOJ. Plin. H. N. 26. 14 efferantia se
ulcera.
ti TIS 4|MT&roi, sc. ai/idi. This, the
MS. reading, is plainly right. The verb
{/iirlTTU) was regularly used with regard
to an attack of disease: cp. Tr. 1253
wplv efiireaeTv oirapaypAv : Thuc. 2. 48
(6 \otfios) s Tty 'A$7jvalojy iroKtv aTivaius hiveae: id. 49 XiVyf TOIS irXeiWiK
eviirmre Kevi). Cp. below, 808 (the
disease) 6%eia tpoiTq. Kal Taxe? dw^pxerat.
In the next v. Schneidewin rightly gave
t\<Sv for the MS. IXetv. For the constr.
Karevpdffeiev tptiWois, e\&v (a^rd), cp.
0. C. 475 (e'peipov) veoirbK<$ fiaWQ Xafi&v

object of the K\av0fws. With papvjipi&s


cp. Sia/Sopos (v. 7, n.). Cp. 208 oi)54 |
rpvaavusp. Schneidewin cites also Aesch.
Theb. 348 jSXaxoi 8' aiiMToeaaat.
Si \\ apriTpe<f>eis
f
3^
f
/3/)^/xo^Tai.
It
seems possible that this may have been
in Soph.'s mind: but it is less bold,
since fS\a%al aiixaToeaaai. TUV iirt/t. merely =p\axai TQSV al/iaTo^vrav iiri/j.. (like
VCTKOS dvSpSv ^uvainov, etc.). A truer
parallel is [Eur.] Rhes. 260 KaKoya/i^pov |
.,.7<>oj',=76oi' itepl xaxov ya/i^pov. We
might add Eur. El. 752 Qoviov oliuayipi
KMW. The conjectural insertions which
have been made in these vv. are noticed
in the Appendix on w . 678 f.
6 9 5 ff. Ss rdv. The MS. text has
ov8' 8s Tdv,a syllable too much. o8'
may have been conjecturally added, to
link this clause to the last; while Tav is
not so likely to have been inserted. And
8s rdv is intrinsically better here than
o8' Si.cu|id8a: schol. T^V TOO alp.aTOS piaiv. The word is found only here.
Ki]Kio|Uvav is usu. called passive. But
(n.).
it is surely rather a poet, middle form.
A transitive K-t)rtw occurs first in postSome read ( TIV' l|iiF{iroi, or !! T I

<t>IAOKTHTHI

117

no one to assuage the burning flux, oozing from the ulcers


of his envenomed foot, with healing herbs gathered from the
bounteous earth, so often as the torment came upon him.
Then would he creep this way or that, with painful steps,
like a child without kindly nurse, to any place whence his need
might be supplied, whenever the devouring anguish abated;
gathering not for food the fruit of holy Earth, nor aught 2nd
else that we mortals gain by toil; stroPheL : virapxei r.
7O4 wopov L : iropuv A, with most of the later MSS.: ropov
Wakefield. Gleditsch conj. TOVOV : Seyffert, KOVOV.il-avelri Hermann : iavt TJO-I L
(sic), with space for two or three letters in the erasure. Dubner thinks that the
1st hand had written efcwei. rjin, with perh. X after e<. But I rather suspect that
it was (^api[<rT]r)<n, for the I does not seem to have been touched. There is a marg.
gl., ev8l8w<nv. A and most of the later MSS. have c^aviijcri: the only variants
seem to be efavlu (V), Qavlrj (T, i.e. e^ar/iy), eavlr)s (R).
7OS SaK40Vfu>s]
Seyffert writes daKo0v/ios (ferae mordacis animos habens).
7O6717 L divides
the w . thus :oil <popfiav \ yaa | atpavve/i6/ie\(T0' | wXrjv 1 irravum | (3 jue7O7 crwopov r : ropov from
\ia 16<rri\adri | \eiaaav 8' | ad irpoaeixbfia.
(riropov L, with gl. ff?Tov. above.

<rv\nricroi, keeping j\tv: 'if any leaf


herb (285 ff., 649).Not, 'ease on his
should fall in his way, to pluck,' or, 'if it
path' (ease in movement), as if the search
should be his fortune to pluck any leaf.'
for the herb alone were meant. Some
But i/nrlirTuv ought to be said of the
read iropwv a s = ' r e s o u r c e s ' : but, in this
sense, the associations of the plur. would
wanderer, not of a stationary object which
he finds. And avp.Treaoi is too suggestive have been too prosaic for an Attic poet.
of a 'coincidence' to be a fitting word
For the theory that iropov should be read,
here.Campbell, reading ipopp&Sos IK re and taken with etpire, see Appendix on
7&s e\e7v, takes the const, to be (OVK yv)
695 f.|avci}, remit its violence: 639 n.
SO-TIS KaTevvao-eiev e\eiv re (instead of 8aKe'9v|xos, like Sri^t0v/J.os, OufnoSaK^s,
ev
0v/j.o/}6pos, etc.
eXoi re). This is as if one said, o$x ^X
&rra i\8<H Kal por]0eiv.<j>opf3dSo$: cp. 7O6 ff. Upas: cp. 391.atpav de391 Ta/i^wn: fr. 279 l 'Q\(vov 7^5 cpop- notes the simple act of lifting, and is
thus more picturesque than alpopevos. Cp.
/
Ar. Ran. 1339 K&\wurl T' 4K 7roTa/*uc
7O1 etpirs K.T.X. Join <v with
Spoaov apart.d'XXcov, such as fruits, milk,
e!pire: cp. 290 n . : for clXv^ficvos, ib.
etc.: from atpav we supply a word of
As to the reading in these verses, see on
more general sense. The gen. is partitive
686 f. The phrase aXXore dXXaxf? occurs
(Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 20 XojSic TSV.. .ttnrwv re
in Xen. Mem. 1.4. 12.
ical avSpdv). This is better than to re7 0 3 Trais...s: like a child that canpeat <)>op(3dv with it ('food consisting in
not yet walk firmly without the help of
other things').
Such a constr. would
its nurse. Cp. Aesch. Eum. 38, where
be awkward when tpopflav is in appothe aged priestess, tottering with fear, is
sition with ffiro'pov. T<3V, relat. (14) =
said to be dvrlirats.
rotirwv
'a.
7 0 4 f. 80v=&ce(<re 86ev: cp. Xen.
dX<t>T]<rTa. The popular deriv., from
An. 1. 3 17 M w a s byLyy &0ev oix
a\(j)i. and iS (' meal-eating'), may posoUv re lirrai te\8eu>. 6'8v iirdpxoi, after
sibly have been in the poet's mind
eZ/nre &v, answers to 8$ev av irdpxv after
here; though this inference would be
a primary tense: cp. 289^eii)xdpia...
stronger if he had placed the word in
ir*po, 'facility of resource,'i.e., the
closer connection with avbpov. Curtius,
means of supplying his needs. For eifiapo cp. 284; for iropov, Eur. Ale. 11$ rls on the other hand, can fairly cite Aesch.
fix xopos KaKtiv I ytvoiTo...; H e had to Th. 771 avSpSv ak<pTi<rTav SX/3os ctyae iraXvv0els, in support of the sense ' workers,'
find food, water, fuel, and the medicinal

u8
"]io
4 7TTavois *iots avvareLe yaa-rpl <f)opfidv. a /xeXea
d
5 6s ft^S' oii'o^urov 7rw/x,aTos ^cr^rj SeKeTei -^pova,. JI5
6 Xevcrcrajv S' OTTOU yvourj CTTCLTOV eis uSwp aiet irpocre-

3 nXrjv ef a>Kv/36\a)v ei TTOTC T6(OV

dvr. /?.

vvv S' dvSpaiv dyadwv iraiSos viravTrj(ja<;


"2 evSaCfuov dvucrec /cat fieyas e/c KCLVCOV
72
3 os vtv TTOVTcmopcp SovpaTL, TTXTJOZL
W
fj.rjvcov, ''"irarplav dyei irpos avXdv M.aXi,dScov

fd,

725

7 1 1 irravuv dvfoeie irravota yaarpi (popfidv. L. The other MSS. have either this,
or (as A) Trravuv TTTCUHHS dxweie yaarpl (j>op^dv. (avvaei. V.) Brunck restored
Trravots lots. Wecklein (Ars p. 80) suggests Trravav lols avvaue...(popfiav ('food
from birds,' as opposed to (popfiav...yas eirbpov in 706). L has ipviovi as a gl.
on TTavois.For &vv<reie Blaydes conj. iropiffeie.
7 1 5 iro/iaTotr L, with w
above 6 from 1st hand.BeKireT L. The acute accent is from the 1st hand; the
circumflex, from S. There was a special cause for this confusion of accents,
which I may notice. Adjectives in -ETTJS were paroxytone in Attic (as 5ex^Ti;s),
but oxytone in the common dialect (as Se/cer^s): see Chandler 703 (2nd ed.).
'earners,' men who eat their bread in not happened (cp. 769). For this sense 1
iv is usu. added. But, as ev XP"V M&Kp ?
the sweat of their brow (rt o\0, Lat.
lab-os.)dvcpcs, with epic d, as Tr. 1010, (235), and XP"V / W simply (598 n.),
can alike mean 'after a time,' so the
0. T. 869 dvipav. There is a reminiscence
of Od. 13. 261 avtpax d\<pi]<TTds, as well as use of the simple dat. is extended to
ov
that sense for which iv is more specially
of ib. 9. 89 olVives dvipes elev iiri x ^
needed,'within a time.' The a c e ,
GXTOV Idovres.
8KTT] xpovov, which Blaydes reads, is
7 1 1 irravots is a purely poetical image
for speed, while the Homeric wrepoevTes less suitable here. The point is that, for
6'UTTOI more readily suggests the actual ten years, Ph. has not once tasted wine.
feathers on the arrow (Tr. 567 KOft,ip"qv A prose-writer would usu. express this
by HKO. T&V : cp. Plat. Gorg. 448 A
lav: Aesch. fr. 135 nrjx<wty TTepii/j-aTos:
E u r . Or. 274 T6I-UV vTeparhs

y\v</>i5as).

oideis /J.4 via fjpiirrjKe Kaivov oiSiv TTOWU?

erwv. In our v., the ace. would rather


lots (restored by Brunck) was evidently
suggest'that Ph. had not had ten years'
lost through the likeness of ending in
Cp. Lys.
TTavols. Then the gap was filled by in- continuous enjoyment of wine.
vov
Sivair
serting TtTavdv (to agree with TO^OIV), and or. 19 60 dXlyov ixhv x?
Trravois was explained as, 'with birds' av ris irXdffaff&at rbv rpbirov TOP aijrov
(the dissimulation being continuous): iv
(At. 168 impo)? a'7^X<u).
epSo/tr/HovTa 8t ireGLV ovb" av els
713ff. *|n>xd,8s: cp./LiS.uT
oiSiykp
ot)5e pit} ^tlpatcXijos <p6ye K^pa, titrtrep \d$o<. irovijpbs wv (i.e., at some moment
or other within the 70 years he will be
0XTOTOS lane Ad Kpoviwvi avaKTi. Cp.
found out).
Ant. 34m.Ss
f.tfi\'onemAodidnot\..:
the generic /} with causal force: cp.
7 1 6 f. Xcvo-crwv, absol., looking about
170 n.TJCT9T|, with a gen., such as follows him, Sirov TVOCT) (to see) where he could
verbs of enjoying, diroKaiw, eiwxov/j.cu, perceive (stagnant water), irpo<rev<a|ui, he
etc.: //. 11. 780 airap iwel Tapirrnxev idri- used to bend his way towards it. els
OTCITOV vSwp is joined with Trpovevdifjia,
rtioS 'TjS^ TTOTTfTOS. olvO\VTOU '. olvO%. XWinstead of standing (without ei's) as object
/ia=otvov KCX"^"OV ir.: cp. 208 n., Eur.
to yvoli\. The latter is oblique for fiirov
Cycl. 66 Kpijvais nap' vdpoxtiTois.
yvif (delib. subjunct.). Cp. At. 890 avSEKCTK xpovca. The simple dat. here
Spa. /lii \eti<r<reiv STTOU: O. C. 135 iv iyii
denotes the time within which a thing has

4HA0KTHTH2

119

save when haply he found wherewith to stay his hunger by


winged shafts from his swift-smiting bow. Ah, joyless was his
life, who for ten years never knew the gladness of the wine-cup,
but still bent his way towards any stagnant pool that he could
descry as he gazed around him.
But now, after those troubles, he shall be happy and mighty d anti
at the last; for he hath met with the son of a noble race, who in stroPhethe fulness of many months bears him on sea-cleaving ship to
his home, haunt of Malian nymphs,
The scribe found Se/ccrei, and copied it: the corrector (S) wished for the later
Severe?, and omitted (as elsewhere) to delete the other accent, xpdcwi L. deKirrj
Xpovov A, which Nauck prefers: and so Blaydes.
7 1 6 \ei<rffwv 8' r : XeiVireip 5'
L.tirov] cl TTOV Musgrave, Brunck.
717 akl Triclinius : del L.irpo<rev<i>iia]
Wakefield conj.
7 1 8 7 3 9 L divides the vv. thus:vvv 8'17rcuj woS' hd/ia.
55o<r
j
i j tidal/iav
d l |
vat' iroXXwv | fiyXidStav | airepxet-ov n
|l ml i ny | &
7 1 9 ircuSbs iiravrfoas MSS.:
XaXIxaoTrur | irXaBei | airaa . . x
u
awoMT-qao.^ Froehlich and Meineke. 72O dviaeil Cavallin conj. dvix 7 2 5 MaXidSav Erfurdt: MyXidduv MSS.
7 2 4 ira/rplav Porson: warp^av MSS.
Chorus once more speaks language dev vepl vav otiirw \ SivapMi
T
TTOO fJ.ol j Tore vaiu (n.). irpoa"- signed to support N.'s plan.
72O f. dvv<m ev8aC|MDv (sc. u>v,cp.Ant.
tvoi(j.a intrans. : cp. 168 n.The usage
of "Keiaauv in Soph, makes this constr. 177), will finish his course in happiness:
= Te\eura eiSaiixovqaei.. (Not, I think,
preferable to the other, which is possible :
\eiaawv els ararbv SSup (fixing his gaze ' will succeed in becoming happy,' sc. yeon it), Sirov yvoirj, wherever he might vi<rd<u.)IK KCCVWV (neut.) after those
perceive it (oblique of oirov av yv$). troubles: cp. 271.
(TTarov.. .liSup, water collected in stagnant
7 2 2 irovTOiropiji: epith. of vtil in At.
pools: cp. Arist. fr. 207 (Berl. ed. p. 250.SovpaTi: the only example of this
2
1515^ 5) Tpt><TipaTb>> kan KaX viov vdup
epic form in Soph, (for Sopl and 86pei cp.
T6 iio/xevov, ? w \ o ^ Si Kal TaXaiov TO
0. C. 1304). Aesch. has SoupUXvTos,
\i/j.vaioi>. Her. 2. 108
irXarvTipoiai
SovpiwkriKTos, and Eur. Soipara. Cp.
VT0
e
tXptu
TOUTI iro/iaai, e/c tppe&rwv XP &~Pind. P. 4. 27 eivaKiov S6pv (trabs),
/lexoi ('somewhat brackish '). Odysseus Aesch. Pers. 411 en-' aXXriv (sc. j'aOi') aXremembered a spring near the cave (21),
Xos T]i6wev Sbpv.irXTJ0ei...|u]vmv, after
and Ph. speaks of Kprjvcu (1461): but the the ten years at Lemnos: 598 n.
imagination of the Chorus iirl ri IXU^OV
7 2 4 ff. ira/rpiav is prob. a true coriravra Seivot.
rection of iroTpt^ov. There is no other
instance
in Soph, of irarpyos with the
7 1 8 f. dvSpuv dy., Peleus and Achil2nd syll. short (though he often shortens
les; cp. 384.viraVTijcras in prose would
cu before a vowel, Ant. 1310). In Eur.
mean, 'having come to meet,' and would
there are a few such instances, but in all
take a dat. A poet might feel that the
of them irdrpios should be restored, as by
gen. was sufficiently warranted by the
Homeric avrijaia yhp iyii ro05' dvipos (II. Porson in Hec. 78 (=82 Dind.). As to
the sense, either word would serve here:
16. 423), etc.: indeed, the gen. differs
properly, irarplav = ancestral; irarpipav,
from the dat. only by its more vivid sugbelonging to one's father: but Tragedy
gestion of the idea, 'face to face' (dcdoes not always observe the distinction
riov nv6s). Cp. 320 n. Here the phrase,
(cp. 398 n.: conversely, O. C. 756 deSiv
' having come face to face' with him, sugirarpt^wv = Tarpiuv).
gests not merely the good fortune of the
meeting, but the intercourse,frank on
MaXutScov: the Ionic form (cp. 4 n.),
the side of Philoctetes,which had folwhich the MSS. give, can hardly be kept
lowed it.As Ph. and Neoptolemus are
h e r e : cp. 688 dii<pnr\a.KTwv. M a \ . vv/i<pd.i>
now seen to be leaving the cave, the is more naturally joined with auXdv than

120

5 "Zirep^eiov re vap'
6 irXddei, *7rar/3os 6elo) trvp\

Iv 6
js, Otras

N E . ipir, el OeXeus. Tt STJ iroff 5S' e


Xoyou cri&JTras
<&I. a d a a.

UTT/3

73O

7 2 6 #x# as T, as Hermann and Dindorf proposed: 6xSaur L. Blaydes, keeping the


dat., changes UTepxeiov re to Swepxeioio.
7 2 7 f. 0eo?<r | 7rXd0 iraav L. (It has not
been corrected to 7rS<rii'.) Traffic Triclinius and schol. Herm. conj. ffeoh j ir\ddei Trd\ai:
afterwards (Retract, p. 11) 0eois | irXdSei 8e6s: Schneidewin, 0eds ] ir\&du Oe.oTs: Seyffert,
(as Cavallin prefers) with oxOas: ' his
ancestral abode, haunt of the Malian
nymphs,' is a phrase which suggests the
hills, woods and streams of Malis. So
the nymphs of Helicon (O. T. 1109), Parnassus (Ant. 1128), and Lemnos (below,
1454) are associated with the rural scenery
of those places. For atfXij in the general
sense, 'abode,'cp. Ant. 786 dypovdftois aiXcus: Eur. Ale. 259 VCKIJOIV is ai\dv.irap'
oxOas- Unless, with Blaydes, we change
Sirepxiov T to 2irepx,eiolo, the ace. is
necessary here. The MSS. give 8x" ai sFor other instances in which the case of
the noun after irapi. has prob. been corrupted, cp. nn. on Ant. 966, 1123 f. As
to the topography, cp. 490 n.
7 2 7 6 x t ^ K a o " I r l S dvijp, Heracles.
The epithet has an archaeological interest. In the Homeric poems, when reference is made to the exploits of Heracles,
his weapon is the bow (//. 5. 395 : Od.
8. 224, 11. 607). Some ancient writers,
however, expressly say that the equipment of Heracles with bow, club, and
lion's skin was a comparatively late invention of the poets, and that in the oldest works of art he was represented with
the armour of the ordinary Homeric
warrior. According to Strabo (15. 688),
the innovation could be traced back to
the epic 'HpdicXeia, ascribed to Peisander
(circ. 650 B.C.): KOX T\ TOV 'H/)acXeous
de <TT6M] Totatfnj TTOXI; vewripa

an earlier lyric poet, had clad Heracles


in the Homeric armour:ravra Xd
TpwTov 'Zrrialxopov T&v '1/j.epatov.
2$d.v8os 8' 6 fie\oTOt6st irpeff^repo
Srijcrixopou,...oi5 T0.irt)V avrif
p
TT]V aroXriv, dXXct TT]V 'OfnjpiKrii'. Strabo

and Megacleides, then, agree thus far,


that the invention was not older than the
7th cent. B.C.
In this play Heracles figures especially
as the former possessor of the invincible
bow. Why, then, has Soph, here chosen an epithet, \d\Kaa-n-is, which suggests the hoplite type of Heracles ? The
answer seems to turn on two points. (1)
A compromise between the hoplite and
the archer type of Heracles can sometimes be traced in ancient art. Thus a statue belonging to the east pediment of the
Aeginetan temple gives Heracles a helmet (or bonnet) of lion's skin, a bow,
and a 6wpa (Baumeister, Denkm. p. 335:
cp. ib. p. 652 a). Sophocles himself
makes a similar compromise when in Tr.
510 ff. he arms Heracles with bow, club,
and two spears. (2) The Heracles, of
this play is associated with the legends
of Oeta and Trachis. In them, as in
those of Boeotia, Heracles was preeminently the warrior, who sacked Oechalia 'with the spear' (Tr. 478), and
for whom Hephaestus had wrought the
dairls described in the Hesiodic poem.

rijs
7 2 8 irXdOci. The aor. iir\a8rjv is used
Tpwt/c?Js /xvfi/J.'qs effrl, irXdafMt rQiv rfyvby Aesch. and Eur.; and irXd9rj (Bergk)
'HpdtcKeiav irottjirdvTUV, etre Ueiffavdpos is tempting here: but the historic pres.
riv, dr' dXXos TIS' T& 8' dpxcua %bava
seems confirmed by such examples as
oi>xo$Tw SieatceiaoTai (implying that
O. T. 113 (iri//ri7rTei), ib. 560 (tppei).
he had seen old images or statues in which
Heracles was burned alive, by his own
Heracles had armour). Athenaeus (12.
command, on the top of Mount Oeta.
512 F) quotes Megacleides (who wrote
As the flames rose, a storm broke forth;
irepl 'OijJipov, prob. in the 5th cent. B.C.), and, amid thunder and lightning, the
as referring the invention to Stesichorus
hero was taken up to heaven. Apollod.
(c. 620 B.C.), and adding that Xanthus,
2. 7. 14 Kaiop.h'ris de rrjs TVpas \tyerai.

4>IA0KTHTHI

121

and to the banks of the Spercheius; where, above Oeta's heights,


the lord of the brazen shield drew near to the gods, amid the
splendour of the lightnings of his sire.
NE. I pray thee, come on. Why art thou so silent ? Why
dost thou halt, as if dismayed, without a cause ?
PH. Alas, alas!
Scots 1wXdf)ei f}d<ni>, and so Cavallin: Bergk, 0eois | irXdB-q [ = eirXd$fj], bracketing waaiv,
as he brackets yvoir) in the corresponding v. of the strophe (716). Wecklein (Ars p.
78) suggests irX&Ori, d/j.as K.T.X. ; 5e might have dropped out after 9% and ,uas have
become wcunv.
7 2 9 6x601"] 6x6asT: cp. 726.
73O d 6Xei$] Lond. ed. of
1747 conj. el ffffheis. 7 3 1 ?x] *3CTl L.

veipos inroffTav
IMTCL Ppovrijs
avrbv
This is either Poeas or Philoctetes : at
ek ovpavbv avairhptpai. Diod. 4. 38. 4
his side is the quiver given him by the
Kepavvuv CK rod irepiexovTos TretrovTuv i] hero for kindling the pyre. Above, a
trvpd 7ratra Kare<{>Xex&V By OeCco Doric portal represents the entrance to
irvpl ira|juf>aijs the poet probably meant
Olympus. Apollo, laurel-crowned, sits
to suggest both the flaming pyre and the
on the left of it; a four-horse chariot
splendour of the lightnings.
approaches him, preceded by Hermes.
It is driven by a winged goddess (a N1K17):
*irarp6s is my emendation of the coron
her left sits Heracles, crowned with
rupt ird<ri. In the antistr., 716, oirov
laurel, his club in his left hand; a light
is clearly sound; and a long syllable is
garment (a sort of chlamys) floats round
metrically impossible here. Nor can
his shoulders. (2) A Lucanian vase,
we save ircwri by transposition: both
now at Munich: Baumeister, p. 669,
ir\<0ci and OeCcji are plainly genuine.
Hermann's conjecture, SeoTs | wXdffet.fig- 734- Below is the pyre, with the
trunk of Heracles on it: the fire is being
8os, presupposes that irdori was either
quenched by two Nymphs on the right
a gloss, or an arbitrary substitute for a
APE0O2A and IIPEMN02IA (an Attic
lost word; but it was more probably a
fountain). On the left are two Satyr
corruption of the true word. Now we
figures. Above, Athena Nike, with helmight certainly expect here some refermet, lance, and chequered aegis worn as
ence to Zeus. Oeta was sacred to him ;
a corslet, is driving Heracles to Olympus;
his were the lightnings (cp. Tr. 436 rov
his left hand'holds the club, and round
tear' axpov Oh-aiw vdyov \ Zrjvbs KaraGTpdirTovTos) ; and it was as his son that his left arm is wound his chlamys.We
notice how the participation of Nymphs
Heracles entered Olympus. At this moin these scenes illustrates the poet's Mament, above all others, there is a poetical
AidSwz' fvfj/pdv (v. 725).
fitness in some allusion to the hero's
divine parentage, which is elsewhere
7 2 9 Syjjav {8x8os), not o^wi/ (Sxgv)made so prominent in the play (802,
cp. Ant. 1132 n.
943, 1415)- iraTpos supplies this touch.
73O826 Second eireurdSwy. PhiThe burning of Heracles, and his
apotheosis, are combined in some vase
paintings. (1) A bowl (Kparrip) of the
4th cent. B.C., now in the Collegio Rainone at S. Agata dei Goti: Milani, Mito
di Filottete p . 65 : Baumeister, Denkm.,
p. 307, fig. 322. In the lower part of
the picture is the still burning pyre, which
a Nymph on the left is trying to quench
by pouring water from a jug. The trunk
of the hero's mortal body lies on the
pyre. On the right, a bearded figure
in a peaked cap is hastily receding.

loctetes is attacked by sharp pain, and


hands his bow to Neoptolemus, asking
him to keep it till the spasms pass off.
Presently the sufferer falls asleep,
though not before he has received the
youth's promise to remain by him.
7 3 0 et 8&is, 'if you please,' like el
done! (526). But ' jSouAei usu. = 'if you
prefer it' (Xen. An. 3. 4. 41).
7 3 1 dir<Sir\r]KTos ?xel> attonitus hoeres: for d7nS7r\., cp. Ant. 1189: for the
pass. ?XOA"> * 1140.

122

IO*OKAEOYI

NE. TI < S' > ZO-TLV ; <E>I. ovhev Seu'oj'. dXX' W\ &
NE. ficov aXyos tcr^eis TTJS TrapecrTwcrrjs vocrov;
<E>I. ou 8 ^ T ' eycoy, dXX' d/>ri Kov(j)Ci!,eiv So/caJ.
NE.
3>I.

TKVOV.

735

rous 0eous OUTOS dvacrrevoiv /caXeis;


<ro)Trjpa<; aurous TJTJTOUS 0* 77/AU' fioikelv.

TI

3. 8. 3. 3..
NE. Tt TTore ireirovdas; ou/c ipeis, dXX' c58' eicrei
criy^Xo's; e^ /ca/cw Se rai (fxtCvec KvpSiv.
3>I. aTfoXwXa, T4KVOV, KOV Bvvrjcrofiai, KOLKOV
Kpvijtat nap' v/xlv, dTTaral- Step^erai,,
S
S u c m ^ o s , w raXas ey&>.
TCKVOV

/3pvK0[JLaL, TKVOV

irairai,

74

745

2
irpos 0ewv, Trpox^pov el r t croi, T4KVOV, irdpa
$i<f>os xepcnv, Ttdra^ov els aKpov TroSa1
dirdfi-qa-ov ws Ta^to-ra* /AT) tyeio-rj yStou.
10' w 7rai.
NE. TI S' e(JTiv ovrco veo^Qiov ea,i<f>vr)<;, orov
Tocrr^vS' ixryrjv Kal CTTOVOV cravTov *7roet;

750

7 3 3 rl S' ?<rTc; Erfurdt, as in 753: H ianv MSS.


7 3 4 ?<rxs] ?(7xet
r , perh. a trace of a v. I. /J.U>V a' &\yos tffxei73S lii 8eol | rl roixj
6eob<r avaarhtav KaKeicr: L. A has ouras after 0eos)s, thus completing the trimeter. The other later MSS. are divided between these two types. Modern edd.
have usu. given one of four readings. (1) A's, without change: as Herm.,
Schneidewin. (Bergk, however, who follows A, alters idi to a.) (2) L's, with <3
Beoi instead of ii) deal, thus making only one v.: so Dind., Campb. (3) tS Beol.
N. TI roiis $eoii < <58' > hiaarivuv KaXeis;the conject. of a writer in Lond. Class.
Jburn., vol. 1. p. 337, and of Seidler on / . T. 762 ( = 780 Dind.). So Blaydes,
7 3 3 T 8' Irnv; cp. 753, 917, O. T.
319. It does not seem likely that Soph.
would have preferred to write TI &TTIV
(with hiatus), though several recent
editors give this: cp. 100 n.
7 3 4 Ttjs irap<rnS<JT]s, not, 'which
is upon thee at this moment' (765 TO
Trijna...T& vvv irap6v), but rather, 'which
is habitual to thee': hence the word is
not superfluous. Often, however, Trapwrite is nearly synonymous with iraptiv:
cp. 1340, O. T. 633.
7 3 5 The intrans. Kov(]>(gttv is rare in
Attic: in Eur. Helen. 1555 KOV^OVTO.,
'treading lightly,' seems (as Paley says)
to imply an ellipse of irbdas. But in this
application (to illness) the phrase may
have been familiar, as Hippocr. Efid.

2. 10 (quoted by Musgrave) has iKoi<purev


6Xiy(fi, 'he became a little better.'
7 3 6 f. I follow A here (see cr. n.), for
a reason which was felt by Hermann,
but which has not been sufficiently considered by some other editors,viz.,
that t<J Bcoi (scanned as a bacchius, )
does not receive sufficient emphasis or
prominence unless it stands extra metrum.
Cp. 750 16' <3 irai, and 219. Eur. / . T.
780 has been compared: OP. c3 deol.
I*, rl TOI>S deoiis ii/axaXeis ec TOIS e/itois;
But there, as Herm. says, the w Beol is
quite unlike the lii deol here: it is the
rapid utterance of one who fears to
betray himself, not a cry of anguish extorted by physical torment. For the
absence of caesura, cp. 101. Cavallin

<1>IAOKTHTHI

123

NE. What is the matter ? PH. Nothing serious :go on,


my son.
NE. Art thou in pain from the disease that vexes thee ?
PH. NO indeed,no, I think I am better just now.Ye
gods!
NE. Why groanest thou thus, and callest on the gods ?
PH. That they may come to us with power to save and
soothe.Ah me !ah me !
NE. What ails thee ? Speak,persist not in this silence :
'tis plain that something is amiss with thee.
PH. I am lost, my sonI can never hide my trouble from
you:ah, it pierces me, it pierces! O misery,O wretched
that I am ! I am undone, my son,it devours me.Oh, for the
gods' love, if thou hast a sword ready to thy hand, strike at my
heel,shear it off straightwayheed not my life ! Quick, quick,
my son!
NE. And what new thing hath come on thee so suddenly,
that thou bewailest thyself with such loud laments ?
Seyffert, Wecklein: and Nauck approves, though he prints A's reading, with OUTWS
in brackets. (4) Cavallin : IU Oeoi. N. H Seoiis avaarivuv icaXtfs; (omitting TOI>S).
7 3 9 aa aa L, from da do.
7 4 O Iffrji L.
7 4 1 54 r<p] Si rut L.
7 4 2 drr6\w\a from a,TT(b\u\a L ; 6\w\a Turnebus.
7 4 3 f. Nauck conj.
diotxo/uu I Swfxo/uu.
7 4 5 fSpiicoiMa r: ppiixofMt. L.
7 4 6 The above is Herm.'s
mode of writing the exclamations. L has aira' Tava' Tctira.' 7ra7r&* va.Taira.Ta?.
7 5 1 7 5 4 Schenkel would place these four vv. immediately after 739.
751

rl 5' tariv OUTW] H 8' ZGTI TOVTO T.

reads la Bioi.ri 0ovs dvaerr^vwv KaXEs ; Cp. Ai. 1129 JUTJ vvv drtjua deofa,
Beoti <reffa<r/j,hos. But the art. before
OEOVS, in which L and A agree, seems
genuine here.
7 4 1 Kvpcav: cp. 544 n.
7 4 3 ff. SUpxercu. In 758 the disease
is personified as O,8TTI, in 807 as ijSe: here
the subject might be simply /cai<6v from
742.PpvK0|JUu: cp. 7: Tr. 987 i] 5' av
fuapa jjptiKet. (the vdtxos).

746 Written as above, the exclamations represent three successive cries


of pain, each longer than the last, as the
agony becomes sharper; they seem to
suggest the convulsive movement of the
lips from which the sounds are wrung.
7 4 7 f. & rl <roi %C$o$ irpdxpov
( = 7rdpeoTi) \spoiv, if you have any
sword ready in your hands. Tpb^upos
can be combined with xeP0'v ( a s m Eur.
El. 696 trpoxeipov tyxos xelPl pavTafava'
eixrj) without seeming pleonastic, since
the derived sense of the compound adj.
{promptus) is prominent. Cp. 407 n . :

Plat. Theaet. 200 C eav /ii]


^XV {eTLffTtffias) iv rfj tyvxvirdTtt|ov is aitpov iroSa. The ulcered
foot is to be severed from the leg. dxpos
TOVS seems to mean simply, 'the end of the
foot,' i.e. the heel (irTipva), the seat of
the ulcer. Cp. 824. The phrase could
also mean, ' the foot at the end of the
leg,' as in //. 16. 640 CK Ke<pa\fjs eiXvro
Sia/ATepes is w6Sas atcpovs ( = simply 'from
head to foof):

but this is less fitting

here.
75O t0* (S irat, an earnest entreaty:
cp. O. T. 1468 W <Icaf, | W t3 yovy
7<j'a(e.
7 5 1 f. veojyidv faC<j>vr|s: cp. Tr.
1130 dprius veoucpayiis, and Ant. 1283.
OTOV, causal, with the whole sentence:
327 n.: <rovroi with lyr|V, etc.; object,
gen.I give irot, instead of the vulg.
iroets. jroieio-flai (midd.) ar6vov = <rT(vei.v.
whereas Toieiv arovov could mean only,
' to cause, or excite, it.' We cannot defend roeis here by //. 15. 363 iroi^irj;
(act.) aQipixara, which is not a mere peri-

124

IO*OKAEOYI

<3?I. ola-ff, a> TKVOV. N E . rl < S' > ecrnv ; <3>I. olcrff, a> TTOX.
NE. rl croC;
OVK oTSa. $ 1 . vcos OVK olada; TraTnraTrairiraTraL.
NE. SGLVOV ye rovTtlo~a.y\i,a. TOV vocr^jnaros.
755

4>I. Seivov yap ovSe p'r/rov ak\' oWripi fie.


NE. rl S^ra Spdcro); <I>I. /A77 /AG rap07]cra<; TT/JOSWS*
17/cei y a p a i m ; Sia -)(p6vov, TT\OLVOI<; icrtus
o>9 i^ewXTjcrOrj. N E . ia> i&i 8vo~rr)ve o~v,
Svcrrrjve Srjra Swi novcov iravroxv (fxtveCs.
y6o
7 5 3 Tid'2<TTiv; T: rl forty; L.Ldistributes the persons thus: NE. rl aoi. $ 1 .
oik oI5a | N. iruio1 OUK o?<r0a j *. xrf7T7ra K.T.X. The distribution in the text is Bothe's.
iro7r?ra irajrirairaX L. (The accent on the 3rd a is crossed out. The irir in both places
is cramped, as if made from jr.)
7 5 5 TovTrelaayixa L. Dindorf (on the authority
of Diibner's collation) says, iToinrei(ray/j.ai sed ex Tovirlffayiw. factiwi, quod librarius
scribere coeperat? I cannot perceive any ground for this belief. The letters after ir
are here written in the compendious form . The curve at the bottom should be noted
as distinguishing this part of the character from the simple t, which, when it follows ir,
is usually in L a straight stroke. There is no trace of erasure or re-touching, iirelirayna

phrasis for aOipeiv, but = 'making playthings' in the sand, houses, dykes, etc.
Nor can deiva iroiu be cited, which is not
an equiv. for Beiv&v TOWV/UU, but means
'to do dreadful things,' referring to the
outward display of horror or grief by
gestures or cries. (Cp. my n. on Andoc.
or. i 41.) In At. 75 where dpet
(midd.) is now read by most edd., L has
dpi
7 5 3 T<TO; These words clearly belong to Neopt., and mean, ' What is the
matter with thee?' The phrase is not
an usual one; but it is clear enough
here, esp. as Sioriv can easily be carried
on. Hermann, giving rl <rot to Philoctetes, took it as meaning 'What is that
to thee?' (quid tua refertf)a protest
against closer questioning.
7 5 5 TouirCcra7|ia. eTurdTTa.i> is classical as = 'to put a load on' a baggageanimal, or 'to saddle' a horse (Her.,
Xen., etc.): and iiri<ray/t.a was a common
word, at least in later Greek, as may be
inferred from the schol. on Ar. Nub. 450
{Maay/M TU>V Svav), and from its use by
the LXX. (Lev. xv. 9). In the marg. of
L the gl. is, i] ireiffoSos'

i) X/XXTOIJKT;.

The second word suits ToinrttyayiJ.a: the


first refers to the v. I. TowiredraYjMi, in
the sense of 'access.' But such a word
is neither extant nor conceivable. Bergk's

Towir(ri7|i.o (eTricrifu), 'hounding on,'


would mean here, 'exasperation,'as if
some Fury were stimulating the vbat\iw..
The word was used by Soph, in his
Athamas, ace. to an amended gloss in
Hesychius (Soph. fr. 8).
7 5 6 f. 7<ip= 'indeed,' in assent; cp.
0. T. 1117 n.8prf<ra>: aor. subj.
7 5 8 f. fJK6i...grXij<reti. Ph. fears
that the sight of his horrible sufferings
may deter Neopt. from taking him on
board. He says,' Do not be scared
into abandoning me. For this tormentor
(afin), the personified vivos) comes only
now and then (Sict xp<5vo),when she
has been sated, haply, with her roamings.' And sosince the voyage to
Greece will take less than one whole day
(480)he is not likely to have an attack
while at sea. Three points deserve notice. (1) rJKi = 'is wont to come,'a
sense which is as fitting for it as for a
regular perfect tense used in the 'gnomic' manner (07r&>7re, Ant. 1126). So in
Plat. Symp. 188 A TJK is joined to the
gnomic aor. 7idltcr)<rev: and in Xen. Oec.
2 1 . 3 (Kfiaivov<nv...riKov<n denotes a re-

peated occurrence. (2) 8id xpwou, 'after an interval of time,' implies here, as
it usually does, that the interval is a considerable one: cp. 285 n., where Lys. or.
1 12 is cited. (3) irXavois is con-

4>IA0KTHTHS

125

PH. Thou knowest, my son. NE. What is it ? PH. Thou


knowest, boy. NE. What is the matter with thee ? I know
not. PH. HOW canst thou help knowing ? Oh, oh !
NE. Dread, indeed, is the burden of the malady.
PH. Aye, dread beyond telling. Oh, pity me!
NE. What shall I do ? PH. Forsake me not in fear. This
visitant comes but now and then,when she hath been sated,
haply, with her roamings.
NE. Ah, hapless one! Hapless, indeed, art thou found in
all manner of woe !
is also in A, B, T: while Harl. has iirloayna. Bergk conj. Toiminyiw..
7 5 8 rjxei
yap afirri dia xpbvov wXavourfooxr\ ilxr &frXij<70; L (the a of w<r added by S). Instead of irXayots, T and Harl. give jrXcuTjs. For i/ncei, Heimsoeth conj. efei. F. W.
Schmidt, \1J7ei yap ai)T7) dia xpbvov TrXdVots v6<rosl ws i^ewX'riad'rj. Following the
MSS. in the rest, Bothe conj. t<rois for Icrus: Arndt adds <p\ty after i%tsir\i)<T6T), deleting
the first 16. Nauck would write, ir\avo>ix(vq, j rax&ns S' iir\i\<T8i), or vvv 8' ^rXi}ff#7j.
7 5 9 i>s i&T\-fi<r0i). NE. l&> i<i, Siaryve ai\ Triclinius wrote ws efeTrX^o-^. <pev,
NE. ii> SiaTUfve ait. Hermann, us tfeirX^o-fli). NE. <pev. Ui diarwe ai.
76O irbviMi\
Blaydes reads pord>v.iravruv </>avds] Wakefield conj. jroXXwK tpffapeis.

trasted with nxa, The word was suggested by the fact that intermittent fevers
(etc.) were called xXdeijres (Hippocr.
Epid. 1. 944). The term implied that
the intervals were irregular: cp. Erotian
Gloss, p. 306 (quoted by Arndt) v\&vrires irvperol Xiyovrai oi yur; Kara rd^iv
<poiTwvTes. This may be illustrated
by the use of irXavourffai in Her. 6. 52,
fy Sk irXai'aTcu...e<'aXXd Toievaa ('if
she is capricious, varying the order'
opp. to Kara ravTa alei TOieu&a). So id.
7. 16. 1 iv6irfia...Td. is avdptbirovs 7re7rXavqjUva ('the dreams which are wont at
times to visit men'). It was easy, then,
for the poet to imagine the fitful vbaos as
a personified wanderer, who, when sated
with wandering, comes back to her
abode:much as Aesch. (P. V. 275)
speaks of calamity ' roaming' among

j j f ] I w .
There is no other
example of such an hiatus in a tragic
trimeter. (As to lyrics, cp. 832, 851.)
Probably, however, the text is sound.
The verse is divided between two speakers, there is a full stop after e&irXyaBri,
and the second speaker begins with an
interjection. Thus the hiatus has an
exceptional excuse. On the other hand
no emendation is probable. <|>i (instead of the first tio) is certainly not so,
whether it be given to Ph. or to Neoptolemus. Gaisford says, ' 4irXT)<r', ut videtur, conj. Elmsleius.' This would require us to read irXdvovs, or (keeping
7rXdcois) to understand aurtws. But the
context strongly confirms ei-eir\ritr$r).
76O StJTO. Cp. El. 1163 a!s n' a.Tii>\e<ras, | dVXras STJT'.8v<r]v...<|>avsCs : the predicative adj. is assimilated
m e n : irKavio^Uvq \ irpbs aXXor' oXXoi* TTTJ- to the vocative partic. Cp. 828 n.:
liorii TrpoirifdVei. Cp. below, 808 oeia
Aesch. Pers. 674 u iroXwXawe <pl\ouri
tpoiT$ Kal raxeZ' dWpxerai. So the
Baixiv. Eur. fro. 1221 ai T' W TOT'
schol., who explains irXdvms by bSoiiro- aHaa KaXXiciKC /ivpluv \ lirjrep Tpoiralav.
plats:iJKei 7) voaos, tuois ore ixopiadti Propert. 2. 15. 2 Lectnle deliciis fade
.irXavbifiivii' us eir\ 6-qpbs di iroieirai rbv beate meis.
X070K. This is clearly better than to un8id irovwv irdvrwv, 'in all manner of
derstand,' When it has once been sated,
troubles,'i.e., 'in the course' of them:
it returns only after a long interval,in
0. T. 773 did rtixts TOiauS' iwv. Eur.
wandering fashion, seemingly' (irXdvois
/. T. 988 5i wovum T' 0761 (sc. 6 daibeing then a modal dat.).For conjectures, see Appendix.

126

IO<1>OKAEOY
fiovXeu \d/3cj[iaL STJTO, Kal Biyut TL O~OV;
p ? brjTa TOVTO y aAAa p,ot TO, rog e\(ov
raS', ajcrirep TJTOV p? apruus, ews avfi
TO irrjpa TOVTO Trjs voo~ov TO VVV napov,
765
cr&J' avTci Kal <f>v\ao~o~. Xa^dvei
yap ovv
VTTVO<; ft', OTav 7rep TO KOLKOV i^Cr/ rdSe*
KOUK ecrri Xwfcu rrpoTepov aXX' eav vpewv
CKTJXOV evoevv.
rjv oe w o e TOJ XPOV(?
p,6Xcocr iKeivoL, wpos decov, e^>ie/i,ai
770
fJLTJT' O.K0VTO. \vf)TZ

NE.
$1.

TO) TS^yXI

/jLedeivai, ravTa, p/fj o-avrov ff a/xa


J
ovra craurov irp6o~TpoTrov, KTeivas yevrj.
dapcrei irpovotas ovveic' ov hodrjo~erai
nXyjv croC r e Kap^oi' vv TVXQ ^ vp6o~(f>epe.
i8ou, Se^ou, ncu' TOV <f>66vov Se irpoo~KVO~ov,

775

7 6 1 Xaj3o)/iai 5^ra] In L 5^ra was omitted by the 1st hand, but has been inserted by
S. It is in A and the other later MSS. Mollweide conj. Xd|3w rh T<5fa.
7 6 7 lrn
L : ifrfrg A : ^IKIJ V: i^Kri B, and so Brunck. Schneidewin formerly conj. QavT).
7 6 1 PowXei XaPiiai... ; pi. 80 fl^Xs I fieivbi/iev...; In this idiom the
subjunct. is properly deliberative, and
fiov\ei. parenthetic, as its position sometimes indicates: e.g. Dem. or. 14 27
6S floii\e<T0e 8<x>5eK&Ti]v ri/ias da daw...

STJTO. has been suspected here, because


it occurs in 757, 760, 763. Nauck would
remove it by re-writing the passage
thus :/SoiiXei Xd/3wA" *a! 6Lyw ; <J>IA.

airoaTpifai vbaov.
7 6 6 f. yap ovv: 'for indeed' (prefacing an explanation); Ant. 489.^fl,
draw to an end: Her. 2. 139 as oSv 0
Xpovos OSTOS efijie.
; 7 6 8 Xrjgai.. The subject to the inf.
is TO Ka.Kov. When the'pain is subsiding
(efij), the patient falls asleep; and it is
only by sleep that, the pain can be wholly
allayed (\?}{(u). The schol. explains

fi^ TOVTO ye, I aXX' oj(T7rep ^TOV /J.' aprlws,


\fjl;cu by TTJs 6VVT]S Tavffacdat,
as if
the subject were fie: but where \ijyia
T&. Tot? ^XuW, I ^(JOS dvrj TO TT^Ua TOVTO
TT)S viaov, I Gipi? aArii, Kal <f><6\ao-<re. B u t is so used the gen. is commonly added,

here, as in 757, it is interrogative, while in


760 and 763 it is otherwise used; and this
difference of usage palliates the iteration.
Cp. the threefold aXKd in 645, 647, 651:
also O. T. 517 0fyop, 519 (pipovri, 520 tpipei, where the excuse is the same as here,
viz. that, in the 1st and 3rd places the
word means 'tend,' but in the 2nd, 'bear.'
No weight attaches to the fact that the
1st hand in L accidentally omitted Sijra,
which the reviser added. In 772 L lacks
Tavra altogether; and yet that word is
certainly sound.
7 6 3 (J.oi: ethic dat.: O. C. 1475 n.
7 6 4 c-<os without oc: cp. 917.
dvf : 639 n.
7 6 5 TO irtj|j.a...Trjs voo-ou: Ai. 363
TO iry)ixa TT;S cmjs: Aesch. Ag. 850 irrjn'

as in Ai. 274 X7/e...Trjs vo<rov.


7 6 9 f. ?KT)XOV cv'Setv. fie is easily
supplied from 767 ; the omission is thus
less bold than that in 801 (e'lnrprjirov).
rw8e TW xpovu), within i t : cp. 715 ieKirei xpov<p, n.CKCIVOI: Odysseus and
Diomedes (570).
771

KOVTO (J.TJT' aKOvra.

A firfre

is understood before eKovra: cp. Aesch.


Ag. 532 lid/us yd,p oxSre (rui-reX^s TTOXIS :
and O. T. 236 ft". (n.): Ant. 267. Dindorf changes |"1T' to |"]8". This is, of
course, admissible. When a single ovhe
(or fitfit) connects two words, the negative force is more often, indeed, confined
to the second, as in 756 Seivov yi.p 068k
pnrrov. But there are also many examples in which oide' negatives the pre*

cMAOKTHTHZ

127

Shall I take hold of thee, or lend thee a helping hand ?


PH. NO, no:but take this bow of mine, I pray thee,as
thou didst ask of me just now,and keep it safe till this present
access of my disease is past. For indeed sleep falls on me when
this plague is passing away, nor can the pain cease sooner; but
ye must allow me to slumber in peace. And if meanwhile those
men come, I charge thee by Heaven that in no wise, willingly
or unwillingly, thou give up this bow to them,-lest thou bring
destruction at once on thyself and on me, who am thy suppliant.
NE. Have no fears as to my caution. The bow shall pass
into no hands but thine and mine.Give it to me, and may
good luck come with it!
PH. There it is, my son:and pray the jealous gods that
7 6 9 tojXoi'] turjkov /!.' B.
7 7 1 JX^T' (LKOVTO. L : IXT)S' anovra Dindorf./Mjre Tip]
fir/ (from fiy) rh-wt L . /;& Tip Dind.
7 7 3 peSewai ravra] neBeive L, omitting
raGro, which is absent also from R and K, but present in A and the rest.
774B
adds y' to irpoeofas, and so Blaydes.OUWK'] dveic' Nauck.

O. T. 857 f. fiavreias y'...ovveic': El. 387


ceding word also: as T h u c . 8. 99 al
and 605 rovSi y' oiiveic'. In 0. C. 22
QOIVUXGOL vrjes aide 0 rSiaffa<p4pi>T}s...7]KOv.
Xpovuv juec OVVCK, the iUv is equiv. to ye.
Ar. Av. 694 yij 5' odd' dfy> ou5' ovpavbs
On the other hand in El. 787 TUV TTI<T8'
qv. Where, however, ovSi is thus retroaveCKdv oiiv^x', no MS. has direiXfii/ y\
spective, another negative (such as ovSiv)
is usu. joined to the verb: Her. 1. 215 And here the emphasis of ye is not required.irX^jv <ro Te K(i(J.o: i.e., as I
ffiSrfpip Se ovd' apyiptg xpiuvrai
oiSiv:
receive them from thee, so to thee alone
Thuc. 6. 55 Geo-craXoO per ovS' 'Iirir&pxov
will I give them up. They shall pass
ovdels irats yiypairrai. (add id. 5. 47 cited
between no hands save thine and mine.
below): Dem. or. 22 4 air\ovv fih
Cp. 668 Kai SbvTi Sovvai, n.Igvv TV^IJ, a
ovSe dinaiov. oidev av elvtiv typi.prfrt
poet, equiv. for the familiar T&XV d-yaSg
T<J) T^X"!). Here again Dindorf writes
\afii. Note that, whether p-fre or /MJS^ (quod bene vertat): Plat. Symp. 177 E
be read, it does not here balance the T&X.T) &ya.6rj Karapxe'ra Qcudpos. Cp. Aesch.
preceding firp-e (or priSi), since ex. ixrfr' Ch. 138 e\$tfv d' 'Opf<TTT)v Sevpo <riv rixv
S.K. = (fiy9') CK. IXT)T' S.K.: hence we might nvl I Kareixo/Aai trot: Ar. Av. 1723 Trepiir^Teade fj.dica.pa I fxdKapt <rbv T^XJ].
read (MJT* aKovra, and yet p.i\ftt T<$ T^XVVCp. Plat. Rep. 426 B ovre tpdp/j.aKa oUre
7 7 6 TOV <f>06vov 8J irp6<fKvorov, do
1
naiaets oire rofial ovS aS .iir^Sai. But
reverence (cp. 657) to the divine jealousy,
it is needless to alter |M}T.For
i.e., propitiate it by some gesture or word
cp. At. 752 vavTolq. rixvV- Thuc. 5
showing that you fear it. To hold the
47
&ir\a /ij; ei-aTW iTn^>4peiv...rix"V
bowthough
only as a temporary loan
5
j ixr)Se/u$: Xen. Anab. 4.
was an honour so high that it might well
16
excite that <fi$6vos Beuv which resents too
great eiirvxia in men. Pind. / . 6. 39 6
5' aBavdruv ^ BpaaaiTU <p66vos | 0 TI
7 7 3 irpoaTpoirov: in this sense only
Tepirrov icpdfiepov. Aesch. Ag. 904 (j>06i>os
here and in 0. T. 41. Cp. 470 iKtrys
IKVOV/JUI : 930 TOV TrpoaTpoiraiov, TOV IK4-5' airtaroi' 7roXXa yapra irplv Kaica, | TjveiX&lie<r8a: id. P. V. 936 01 TrpovKwovvres
T-qv.KTSIVOS ytVT\: cp. 1067: Ai. 588
/*7j TpoSotis f|/tas yivg- Plat. Soph. 217 c TTIX 'ASpdareiav <ro<pol{i.e. N^eo-iy). Plat.
Rep.^Y A irpoffKvvwdJASpdffTeiav...xdptv
n t6l
l p )
yi j
00 /iAXw X^yeiv. I do not write Qffovov,
7 7 4 irpovotas OBVCK". One MS. (B)
since it seems unnecessary to assume a
adds Y to Tporolas. Where oiJVKa or
definite personification: cp. 436 TroXeheica has this sense ('so far a s ' a thing 'is
/tos, n.
concerned'), yt is certainly frequent: cp.
eSeiro avrQv

/cat fn}XavV

M7/

ZO0OKAEOYI

128

fjiij croL yevicrOai Trdkvirov* avrd, /A17S' OTTOS


i/jLoC Te Kal TW irpocrff ifiov KeKTrj/xdvo).
NE. w 0eoC, yevouTO ravra vav ydvovro oe
irXous ovpios TC KevcrraX^s, OTTOL wore
6e6s St/caioi ^w OTTOXOS iropavverai.
<&I. aXX' %OKVOS, <5 irat, /xi) *aTcXeo-T' eux?7 < / / /
ora^et, ya/3 a /*oi <j>oCviov roS' eVc 0v0ov
KTJKIOV alfia, /cat TI irpooSoKO) veov.
iraircu, <f>ev.
fid\', a> TTOVS, oTa /A' ipyd(TL

yy
)
TO TTpa.yfj.a' fir) <f>vyr)Te

px

v, <o Meve'Xae, TTCOS a v

7^5

raXas.

L
<u feVe Ke<j)aWijv, effle aov
(TTepvav e^otr' aXy>jo"t9 i^Se.
yxaX' au#ts. <w S

J&o

79
^>eu, irairai,
/X
dvr'

7 7 7 /ii75' Sirws] Herwerden conj. nrjiroS' ws: Heimsoeth, iiySaiJ.' us: Tournier, ^178'
oirof: Blaydes, oW oiJVws dlTrws.
7 8 O /ceiVraX?;?] )cai ev(rTa\j)(7 L.
7 8 2 dXXo
(nV) 88OIK' W ircu /nj ^' oTeX^ff eux^' L- The only variants are dXX' 0^ in B, and
the reading of Triclinius (prob. his own conjecture) dXX' odv SiSoiKa pAi /i' dreXTjs eixo,
riKvov (with the v. I. /J.y <? dTtXrjs written above). For emendations see comment, and
Appendix.
7 8 3 <j>olviov A, ipovtov L.
7 8 4 irpoaSoKe? L, with *w written above
7 7 7 (ii]...1Ytv^a-6ai. depends on 7rpi(jKtvoy as on a verb of praying. (This is
simpler than to make the inf. epexegetic,
'so that,' etc.)iroXvirova. Ph. speaks
as if his own sufferings in Lemnos, and
the various trials of Heracles, were due
to the bow, once Apollo's: i.e., as if its
mortal owners had been punished by
jealous gods for the excessive goodfortune of possessing it.|iij8' oirws, sc.
iyivero, in the sense of (rvvf/ecyKe, turn
out as they did for me. For oVws instead of ola, cp. O.C. 1124 Kal cm Oeol
irdpoiev cos iyw $\ta (n.).
7 7 9 ff. 8eo: for the synizesis cp.
196.yvoiTO...'yvoiTO 8^: cp. 633 a.
ravra v<j>v: the vague phrase covers his
secret prayer,that, sharing the possession of the bow with Ph., he may also
share the victory over Troy (115).KC(praXi^s, well-sped, expeditious: cp. 516 n.
oiroi itork K.T.X.: with the same ambiguity as in 529.
782

d W *8KVOSK.T.X. The MSS.have

, <S wat, |HT] \I a.T(\f[S


^
Camerarius conjectured, dXX' oSr SiSoixa
fit) /iari]v eixv, TEWOI', which Cavallin
prints. Wecklein gives S^doixa 8', i!
irai, /MJ IIA.TT)V evxv rd5e,...in which rdSc
is his own, and dtSoiKa 8' (instead of
dXXa S^Soi/c') is Neue's. The conjecture
in the text is my own. I differ from
Camerarius in holding that the traditional
<5 irat is genuine, and from Neue in holding that the dXXd is genuine also. The
spurious word is 8&OIK', a gloss upon
some rarer expression in the same sense,
as Hermann saw; who wrote, dXX' off
TI croi, vaX, /*!) VeXr/s tixh TAJ;. First,
as to metre. The words dXXA StSoiK1, t3
ircu, /itf p.' aiteXty tbxh c a n be read as
a dochmiac dimeter, though of an unusual
type (cp.J.H.Heinrich Schmidt,Rhythmic
and Metric, p. 77). But they cannot be
construed: |i can be only n: and, though
we read (vyr\, |M] |i' arAi^s (or ctTeXws)
&XTI could not mean, 'lest thou pray
vainly on my behalf.' An iambic tri-

<t>IAOKTHTHI

129

it may not bring thee troubles, such as it brought to me and to


him who was its lord before me.
NE. Ye gods, grant this to us twain! Grant us a voyage
prosperous and swift, whithersoever the god approves and our
purpose tends!
PH. Nay, my son, I fear that thy prayers are vain; for lo,
once more the dark blood oozes drop by drop from the depths,
and I look for worse to come. Ah me, oh, oh! Thou hapless
foot, what torment wilt thou work for me! It creeps on me,it
is drawing near! Woe, woe is me! Ye know it now:flee
not, I pray you !
O Cephallenian friend, would that this anguish might cleave
to thee, and transfix thy breast! Ah me! Ah me! O ye chieftains twain, Agamemnon, Menelaus, would that ye, instead of me,
by 1st hand.
7 8 6 a irotfs] aB0is B.ipyaffrji. L. Wecklein gives epy&tei: Hense
conj. etpyaaai.
7 8 8 o?pot /ioi raKaa L (with A and others): of/ioi TaXas B: (S/iot
raXos r .
7 8 9 ^i/yijre A: (piyoa-e L.
79O arrarat L : aTTOTara A. Holding
that a bacchius rather than a cretic is required, Nauck conj. OYOTTOI : Dind., wairai,
rj>ev.
7 9 1 &e] Shelve Eustath. p. 1396. 7.el Bi <rov L : etBe aav Hermann.
7 9 3 ?x'T>] Wakefield conj. HKOIT', and so Blaydes,
7 9 4 'Aya/te/jivov, <3 Mei^Xae]
Blaydes conj, MeWXa^ T' 'A-yd/tejOu'oV re, and so Nauck.
meter is required here. On this point
recent edd. and critics are practically
unanimous. In the whole passage from
730 to 826 the series of trimeters is otherwise unbroken, save by those brief cries
of Ph. which occur ' extra metrum ' (785,
787, 790, 796, 804). A solitary dochmiac
dimeter is here inconceivable. The corruption of the trimeter began with the
loss of the last word, as in Ant. 1301 the
MS. Tctpi% came from vepX ^l<pei. A m o n g
the words suggested are iriXy, T6XV< KVPV>

liivr), rdS' 5, ride, rtiaiov. Of these,


rixv alone has any resemblance to eix^l:
but ?\ei might easily have dropped out
after eSxv1- F r the phrase cp. O. C.
652 TOO /xdXior' 6KVOS <r' ?x e 'i Next,
as to di^Xerr. An ellipse of ? with
/irj &Te\r)s evxti would be too harsh:
we must read effxj. Again, ^ dre\7js
fSxv could not mean, 'lest thou pray
in vain.' In Pind. Pyth. 5. 83 OTEXJJS
...Havreifiaaiv is said of the god. On
the other hand cp. Od. 8. 570 TO. 5<Ken ffebs t/ re\iiretev | i) K' orfKidT' etrj.

And when BTXHI had become eixti,


ATEAEST would easily become oTeXijs,
the T' being taken for an intruded re.
See Appendix.
For p ) followed by a, cp. 933: 0. T.
1388 T6 /!)) diro/tXijcrai: El. 1169 fit) hro\direa8ai: Aesch. Eum. 85 TO JI^\ aSiJ. S. IV.

Keiv: Eur. Tro. 981 ytt-fj a/iadeh volet $eds.


Most edd. now write ^ aduceiv, etc.,
assuming synizesis, rather than 11a.S1.Ketv
(crasis), or /i^ 'Sucetv.
7 8 4 KtjKtov: cp. 696 K-qaoixivav, n.
v&v with a sinister sense: cp. 554 via,
560 vedrrepov, 751 veoxfJ>v.
7 8 6 f. ifn/d<ra=fi^Weis epyaaeaBai:
cp. 441 ipeis, 581 X^fei. The fut. is better
suited than ipydfei to the presentiment of
agony (irpow^pirei). For the latter cp.
Tr. 1010 ^irrai /ju>v...TJ5' aSO' ?pirei.

7 8 8 f. ToXos.nom.; cp. O. C. 753 w T&\

( ( )) Hx

', k

'

9? x

n Keitrtficovoas;|iT|8a(i.TJ is supported by
L here, and is not less fitting than /M)5a/tfis, which Blaydes desires. Cp. 0. C.
1104 n.
7 9 1 K|>a\Xijv: cp. 263 f., n. <roi!
with ?xoiTO,cleave to thee,8ia(iirep{s crr^pv<v, piercing thy breast (and not merely
thy foot), aov, not aov, is needed here,
where there is a contrast between the
actual sufferer and the man to whom he
wishes the plague transferred. If we read
<rov, the chief emphasis would fall on
Sta/xireph aripvuv.
7 9 3 fi. |{X' a8is: cp. O. T. 1316
n , I of/oi IJ&K avdis.a SiirXot o~rp.:
cp.

264.'AYO(HVOV, ^ Mev^Xat.

proper name excuses an anapaest in


any foot except the 6th (cp. 0. C. 1).

130

I0*0KAE0YZ
TOV

to~ov ~)(povov Tpd<f>oiTe njvSe

tojJLOL

TTJV VOO~OV

795

jXOL.

to dva.Te dva.T, TT<MS ael Kaikovfievos


ovrto KOLT r/fiap ov Svi'a ju.oXew' Trore;
cS Teicvov, cZ yevvcuov, dWd o~v\\a/3tov
Tto Arjfivito Tto?> dvaKoXovfievcp Trvpl
800
efJLTrpyjo-ov, w yvvaiem KaytoTOI irore
TOV TOV Ato? TraiS' dvTi Ttovhe TtoV oirktov,
a vvv crv o-to,ei<;, TOVT' eir^^i&xra Spdv.
Ti (f>T]<i, irat;
TI ^ s ; T'L triyas; irov TTOT' tov, T4KVOV, KVpeis; 805
NE. d\yto TrdXat Si) Tain croi crreV&w
(05 rjSe
aXX', cS TZKVOV, Kal Odpcros
7 9 6 Ujuot / MSS. (F places the words after 798): i<i /*oi Nauck.
7 9 8 Sivy MSS.:
Sing. Porson.
8OO dvaKaKov/idiKji MSS. Meineke conj. dyKaXoi/ieyov or ayica\otilievos: Toup, dvaKVKXov/iirtfi: Blaydes, ayajcXovov/iiixp. Tournier would reject the v.
8O5

irov WOT' wv, TKVOV L, A, etc.: irov WOT', <5 T4KVOV T, K.

The fact that this licence has been used


in the 1st foot is no reason why it should
not recur in the same v., if, as here,
a second proper name requires it. We
need not assume, then, with Hermann,
that the second anapaest marks a laxity
peculiar to the later period of tragedy.
Blaydes conjectures, and Nauck adopts,
MWW T' 'A-ya|M|iv6v Tto the detriment, surely, of the verse.ms av...rp^<j>oiT: cp. 531 n.
TOV Eorov XP"*VOV- Here, again, the
anapaest has been impugned, on the
ground that it ought to be contained in
a single word. But, as a prep, and its
case are excepted from this rule (Eur.

Eur. Cycl. 266 <3 KaWurTov 5

8O8

otX7iS]

KVK\<H-

wtov.aWd, hortative: cp. 230, 950.


8OO T<$ A . TU8* dvax. irupl: yon fire,
famed as Lemnian; up S Ki)nviov dvaKa\oOo-i:the volcano Mosychlus, which
was always associated with Lemnos, and
which had given rise to the proverb
AyifiiHov wvp. One meaning of dvaicahav
is ' t o call to' a person by his name:
Thuc. 7* 7 8 dvaKaXovvTes 6VO/JUKTTI

Tbv Tpi-qpapxov. Hence the verb is sometimes joined with appellatives, as Thuc.
1. 3 &avaois...v rots lweo-t...dvaKa\et
(Homer designates the Greeks as Danai):
Soph. El. 093 'Apyaos /tir dvaKaXoi'fievos.Not: ' Yon Lemnian fire, which is
so famous' (as if dvo.KahoviJi.ivip, by itself,
Or. 898 iwl Tifde 6' i/ybpeve Aw/j.i/i8ris
could mean ' celebrated'): nor, ' yon
&val;), so also are an art. and its noun.
Lemnian fire which is invoked by me.'
7 9 7 f. <5 0 d v a . So Aeschylus,
too, made Philoctetes invoke Death: There is thus no difficulty in dxcuraXoufr. 250 <3 Odvare Tcudv, /tij ju' aTtfxdcnjs /livip when rightly understood, while the
/io\eiv I fiAros y&p el oi> TS>V O,VI]K(O-TUV proposed substitutes (cr. n.) are all unKaKwv I larpos. Cp. 0. C. 1120 (Death as satisfactory.
the last iwlmvpos), and At. 854.del...
The volcanic mountain called M6<rvx\os
K<IT' ifpap: cp. 0. C. 681 6d\\ei...Kar'
appears to have been on the east coast of
Ti/iap del I vdpniaeos.Svvq., admitted
Lemnos, south of the rocky promontory
in Attic verse as an equiv. for Sivaaai
('Ep/iaioK gpos, v. 1459) to which the cave
(Porson Hec. 253): in prose it is post'
of Philoctetes was adjacent. No volcanic
classical. Cp. 849.
crater can now be traced in Lemnos; and
it is probable that the ancient Mosychlus
7 9 9 <S WKVOV, co yevvcuov. Cp. / / . 6.
j5 <J wtwov S. MccAoe: Ar. Av. 1271 has been submerged. See Appendix.
Kri/iviov wvp was proverbial for 'a fierce
w H $ ^ \
d'
3
&

4>IA0KTHTHI

131

might have this malady upon you, and for as long! Ah me, ah
me! O Death, Death, when I am thus ever calling thee, day by
day, why canst thou never come ? O my son, generous youth,
come, seize me, burn me up, true-hearted friend, in yonder fire,
famed as Lemnian :I, too, once deemed it lawful to do the same
unto the son of Zeus, for the meed of these same arms, which are
now in thy keeping. What sayest thou, boy,what sayest thou ?
Why art thou silent ? Where are thy thoughts, my son ?
NE. I have long been grieving in my heart for thy load of
pain.
PH. Nay, my son, have good hope withal; this visitor comes
Mollweide conj. <riy&.ran <rol] Blaydes conj. rd/jupl <rol.
8 O 7 dW (3 HKVOV,
KOI MSS. : Nauck writes dXV (3 TSKVOV JMI: and so Cavallin. The ist hand in L had
omitted this v., and has inserted it in smaller writing between the lines.

fire' (Ar. Lys. 299). Lycophron (227) has


before the Trojan war. Tzetzes, in his
Te<j>pt!xras yvla Aij/ica(<fi xvpl in this sense,scholia on Lycophron, gives the first
and calls Ajax 6 Aii/ios | TpijaTTjp 'Evv- version in one place (on vv. 914 ff.), and
oOs (462), ' Lemnian thunderbolt of war.'
the second in another (on v. 50).Cp. Ov.
Cp. Hesych. Aquviov /SX^jreiv itraSi)
Met. 9. 229 At tu, lovis inclyta proles, \
TO irvp K7HIIH.0V. The legendary associ-Arboribus caesis quas ardua gesserat Oete \
ation of Lemnos with fierce crime (X-qnvia Inque pyram structis, arcus pharetramKaK&) may have helped to suggest such que capacem \ Regnaque visuras iterum
phrases.
Troiana sagittas \ Ferre tubes Poeante
satum; quoJlamma ministro \ Subdita.
8 O 1 t|i.irpi)irov: the omission of ne is
somewhat boid here: cp. 769, 1368. If
eir>|(<ixra, brought myself to do it,
we read irupt ji'j, the evurin>a\oi<p^ might here almost=M\in)<ra. Cp. El. 1273
be defended by the elision of S', T , and
tpiKTdrav ] 6Sbv eir<xl-ui>tTa$...<p'avT}vaL.
once TOUT' (0. T. 332) at the end of a
Spdv with double ace, as 315, 918, 924,
verse (O. T. 29 n.). But the fact seems
940.
to be that <n>XXa(3a>v in 799, which at
8 O 4 f. T 4>11S> irai; Neopt. has no
once suggests /ie, excuses the absence of
answer for the prayer, tiiirpriaov. A
the pron. here.
genuine pity for the sufferer is beginning
to move him; and he knows that, if the
8 0 3 f. TOV TOV Aios iratS', Heracles :
plot succeeds, this wretched man will be
cp. 727 f. n.mptjeis, as their temporary
guardian: cp. 766.TOVT' ; i.e. e/Airpijaai, carried to the place which he most dreads.
He remains silent.irov ITOT' <5V, mencp. 670. Heracles was conveyed to the
tally: cp. Ant. 42 TTOV yvtbfiTis TOT el; (n.)
summit of Oeta by his son Hyllus, who
helped to make the pyre, but refused to
8O6iraXai 8tj: cp. 589.rdirl a-ol...
kindle it (Tr. \i 14). It was kindled,
KaKa, the ills which lie on thee: cp. Tr.
ace. to one account, by Philoctetes; ace.
981 dXK' exl /xoi ixekty | fldpos AirXerov
to another, by his father Poeas. The
eMuA/iovei) <ppr/v. N o t , ' t h e ills which
former version was naturally preferred
have come upon thee,' as though I
where the aim of the legend was to
could be understood (O. C. 1472 rjicei
honour Philoctetes, since thus he iniir' dv8pl...Te\evTT)). Nor, 'the ills in
herited the bow directly from Heracles:
thy case.'
and, since Philoctetes was a more im8O7 f. teal 6dp<ros to-ye, have good
portant figure than Poeas, this was the
hope also (as well as 0X70$): for, as the
prevailing account. The other version,
access of the malady is sharp, so it will
which made Poeas the kindler, had a
also be transient.Nauck enfeebles the
recommendation of a different kind in
sense by changing Kal to (lot.-<f>omj,
the eyes of mythologists who aimed at
of periodical visitations: Hes. Op. 103
a strict chronology,viz., that the epivovaot... I aiToiiaroi (poirwiri: Arist. An.
sode was thus confined to the generation
Hist. 7. 3 (p. 583 a 26 Berl. ed.) oi...

92

132

KO.1

dXX' dvTidZ,<o, ju.77


N E . Bdpaei,
fievovfiev.
<)>p6veL.

^
fie

fiovov.
<&I.

/tenets;

NE.

81 o

6icrdai, , T4KVOV.
NE. to? ou #e/us y" e/xouari crou fioXeiv are/3.
<S>I. ou fajv cr' evopKov y

efifiaWe x et /S TTICTTIV. NE- e/nySaXXw fievelv.


eVcacre v w JU,', e/ceicre N E . TTOI Xeyeis; 3 I
TI wapaffrpoveLS av; T'L TOP dvot Xewcrcrets KVKKOV ; 815
/xddes fie&es fie. NE. TTOI /AC^GJ; 3>I. fiedes nore.
ou ^''7/^' idcreiv. E>I. ctTro /u,' oXets, ^ irpoa'diyQ'S.
Ka! 8r) fiedtrjfi, ei r t ST) Trkiov <f>poveL<s.
w yatia, Se^at Oavdcrtfiov fi oiro>% eva'
TO y a p KCLKOV TOO OVKT opuovo-Qai fi ea.
020
NE. TOV dvSp' eot/cev VUTOS OV fiaicpov ~)(p6vov

$1.
<&I.
NE.
<E>I.
NE.
NE.
^>I.

8O9 (faraXiVjjs] (taraXelinjKr L, with I" above from ist hand.


8 1 2 Biius y']
Wunder writes Oe/iior'.ifioSo-Ti Herm.: e/iot '<m L.
8 1 3 fievetv A: fifreiv L.
8 1 4 eKeiffe vvv /*'] /u' is in L (added in an erasure by S) and A: it is absent from
some of the later MSS., as Y, B, K.
8 1 5 rl irapaQpoveis] Meineke conj. rj for ri.
\ei<rcret<r ma de from \ei<rrjur in L . C p . 1068.
8 1 7 rjv irpocrBlyys] Burges conj.
fn.il for ijc.
8 1 8 xai 5TJ fieBtnifu [from jue9e(i)/ti] T Si; TTX^OI" tppovelcr: L . xai Si)

p
(poirwai.o^eta, Ta\ta adverbially: cp. 526, 1080.
8 1 1 ov (MJv. In this formula, as in
Kai \xijv, oXXA p.rpi, JIT\V is properly ad-

versative ('however'): cp. O. T. 810 oii


pfiv tarpi 7' Iruaev. Here iiip is like
'nay,' or 'well': i.e., the thought implied is, ' I should prefer a promise on
oath; however, I do not like to ask for
it.'t!vopKov...0&r0ai, SpKi^ Turruacu :
cp.

0. T.

276 Sxnrep n' ipaXov IXaj3es.

So Oed. to Theseus, in a like case: O.C.


650 offroi ff' i<p' Spxov y' us KCLKOV irurrd-

ffo/icu, where see n.


8 1 2 <Ss, (be sure) that: 117 n.
8l|us receives a slight emphasis from
Y : 'it is needless for me to take an
oath: even if I wished to leave thee, it
is not lawful for me to do so.' By
8e'|us Philoctetes understands the youth's
sense of duty towards a suppliant (773):
the spectators know that Neopt. is thinking of the oracle (841) l|iofi<rri: so
Ai. 1225 /ioSari (fwi '<TTI L).

8 1 3 {pfSaWc K.T.X. Here Philoctetes


receives this pledge in place of an oath.

In Tr. 1181 ff. the intense anxiety of


Heracles is marked by the fact that he
exacts from Hyllus, first the Segia, and
then the opxos:?^i/SaX\e xpa 5ef ii>> wpdTurrd fioi:6fivv

Ai6s vvv TOV /jie tpiaavros

K&pa. When belligerents had taken oaths


to a treaty, the hand-pledge followed, as
the seal of mutual confidence: it was the
moral sanction added to the religious.
Xen. Anab. 2. 3. 28 w/ioaav nal Seifuis
ZSoaav.
8 1 4 8 1 8 CKCCO-C vvv )i'. On leaving the cave with Neopt., Ph. had moved
a few steps on the path leading down
the cliffs to the shore. When the first
attack of the disease came on (732), he
stopped. The second attack (782) found
him stationary in the same spot. A third
is now beginning; and he begs Neopt.
to take him IKEIO-C, i.e., up to the cave,
where he will at least have the couch of
leaves (33) to rest upon. Neopt. does
not understand that lie&rc means, to the
cave: so Ph. adds, ov<o. Neopt. has
meanwhile taken hold of Ph., fearing
that he may fall, or throw himself, from

*IAOKTHTHI

133

sharply, but goes quickly. Only, I beseech thee, leave me not


alone.
NE. Fear not, we will remain. P H . Thou wilt remain ?
NE. Be sure of it.
PH. Well, I do not ask to put thee on thine oath, my son.
NE. Rest satisfied : 'tis not lawful for me to go without thee.
PH. Thy hand for pledge ! N E . I give itto stay.
PH. NOW take me yonder, yonderNE. Whither meanest
thou ? P H . Up yonder
NE. What is this new frenzy ? Why gazest thou on the
vault above us ?
PH. Let me go, let me go ! N E . Whither ? P H . Let me
go, I say!
NE. I will not. P H . Thou wilt kill me, if thou touch me.
NE. There, thenI release thee, since thou art calmer.
PH. O Earth, receive me as I die, here and now! This
pain no longer suffers me to stand upright.
NE.
Methinks sleep will come to him ere long:
/ i i ' rl Be 5i) w\iov (ppovels; A (and so Brunck). Triclinius wrote KO.1 ) /ty/
<rc T 8r/ irktov tppoveis; Erfurdt, fieBlr;^'' fj ri Sii etc.: Hermann, et TI Si], which has
been generally received. Blaydes, however, writes xal Sjj /j.e6le/j.ai. rl Si) ir\iov
<j>poveh;F. W. Schmidt conj. et TI 87) v\im> iroveh: Cavallin, el TI Si) es TrXtov
iroiefs: Nauck, el n 6% T68' 1ST' aicos.
82O T68'] TOVT' V.

the cliffs (1001) : his speech and manner


show a fresh frenzy of agony (irapa(j>povis aS), and his rolling eyes are upturned to the sky (TAV dvia Xri<r<ris
KVKXOV). The mere touch of the youth's
hands is torture to the sufferer (817):
and Neopt. releases him the moment
that he seems to be recovering selfmastery (et TI 811 irKiov (j>povels).
8 1 5 a{, as at 732 ff., 782 ff.TAV
avu KVKXOV, the vault of the sky (T6K
KI)KXOK T&VTO. TOV ovpavov, Her.

1. 131):

cp. Ar. Av. 1715 oa/ii] 8' avuvoixaaros


es pd$os Kii/cXou | xwPe'-Not, 'the orb
of the sun' {ijXlov KIJKXOS, Ant. 416, fr.
668).
8 1 6 f. iroT\ tandem aliquando: 1041,
0. T. 335.OTT6 |i' oXets: cp. 1177.
Such tmesis, though frequent in tragic
lyrics, is rarer in dialogue: Ant. 432
<nV 3^ va> \ 0ripdi/ie9': Eur. Or. 1047 (K
rot ne TTjfcis: perh. parodied by Ar.
Vesp. 784 dva rol pe welSeis: id. Ach.
295 xard <re x^"0^1''
Pitt. 65 oiro <r'
6\u> Kat&v KUKSS.
8 1 8 Kal 8^ H8Cii|j.', I do release thee:
0. C. 31 n.cl TI oij: here 5^ nearly=

ijSri: cp. 0. T. 968 n.ir\iov <j>povci$,


art more sane. Cp. Ai. 81 iieixifvor'
dvSpa....dwelt iSeiv;<ppovovvra ydp va>
ouV &> !-<JTTIV : a n d ib. 344 av^p ippoveiv
eoiKev (when Ajax is 'in his right mind'
again). The 1st hand in L wrote here,
(cai ST) jtte9e^;/ti (sic)' H dij T\4OV (ppoveia. No MS. has A, which Hermann
restored. But it has not been noticed
that the mis-spelling /ledelrj/u in L may
have been due to the fact that its archetype had ixeBiijix' el.

8 1 9 f. 6a.vdo-41.ov, proleptic, as in Ai.


516 xal litjrip' aX\)j notpa T&V (pticravrd
re \ KaBetXev "AiSov Bavairiiwvi 01/ojropos.
Cp. Pind. P. 1. 51 aiv d' &vdyK<f fuv
tp\\ov \ ical TI% iti>v neyak&vtap Itravev
(so as to make him a friend).OTTCOS ?xw>
forthwith: Ant. 1108 i38' us lxa <rrdxoi/*' av.op8ovcr8ai, here, to be (not
to become) 6p$6s, i.e., ' to stand upright':
cp. Xen. Cyr. 8. 8. 10 iK<p4povTai, iirei8h,v iiyKtn Sfouwriu 6p6o6)ievoi QUvat.
('on their own feet').
8 2 1 o p.aKpov xpvov: cp. 0. C.
397 qjoira |3aioO Kou%i nvplov XPVOV
(n.).

20<t>0KAE0Y2

134

Kapa yap v7TTiaeTcu roSe"


ws ye Toi VLV TTOLV KaTaaraei 8e/i,as,
fiikaivd r aKpov r t s napeppcoyev iroSos

825
eKrfkov avrov,

a><s av ei9 virvov

<rrp. XO. "TTJT' oSiwas aSaijs, ""Tirve S' dXyecov,


2 euaes jj/^M' e\0OL<s,
3 evaiav evaicov, aiva'

830
5 raVS' axyXcw a TeraTai

ravvu.

S 2 3 ISpiis 7^ rof vi MSS. (ISputr 7c rot xix, we, L); except that K has Si for
7^. Buttmann conj. I5p<is r e : Dind. iSpuis 8e, or idpq} piov TC.
8 2 6 us] Weeklein conj. ?ws.
8 2 7 8 3 8 L divides the vv. thus:VTV' | i)/uv l\0our ; eialaf
(JxaJ I Hixixaaw | ravd' {sic) | t$t t$i | (3 TIKVOV | TTOI 8 | T&VTtvBev | ^5i) | irpdur<reiv\yvii/mu|TTO\I>dpvvrai.
8 2 7 dX7^(1)c] Hermann conj. aVyeos.
8 2 8 fte^s] etfa^ff L, with gl. evwvovs: the only v. I. is ei/iepiis (r). Cp. Hesych.

8 2 3 7^ TOI, as O. C. 1324, TV. 1212 :


yi TOI Sri, 0. T. 1171. Here 7^ rot is
like 70CC, i. e., it gives a reason for their
belief. (Cp. 767.) ' He seems likely to
fall asleep soon, since (ydp) his head is
sinking back; at any rate, a sweat is
certainly breaking out,' etc.
8 2 4 f, aKpov...iroBis: cp. 748.
cj>\e'4r, not a vein of the body, but the
thin stream in which the blood issues:
cp. Polyb. 34. g (the removal of an
obstruction) (\ev0epoi T&S 0X^8as rijs
TnjyijSy war' dvajSMeii' eviropw. So Martial 10. 30. io Lucrina vena.
8 2 7 8 6 4 The place of a second
stasimon is taken by this xop-iwi. The
strophe (827838) is divided from the
antistr. (843854) by a /narifSos, consisting of four hexameters for Neoptolemus. The antistr. is followed by an
iirifSos (855864). For the metres, see
Metrical Analysis.
A Ko/ifios was properly a lyric lamentation (Bprivos) in which one of the actors
took part with the Chorus. But the
name can be used in a larger sense to
describe any lyric dialogue between actor
and Chorus, even when the character of
a lamentation is not present.
The strophe here was sung by one
half of the Chorus, and the antistrophe
by the other. Sophocles had raised the
number of the tragic Chorus from 12 to
15 by adding a coryphaeus (whose part

had hitherto been taken by one of the


ordinary choreutae), and two leaders
of i)fuxoPtaicalled irapajTarai, because,
when the Chorus was drawn up facing
the actors, they stood on either side of
the coryphaeus. The Ajax affords another certain instance of niuYopio (866
ff.).
The Chorus urge Neoptolemus to seize
the moment while Philoctetes sleeps, and
to sail away with the bow. He replies
that it would be as useless as it would be
base to take the bow without its master,
whom the oracle has declared to be indispensable. They are still pressing their
counsel when the youth perceives that
Philoctetes is about to awake.
8 2 7 ft The first"Yirvc has v, but the
second, v : cp. 296 n.oSvvas alludes to
the sharp physical anguish of Ph.: akyiav
is the more general word,pain, whether
of body or of mind.;'Yirve 8 ' : the Se
stands here as it would stand after the
repeated adj., "Txve, d5a.Tjs (ftiv) o5., aSaty
Se dVy^ue: cp. 633.
cvois instead of days, the predicative
adj. being assimilated to the subject
("TJTKC) in thevoc.: cp. 760: Theocr. 17.
66 o\/3te Kwpe yivoto' Callimachus fr. 213
Avrl y&p iickifii)! "I/ippaae HapBevtov (the
river Imbrasus in Samos): Tibullus 1.7.
53 venias hodierne.tvais must certainly
be a dactyl (see Metr. Anal.), and in 844
the words uv b" av Apt'ifix! appear sound.

<f>IAOKTHTHZ

135

see, his head sinks backward; yes, a sweat is bathing his whole
body, and a thin stream of dark blood hath broken forth from
his heel.
Come, friends, let us leave him in quietness, that he may fall
on slumber.
CH. Sleep, stranger to anguish, painless Sleep, come, at our Strophe,
prayer, with gentle breath, come with benison, O king, and
keep before his eyes such light as is spread before them now;
eihrvovv. eiadr/i, eir/re/ios' oi Si eiairjs. Hence Schneider inferred a variant
here, and Buttmann thought that this could come from aw, comparing vevpoffwaSip from avita. Dindorf would prefer evaSh. but would derive it from avSava.
Hermann altered ei5a?)s to eiah (a dactyl, = 844 <Zv d' av a/i.-). Seyffert, accepting
pg
eiab, makes the a long, and in 844 reads wv an S' dfieip-y.
8 2 9 The
Th second
d
829
eialw was added by Triclinius, and first printed by Turnebus.
83O dvri<rxis
Musgrave and Brunck: ivr^xou MSS. Burges conj. a/tirltrxois.
8 3 1 ravd'] ravS'
L.afyXax] Reiske conj. ax\(iv.ravvp] rd vvv L.
But the short a in eiah has caused per- ipelau. Statius Silv. 5. 4. 16 (invoking
plexity. Certainly elsewhere we find d
Somnus):Nee te iotas infunderepennas |
(Hes. Op- 597 x&PV *" tifttl, Od. 12. 289 Luminibus compello meis : hoc turba preZe<j>6poto 8v<raos). But on the other hand
cetur I Laetior; extremo me tange cacud occurs in other Homeric forms from mine virgae. Silius 10. 354 (Somnus)
the same root,ari, S.T)TOV, aip-o, djjccu, Per tenebras portal medicata papavera
d^/uvai, afjixevos, arfru. Thus, even cornu... quatit inde soporas Devexo capiti
though a was usual in ei)ai}s, general epic pennas., oculisque quietem Irrorat, tanassociations would have made it easy for gens Lethaea tempora virga.
Sophocles to use ev&fp where metrical
83O f. SpiMuri 8' dvTo-\ois, and
convenience required it.
keep before his eyes, Tdv8' at-yXav c
evalav, happy, and giving happiness. T^TttTai TOVCV, this light which is spread
At Sicyon Pausanias (2. 10. 2) saw a before them now. By ' this light' I do
statue of "TTTI/OS, with the surname of not understand 'a light which is no
enSiliTrjs, i.e. the giver of ever fresh light,' i.e., ' darkness,'as if this were
gifts to men,the renewer of life. The an oxymoron like fiXdrew OK&TOV (O. T.
epithet is explained by Paus. 8. 9. 1 where 419), iv GK&rt$ bpav (ib. 1273), for TV<J>\OS
a Mantinean hieron of Zei>s ''EiriSunris is etvai. Rather TAVS' alyhav is ' dreammentioned,iirtSiSSvai y&p dfy aya&a light,'such as illuminates the visions
airrbv avBpibnois. The word iraiuv in that come in sleep. Cp. Eur. Ale. 354
832 recalls the fact that this Sicyonian iv 8' Avelpouri \ <poiTw<T& fi' eiQpalvois av
"TTVOS stood near the 'AaicXrjTneiov.
ii5d yap <pi\os | Kav VVKTI Xticreeiv, tii>These beautiful verses, which seem TU>' dv irapy xP^vov. T h e pron. rdvSc
to breathe the very spirit of rest, are marks that al-yXav has this poetical sense,
illustrated by a bronze statue of "Tirvos the 6vap, not the S7rap, of light. Cp.
now at Vienna. (Baumeister, p. 707.) Aesch. Ag. 942 i; rai ai vlKtfv rrfvde
The Sleep-god is advancing softly; his S^ptos Has; i.e., a VIKTI which consists in
head is bent; a kindly smile is on his yielding.For T^raToi, referring to light,
face; his eyes are half-closed; and in his cp. Ant. 600 8 Tiraro <pdos (n.).
out-stretched right hand he holds the
The words could not mean, ' keep off
horn from which the poppy-juice (/;- this sunlight from his eyes.' d[i|ia<ri
KWVIOV) is to be shed on weary mortals. might, indeed, be a dat. of interest; but
The right hand (as replicas show) once avrOrxpis could not mean, defendas. In
held a poppy-stalk,answering to the O. C. 1651 xeV <urrx0VTa xparbs certainly
pdftSos with which Hermes seals the refers to shading the eyes; but the object
eyes of men. Cp. Callim. Hym. Del. of the verb is that which is held before
134 oiS' tre ol \ri9wov iirl irrepbv "tirvoi them, not that which is warded off.

204>0KAE0YZ

136

6 L0L ffli fJLOl TTCLWOV.


7 <u T4KVOV, opa

TTOV oreurei,

8 TTOL hi flOt *T0.v9vhe

/5d(Ti

9 fypovrihos. opas rjBr).


10 77/309 Tt fievovfjiev

835

Trpao-cre.iv ;

11 KCU/305 TOL TTOLVTOiV yVCLfiaV

lO")(0)V

12 < irokv TI > irokv napa iroBa /cparos

apwrcu.

/j.<r. NE. d W oSe fikv K\VL ovhiv, eya S' opco owe/ca Br\pa.v
rrvS" dXCcos expfiev TO(OV, Si^a rouSe TrXeWres. 8 4 0
rouSe ya/> o OTei^avos, rourov #eos ewre
i
8 3 2 IBi tBt fwt irauliv MSS. For WL tBt Hermann conj. ?X0', IB', tBi: also 101 /HOAE,
and tdi 8' tBi. Dindorf gives W tBi pot irat^av (so that in 848 the 2nd syll. of aiiirvos
should be long). Blaydes, Iff <S Wi.
8 3 4 f. rot Si f}ao-i]i ir&ff 84 /toi | TavrevBcv
tppovrlSoo- opatff \ TJSri. L. For TTOI, T has TTOO. For 6pg.s Madvig conj. eX^s. Seyffert
gives irot Si fi&aet 1101 rd y' hiBev \ (ppovriSos. 6pq.s jjSij. Wecklein, iroi Si TavBivSe
fSdo-ei I rppovrlSos. ops, eOSei. (eSSei was proposed by Herwerden.) B. Todt, iro? Si

Hesych.
yi
x
^ ^
sponding v. of the antistrophe (850),
Ka
Kctvo |iot, Kttvo XaSpo. The want of a
Ir/pei. xlTI*'v'
l irtbi) Trapi. 'Biriverb
for irtSs Si poi ramevBev suggests
X&Plup & Bdcx""The word x ^ w
some corruption: we cannot well take
(xXidi}) meant an ' ornament,' esp. an
pd<rei. with both clauses by changing irus
armlet (f^Kiov). If af-yX?; was used for
5^ (as Hermann proposed) to irus re.
XKlSav, it was so because afyXi; could
mean ' a gleaming object' (cp. Tpotj>^= Nor, again, is it satisfactory to expand
v. 850 by adding TO6TOV or ravSpbs after
Bptfifw.). The same explanation applies
\aBfxf, or by repeating XdBpy itself.
to %iriiv and iriiri,' a glistering tunic,'
Wecklein, leaving Keii>6 />I KCIPO \dBpg.
' a bright chain.' Cp. the Homeric 7X17untouched, writes here irot Si rdvBivSt
vea, prop, 'bright objects,' then 'trinkets'
poWei (omitting TTUS 8^ fioi TavreBBev).
or the like (//. 24. 192). The meanings
But then,granting that a dittographia
of afyXi; given in Bekker Anecd. p. 354
was the cause of error,it is hard to see
add nothing, for our purpose, to Hesychius.
how
/uoi could have crept in between irws
We cannot, then, accept Welcker's ver84 and ravreuBev. I prefer to read irot
sion of 0(7X0v here:'keep upon his eyes
H |MH TavfMvSt pNxtrti here, and to insert
this bandage (fasciam) that is bound upon
617 (this with Hermann) after the first
them now' (Rhein. Mus. p. 125, 1828).
Ketvo in 850. The MS. reading may have
No alteration, either of OVTUTXOIS or
arisen thus. A transcriber, whose eye
of TOV8' otyXav, seems probable.
chanced to pass over /MOI rdvBhSe, wrote
8 3 2 <6i (61. The hiatus is defensible
iroi Si fidtrei. Then, perceiving that he
because the words are virtually interjechad missed two words, he preferred to
tions; i.e., there is a slight pause after
the first tBi. C p . Ant. 1276 <f>ev <pev, <Sbegin anew, and wrote the whole verse
right, but either forgot, or failed to mark
v6voi: ib. 1328 trui tria.
clearly, that his original iroi Si j3o<rei
iroJ trrao'ci, in a fig. sense,
833
combined with vol.. .j}&<rei (' what your should be deleted. (A similar case occurs in L's text of the metrical 'TwoBeaLS
attitude is to be,'' what steps you are
to this play: see p. 3.) A successor, finding
to take'), as oft. in expressions of perplexity; cp. Eur. Hec. 1079 tr<j. /ScG, jr$ irot Si /Sdirei iroi Se /104 T&vBkvSe fi&trei,
deemed it obvious that the second (Si/rci
(TTO, irq. K&ix\j/u; Ale. 864 trdi /8fi; x $
should be omitted. The verse thus be<TTW; TI \tya>; n Se /ii};
came, iroi Si /SaVei iroi Se p.01 T&vBivSe.
8 3 4 The MSS. give here irot Si Pa<rei
But the metrical context showed that a
ircos 84 |)i TOVTV6V, and in the corre-

0IAOKTHTHI

137

come, I pray thee, come with power to heal!


O son, bethink thee where thou wilt stand, and to what
counsels thou wilt next turn our course. Thou seest how 'tis
now ! Why should we delay to act ? Opportunity, arbiter of all
action, oft wins a great victory by one swift stroke.
NE. Nay, though he hears nothing, I see that in vain have Mesode.
we made this bow our prize, if we sail without him. His
must be the crown; 'tis he that the god bade us bring.
/Sdirei (ppovrldos. | TaPTevdev 6p$s rjSri. Cavallin, irot Si fiaaei irws 54 fioi TavrevBev \ <ppovriSos, Spa, <nrei58ijs.
8 3 6 nevou/iev MSS.: fUvoixev Erfurdt (with 6V for C5K in 852).
8 3 7 Kaipbs TOI] B. Todt conj. Kcupov rts.yviip.av] Bergk conj. yvSp.': Hartung,
p{bfmv. For other conjectures see Appendix.
8 3 8 In order to make this v. equal
with 854, Herm. formerly added iro\i n before iroXi) (and so Dindorf reads): but
afterwards preferred to insert avipdaiv before apvvrai.
8 3 9 ode] 6 Y, whence
Blaydes conj. dXX' 6 pi? od Kkiei.

to Kaipos, who enabled athletes to seize


long final syllable was needed; and
the critical moment in a struggle. Cp.
nothing seemed easier than to correct
TavBevSe into ravrevBev. Lastly, as a verb Anthol. 10. 52 eff ye Xiyuni rbv Kotsuch as irpd(eis seemed to be understood pbv <pris debv, eS ye MfravSpe.Blaydes
takes Kaipbs yvt&ixav t<Txwv as = 'opportuwith ravreCBev <ppovri&o$, the second irdi
nity combined with judgment,' and joins
was altered to irws.Join irot with <j>povicavTuv with icparos ('superiority in all
TCSOS (partit. gen.): cp. O. C. 170 JTOI ns
<f>povrlSos X0j;;rdvWvSe, adverbial: cp.cases'). The order of the words seems
against this.<iroX T I > iro\\\ No
895
curtailment of v. 854 (/idXa TOI &iropa
8 3 5 6pij,s TJST), 'thou seest now' (how TVKIVOIS iviSeiv trady) is probable. The
matters stand),said with a glance or
addition of iroXi) TI makes v. 838 equal
gesture towards the sleeping Philoctetes.
to v. 854 : and the remedy, however unThere is a certain awkwardness in these
certain, is at least not violent. See Apwords, since, coming so soon after Spa
pendix on vv. 85k f.irapd iro8a, ' then
irov ari/sei, they might naturally mean,
and there,' extemplo,by a prompt stroke
'thou art already taking heed.' Herof action. Cp. Plat. Soph. 242 A fir/
werden and Wecklein conjecture 6p$s,
Tore 5ia ravrd <roi ixaviKbs etvai 56w,
88ti. This may be right. But the cau- vapa irbSa (uerajSaXwK i/iavrov ivw icai
tious vagueness of 6pd"s i)5i7 is perhaps a Kara.
little in its favour.
8 3 9 f. dXX' o8t yXv K.T.X.: i.e., 'It is
8 3 6 irpos T |ivoO|iv (wart) irpa<r<rv
true that he would be unconscious of our
(air6): for the epexegetic inf., cp. 62 n.
flight; but / know that it would be use8 3 7 f. Kaipos, occasion, irdvrwv
YV(&[MHV t<r^v=iravTa yiyvthffKwv, taking less to sail without him.' The stately
hexametersin contrast with the lighter
cognisance of all things,discerning, in
rhythms of the Chorussuit the authoevery case, whether the circumstances
ritative tone in which Neoptolemus dewarrant prompt action. For yvii/irjv
flv
clares
the purport of the oracle. As
tx
as=7i7Kii<r/cK, cp. El. 214 oi
yv&iuav X<s%vs, e otwv, K.T.\.
The gene-vv. 844 ff. show, he speaks in a louder
ral sense is the same as in El. 75 f., v&> voice than the Chorus deem safe.6^pav
...}(o|Mv: cp. At. 564 SvanevCbv di/pav
S1 1%1/J.CV Kcupis ydp, Strrep avSp&aw \ pAyurros Ipyov wavThs ear' &Ti<jTaTi)s. HXWK: 0. T. 566 dXX' oiK Ipevvav TOO
6av6vros lirxere;
Though we need not write Kaip6s, still
Kaipbs is virtually personified both by
8 4 1 TOV8...TO5TOV: cp. 1331, 1434 f.,
yvthnav foxw and by &pvvrai. Pausa1437.0 <rr&|>avos, fig.: cp. Eur. Hec.
nias (5. 14. 7) saw two altars at the 660 oiSels OTitfravw dvBatp^fferai, no one
entrance to the Olympian stadium; one will take the palm (for misery) in her
was to Hermes 'TSvaytbvios,the other stead. Helenus had declared that the

138

SO*OKAEOYS
KonireXv S' c o r ' drtXrj <rvv xjtevSeaw

<"T.

alcrxpbv

XO. aXXa, T{KVOV,, raSe jnev


0eos
j
2 cSi/ S" dv dfieiftrj ju,'
3 yScuav /*oi, fiaidv, <w T4KVOV,
4 irifxtre \6yav ^>dfx.av
5 aSs irdvrwv iv vocrca evSpaicrj<;
6 VTTVO<S dvTrvos Xevcrcrew.
7 dXX' o n S w a fjidnicrTov
8 Keivo < S T ? > ttot, /ceivo \ddpa
><" s ~
/^'
9 egioov O7ra vpageus.
10 dicrOa yap '''dv avScofjicu,
11 et TauTav TOVTW yvdfiav Tercets,
12 fidka TOL dwopa TTVKWOLS iviSeiv irdOr).

845

850

854

8 4 2 &TT'] Blaydes writes tfry': Wecklein conj. AT'.abv from ai>/i L.


843
8 6 4 L divides the vv. thus:d\\a {/t' avffiir /Saiar fiaiav j TT^TTC | wor
wanTiav | VTTVOG | aXX'

6TL | KCIVO pu>i | ei-lSov \ olcrBa el

Tairriw | (xeur

airopairaffij.
8 4 6 ipy/iav L: <pi.iia.v Triclinius. Nauck conj. 00* (so that
the MS. dvT^xois could be kept in 830).
8 4 9 Sivai L: dtivcuo x.
8SO Ke'ivo
/lot Keivo \aBpq. MSS. (\a0p' Triclin.). To equalise the v. with iroi Si fidtrei, TTQS 84 /MI
TavreOBev (834), Herm. conj. Ktivo Sri poi, KCTPO \d8p$, \d8pi}. Blaydes, /ceico Sri inoi,
Ketpo \affpa rdvdpbs [roirov 7' J. H. H. Schmidt]. Seyffert, xetvo p.01 <rti, KeTvo \d6pq,:
B. Todt, neivo pot Kdvtav \dBpq. (to suit their readings of 834, where see n.). 851 ejiSov\ elSov L.0 TL L, with gl. 8mi (not Sirws) written above. All the other MSS.
have on. Schneidewin gave 6'jrp: Herm., formerly oVws, afterwards Strep.B. Todt

victory would belong jointly to Philocdecree. Meanwhile, thy part is to setetes and Neoptolemus, as the latter
cure the bow.' Cp. O. T. 724 wv yap at>
says at 1335.
Beos I xpetac epewq. pfSlas airis (pavei.
oi|reTai, look to it, provide for it: Ai.
8 4 2 Kopirctv 8* K.T.X. It will be a
1165 Kanerbv TIC' ISelv: Theocr. 15. 2
disgrace to them, when they go back to
Spri Si<ppov, Wirba, aira.
Troy, to boast of their task as accomplished, when it will be, in fact, only
8 4 4 S. <Sv for oOs, by attraction to
half done, if they bring the bow without
\6yav: for the double ace. with cquCPn,
its master. And the discredit of such a
cp. O. C. 991.
result will be aggravated by the decep8 4 7 irdyTwv masc.: in sickness all
tion used towards Philoctetes. The
men's sleep,if, indeed, it can be called
words aTeXrj <riv \|rcv8siri.v are closely
sleep at all,is quick of vision (Xriirconnected ; ' an incomplete result, comtrtvv, epexeg. of ev8paicijs). Words apbined with falsehood,' i.e. not only inpropriate to eyesight are here used to
complete, but obtained by falsehood.
denote perception generally. The slightThis seems better than to take aim \j/eti- est sound will stir consciousness in the
Secru> as merely = ^cuSuis, ' to boast false- sick sleeper. For a somewhat similar
ly. 'Cp. El. 641 aim (pOovifi, Ai. 933 use of language cp. Aesch. Eum. 104
ovXlq aiiv Tr&8a, 0. T. 585 fiV <pb$ou;i. eSSovffa yip ippif ip.i>.a.Gi.v \afiirpivcTai.
8 4 3 aXXd, TIKVOV. The Chorus re8 4 9 ff. dXX' o n 84ht -T.X. The
ply,'If an oracle has said that Ph.
connection of thought is:' A sick man
must be brought to Troy, the god himis very easily awakened. But the bow
self will provide for the fulfilment of that
must be carried off without awakening

<t>IAOKTHTHI

139

'Twere a foul shame for us to boast of deeds in which failure


hath waited on fraud.
CH. Nay, my son, the god will look to that. But when Antithou answerest me again, softly, softly whisper thy words, my strophe,
son: for sick men's restless sleep is ever quick of vision.
But, I pray thee, use thine utmost care to win that prize, that
great prize, by stealth. For if thou maintain thy present purpose
towards this man,thou knowest of what purpose I speak,a
prudent mind can foresee troubles most grievous.
conj. $fipyoO 6Vws irpa|s ( = his ravreSBev opft ijtoj in 835).
8 5 2 <Sc avSH/iai L,
with .ov. written over wv by S: wv K, R, Harl., Vat. b, V : ov A, B, V, Vat., V 3 :
b'vnv' Triclinius : ov y' Brunck: dv Hermann. Cavallin gives oTffd' iirip Sn> avSa/juu.
8 5 3 rairiiv L. The later MSS. have the same, or ravr&v (A), T^V air&v (V), etr'
airlw (B), while V seems to be alone in reading ratirav.Wunder conj. rairbv...
yvilifiav : Dobree, ravTbv...yvii/j.as: Bergk, ravrbv...yvQfi.''. B. Todt, el 5' aWois
Toirrwv yv&ij.'. For TOOTI? Dind. gives roirav.&rxc" r: ?xet<r L, withfo-xe'Cwritten
in marg. by S.
8 5 4 /xa\a TOI | diropa irviavoitriv (vXietv ira.Br) L. After rot three or
four letters have been erased; an accent (') and four dots remain. TTVKIVOIOIV may
have been made from WKVOUTIV. Later MSS. have irvKi.voto'iv, TTUKVOIS, or TTVKIVOTS. For
the conjectures see comment, and Appendix.

him (Xctflpa).'$vv^=S6vao-at, cp. 798.


(Not Doric for Stivg, as some have
thought: 5 was not changed in the
Doric subjunct.)KIVO...KCIVO, with the
same kind of emphasis as ouro TOVTO in
77. The Chorus are unmoved by what
N. has said (841). They repeat that the
bow should be taken, and Ph. left behind. As to the conjectural insertion of
Slj, see on 834.poi, ethic (763).on
S. IMUCUTTOV (Doric for fi^Kurrop) 4iSov,
lit., 'look forth to the furthest possible
point,' i.e., 'use all possible precaution,'a fresh warning not to disturb
the sleeper by the slightest noise, but
to depart while there is yet time. Cp.
//. 20. 342 /J^y' e|i5eK o<pda\iimotv, he
strained his sight (in eager search): ib.

deed). The YV<6|IOV is the purpose of


Neoptolemus to take Philoctetes on board
the shipostensibly for conveyance to
Greeceand then carry him to Troy.
The allusive phrase, olo-0a yap dv avSupai, is used, because they are afraid of
breathing a word which might betray
the secret to the sick man, if he should
awake while they were speaking, ravTOV emphatically opposes this plan to
Kttvothe course which they themselves
recommend. TOVT<J is a dat. of relation,
nearly=vepl T<!ITOV: cp. Plat. Rep. 598 D
{/iroXafi^dvew Set T$ Toiotirtp &rt evr/B-js
TIS avBpwTos ('in the case of such a
person'). miKivots: cp. Critias S<r. fr.
1. 12 irvKvds T($ icalffotpbsyvibfnjv drf/p.
ivi&tiv, oft. used of seeing a difficulty or
2 3 . 4 7 7 otire TOL &$>TOLTOV ice(pa\7}s eKde'pdanger in a proposed course of action:
nerai 8<r<re.oirqi is preferable to 8irs
Her. 1. 89 elpero Kpoiaov 8 TI ol evop^rj
where the particular mode of effecting
iv Toiffi TotevfUvoiai. (what harm he forethe object is in question; and it is supsaw for him in what was being done).
ported by the corrector of L (cr. n.).
Id. I. 120 ei fpofiepbv TI evuipwiiev, irav
av urn Trpoe<ppdo)iei>. The airopa irdOr)
8 6 2 ff. ot<r6a7df &v...irdOi). I read
are the horrors of the disease,the fury
av ( = >;>'), with Hermann, for the <Jv or
Sv of the MSS. ' I f thou holdest this which would burst forth in Philoctetes
when he learned that they were taking
purposethou knowest what purpose I
speak ofin relation to this man (Philoc- him to Troy,and the curses which he
would invoke from Zei>s 'IK6T>S on his
tetes), truly there are desperate troubles
{diropa w&Oi), sc. ean) for shrewd men betrayers.For other views of this passage, see Appendix.
to foresee' (lit., ' to see in' such a

140

IO*OKAEOYI
ovpos TOI, T4KVOV, ovpo<S'
dvffp S* apo/A/Aoros ovh' e)((ov dpwydv
e/cTerarat vv^ios,
(aXei^s VTTVOS i<rd\6<s,)
ov ^epo<s, ov TTOSOS, ov
dpvwv,
a\Xa *TIS ws 'AiSa irdpa
*opa, (Skin el Kaipia
<f>0eyyei. TO 8'
ju.a (ppovrioi, Trail,

86o

7rovos o /ii) <f>o/3oi>v

N E . criyav Kekevw, /JLV]8' axfyecrrdvai <j>peva)v.


Kivel yap dvrjp o/^jua ndvdyei Kapa.

865

8 5 5 8 6 4 L divides the vv. thus:ovpoa|&' avo/iixaToaI eKrirarai|oXefyr|


Id\X' offrur|6pat\rb 5' a\c6<n/(w\wovoffKparurroff.
8 5 6 avrjp
Wunder (il> 'ri\p Brunck): avr)p MSS
MSS.
8 5 8 y^x'os] PI)X'' Wecklein.
W
850 d ^
^irSXdo- Swvoff, with /S' and a' written by S over the last two words, to show the right
order. Dobree thought that these words were corrupted from d5e-)js 7ro'cos e<r6\6s, and
that the latter should be substituted for irwos 6 pi) tpofiun> KpdrrTos in 864. So Wecklein reads.
86O 01? npos MSS.: Todt and Oberdick conj. oi <f>pevb$. 8 6 1 TIS

855 oupos, a fair wind, meaning here


an opportune moment: schol. xaipis e'jriTI}5OS. The metaphor is a fitting one for
sailors. When oVpos isfig.,it more oft. =
'a prosperous course' (7V. 815).This is
better than to take the word literally, as
if the wind, which had been adverse
(640), had just changed.
8 5 6 f. 01)8' t\av dporyav, because
his bow is in N.'s hands (cp. 931). viXK>S=<TK(5>S, in the darkness of sleep.
8 5 9 dXfi)s virvos &r0\os. If these
words are right, they can mean only,
' sleep in the heat is sound,'a parenthetic comment on the preceding ^KT^TaTax vi%<m. In the excitement of the
Chorus, it is perhaps not strange that
they should use a phrase scarcely consistent with their own Ihrvos avrvos (848).
Cp. Theocr. 7. 21 ixeaaixipiov .. | avlxa
5TJ KOX cavpos i<p' alfiaalauri Ka9ev5ei. W e

certainly cannot render (with Cavallin),


'a warm sleep (i.e. a sound one, in which
a gentle warmth pervades the body) is
favourable to our plan.' d\ei\s occurs
only here, though Hesych. has dX6s=
dXec6s. It is, however, a correct formation from a\4a: and <i\la$ (gen.) is

not a probable correction. The easy


emendation dSeijs (A for A) would give
the sense, ' 'tis a secure (i.e. tranquil),
sound sleep.' This may be right; but I
have preferred to keep the MS. reading.
The addition of 8" after dXeijs might
seem desirable in such a parenthesis :
cp. Dem. or. 18 308 ^ 0XX0 TI S6<TK6\OV

yiyove, (7roXX& Si rd avOpihriva,) etr' iwl


roirif Tif tcatpif K.T.X.
Some reject dXei^s ftirvos 4<r8X6s as a
mere gloss. But a marginal commentator might have been expected to use
more prosaic language,e.g., 6 p.t<ri\iifipu/bs STTVOS /3a0i)s. Dobree, reading
dSe^s, supposed the following process.
(1) In v. 864 Soph, wrote dSeijs irovos
co-0\6s. This was supplanted by a gloss,
irovos 6 |xij <f>pv Kparurros, which
now stands there. (2) Then the displaced dSeijs ir6vos l<r8X<fs was corrupted
into dXerjs Hirvos i<r6\6s,
and inserted in
the text after v6xls. This hypothesis
is very ingenious, but it seems much too
complex to be probable.
86O

ofi TIVOS.

The conjecture, oi

<l>pw6s, has found much favour; but, in


a picture of utter helplessness, is not the

4>IA0KTHTHI

141

Now, my son, now the wind is fair for thee :sightless and Epode.
helpless, the man lies stretched in darkness,sleep in the heat
is sound,with no command of hand or foot, but reft of all his
powers, like unto one who rests with Hades.
Take heed, look if thy counsels be seasonable : so far as my
thoughts can seize, the truth, my son, the best strategy is that
which gives no alarm.
NE. Hush, I say, and let not your wits forsake you:yon
man opens his eyes, and lifts his head.
Cos Wunder: OOTKT L, with u over o from the 1st hand,

us T A. & rts T' Dind.

8 6 2 bpai- jSWirer Kaipia <f>84yyei L. <p0yyy A (from the corrector): <t>6{yyov L 2 ,


V.Seyffert gives opa, /3Wir' Kaipia ipdiyyei (|3X&r' el with H e r m . ) : Hermann (2nd
ed.) opa, f}\4we, Kaipia Si) (deleting <)>0iyyei). Wecklein, after Wunder (4th ed.), Kaipia
<j>8iyyov (deleting bpq. j3X^jr). Blaydes, 6ps; /SX^jrer Kaipia tpBiyyov. Todt, bpav.

f$\iw' ei Kaipta <j>0iyyoixai. Wunder once proposed feiyei for <j>6yyei.


from TO'5' in L.t/iif] d/tp Dindorf.
8 6 6 dyrjp] av^p L.

vulg. more forcible?

Cp. 1161

fiTjSevbs Kpanjviap.

8 6 1 'AtSa irdpa Ke|uvos. Cp. 0. T.


972 Keirai irap' "AiBy IIoXu/3os. This
mode of writing is preferable to irapaKCC|UVO$ because

irapaKeiadal

nvi='io

lie beside one,' or ' before one,' with


ref. to things which are ready to one's
hand, or at one's disposal. But when
the sense is, ' to be lodged or deposited
with one,' Keiadai irapa TIVI is used.
8 6 2 opa, |3\lir'. For the double
imperat. in excited utterance, cp. 981,

8 6 3 TO 0"

lessly with the bow, and so avoid the


risks involved in taking Philoctetes. 6 |iij
4>of3uv is left vague by the proverb-like
brevity of the phrase: it means, ' which
does not disturb the sleeping Philoctetes.'
The word irovos is also in keeping with
the gnomic form,implying that there
will be least irbros in such a course; as
if it were, irovos i\a%WTOS Kpanaros. Cp.
iriyijs aKlvSwov yipas (meaning that 0-171},

though it wins no positive yipas, risks


nothing): 'Discretion is the better part
of valour,' etc.
8661O8O Third iireiabSiov. NeO. C. 121 TtpoaSipKov, Xevirae 5-f). Seyffert's
optolemus, overcome by remorse, conopa is much better here than the MS.
fesses that Troy is their destination.
op, 'he sees as the dead see,' i.e., not
at all. After avbp.11.aT0s and vi\ios, this Philoctetes demands the restoration of
the bow; and Neoptolemus is on the
would be weak.A KaCpia <|>6yYcl- ' See
point of restoring it, when Odysseus
whether thy words are seasonable' means
enters. As Ph. refuses to accompany
here, ' We fear that thy counsel (839 ff.)
is unseasonable.' We miss, our Kaipis, if them, Odysseus decides to leave him
behind, and departs for the ship, ordering
we stay here with Philoctetes, instead of
N. to follow him. Meanwhile, by N.'s
escaping with the bow.
8 6 3 ft TO 8' dXo-i|j.ov (J.<J. <f>p-> as command, the Chorus remain with Ph.,
in the hope that he may alter his resolve.
far as my thought can grasp the question,
= Ka$' &<TOV eyth Karavow rb wpayfia. Cp.
8 6 5 p]8' d<t>TTdvcu(f>pevwv: Eur. Or.
Plat. Tim. 29 A TO \6yij> KOI (frpovqau
TepikijTrTby. The ace. is one of' respect'
(like roifibv p.epos, etc.).irovos o y.i\
<t>oP<Sv KpaTUTTOs, 'the enterprise not
fraught with fear is best' (Whitelaw):
a sententious utterance, like ftp&xi<rTa yap
Kpanara T&V iroffiv Kaxa (Ant. 1327).

They mean that it is best to depart noise-

1021 i^io-TTjv (ppevuiv. For dipeffTavai, cp.


Ar. Vesp. 1457 TO yap airoo~T7}vai xaXeirbv |

(pvaeos. The words convey a hurried reproof and warning,'do not lose your
wits' (through fear). All their presence
of mind is needed, since Philoctetes is
awaking.

IO*OKAEOYZ

142

a> <]>eyyos virvov SiaSo^ov, TO T


ama-Tov olKovprjfia TtuvSe T<UV
ov yap iroT, <u Trai, TOVT av i^r)i)(rjcr' eyco,
TXrjvai <j iXeweHs <S8e Tafia irrjfiaTa
fielvai irapovTa Kal vv(ti<f>e\ovvTa. fioi.
OVKOVV 'ArpeiSai. TOVT' erhqo-av ev(j)6pa)<;
ovrois eveyKtlv, dyaOol crrpariyXarai.
dW evyevrjs yap 77 <ucris K<L evyev&v,
<3 T4KVOV, rj a~rj, irdvra Tavr iv evxepel
edov, /8077s re Kai Svcroo-fLuts yefuov.
Kal vvv e7retSi} TOUSE TOV KaKov SoKel
\rj6rf TL<S elvai KavdiravXa
Tjvi/c

av

KOITOS jx

875

Srj, T4KVOV,

av fi auros apov, <rv fie. /caracrr^ow,


iv,

8 70

aTTaAAagT^ TTOTC,

TIKVOV,
000

es vavv /u,^S' eTricr^w/Aev TO


8 6 7 TO T' AJT8I<)>' lairurTOK o'lKOvprfiia. Nauck conj. yifi)6' iSiip i acXirToy
/ii
(aeKirTov with F . W. Schmidt, iiriicoAprina with Blaydes).
8 7 1 /leivai] Cavallin
conj. iSeiv.
8 7 2 OVKOVV] Blaydes writes ov TSJI [i.e., oS rdv].eviropois MSS.
(evVonn L 2 , 14th cent.): tvipopws Brunck, who (like Meinekeand F.W.Schmidt) also
proposed evirerus. Blaydes gives eu^epfis. Eldik conj. eiiXo^ws: Wakefield, O/KOXWS.
8 7 3 ayaffol] aya0ol L.
8 7 6 y/j.wi] Nauck conj. yiixew.
878 Tournier

8 6 7 f.
i5 4>^nos...TO T* K.T.X.
For
without av, instead of T\qae<r0at. See
a voc. thus combined with a nom. (and
A d i ( d (depending
Appendix.pciyai
d i
on TXX^ ^ )
art.), cp. 986: Ai. 861 (<3) Kkavai T'
governs rdfui inj|iaTO, to 'wait for' them,
i.e., to wait till they were better: cp.
'ABTJDCU Kal T& aivTpofyov yivos.QvirCAesch. fr. 35 ayiiv yap dvSpas oi nivei
8v fiirwrrov, not credited by my hopes,
XeXeL/i/j^vovs.|vvaxf>\ovvTa |ioi, helpsuch that my hopes could not have believed it possible. Cp. 1067: Ant. 847
ing to do me good, with dat. instead
tpihwv &K\O.VTOS (~oi KKa.top.ivi) inrb <pl- of the usual a c e ; cp. Ant. 560 TOIS
Bavovaai &<pe\eiv (n.). It is possible, but
\uv), and n.: El. 1214 an/ios...Tov TtBvqKOTOS ( = ov Tip.wfi4vy) virb TOV T.). So less simple, to supply aird (sc. TO. irij^oTa)
\Tri$u>v tbruyTOv = ov lin<TTev6/Ji'ov virit
with vvuxp., 'helping me to assuage
ran iXirlSuv. This is better than to take
them.'
it as = {\wlSav irianv OVK Ix0"' ia t n e
8 7 2 OVKOVV: 'the Atreidae, at any
sense, 'not having the pledge, assurance,
rate (ovv), did not thus.' Here oSi> (like
given by hopes,' 'not warranted' by them
ToO?)
justifies his wonder at the youth's
(like dvr)vep.os xiPt!""al', 0. C. 677 n.). constancy. Cp. 907: 1389: Ant. 321
oiKovpr)|ui, as having guarded the place
(n.).v(|xSpo)S is the best correction of
while he slept. So a watch-dog is called
the MS. sinmptos (see cr. n.). Cp. Hipolxovpos in Ar. Vesp. 970: cp. below,
pocr. Aph. 1242 (i<j>opilrraTa <pipeiv: ib.
1328. For the periphrasis cp. Eur. Ale.
1244 8w<)>6pws tjtipeiv (as Soph. O. T. 783
606 OfSpiSv iepatav ev/iev^s Trapovffla.
dva<f>6pws I Todvcijos r/yov).
8 7 4 ff. icd evyevuv: cp. 384: 719.
8 6 9 ff. TOUT' is governed by !{i)Xi)<r*,
4v tvy^tptl |0ov: cp. 498 ev <r/uKp<f TTOIOUnot by TXtjvai, which interprets it. Sv
/levot (n.); and for this use of Tt6r0at,
might go with TXTJVOI ( tin T\al-qi av),
45 1 ! 473-7^|i wv: CP- Dern. or. 18 308
but is better taken, as its position sug0
ipv\&TTCi TrqvW tffeade fieoTol TOV trvvegests, with ^ i j v x i ' * The sense of av
ifai'
warrants the use of
Xs \4yovros.

4>IA0KTHTHI
PH. Ah, sunlight following on sleep,ah, ye friendly
watchers, undreamed of by my hopes! Never, my son, could I
have dared to look for this,that thou shouldest have patience
to wait so tenderly upon my sufferings, staying beside me, and
helping to relieve me. The Atreidae, certainly, those valiant
chieftains, had no heart to bear this burden so lightly. But thy
nature, my son, is noble, and of noble breed ; and so thou hast
made little of all this, though loud cries and noisome odours
vexed thy senses.
And now, since the plague seems to allow me a space of
forgetfulness and peace at last, raise me thyself, my son, set me
on my feet, so that, when the faintness shall at length release
me, we may set forth to the ship, and delay not to sail.
conj. XtbtpviffK (this with F. W. Schmidt) K&v&irav\6. TIJ, riicvov.
8 7 9 f. A. Zippmann (Atheteseon Sophoclearum Specimen, pp. 36 ff., 1864) places 879 immediately
before 890, and deletes the v. which stands in the MSS. as 889 (alvu rdS'). He also
deletes v. 880 (?' ifW &) Nauck and Cavallin so print the text. Wecklein thinks
that 879 and 880 are both interpolations.<ri |iie KardffTrjaop] Blaydes conj. <ri Si p,'
dvoffTija-oc.
88O iror{\ Meineke conj. Tore (to go with op/idiieff'). Vauvilliers,
w65e: Blaydes, rob1 a.

8 7 8 XijOt]: cp. Eur. Or. 211 w <t>i\ov


Sirvov 8i\yifrpov,
erlicovpov maov... | <3
TOTVia Xridij TWV KOKUV.8i] = ^f5i;.

8 7 9 <rv |i' avTos . .trori. Philoctetes has awakened to find that the acute
pains have ceased (768); but, after the
violent attack of the disease, a sense of
faintness (K<5ITOS) remains. He has been
lying on his back (822). He now asks
Neoptolemus to assist him in rising to
his feet: <rii p.* avris ctpov, <ni (it Kai-a<TTT|<rov: where airrbs means that he does
not wish the Chorus to approach him at
present. He is afraid that disgust might
render them unwilling to take him on
board (890). In his crippled state,
now aggravated by exhaustion, the
mere act of rising was a serious exertion. At v. 886 Neoptolemus gives
the aid of his hands to the recumbent
sufferer, at the same time asking him to
make an effort,vvv 8* atp <ravr6v:
which is not, of course, contrasted with
<ri n' airbs apov, as if N. meant that Ph.
must rise without help: that would be,
ai S' airbs alpe <ravr6v. At the same
time, N. says that, if Ph. prefers it, the
sailors will lift him up and carry him.
Ph. replies, 'No, thank youhelp me
to rise, as you propose' (889). N. assents
(893), saying, 'Stand up, and take hold
of me yourself (as I am holding you).

And v. 894 marks the moment at which


Ph. slowly rises, leaning on N. Then
there is naturally a pause, in order that
Ph. may rest after this effort, and may
feel whether he is yet strong enough to
attempt walking. It is this pause which
is foreshadowed by the words, lv, ^VCK*
av KOITOS 1*' diraXXdgfl vori (880). And
it is in this pause that the remorse of
Neoptolemus gains the mastery.
A. Zippmann, whom Nauck and Cavallin follow in their texts, deletes both
v. 880 and v. 889 as spurious, and transposes 879 to a place between 888 and 890.
His two main objections to the traditional
text are:Why should Ph., formerly so
eager to start, now wish to wait till his
KOTOS has passed off? (880). And why
should he desire to rise before that
moment, instead of resting on the ground?
The view of the whole situation which I
have given above will show why I believe the traditional text to be sound.
8 8 1 iro-xu|JKV, intrans. (the use of
this verb in 349 is a different one); TO
tt-Xctv defines the act in regard to which
delay is forbidden. Cp. Xen. M. 3. 6.
10 irepi roV/wv ffvfipovXeticiv T-qv yc
irpwTijc ^Trio-^^o-oyuec. F o r the art. prefixed to the inf., cp. 118: 1241 os ire KW\ticrei rb Spav.

IO<t>OKAEOYZ

144

NE. dW yj8o[iai \i,iv cr elcnBav Trap ikiriSa


dvathvvov jSkiirovra Ka^nrviovT e r r
5 OVK4T'' OVTOS yap TO.
crov
a5s
j)
777305 r d s Trapovcras ^Vfx<f>opd<s i<f>aiveTO.
i w S' atyoe oravrov el Se croi fiaXkov <f>C\ov,
olcrovo-i <r oiSe* TO{5 TTOVOV yap OVK OKVOS,
iiretnep ovrca <roC T e8o' ifioC Te Spavaiva raS', <3 trot, KOX [L eiraip', axnrep
TOVTOVS S' eacrov, firj fiapwOaicnv Kaicfj
^

TTpO TOV SeOlTOS" OVTH VTjl


TTOVOV TOVTOMTl <TVWaU.IV

885

890

yap

ejU.01.

NE. carat TctS'* aXX' XOTQ) re /cawos dvrfyov.


$1. dapo-ei- TO TOL avvrjde? opdaxrei //,' e^os.
NE. nanal' ri Brjr' <dv> S/aoJ/i' eyci Tovvdevhe ye; 895
8 8 4 <nn> r, Aid.: <roi L, which Blaydes reads.
dpov<n: C. Schirlitz, OTTVOWI.

conj. 6/uoO.

888

8 8 2 f. aXy fjSo(jiai \Uv: here \iiv


slightly emphasises the verb, but does
not oppose it to any other thought: the
vvv 8 in 886 should not be regarded as
answering to it. Cp. 1278: O. T. 82
dXX' eUacrai /xiv, i)Stis: id. 769 oXV t^erat

8 8 7 oiirowt] Blaydes conj.

OVTW L : OBTWS r.

8 9 4 fi.' Idos] Herwerden conj. pe rai.

892

i/ioCl Blaydes

8 9 5 H Srjra dpQ/n.' (sic) L.

meaning is:' Thy symptoms (in sleep),


judged in the light of (irpos) the sufferings which afflict thee, seemed like those
of a dead man.' Such a sleep, following on such paroxysms, might well have
been mistaken for death. For irpds as =
' in view of,' cp. Thuc. 7. 47 ifiovkeiovro

piv.dvwSwov masc, to be taken adverbially with both participles ('living irpds re r^v yeyevrmfvtpt ^v/MpofAv Kal irpbs
and breathing, free from pain'): not neut.,
rij Ttapovaav iv Tip OTpwroTriStp Kara vanwith fSkiTrovra only, as if the sense were, ra Appweriav.Not: ' In view of thy
'showing the absence of pain by thy plight just now (i.e., while sleeping), thy
looks.'pX6irovra=fwi'Ta (though here
symptoms seemed like those of a dead
with special reference to his recent
man.' rds irap. gv|u|>opds would then
slumber, cp. 856 ayo/n/iuTos): Ai. 962
mean merely the condition of the sleeper,
Kel
{$\4irovT(i
fj.ij WOOOVP,
BO.VQVT' &V
as distinguished from the <rv/i,p6\aia or
oi/uifeiaj'.KO(i,irv&VT': Aesch. Ag. 671
outward signs thereof. But, since the
iKtivav ei TIS iarhi y.irvtwv,
inference was drawn wholly from the
outward signs, the words irpos TCIS irop.
8 8 4 us OVKIT' OVTOS. Here <rv(igv|MJx>pds would lose their natural force,
PoXaia are the signs observable by one
and mean no more than T4 vapbvra <rv/iwho watched Ph. sleeping after the attack
of the disease, when he seemed like one (36Xaia (TKOITOVVTI..<ru|i.|36Xai.a = ainfioXa:
the only Attic example of this sense;
'Atty jro'pa (cei/tecos (861). The chief of
which occurs, however, in Her. 5. 92
such signs would be, a deathly pallor,
7, marbv yap oi yv rb <rvp.f36\atov (the
and the absence (as a spectator might
token, or proof, tiapripiov). In Eur. Ion
think) of respiration.By TOS irap<riS<ras
411 a TC v<$v ffvn^6\ata irptxr&ev yjv, t h e
v|u|>opds are meant the agonies of disease
meaning is 'dealings,' 'intercourse' (the
to which he is subject, and which he had
regular Attic sense of avufiSXata being
endured just before his sleep, T&S vapoiaas
that of 'covenants').
might be the part, of the imperf., at
Traprpav (cp. Ant. 1192 n.), but is more
8 8 6 ff. vvy 8' atfK <rawr<5v. The
forcible if taken as pres., = of irapaaiv:
reflexive pron. i not necessarily emphatic
cp. 734 TTJS irapeaT&trqs vtxrov. T h u s the
when thus used with an active verb: cp.

<t>IAOKTHTHS

145

NE. Right glad am I to see thee, beyond my hope, living


and breathing, free from pain for, judged by the sufferings that
afflict thee, thy symptoms seemed to speak of death.But now
lift thyself; or, if thou prefer it, these men will carry thee; the
trouble will not be grudged, since thou and I are of one mind.
PH. Thanks, my so,n,and help me to rise, as thou sayest:
but do not trouble these men, that they may not suffer from
the noisome smell before the time. It will be trial enough for
them to live on board with me.
NE. SO be it.Now stand up, and take hold of me thyself.
PH. Fear not, the old habit will help me to my feet.
NE. Alack ! What am I to do next ?
No MS. has av. Schaefer restored rl Sijr' av dpcf/i'. Brunck conj. rl STJTO. Spiffi.' av {K
Toirom tytli;rovvffdvde ye A : Toiv0tvde Xye L, r : rouvSaSe \4ye B. Erfurdt conj.
rovvBivS' ?Tt; and so Blaydes.

Aesch. P. V. 747 rl Syr' Ifwt

W otin iv rax I fppii1'

fyai

x , sc. efwv: i.e., as I am


supporting thee, so, on thy part, cling to
me.
Cp. Her. 2. 121 iicelvov T^S xelpb*
&vTixea^aiFor the omission of the
gen., cp. Ar. Ach. 1120 <p^pe, TOV Sdparos

airb Ti50Xou irtrpas... ; At v. 879 Ph.


asked N. to assist him; and nowafter
a kindly greetingN. proceeds to do so.
His hands are now stretched forth to Ph.,
ready to raise him, and the words vvv
irat.
S' alpe <ravr6v prepare Ph. for the effort.
894
criJVT)8es... ?8os : cp. Ant. 502
ci Si <roi |idXXov <|>\ov: i.e., he need
K\4OS...eiKkeforepor (n.).
not make even this effort, but can be
8 9 5 T(. SIJT' dv Spup'. Schaefer's inlifted from the ground.rov irovov yap:
sertion of av is not grammatically indissince Neoptolemus and Philoctetes are
pensable. The simple optat. could stand,
agreed upon the voyage, the sailors will
as in Ant. 605 Tts...KaTdtrxol> But av is
not grudge the trouble of carrying their
clearly right, because the question here is
master's friend.
a practical one; it does not refer merely
to abstract possibility. Cp. O.C, Ap8 8 9 atvoi TO8', <5 iral. ' Thanks, my
pendix on v. 170. So 1393 TI dyr' av
son' (lit., ' I commend what you say').
jf
p ^ f ;
The phrase implies a courteous recognition
of the proposal that the sailors should
Sp<3)i'. Contracted verbs had two ways
carry him: but, as is shown by Ktt /t'
of forming the act. optat. pres.: (1)
ftrcujo' wairep voels, it is not a direct
with t, asfipA.-o-i-i*i.,contr. 5p$[u, the
way of refusing the offer, like 'No, thank
mode proper to verbs with a thematic
you.' The formula alv<3 rd8 regularly
vowel: (2) with ;, as Spa-o-lri-v, contr.
means, as here, ' I commend your words'
Spcpriv, where, though the thematic vowel
(Eur. Or. 786, Med. 908). It is known,
o is kept, the endings follow the analogy
indeed, that Soph, used aivCi like iiraivH, of the verbs which have no such vowel
as a civil form of refusal, in his Alcmaemi
('verbs in /u'). The only Homeric ex(Hesych. s. v. aXvCi): cp. Hes. Op. 641 vr/' amples of (2) are Od. 4. 692 <pt\oiri, and
SKlyqv alveiv, ixey&Xrj 8' hi (poprla BiaBai.
ib. 9. 320 <popoit\. But in the 5th cent.
But here alva rdSe is better taken in its
B.C. this second formation was already
simple and usual sense.
predominant in Attic.
For the sing,
number the first formation had become
8 9 0 ff. ioo-ov: cp. 1257.oo-|i.f : cp.
rare,
though
Attic
poets
could
still use
876, 1032.o-uvvaCuv (epexeg. inf.) can
it whenever it was metrically convenient:
be said of companionship in a brief voye.g. 1044 (and 0. T. 1470) Soiroiju': Tr.
age, as vaiuv is oft. no more than ' to be
1235 voaoi: Aesch. P. V. 978 vocroi/i' av.
in' a place: O.C. 117 n..
8 9 3 fcrnuToS': cp. O,C. 1773 Spi.au Some instances of the 3rd sing, occur also
Kal TdSe.?OT<I> = di'iirra: O.T. 143, 147. in Attic prose: as Thuc. 2. 79 (and 100)

J. S. IV.

IO

ZO<t>OKAEOYS

146

<P1. r t o ecrnv, (a vat;

rroi

TTOT

efepijs

\oyq>;

N E . OVK oTS' OTTOt Y/Oi) TOLTTOpOV TpeTTCLV CTTOS.

9>1.

avopeis

oe TOI cru; ^17 Aey, <u TKVOV,

raoe.

NE. ctXX.' ivddh' 17S77 rovSe TOV irddovs Kvpco.


J>I. ov ST? ere Svcr^ejpeta rou voa7?//,a.Tos
eneiaev cocrre /X77 yx' ayeiv vavrrfv e n ;
N E . airavra 8vo~)(epeia, rrv avrov <f>vcriv
orav XITTWI' r t ? Syoa r a /AT} npocretKOTa.
*PI. d\\' ouSei' e^itu TOU ^>vrevcraino<; o~6 ye
Spa? ovSe (fxiiveXs, icrdXov dvSp' inaxpeXav.
N E . aicrvoos <f)avov[iaL' TOVT dviwfiat vdXau.
O I . OVKOVV ev o t s y e o/aas* ey o i s o a u o a s , o/cya)

9CX5

905

8 9 6 \6yifi] 'Mallem legere Xoywv' (Brunck). Harl. has \6yoiv, which Cavallin
adopts.
B97 Siroi] Sri) V.rpiirem] Nauck conj. orpiQew.
O88 TOO]
Cavallin gives TOU.
9OO ov Si <re] Erfurdt conj. oH a' ijSe (or ov% V^e).TOV]
Blaydes conj. TTOV.
9O1 ^ireitrexr: faaurev L.
9O2 airov r: auroS L.
9O3 TrpoffeiicSTa] 7rpoa"^Kora K, Harl.: TrpoaiiKOVTa. Y.
9O4 TOV (pirrefoavros]
Tournier conj. TOO '/i^vrevBevTos, and so Mekler: R. Mollweide, TOV 7rpo<rKoros,

SOKOI: Plat. Legg. 664 E TT^SI?, etc.

(Cp.

Curtius, Gr^. F^?-^, ch. xiv., p. 335 Eng.


tr.) In dual and plur. the prevalence of
the second formation appears to have been
less decisive; and the 3rd pers. plur. always retained the first formation (e.g.
dpigev, not Spifao-av).

?Xs TI \4ycu>;Nauck wishes for orp^<(>eiv, which would imply an artful ' twisting' of speech; cp. Ar. Th. 1128 aiturf Spaau; irpbs Hvas o-Tpe<f>SQ Xffyoi/j; But

Tpeimv better suits the ingenuous perplexity of one who simply doubts what
course he ought to take.
TOISVWVS* yt, adverbial: cp. 834: 0. C.
8 9 8 diropcts 8i TOV <rv; Remembering the behaviour of his former visitors
476 rb 8' (vdev (n.). yt at the end of the
v., as 438, O. C. 265, etc. The emphasis
when it came to the all-important' point
is fitting here. He has reached the fur- (310), Ph. is alarmed at the first trace of
thest point to which the deception can be
embarrassment in Neoptolemus.
carried, since it must be revealed by the
8 9 9 4v6aSe...Toxi8e TOV mi8ovs (parpresence of Odysseus at the ship.
tit. gen.)=ec#d5e TTJS airoplas: at such an
8 9 6 cglpr]S, 'digressed' from the advanced point in it that I do not know
matter in hand: cp. Dem. or. 18 211 what to say next (897).Not, as Wunder
ewave\$eiv oSv, ov66ev inravd' i^tfiw, took it, 'at such a point that I must
Po6\o/uu. Eur. / . T. 781 (Orestes to
speak' (referring to p.rj \ye).
Iphigeneia, whom he has interrupted by
SOOf. ov 8ij...; so (with TTOV added)
an unguarded exclamation) oiiiv trtpawe
0. T. 1472, Ant. 381.For Sxnt after
d' H-tp-qv ykp a \ W e (' my thoughts had ftreurtv cp. 656 n.vovrtjv = vavfi&Tqv
wandered').\6Y<J> is better here than
(246), vedorem: so Aesch. Pers. Tig ireXOY<OV. The latter is more suitable in
fJs 17 vavTTts, Hor. C. 3.4. 30 navita.
such a phrase as TOI \bywv &./jirix<u"2i' \ 9O2 f. fcravTa Svo-xcpeia: for the
l\0a; El. 1174.
neut. plur. as subjecf, with sing, subst.
8 9 7 OVK otS' Siroi xprj K.T.\. : he
as predicate, cp. 0. C. 883 op' oix i>ft>
does not know in what words he can rdS'; Oct. 24. 433 Xi6/3i/ yap T&Se y' tort:
break the truth to Ph.,that they are
Stobaeus Flor. 5. 3 4>6ftos TO 8eia TOZOI
going to Troy. After an obscure hint in
aiiippoo-LV fipoTwv : Lys. or. 4 7 JTUS
vv. 912 f., he at last speaks bluntly (915).
TOUT' iarl irpivota; Dem. or. 19 72
Cp. Plat. Hipp. ma. 297 D OVK In Ixu, w (an Si TavTa yiXus.rijv avrov fyvo-iv
' l l a , Sjrot Tp&iru/uu, dXX' dvopw' ai Si Xwrwv, whereas T6 yewalov is rd /itf) e|t-

4>iA0KTHTHS
PH.

What is the matter, my son ?

147

Whither strays thy

speech ?
I know not how I should turn my faltering words.
Faltering ? Wherefore ? Say not so, my son.
Indeed, perplexity has now brought me to that pass.
It cannot be that the offence of my disease hath
changed thy purpose of receiving me in thy ship ?
NE. All is offence when a man hath forsaken his true nature,
and is doing what doth not befit him.
PH. Nay, thou, at least, art not departing from thy sire's
example in word or deed, by helping one who deserves it.
NE. I shall be found base; this is the thought that torments
me.
PH. Not in thy present deeds; but the presage of thy words
disquiets me.
NE.
PH.
NE.
PH.

which Nauck approves, remarking that TOV <J>VT. might have arisen from TOU irarpos
eltcoros (as irpoa was a frequent abbreviation of warpos).
9O5 eo8\ov] Burges
conj. a$\iov y' eTuijxKCbv: Blaydes, &6\ioi> y' dvdp' ilnpeXwv.
9O6 TaXai r :
wd\iv L, with ai written above by 1st hand. The same error occurs in 913, 966.
9 O 7 iv oXo-re Spaio" iv OXGT' avSao- (sic) L (the second ofor' made from oX 8' by S.
iv oh ye . . ev oXs 8' A . F o r o6KOvv...ev oh 8' Nauck conj. ov 6^r'...e^>' ofs S'.

ix TTJs ainov <pi<rebK (cp. 51 n . ) . the youth's inherited generosity seems


fitting here: cp. 874, is 10. Tov(i.<jiTeuFraud was foreign to his nature (88).
06TOS (Tournier) is ingenious, but less
rd \ii) irpocrttKOTa, such things as do not
forcible than TOV ^ureiVacTos.
befit him: for the generic /IMJ, cp. 170,
409, 444, 909.
fo"8X6v: Blaydes would take this as=
9O4 ovoiv ffjco TOV cpVTtucravTOS, ' of noble birth,' in order that Ph. may
nothing that deviates from his example.
not praise himself. A similar feeling
The father (Achilles) is the irap&Sayixa has prompted conjectures (cr. n.). But
by ia6\bv Ph. means that the kindness of
which regulates the son's conduct,as in
Arist. Eth. N. 3. 6 the irwovdaios is ao-irep N. is not disgraced by its recipient. The
situation is one in which he can say this
Kavuv Kal pirpov (TSV KOKUV). Thus the
with perfect dignity and propriety. So
use of ?w is justified : it expresses a dehe refers to himself elsewhere as the
parture from the lines of the pattern.
comrade ( n 31) and benefactor (670) of
Cp. Plat. Legg- 876 E Soft/cu TO vapaHeracles; as a zealous ally of the Greek
8eiy[iaTa Tots StKavrcus rod firfirOTe jSatvuv l%a) T^S SUTJS. Musgrave quotes Li- chiefs (1027) ; as one who has shown
rare courage under his trials (535), and
banius 1. 574. rov TT)S ir6\eois ijffovs Kal
T7js efjJrjs TroXtrelas l-!-w TO irpayfia eXvai who will not fail in gratitude to his deliverer (1370). In like manner Oedipus
Soicel. The boldness of the expression
?{&> TOV (pvretio-avTosfindssome analogy reminds his Attic hosts that he is no unin the phrase KO.T& nva as =/card Tpbirov worthy guest (0. C. 287, 625 f.).
Twbs: Plat. Parm. 126 c KOTO. T6V v&Tirov 9 0 6 irdXai: cp. 589.
...irpoj Ty lirirtKr) SiaTplftei (following his 9 0 7 OUKOW (872 n.) Iv ots ye 8ps
example). So Alciphron can say 6 irais
(al&xpos (pavet): in respect of thy deeds
^e/id|oTo T&V SiSdo-KaXov (took the stamp (thus far) thou certainly wilt not be
of his teacher), instead of TOP TOV 5tfound alffxpis: Iv ots Si avSs, but in
8asK&\ov xaPaKTVPa (3- 64). I cannot,
respect of what thou sayesti.e., in rethen, think with Nauck that <)niTv<ravspect of the future conduct which thy
TOS is spurious. irpoo-tiK^ros would be
words foreshadow,OKVW (^r) ai<rxpbs
but a tame substitute. A reference to
(pavrjs).For the emphasis given to Sps

102

148

IOc|>OKAEOYI

NE. <3 Zev, TI Spdo-ct); hevrepov X-qj>6a


KpvTTT(av ff a fi/fj Sei Kal Xeywv aio-vior' C T I W ;
Pi. cw^p oo, et /i,^ ya> /ca/cos yvcofir/v e(pvv,
wpoBovs ft eoiKe KOIKXITTO*' TO TTXOW oreXeiv.
NE. \nra>v fjukv OVK eyorye' Xvirypas Se [irj
TrifXTTOi ere JJLSXXOV, TOVT' aviat/AOU irdXai.
<I>I. r t iroTe Xeyeis, <w riicuov ; ws ou fiavddvo).
NE. ouSeV o"e Kpvxfja)' Set y a p es Tpoiav ere irXelv
7r/)os TOUS 'A^aious /cai T W 'ArpetScov CTTOXOV.
4>I. otfjbOL, ri < 8' ^ eTiras ; N E . JU,T) crrivatfi, irplv /jLddr)<s.
4>I. TTOIOV fJidOrnxa; TL fie voei<s hpacrai TTOTC ;
NE. crcoo-au KCLKOV /JLV irpuna. TOVS", eVetTa Se
vv trot TO. Tpoias rreSia iropdyjcrai. fj,o\wv.
920
4>I. /ecu ravr* dXrjdrj Spav voets; N E . TTOXXT)
l
rovTOiv dvdyict]' /ecu <ru /u,i) 9VJXOV KXVCDV.
^>I.

aTroXwXa TXr^jLOiv, 7rpoSeSoju.at.

T I /X', W ^

^ fx.01.
p S wS
s
Ta^os r d
d ro^a
NE. dXX' ouv oiov r e 1 TWJ/ y d p ev reXet KXVCLV
TO T ' evoiKov fie KOX TO (rvfufyepov iroel.

925

8 1 O aW;p] dv?/p L.ei /x.-fj '7<li Triclinius : tl t*rj Kar/di L : et fi' ey& A : ei JUT)
(without 'yi>) T.yi>ib(ir)i>] Naber conj. yvii/iiav, and so Nauck.
9 1 1 toiice]
loucev L .
9 1 2 f. Cavallin conj. Xurr/pus 5' on | wtfiireip ae /iAkiri/nrw]

by place and pause, cp. 989 (Zetfs), 1009


9 1 2 f. Xiiriuv (sc. TOK TrXouK ffreXw)
((roO): J4K^. 555 <ri pkv yap et\ov ^TJV, after ^KXITTUI', as 1383 a'urxivotT' after
^7<i 8J KarSaveiv.
KaT<u<rxi5>'e- C p . O. C 841 irpofiad' aS5e,
9 0 S f. 8pa<ra>, delib. aor. subjunc.:
ft&Te.ir^iirw, convey: cp. 1368, 1399,
C
P- 757-& |"i Set: cp. 903. H e has
1465. T h e v.I. iriy/itav (prob. a mere
been base, first, as Xiywv at<r\urr' iruv
error caused by Xtirwv) would require us
telling the falsehood that he was sailing
to supply rbv irXoCy or^XXw (subjunct.).
to Greece: next, as Kpvirrwv & p?[ Set
TOVT, emphatic, as Tr. 458 rh iih\ JTUWhiding the truth, that P h . must go to
<70<u, TOVTO IX' &\yin>eiev &v: cp. O. C. 504,
Troy.
0. T. 407. Remark the repetition of
91O dvijp 68': the transition to the
TOVT' avuo|u irdXai so soon after 906.
3rd pers., marking bitter indignation, is
So Ant. 613 and 618 oiSiv Iprei: ib.
like that in Tr. 1238, where Heracles
614 and 625 {KTOS aras.
fears disobedience in Hyllus.ei |ii) 'yd :
9 1 5 oihiv ire Kpv\|nu: for the double
cp. 0. T. 1086 etwep y<i fidvns elul Kal ace, cp. El. 957 ovhh ydp <re Set Kpiv
Kara yvii/iav tSpis: El. 472 el nil 'yi> retv ft' In: Aesch. P. V. 625 /MJTOI /te
vapd<ppw n&vns l<pvv | Kal yv(biJ.as XetiroKpiipris TOVO'. S O airoKptiwTo/ial nva n.
niva <ro<pas.For YV(M]V (which Naber
yap merely prefaces the statement: 0. T.
alters to -yvwfiwv) cp. El. 546 d/3oi5Xou 277.
KOX KOKOC yvtifiw' O. T. 687 aya$6s uv
917 f. T<8'>tiros; I insert 8",
yvufj.rp>. T h e dat. in Ai. 1374 yv<ip.v which might easily have dropped out.
ootpbv I (pvvai.T6V irXovv o-TeXtv: Ai.
Such a hiatus as rC etiras is not Sopho1045 <f> Si) r6vSe TTKOVV effTei\a/xey. But
clean. Cp. 100 n. Afteravoc, we elseA X without TrXoOi" in 571, 640.
where find 5^ thus used in a question:

<t>IAOKTHTHI

149

NE. O Zeus, what shall I do ? Must I be found twice a


villain,by disloyal silence, as well as by shameful speech ?
PH. If my judgment errs not, yon man means to betray me,
and forsake me, and go his way !
NE. Forsake theeno; but take thee, perchance, on a
bitter voyagethat is the pain that haunts me.
PH. What meanest thou, my son ? I understand not.
NE. I will tell thee all. Thou must sail to Troy, to the
Achaeans and the host of the Atreidae.
PH. Oh, what hast thou said ? N E . Lament not, till thou
learn
PH. Learn what ? What would'st thou do to me ?
NE. Save thee, first, from this misery,then go and ravage
Troy's plains with thee.
PH. And this is indeed thy purpose ? NE. A stern necessity ordains it; be not wroth to hear it.
PH. I am lost, hapless one,betrayed! What hast thou
done unto me, stranger ? Restore my bow at once !
NE. Nay, I cannot: duty and policy alike constrain me to
obey my chiefs.
viiivwv r , V2.TrdXai r : rd\iv L, with ai written above by S.
9 1 6 xal rhv r :
KOX T&v L.GTOKOV made from <TT6XOIV in L.Wunder, with Nauck's assent, rejects
this v.
17 ri Aira.%; L, and most MSS. (ri y' efcras; B.) Valckenaer conj. rl rf
rfrras; and so Hermann.irplv"] irplv &v V.
9 2 3 dirbXwXa] Nauck conj. 6\w\a.
9 2 4 T& rb^a r : r6{a (without T&) L.
9 2 6 woet r : iroetv L.

0. C. 332 TKVOV, TI S' ^X0es; id. 1459

Lack.

irdrep, ri 8' earl TdIw/t' tip' <p icaXeis;


The objection to rl n' ctiras ('what hast
thou said of me?) is that it does not suit
the sense here ('what purpose hast thou
declared in regard to me ?'). And T y'
ctiras would be weak.irplv |M6T]S, without SM: cp. fus without av, 764. Soph.
affords some 14 instances of irplv & with
subjunct. (as 332, 1332), and 7 instances
(besides this) of simple irplv withisubjunct.,
Ant. 619; Tr. 60S, 946; Ai. 742,
965; fr. 583. 2, fr. 596.irotov (idOi^a;
Cp. Ant. 42 irolbv n KivSivevna; For the
verb with its cognate noun, cp. 150 /J.4\ov.../Ji4\riixa.Spdcrcu with double ace.:
803 n.
9 1 9 <rucrai KaKov: cp. Ant. 1162 {noout niv (x9pS>v...x9bva (n.).vv irol:
C
P- '3359 2 1 Kal TOVT'...; For KO.1 in preface to an indignant question, cp. O. C.
263 n.d\i)&tj, predicative adj., with
adverbial force, and so here=dXi;fls (a
word not extant in Soph.). In Plat.

also in Menon 98 B etc.) Kriiger and


others take dXi;8v as an adv., = dX?j0ws:
but the sense there is, 'you are right as
to that,'TOVTO being ace. of respect,
and aXriOrj ace. governed by Xys.
Kpcrrel TOUT<I)V, controls those things (like
Kparelv TCIV 1rpa.yn6.Ta11, Dem. or. 1. 26),
i.e., ordains that they must be so.
9 2 3 <5 ve, a form which he has not
used since 219. He has hitherto addressed N. as w TKVOV, or w iral. Cp.
932.
9 2 5 dXX' ov^ otov rt: so O. C. 1418.
Other places where ecrH is omitted after
oUs re are O.C. 1136, Tr. 742, O.T.
24.T<3V iv r^Xei: 385 n.
9 2 7 S. While Philoctetes makes this
appeal, Neoptolemus stands with averted
fac^ (935)' still holding the bow. Despairing anguish could not be more pathetically expressed than by the transitions from imprecation to entreaty, and
from entreaty to the half-soliloquy in
which he imagines the future (952).

186 A, TOVTO /xev dXriffrj X^-yeis (as

150
<I>I. w Trvp (ri) KCU TT0.V Seifia /cat navovpyias
Seiv^s r)(yri}i e\dio-Tov, old /A' eipydcrci),
oF rJTT<irr)Ka<;' ovh" incuo~)(yvei ji*' opav
TOV irpocTTpoTTaiov, TOV iKerqv, cS <rxerXte;
d.Trea-Tipy)Ka% TOV /3LOV r d TO' iXcov.
aVoSos, iicvov[iaC cr', aVoSos, iKereuoi, T4KVOV.
7T/D0S Oecov vaTpcfcov, TOV j3Cov /u,e fti) d^eX.17.
a>fjioi TaXas. d W ouSe Trpoa^xavei [i en,
dA'
d
fnqnoff, wS' dpa irdXw.

8\^

930

935

6r)pa>v opeCav, a KarappaJyes werpai,


u/ui> r a o , ou yap ahkov 010 orw keyca,
dvaKkaCofMaL Trapoucrt TOI? eloidoo'iv,
oV epy 6 Trais /A' eSpaaev ov '

94

8 2 7 Set^a] dij/ia L, with ei over 9j from ist hand. Nauck conj. XO/tta: Seyffert gives
\r/im (on Bergk's conj.). Valckenaer conj. w np <ri, TotirdX^a.
9 2 8 elpydaw]
In L the ist hand, after writing elpy&crto, began to repeat it, but stopped at eip, and
deleted the letters. Elmsley conj. etpyaocu.
9 2 8 opGw] Wecklein conj. fie Spuv.
9 3 3 pi) fi' &<pi\r)i<r L (and so most of the later MSS.): ^)) ^ou '(piXy* A. je ^di^eXgs
Lond. ed. 1747. Elmsley conj. ^e ^TJ &$\JI (on 0. Z1. 1522: formerly, on Eur. Med.
8 2 7 irup, the symbol of a ruthless destroyer. Neoptolemus is leaving utter
desolation behind him. The image is
one which Lemnos itself might well suggest (cp. 800 n.). The combination of
irup with 8et(j.a (' monster') curiously recalls a passage in the Lysistrata (which
appeared two years before this play),

eir/iev KO.KI>V dvOp&irois, caf ri/xu


awavra, | epides, vdKi), arAjais, dpyaKia

K.T.X, since there the sense is, 'every


sort of ill,' not, 'utter ill.' For Sct|ia
cp. Eur. H. F. 700 triprxax Sei/iara Brjpitiv.
iravovp-ytas.. .T^XVT)|I.O, a work of art in
iravovpyla (defining gen.), i.e., a man
in whom iravovpyia assumes its subtlest
1014 f. oiSev iari $rjplov yvrauc&s d/xaform; not, a work of art produced by
X&repov, I ai>5k ir vp, 06S' <SS' dxaiSijs 01)- (personified) Havovpyia (like ShakesSefda TrdpSaXts. Elsewhere irvp is a figure peare's, ' Confusion now hath made his
for warlike rage, as //. 20. 371 rip 5' iyii
masterpiece,' Macb. 2. 3. 71). T^xvr]|ia
avrlos efyu, icai el wvpl xeipas louce: or,
could not stand for Texvlrqs, 'contriver'
generally, for an irresistible bane, as
of wavovpyla, as Nauck implies by comEur. fr. 432 dvrl irvpbs y&p dXXo wvp ] paring Hor. Epod. 17. 35 (of Canidia)
/ietfo? i/3\&<TT0/iev yvvcu\nes TTOXI> Svfffut-cales venenis officina Colchicis. For the
Xiirepov. Cp. Hor. C. 4. 4. 42 Dirus
neut. noun, cp. a\rj/j.a, KpoTti/M, \d\rnj.a,
per tirbes Afer ut Italds, \ Ceu flamma ida-q/ia, TreuirdXij/Mi, etc. (Ant. 320 n.).
per taedas etc. Tennyson: ' The children
9 2 8 ctp-ydcra, followed by a perf. : cp.
born of thee are fire and sword.'
664, 666.
irdv 8tt|j.a, utter monster. As T\ irao-a
9 3 0 TOV irpoaTpoiraiov : cp. 773.
J3X</3T; (622), said of a man, is equiv. to 6
9 3 1 T6V piov. This verse deserves
7rs /3Xd;87? (d"), so here irav dufia is
notice as one of those which indicate the
equiv. to iras deifia. The latter would
sensitiveness of the Athenian ear to
describe the man as effaced; the former
accent. For if fSlov could have been
describes the Sei/ta as perfect; and thus
mistaken for j3i6v, the effect would have
the sense is not affected by the assimilabeen as unhappy as when the actor protion of the adj. iras to the subst. But
nounced yaXr/v' too much like yakijv
we cannot compare Ar. Th. 787 (is irav
(Ar. Ran. 304).Cp. 1282.

<t>IAOKTHTHI
PH. Thou fire, thou utter monster, thou hateful masterpiece of subtle villainy,how hast thou dealt with me,how
hast thou deceived me! And thou art not ashamed to look
upon me, thou wretch,the suppliant who turned to thee for
pity ? In taking my bow, thou hast despoiled me of my life.
Restore it, I beseech thee,restore it, I implore thee, my son!
By the gods of thy fathers, do not rob me of my life ! Ah me !
Nohe speaks to me no more; he looks away,he will not give
it up!
O ye creeks and headlands, O ye wild creatures of the hills
with whom I dwell, O ye steep cliffs ! to youfor to whom else
can I speak ?to you, my wonted listeners, I bewail my treatment by the son of Achilles :
56, fie firj d^Xj/s).
8 3 4 dXX' aide] Nauck conj. iis 06SZ: Hense, 85' oiSe.wpoir<pon>eix: rpoifniivel L. irpo<r<f>iavei was first edited by Canter (1579). irpoatpw/eiv Aid.:
Tpotrtpuveit Junt. edd.
935 pJftroB'1 t38'] Wakefield conj. /J.^WOT' oiS': Blaydes
firfwoT' aS6'.
9 3 8 X^yw] Reiske conj. Xtyuv.
939 avaKXaiofiai MSS.: avaKXdo/uu Dindorf. Wecklein conj. di/oicXat)<ro/nai: Blaydes dwoKXaio/uu.Nauck thinks
this v. spurious.
9 3 2 A dactyl is here followed by a
tribrach, as in 1029 we have two tribrachs. In both verses the rhythm marks
agitation.
9 3 3 93v iraTpwwv, the gods of Achilles and Peleus. Cp. O. C. 756 n.pc
|M] d<f>&t): for /tij followed by a, cp. on
782 n. Either the act. or the midd. is
admissible. But a strong reason for preferring the midd. is that Soph, uses it
in three other places; and if in 376
there was a metrical motive for atpaipyaoiTO, there was none in 1303 for
aipelXov, o r in Ai.

100 for a<jmipel<rffwi>.

On the other hand, he nowhere uses the


active atpaipetv. In O. T. 1522, where
L has the true IXy, some later MSS. have
\jf: and probably dftXys in L here is
merely a like error.
9 3 4 f. irp<Kr<|>a>vet: for the 3rd per5.,

jSecfhjs is merely the bay, while the op/ios


is the anchorage within it (ii. 435).
TrpofSXrJTes here = dVpai, promontories :
in Homer always an adj. (with aural,
etc.). It is curious to note that, just in
that part of his epic for which he would
naturally have consulted this play, Quintus Smyrnaeus reproduces this use of
-po(3Xijs (10. 175 ovS4vvr6vye | elpyovaiv
TrpopXtjres).gwowrai Orjpwv: for the
periphrasis cp. 868.Karappuycs, only
here: a poet, substitute for awoppuyes
(Xen. An. 4. 6. 3 irirpa airoppw).
9 3 8 f. Xe-yw, subj.: cp. Ant. 1341
OV8' t ^ W I WpOS TTOTCpoP

t8lO.

dvcucXcuoiuu, lament aloud. Antiphon


Tetr. A. S. 1 TOS...mvxhts dvaicXai
ffcurdcu wpos VIM;.irapovo-i, present with
me as ye are, TOIS eU)8do-iv (Tapetvat),
ye, who are wont to be so. In freely
rendering these words, ' my wonted comcp. 910.s (it) |M8TJ<T<I>V, as if he did
not intend to give up the bow. (If we panions,' we must remember that irapovo-i is not a subst. (like BearaZs or
had ov instead of /?}, the sense would be,
liaprvai): i.e., we could not say, 01
'showing that he does not intend....')
elaffores Tapovres, meaning, ' my wonted
For the omission of the object to /Sijaav, cp. 801 (e/x.Tpriffoi').op$ irciXiv:companions.' That would be possible
cp. / / . 11. 415 irdXty Tpiwev oaae tpaewii. only if Tapdv had acquired a definitely
substantival use (like opxw). Thus in
E u r . Hec. 343 wpotrwirov e/iwaKw | <rrpiThuc. 7. 75 ol f&Wes Ka.TaXetir6y.evoi is
<t>oi>Ta.
not ' the living remnant,' but ' those who
9 3 6 Xi|Uvcs, bays or creeks, near
were left behind alive' (iaicres KareXelthe cave,not necessarily implying anchorage : cp. 302 ov yap ns op/ws iarlv WOVTO).
(n.). So in / / . 1. 432 the X1/M7X iro\v-

152

20<t>0KAE0YZ
6[i6(ra<s dird^eiv OLKOZ' is TpoCav p ayei 1
npo(r0L<; re ^etyoa Sefmv, TOL Toa /xov
lepa \a/3(t>v TOV ZTJVOS Hpa.K\eov<s ex.i>,
KOX TOICTLV 'ApyeCoicn (fyfvacrdcu dekei.
<us avop ekoiv Lo~)(ypov e/c p i a s /* ayei,
oiS' ivaipwv veicpov r) /caTjrou ciadv,

945

dWws1 ou yao ai' crOevovrd ye

/A CTTCI ovo av too e^ovr, ei fir) ooAw.


TOC S' TjiraT^/Acu Svcr/Jiopos. rl XPV f16 Spai';
a\X' a7roSos, aX.Xa vvv er eV (raurw yevou.

95O

9 4 2 Tpoadei<r L. Diibner thinks that this has been made from wpoOelir, and
Campbell indicates the same view, though doubtfully ('irpoffets L?'). But irpcxr8e!xT is wholly in the writing of the ist hand. The supposition that he inserted
a after writing wpo 6d<r seems excluded by the length of the space between o
and 0,even allowing for his occasional eccentricities in this respect (cp. 0. C,
Introd. p. xlvi). If, then, he first intended to write irpo<M<r, the present first er
of vpoirffelcr must have been his inchoate 0: but there is no trace of erasure. It
appears improbable, therefore, that he ever meant anything else than irpovdeia.
Tpo0els r, Aid., Turnebus, Brunck, Herm., Wunder.
9 4 4 0t\ef] L points thus ;
and most of the recent edd. give either a colon or a full stop. Seyffert, whom
Cavallin follows, gives a comma (connecting <frtya<j0ai. . . cl>s . . dtyei): Blaydes, taking
the same view, prints 0A without any stop. 9 4 5 \6H>..JK pias /i'] e\isi> /*' (sic) . .

9 4 1 f. <5|iocras, by giving his promise cles.'For TOV Z. 'HpaxX., cp. 0. C.


(527), though no formal oath had been
623 x ^ Atos Qoifios, Ai* 1J2 TavpoTroKa
exacted (811).irpo<r8Cs, having added Aios "Apre/us (without art.).
the pledge of the hand (813) to his word.
9 4 4 f. cjnfvcurSai: the aor. midd. of
So ir. 428 opKov Si Tp<xrTe06>Tos (addedthe simple jxxivw occurs nowhere else;
to the \f/i\6s \6yos, cp. 0. C. 651 n.) nor is there any other place where any
i\TT4pa
faxy
Kar^ffTT]. The v. /. part of the simple midd. ipalvo/xai is
is weaker,, and strange
p
g as a sub- trans., ' t o show.' (airetpriva/irir is fred
(
) it
i is
i not quent.) The poet prob. meant (j>ifvaer8<u
stitute for irpordvas
(cp.
1292):
adequately defended by Eur. Hec. 66 here to be a little more than <t>rjpai,
(3padvTrow ] yKvffiv &p0p(av TrpoTt,0UTa. C p . i.e., ' t o show for his own glory,' 'to
Xen. An. 3. 2. 4 (the Persian king) display.' The object to <fnjvao-6ai is
avros o/ioffas ypXv, avros Sepias Sots, rd TO|O only. It would be awkward to
avros tZairarqaas ow4\af}e robs aTpaj-t)- understand (with Nauck) k/xi KOX rd
rofa: and the display of the captive is
yovs.
9 4 3 Upd sc. Svra, sacred as the bow implied in the next vv.
Seyffert, placing only a comma after
is : because it had been given by Apollo
to Heracles, himself now a god (728), fleXti, and reading KOV\ S for KOVK otS'
C p . 198 rd 0e<av dfuLXVTa P^V : 657- in 946, understands :' He wishes to
TOV ZT|VOS 'HpcucXfous, gen. of d Tn)vi>% boast (ij>rpia<r0ai., gloriose de se praedicare)
'YLpatCkyp, the bow, once, of Heracles among the Argives that (<Js 945) he is
son of Zeus. I do not take Upd with bringing me by force, a strong man
this gen., because, though the bow whom he has taken, and not as it were a
may fitly be called ' sacred,' it cannot dead man whom he is slaying' (KOVX
be called ' sacred to Heracles' without (is ivalpuv veKpov). But the awkwardstraining the natural sense of Jepoj nvos. ness of this conjectural KOVX S is inRather TOU Z. ' H p . is an indignant de- tolerable, when <5s in 945 is to mean
velopment of lepi,:'he has stolen my 'that.' Further, it is clearly essential
bow,a sacred one,the bow of Hera- to the force of the passage that there

<t>IAOKTHTHS

153

he swore to convey me home,to Troy he carries me: he


clinched his word with the pledge of his right hand,yet hath
he taken my bow,the sacred bow, once borne by Heracles
son of Zeus,and keeps it, and would fain show it to the
Argives as his own.
He drags me away, as if he had captured a strong man,
and sees not that he is slaying a corpse, the shadow of a
vapour, a mere phantom. In my strength he would not have
taken me,no, nor as I am, save by guile. But now I have
been tricked, unhappy that I am.
What shall I do ?
Nay, give it back,return, even now, to thy true self!
CK pias /1' L. Here, as elsewhere, a true accent in L points to the remedy for a false
reading; i.e., the first /J.' should be deleted. L has not i\wv /J.', as has been
reported: but the accent on c!> is little more than a dot,as it is also on i<rxvpbv in this
v., and repeatedly elsewhere. A comparison with otS' in v. 946 will show the difference. Cp. 1079. (Autotype facsimile, p. 90 A, two lowest II.)i\uv . . CK jSiaj /J.'
B, K (as corrected), Suid. (s.v. KaKoiriviaTwrov): i\<I>v /J.' . . e/c /3as dyei A, with the
rest.

9 4 6 KOVK OT5'~] OVK offl

Suidas s.v. Ka.KOTri.viaTa.Tov : but KOX OVK otS' s.vv.

Kairvov <TKid.Seyffert gives KOVX WS (see comment.).


9 4 8 e7rei oiS'] Triclin.
wrote iiret 7' ovS* (without omitting dv).
9 4 9 /j,e dpdv L, with most MSS. : voielv
A, Harl.
95O dXX' dw6dos\ awodoa L, and so the rest, except V2, which has
diriSos av 7'. aXX' was restored by Turnebus. Other conjectures are driSot, 56s
(A. Seyffert): a7ro'5os vu> (Blaydes).iv aavrQ L : iv aavrov A (which Nauck prefers),
and so Brunck.

should be a full stop (or colon) at


Verse 945 is an indignant amplification
of 941, is Tpotav /i' dyet. 'He is taking
me by force, I say, as if he had captured
(S tkmv) a strong man,' etc.
9 4 6 f. KOVK 0I8*. Neoptolemus
knows, of course, that Ph. is feeble. But
these words mean that, in taking Ph. to
Troy, N. does not realise what he is
doing; he will not gain a triumph, but
merely extinguish a nickering life. As
this speech wavers between curses and
prayers, so it vacillates between denunciation of the youth's cruel guile (926 f.),
and something like pity for his thoughtless folly. Cp. 1010.evalpav veKpov :
cp. Ant. 1030 rbv Oavovr' iinKraveiv
(n.).Kairvov o-Kidv : Ant. 1170 rdW
iyii KaTvov <r/aas | ofa b\v rpuUprp' (n.).
etSuXov dXXws: O. C. 109 oUripar'
dvdpos OISITOV T6S' d8\tov | et8o)\ov ofi
yip Si) T6 7' dpxtuov dd/ias (n.). The
adv. dAXus means (1) ' otherwise,' O. C.
492 : (2) ' besides,' ' moreover,' O. T.
1114: (3) 'otherwise than well,' and so,
'vainly,', O. T. 333,as
3 3 3fr-epos
p oft.=
((4)
) with
i h a subst.
b
iimplying
l i
di
disparagement, 'merely'; Ar. Nub. 1203
dB
Tpopar' dWois, ' ciphersvery

sheep': Dem. or. 19 24 01 5' &vn\eyovrcs 6x^os o U w Ka.l (Souricavla. Kare<f>al-

V(TO, 'the opposition was pronounced to


be mere obstructiveness and spite' (where
see Shilleto). This sense comes through
that of'vainly,' 'uselessly.'
9 4 8 ivrA ovS": for the synizesis cp.
446 n.
9SO dXX", though only conjectural
(cr. n.), is confirmed by the fact that
elsewhere also the hortative is combined
with the limiting d\X<4: see 1040 f. :
0. C. 238 ff. dXX' e7rei...dXX' ipi (me, at
least). The loss of dXX' before dwoSos
here may have been due to a reminiscence of 932.dXXd vvv : cp. El. 411
avyyivtadi y' dWa, vvv.Iv o-avr$ ycvov:
Xen. An. 1. 5. 17 iv eaurp iyivero, he
recovered himself (after an outbreak of
passion). So Her. 1. 119 offre igeirXdyri
ivros re eavrov ylvcrai, 'he did not lose
his presence of mind, but mastered his
feelings.' The simple gen. of the reflex,
pron. is similarly used, 0. C. 660 (n.):
Dem. or. 2 30 (which confirms ?TI here):
del Sii ..ifuov airuiv ?rt Kal vvv yevofiivovs
(c.r.X. The v.l. ev cavrov here has
been supported by Ar. Vesp. 642 o-KopSiv&Tat. KOUTTIV OVK iv aiirov.

But there I

ZO*OKAEOYI

154

TL (f>T]<s', cri&)7ras' ovhiv elfi 6 Svcrfioposji nerpas


p hvnvkov, av0L<s av TTOXLV
X OVK k\
fy
j i Tr/aos ere t/iXos,
k\(av
aXX' avavovfjLai, TO!S' iv avXuto fiov
ov TTTTJVOV opviv ovSk 9rjp' 6peifia.Tr)v
Tofois ivaCpcov TotcrtS', aXX' auro9 raXas
6ava>v Trapezia halff v<f> cay ifepfiofjiyju,
Kai /A' ov<s edrjptav irpocrOe. drjpdcrovcrL vvv
(f>6vov <j>6vov Se pvcriov reCcro) TaXas

955

npo<; TOV BOKOVVTOS ovSkv eiSe^ai KOLKOV.

960

oXoto\irf\Tt<ii, Trplv fLoiOoifj.* el Kai ndXiv


[iToicreLS' et Se JU.T/, davois
8 5 2 <TXV!M made from X/)5A" i n L.
8 5 3 e&rei^i] ?cr/t( Suid., s.v. oBftj.xpos cr^
L.
8 5 4 ai 6a.voviJ.ai MSS.: schol. in L, yp. avavovfuu, wr\ TOV l-rjpapBrfo-o/itu.
8 6 6 Toioib' L (sic, not rowriS'), corrected from ro'unv by the 1st hand. The rest have
TOIO-IS' (as Harl.), Tourib" (A), or Toia&i y' (B). Burges and Wecklein conj. TOIOS' (T\

should read either 18' airov or iv airy.


In Plat. Charm. 155 D OVKIT1 h ifiavrov
rjv, other readings are eir' inavrov and iv
ifiavrf; the last is prob. right.
851 o-uomjs: cp. 0. C. 1271 rl myfe;
ov8t'v tip.', am as dead: O. C. 393 ST'
ovKir' elp.1, TTjViKavr' dp' etfi' avf/p;
8 5 2 10 <r^fj(ia ir^rpas SCirvXov, not
StirtfXov, since (rx^Ma-T^Tpas forms one
notion: cp. Ant. 794 cet/cos avSp&r ii.6vo.i(Uoc.The word o-\TJ|i.a, in such a periphrasis, usu. denotes stateliness (as in Eur.
Ale. 911a cxnvm S6/JMV, and so / f e . 619
<3 axhl^i.T' OIKWV): here it marks the
distinctness of the form present to his
thoughts (like awii,a...8ripbs in O. C.
1568). Alike in bodily and in mental
suffering, the outlines of surrounding objects become vividly stamped upon the
mind. Cp. Byron, Prisoner of Chillon
(stanza x ) : ' But then by dull degrees
came back | My senses to their wonted
track; | I saw the dungeon walls and
floor I Close slowly round me as before.'
8 6 3 The MSS. and edd. give irpos <r\
here: but irpos <r is surely required by
the sense. There is no emphasis on the
pron. (as if the cave were contrasted with
some other abode). The stress is on ^1Xrfs: his former life in the cave, when he
had the bow, is contrasted with the life
now before him.<|/iX6s : cp. 0. C. 1029
01/ tf/i\bv otib' OVKCVOV (n.).

8 5 4 avavovpai; El. 819 atpiKos ai-

avQ fttov. This is one of the rare instances in which a true reading, lost to
the text of L, has been preserved by the
schol.: cp. Ant. 40, 235.
8 5 5 f. imivov (cp. z88)...5pipdTi|v
(cp. 937): the epithets are not merely
ornamental; they suggest the distance of
the prey, and so the helplessness of the
unarmed man.TOKTCS', if right, is the
only example of this Ionic form in Soph.;
nor is there any in Aesch. In Eur. Med.
1295, where the MSS. have roio-iv or
ToieSi y', Canter gave rourib', which
Elms, wrote roifflb" (comparing roiovb'):
Wecklein there, as here, conjectures
TOio-b" IT' (Ars Soph. em. p. 33); though
here, in his ed., he keeps TOUTIS'. The
question here is,Does L's Tolaib", corrected by the tst hand from rdiaiv, point
rather to TOT8' or to TOIO-8' ?T" ?

To

the former, I think. If TOUTS' IT' had


been the original reading, the unusual
form Tot<5' would hardly have supplanted it. The accent proves nothing, for
the epic Tolabetrai used to be written
TOr8e<r<ri.
8 5 7 irapl<i> Satra (TOI'TOIS) v<j>' i5v
4<t>epP.: cp. O. T. 1362 h/wyev^s 8' af
av i(j>vv. Xen. M. 1. 2. 6 biakiyeo-ffcu
Tap' wv av Xdj3oie>> rbv juadbv (i. e. ToiTOIS Trap' wv).

Wunder proposes a<)>' &>, objecting


that <^' <$v implies active ministration,
' as by a nurse.' I t is true that i

4>IA0KTHTH2

155

What sayest thou ? Silent ? Woe is me, I am lost!


Ah, thou cave with twofold entrance, familiar to mine eyes,
once more must I return to thee,but disarmed, and without the
means to live. Yes, in yon chamber my lonely life shall fade
away; no winged bird, no beast that roams the hills shall I slay
with yonder bow; rather I myself, wretched one, shall make a
feast for those who fed me, and become a prey to those on whom
I preyed; alas, I shall render my life-blood for the blood which
I have shed,the victim of a man who seemed innocent of evil!
Perish!no, not yet, till I see if thou wilt still change thy
purpose;if thou wilt not, mayest thou die accurs'd !
and so Blaydes.
0 5 7 v(j>' we] Wunder conj. d0' w .
8 5 8 Kal /i'] Kap' Brunck.
TpiaBe made from irpbadev in L.Purgold rejects this v.
9 6 1 fiaOoL/j.' el /cai]
Blaydes conj. fiAOoi/iev (or fj.d9oi.iJ-i <r\ or /naffoifi' IT') el: C. Walter, /iddoi/i' el /M7.

viro nvos properly refers to the nurse,


while the source of nourishment is denoted by Tivl, OTTO TIKOS, or IK TWOS (cp.

535). But here Ph. is poetically saying


that he had forced the beasts to become
his Tpoipefc,as he will now be theirs;
and so viro is right. dir6 would also be
right, but tamer.
9 5 8 Kal (I1, not leap', because the
contrast between i6r\p<av and 6T)pd<rov<ri
suffices. Cp. 47 n.
9 5 9 f. pv(TU>v is what one ' draws to
oneself,' as spoil, or by way of security
(0. C. 858 n.), or in reprisal. <|>6vov $6vov...pii<riov T<r<i) = I shall pay (to the
beasts) my life-blood, taken by them in
reprisal for life-blood (<|>ovoi>, gen. of the
price or equivalent). Cp. Polyb. 4. 53
pinrw. KwriffyeiXav Tois'PoSlois, 'formally
threatened them with reprisals' (for
bloodshed).TeCo-w, Zreura, was the Attic
spelling in the poet's time, as inscrr.
prove: 0. T. 810 (2nd ed.).TO<! 80KOVVTOS, partic. of the imperf. (8s idixa):

5e<nr6Yi;s yap iar' i/tos, ' curse him I


may not,' etc. (In Soph. Tr. 383 OXOU-TO

fi.il n names K.T.X., the context is different.)irplv |ut9oi|i.': the optat. is due
to 6\ou>: cp. 325 n . : Tr. 655 /IT] UTCUTJ \ ...
irplv avvaae.

A KOI irdXiv. Nauck, referring to


Porson's note on Eur. Phoen. 1464 ( = 1450
Dind.)as to which, see Appendixsays
that Kttl cannot be right; and on that
assumption various emendations have
been proposed. The defence of the metre
turns on the distinction between two
classes of monosyllables: (1) those which
count as belonging to the words after
them, viz., the article; prepositions; d,
17, xal, /*>), ov, us; and the interrogatives, TIS, 7riSs, irov, iroi, rrj: (2) those
which count as belonging to the words
before them, viz., all enclitics, and such
other words as cannot begin a sentence.
Since et and Kal are both of the first
class, ei KOI irdXiv is metrically equivalent to a quadrisyllable like alpoiy.erov,
c p . 0. T. 835 irpos TOO irap6i>Tos n . : 0. C. and therefore the rule against a final
1565 n.: Ant. 1192.ov8v clScvai Ka- cretic does not apply. On the other
KOV, not, ' t o have no evil sentiment' hand such an ending as wplv /mffoi/i' oS
Kal iraXu" would be wrong, because o3c is
(like the epic ijiria elSws, etc.), but simply, 'to know no evil': cp. Ant. 301 a monosyllable of the second class Kai
Svvoifieiav dSivai (n.).
closely with irdXiv: cp. Plat. Menex.
249 E 1va Kal aWli aoi...airayy4\\ia. This
9 6 1 f. 8X010pfjiru. The mere fact
that 8X010 comes first means that the seems better than to take it with (MTOIcurse does pass his lips,though it is o-is ('if thou wilt indeed change'). iroXiv
pcroto-cis is pleonastic, since Ph. does
instantly qualified by iiijxo. Hence the
not now suppose that N.'s purpose was
effect of the Greek is not like this'I
say not yet, Mayest thou perish': but
ever honest: cp. 1270: Thuc. 2. 13 jtri;
rather;'Perish!no, not yet,' etc. iXdtTtrta dvTiKaTavTTJaat wd\ip.

Just so in Eur. Med. 83 OXOITO /aiv /}

156

IO*OKAEOYI

XO. rl Spwfiev; iv crol Kal TO n\eiv tafias, dva,


rjSrj '<TTI Kal TOIS TOVSC irpocr^(>ipuv Xoyois.
NE. ipol fxev OXKTOS Setvos ipTTeTTTcoKi TIS
TOV8' dvSpos ov vvv irpcoTov, dXXd Kal TraXcu.
<E>I. iXerjo-ov, <o iral, vpos 8ecov, Kal firj Trapfjs
(ravrov fipoTols oVeiSos, e/CKXei/ias eyxe.
NE.

otjjbOL, Tt Bpdcrco;
TTJV it/KVpoV

3>I.

fiijTror'

axjxXov

XLTTCIV

OVTCO TOtS TTapOVCTlV Ovdo/JLCU.

OVK e t KCLKOS (TV, 7T/3OS KOLKOiV 8' dvOpCOV

97
fia0(OV

IbtKas rjK.tv alcrxpd' vvv 8' dWoicri Sous


ois ei/cos, e/cirXei, rd/xd (JLOL fie0el<s O7r\a.

NE. ri Spaifiev, dvSpes;

OA. w /ca/acrr' dvhpav, TI Syoas;

OUK1 et /A0ei<; r a r o f a TauT* ejnoi TraXtt';


$ 1 . oi/Aot, n's d i ^ p ; a p ' 'O8uo-o-ea)5 KXVO) ;
OA. 'oSucro-e'ws, o-ct^)' Icrff, ifiov y, ov eltropas.
<f>I. oifLOi' irenpapai KavoXaX'' oS' "qv dpa
6 vXXa/3d>v fie Kdirovocr<j>icra? ovXcov.
OA. eyw, crd<f>' l&ff, OVK dXXos* ofioXoya rdSe.
4>I. d7ro8os, d<^>es /tot, 7rcu, Ta Tofa. OA. TOVTO
oiS' r)v deXrj, Spdaei TTOT- dXXa Kal ere Set

975

980

9 6 4 TOIS] Blaydes conj. TO.


9 6 8 TrdXai L: vd\u> r. Cp. 906, 913.
9 6 7 f. ^X^T^rtw] Erfurdt eonj. olKTeipov (which should be atKnpov).jrapijs A,
etc.: irapiji L. As Mekler remarks, this may have arisen from a v. 1. vafrgt | afrrov
(through the supposition that the <s belonged to the pron.).travrov] aavrbv Y,

9 6 3 f.

8p<5(j.ev; subjunct.Iv

K.T.\. : cp. O. T. 314 n.:

eroi

<ro0wWpois). So oft. &>8os KOTaXeiVeic.

Eur. / . T.

4KK\&|>CI.S = eJa7raT^o-as, as in 55 (n.) :

1057 Kai TS.II! iv v/uv iariv rj na\ws Z%eu> ] not, ' having stolen me out of Lemnos.'
57 priSiv etpai Kai aTepriOrjvai irdrpas.
9 6 9 f. (jHJirOT", though it belongs to
irpo<rx<opEiv: cp. emx!*'1" la Ant. 219 : Xiiretv, can be prefixed to w<j>t\ov beEur. Med. 222 x ^ W i,tvov ixh> K&pra cause the whole phrase is felt as a wish :
Tpoo'xwpe"' 7r6Xei ('comply').
so Od. 11. 548 cis Srj ny 60eXov vurip/.
9 6 5 f. (Jiol (i{v: for )xiv emphasising
In Tr. 997 the inf. has its due precethe pron. (without an answering S<?), cp.
dence: ^v pi) TOT' e7(i irpoaiSeiv 6 T&\as |
Ant. i i n.kprr&irraKt: cp. Philippides
oH^eXoK &a<tois.Sicvpov: 240n.
'Apyvptov 'A<paviff/i6s 1 aXX' l\eos i/iw4w9 7 2 viv 8'oiXXouri Sovs, J<r. ra aiVxptt,
TUKi TIS /noi SXwi'. Soph, has used having left the base deeds to others,
the ace. with this verb in 0. C. 942 (n.).
whom they befit (ois eUos, sc. Sovvcu
ov vvv irpTov : El. 1049 7rd\(u hiairi). Cp. 405409. As the chief emSOKTOI TaCra KOV vewari /JUH.
phasis here is on the character of N. (oK
9 6 7 f. &n<rov: cp. on 307 ff.iraprjs et Kaxds av), aXXouri is naturally concawroi pp. ovfiSos, allow men to have
trasted with <ji, rather than with KO.K>V
ground for reproaching thee: a poet. dvSpwv.
modification of the more usual constr.,
Other interpretations are: (1) 8ois =
iraprjs (reavrbv (}poTois ivaSi^w (as Plat.
Soft! <reavr6v, ' yielding to others' (than
Phaedo 101 C napels diroKpiva<rO<u TOIS...
the Karat anSpei),i.e., to Philoctetes

<t>IAOKTHTHI

157

CH. What shall we do ? It now rests with thee, O prince,


whether we sail, or hearken to yon man's prayer.
NE. A strange pity for him hath smitten my heart,and
not now for the first time, but long ago.
PH. Show mercy, my son, for the love of the gods, and do
not give men cause to reproach thee for having ensnared me.
NE. Ah me, what shall I do ? Would I had never left
Scyros !so grievous is my plight.
PH. Thou art no villain ; but thou seemest to have come
hither as one schooled by villains to a base part. Now leave
that part to others, whom it befits, and sail hence,when thou
hast given me back mine arms.
NE. What shall we do, friends ? ODYSSEUS {appearing
suddenly from behind the cave). Wretch, what art thou doing ?
Back with theeand give up this bow to me!
PH. . Ah, who is this ? Do I hear Odysseus ?
OD. Odysseus, be sure of itme, whom thou beholdest.
PH. Ah me, I am betrayed,lost! He it was, then, that
entrapped me and robbed me of mine arms.
OD. I, surely, and no other: I avow it.
PH. Give back my bow,give it up, my son. OD. That
shall he never do, even if he would. And moreover thou must
which Hermann prefers (Retract, p. 14).
07O OVTW] OUTUI L.
9 7 2 f. rjieetv]
Bergk conj. cur/ceir.IXkoun Sois | ofs ekds MSS. For 3XKoi<n Wakefield, Gemhard and Erfurdt conj. aXXois <re. Dindorf changes ofs to oV.
9 7 6 av^p] cbfy> L.
9 7 8 $8' made from wS' in L.
98O ifwXoyw] After 6 the letter v has been
erased in L.
9 8 3 Set made from S^i in L.

himself. The objection here is the use


of Sofa. Eur. Phoen. 21, 6 8' qSoi'Tj 806s,
is the only extant example of this usage
in the classical period, and there it denotes self-abandonment to impulse; a
tone which was apparently associated
with it by Alciphron also, when he wrote
SpS/ufi 8oi>s (pipecrBai (3. 47), me in pedes
coniciens. (2) Reading dXXois era 8ois :
' having allowed thyself to be overruled
by others' (i. e., by Ph.). But this phrase
implies relations of confidence and friendship (cp. 84): it does not suit the stern
and cold admonition which these verses
convey. (3) With Dindorf's ota (which
he does not explain) the obvious sense
would be, 'having given others their
due,'an anticipation of rd/id pioi jiieOfis
87rXo. The objection to this is that oXXouri then becomes strange, since Ph. is

no longer contrasted with bad advisers,


but is merely the recipient of the bow.
9 7 4 We are to suppose that Odysseus,disquieted when he found that the
Ifiiropos (627) was not quickly followed
by N.,had set out to inquire into the
cause of the delay. From a place of
concealment close to the scene he has
overheard the last part of the conversation, and now, at the critical moment,
he springs forward. The abruptness of
his entrance is marked by the divided
verse (dxTiXeijSi}).
9 7 6 Join l...iraXiv; Neoptolemus
was in the act of approaching Philoctetes: Odysseus places himself between
them. Cp. 0. C. 1398 vvv T' id' ws
TO^OS iraXii': id. 1724 jraXo", 0f\a, <rv8w/tev.
9 7 8 ir^irpajioi: cp. 579 Jie/uiroXcT (n.).

158
aju,' auTois, rj /Sia crreXovcrC <re.
4>I. e/t', <3 KdKtov KaKtcrre Kal ToXju/^OTare,
oiS' e/c /Sias a^ovcriv;
OA. ^i> JU/IJ ipirrj^ k.Kwv. 985
3>I. &> Ar)[ivia -^6d>v Kal TO irayKpaTes creXas
'HficuaTorevKTOv, raina S ^ T ' avaoyerd,
ei /x' OUTOS eV TWC O W aTraijerai fiia.;
OA. Zeus icrff, iv' eiS^s, Zeus, o r^crSe y ^ s Kparratv,
Zeus, w SeSoKTai ravff' vTrrjperS 8' eyw.
990
$ 1 . w //.Zeros, ofa Ka^iweuyoicr/ceis X
9 8 3 Hermann proposed either a-re^eic S/t' airois, 57 irreKmkriv ol'Se <re, or
an', rj pig. ffreXovatv otSe <re. For aiirois Blaydes conj. aiirbv. Nauck, a
6/iapreJv.rj

m a d e from

r) i n L .

9 8 4 ToXftrjffTaTe

L , with

To//

written in marg. by S. The other MSS. agree with L, except B and T, which have

9 8 3 &n* avrots, sc. TOIS Toipix. So in 7. n o Tex"'?<ro'ai, restored by Bekker


iojq TOVTUV refers to ra oVXa in 1056. from T^Kyrjaai. (schol. Texvrje<r<rcu, rexviOTCAOVO-C <r, ic. the two attendants of

Odysseus, who have entered along with


him (cp. 985 dSe, and 1003). It should
be remembered that, to the spectators,
there could be nothing obscure in crreXowri, since Odysseus would glance or
point at the men. There is no need,
then, for the conjectures (cr. n.) which
have sought either to introduce otfie or to
remove avrdts. Greek idiom readily tolerated either change or ellipse of subject:
cp. n. on 0. C. 1065 d\ii<rertu.We cannot well refer OVTOIS either to the attendants of Od., or to Neoptolemus and the
Chorus. Odysseus would rather say, r)/up.
If it is objected that the bow cannot be
said <rreixeir, the answer is that arelxfiv
ayu' OUTOIS is merely a way of saying ardXety a/ia rots TO ro|a ipfpovin.
9 8 4 ToXjiii<rTaT=ToX/ij&rraTe, superl. of ToX(t)eis. Odysseus says in Od,
17. 284 ToX^eis /tot dvftos, iirei naica
iroXXd rrtvavBa.. The contracted form
has been much suspected here; Nauck
pronounces it corrupt, because (1) tragic
dialogue nowhere admits adjectives in
deis, r)ets, oeis, and (2) the contr. ^TTOTOS
from riiffraros is unexampled. As to (1),
we may observe that in 0. T. i%i<) it is
almost certain that Soph, used aifiarocis:
Porson there conjectured al/j-arovair' (for
aXfiaros): Heath, with greater probability,
oi/toTous. As to (2), it is true that there
is no other instance of this contr. in a
superlative; but there are epic examples
of the same contr. in the positive: Od.

rlSes) : II,

18. 475 Kal x/)u<roV Ti/MrjuTa

Kal dpyvpov (where no emend, is probable).

I do not add / / . 9. 605 OVK8'

6/*us Titirjs laeai: for, though we cannot


read ofiiSs TIMTJS, I would suggest that
the change of one letter will restore the
true reading, viz. Oytnjs n/irjs: and C. A.
Lobeck, while conceding that Florian
Lobeck (Quaest. Ion. p. 8) used ' too
great severity' in condemning roX/ii}(rraros, agrees with him in pointing out
that such a contraction as TexvV* fr
rexvrjas cannot be safely inferred from
Tex^c"" for Texvycaaa (Pathol. 1. 343).
This consideration is a fresh argument
against Hermann's conj. xaXafijs in 0. T.
1279 : and it also reminds us that ro\/ir)ffTaros does not imply roXfirjs. The example of Oppian (Cyneg. 2. 140 dpyrjma
XoXixa) shows that late poets did not
shrink from this contraction. In Pindar
we find alyKaevra (P. 1. 10), oXxaecTos
(O. 9. 77), dpyaevTa (O. 13. 69), (jxavaevra
(O. 2. 93), with synizesis of a e ; though
recent edd. no longer write aiy\avra, etc.
On the whole, I believe that Soph, would
have felt that he had sufficient poetical
warrant for To\iir)(rTaTe. No emendation seems possible which is at once
tolerable in itself, and such as to account
for the tradition. ToKfdaTaTe was a
worthless conjecture. Such forms as
KXeirrioTaTos, (papiMKlpraTos always imply a positive in -r/s or -os, and occur
only in Comedy or in late prose.
9 8 5 otS': cp. 1003.|iij 2pirns: the

<t>IAOKTHTH

159

come along with it, or they will bring thee by force.


PH. What, thou basest and boldest of villains,are these
men to take me by force ?
OD. Unless thou come of thy free will.
PH. O Lemnian land, and thou all-conquering flame whose
kindler is Hephaestus,is this indeed to be borne, that yonder
man should take me from thy realm by force ?
OD. Tis Zeus, let me tell thee, Zeus, who rules this land,
Zeus, whose pleasure this is; and I am his servant.
PH.
Hateful wretch, what pleas thou canst invent!
Tohid<TTo.Tt, prob. from Triclinius.
8 8 5 Recent edd. write ii-rj tprr/s. The MSS.
exhibit three modes of writing: (i) with crasis, p.ijpirr)S, as L : (2) with prodelision
of , /Hi) "pirris, as A (1st hand): (3) with elision of rj, /t' Ipv-gs, as Vat.Brunck
wrote /xr) "pwrp: Hermann, /jeq "pT-gs.Wecklein adds 7' to Ipirr/s (as Blaydes also proposed).
9 8 8 O. Hense rejects this v.
9 8 9 Zeik ecrB' Nauck and Blaydes,
rightly: Zeis <r6' L and most edd.
99O Zeis 5' wi L (the 5' having been added
by S), K.

Polybius ap. Steph. Byz. s. v. AWdX-q.


coalescence of final t\ with an aspirated t
The same name was given to Ilva (Elba),
or a is extremely rare: Ar. Ach. 828 el
on account of its iron-stone.
/xij eripuae (cp. Han. 64, Lys. 736): Philemon IIa/>ei<ra>K 3 ?} inapTr/fia TI ;The
9 8 8 l...dirdTCu: el with fut. ind.
addition of y' to ^prqjs is plausible: but
is oft. thus used, where indignation is
the placid answer is perhaps more efimplied: cp. n. on 376: Lys. or. 12 15
fective without it: cp. 105.
OVK AeoOxTes.. .TO. retxVt e^ ireaarat, otidi
K7jS6fj.evoi run/ vewv, el.. .irapaSodriaot'Tat.
9 8 6 For the voc. combined with
TWV <ruv: T& ad, the precincts of Lemnom., cp. 867 n.<r\as' H<J>ai<rT6TvKnos and her iyx&pLoi Bed.
TOV, the flame wrought by Hephaestus,
i. e., the flame which he causes to break
9 8 9 Zcvs. Philoctetes has appealed
forth from the summit of the volcano
to the local deities of Lemnos. Odysseus
Mosychlus (800 n . ) : cp. Antimachus fr.
retorts that Zeus is above them all, and
6 'H0aZ<TTov <p\oyl el/ce\ov, TJV pa TL- that Zeus (by his oracle) has given the
TiSffKei I Salnwv aKfOTarmt 6peos Kopvipyai
behest which is now being executed.
Moa&x\ov. We need not suppose, with
tv tlStJS, here like 'let me tell thee,'
the schol., that the epithet refers directly
with a dictatorial tone.
Schneidewin
to Hephaestus working at his forge withcp. Od. 2. i n crol 8' (SSe fivrjerrripes vwoin the mountain. When hurled by Zeus
Kpivovd', Zva eldrfs | avrds 0"$ dv/jLy, eldwn
from Olympus, Hephaestus fell on Lemdi irdcTcs 'A%aioi.
nos, and was there tended by the Series
9 9 1 (ito-os: cf. Ant. 760 ayere TO fu(//. 1. 593). The isle was sacred to
<ros.Kol ii-avevpiaKas, ' dost indeed inhim,"R(palarif...y(u6.oiv
irohii ^IXTOTIJ
vent' (not, 'dost invent besides,' i.e., irpos
(Od. 8. 284) : Kpavabv iriSov "K<pcd<rToio
TOIS Ipyois): cp. 234 <pev TO KO.1 Xa/Seu':
(Dionys. Perieget. 522): Vulcania Lemand so in a question expressing surprise,
nos (Valerius Flaccus 4. 440: cp. Ov.
0. T. 1129 TTOTOV &j>8pa nal X^yeis;The
Fast. 3. 82). The chief seat of his
compound i^avevpl<TKu (like i^a^topda in
worship was the town of Hephaestia,
O. C. 1648) is otherwise strange to classituated on the northern inlet (now the
sical Greek, but appears to have been combay of Purnia).
mon later: Wyttenbach, in his Index to
Plutarch (p. 595), quotes eight instances
The Lemnians had an early repute as
of it from the Moralia. The inf. \e'-yeiv
workers in iron: Tzetzes on Lycophr.
460 Arifwwi, <is (prifflv 'MWavucos, evpov is epexeg. (' for thyself to say'): we cannot compare O. T. 120 If y&p ir6W &V
6ir\oirouav. The local cult and the local
Qeipoi fiadetv (n.). Perhaps it should be
industry of Lemnos were both expressed
Xevioy.
by its name AiWXem ('sooty'), ace. to

160

IO<t>OKAEOYI

deovs TrpoTeivo>v rows 8eov<; t/euSeis TLOTJ1;.


OA. OVK, dXX' dXrjdeis. rj 8' 0805 iropevrea.
<&I. ov ^ / A ' . OA. iya> Se <f>7)fi[. Treicrreov TotSe.
<E>I. CH/AOI TaXas.

OA.
<J>I.
L)A.
OA.
$1.

17/u.as /*> &s SouXous <ra<]>a><s

995

TraTrjp dp' ige<j>v(rev ov8' i\ev6epov<s.


ou/c, aXX' ofjiolov1; TOIS dpicrTounv, fieff an>
Tpoiav cr' eXetV Sei icai KaracrKaixfjau fiCa.
ouSeirore y s< ouS' 771/ x ^ jne Trav rraOeiv KCLKOV,
ecus y ' av ^ )u,ot y ^ s TOS' atTreivoi/
fiadpov.
IOOO
TI o e/ayacreiets; <P1. /f/aar C/AOI' Tpo auri/ca
TTcr/oa irer/aa? dvcodev alfid^a) veawv.
*^u\Xa/SeTov avrov firj VI TWS* ecrTW raSe.
a) ^eipes, 01a Tracr^er' ev XPe^ (f>^rl'S
vevpds, vtf dvSpoq rovSe (rvvdrjpconevat,.
1005
w firjSev vyies / ^ S ' iXevdepov fr

9 9 2 TWIJS Auratus and Porson: reel's MSS. (T<0eis B.)


9 9 3 17 5'] 778' (J/C) L:
though in the similar passage, .7. 1501, it gives 17 8'. Blaydes reads ij'5' here.
9 9 4 $1. ov ipTi/j.' ?7W7e. OA. 0i)^(' (corrected from 0>JM) L- And so the later
MSS. The reading in the text is Gemhard's. Wakefield had already given lyiayc
to OA.Teurriov t: iriartov L.
9 9 5 SovXover made from SoOAocr by 1st hand
in L.
997 Nauck conj. aptartwiv.
9 9 9 oiS4iroTi 7'] ovSiirore S' T.
XPVl XPV L, made from XPV by S./te] ye Tira.0eiv\ L has n written above ir.

9 9 2 irpoTcCvuv, as in aKrjtpw irporei- that, while he is not inferior to his enemy


veiv, putting the gods forward as authorin point of birth, he has been superior to
ity for thy deeds : i|(cv8cis TCOTJS, thou
him in such deeds as become an e\ei$epos.
makest them false,i.e., responsible for
It was Odysseus, not Philoctetes, who had
thy fraud. (Not, ' makest them false
gone to Troy only ' when brought under
prophets,' because Ph. will never go to
the yoke' (1025).
Troy.) For the art. with the repeated
997 f. TOIS apforouriv is far better
word, cp. 0. C. 277 KOX fii) 0eois Ti/j.Sn'Tes here than rots AptcrTevaiv, in which the
etra rois Seois | /xoipais iroetaBe ixi]Sa/xuk. idea of rank partly obscures that of per9 9 3 d\t]8ts, because their oracle will
sonal prowess.KaTa<rKdi|Mu: cp. 0. C.
be fulfilled: Ph. will be brought to Troy.
1421 ir&rpav KaTa<rK&t//avTi: ib. 1318
Thus Od. parries the thrust given by
KaTa<ncatprj...8ri<b<Teiv.
ij/evSeis TI0TJS.ij 8' 686s: cp. El. 1501
9 9 9 f. ovS^iroTt y: Ar. Pax 109 /net
iroXVfaiTupwveh,T) 8' 686s PpaStivcrai.
TOV Ai6vvaoV oiSiirore fwiros 7' i/nov.
9 9 4 ov ^V'-'Y ^ <f>T|)i.C. So
irav...KaK6v: cp. El. 615 xwptiv dv els
Gernhard.
The MSS. have oi <f)p.' vav Ipyov.^tjs T<58" alimvov pd6pov=
iyurye.tjnipl. Now, <pi))ii could stand
roSe 717s aiireivr)* fi&ffpov (952), this pethus alone, if it were the answer to a
destal of (=consisting in) a steep land,
question, <pi\s rj oi 0iys; but not here,
i.e., the island, with its sheer cliffs, on
where two persons are opposed to each
which he is standing. Cp. Ai. 859 <J
a
other. Cp. O. C. 840 XO. x ^<*" X^7
TV* ipv olicelas iriSov | 2o\ajoi!i'os, a ra<roi. KP. <rol 8' lyory' oSouropciv.im- rpfov fcrrias fidffpov (cp. ib. 135), where,
<rrfov To8e = 8ei irddeaBai rdSe. Cp.
as here, the whole island is the fldSpov.
1252.
1OO1 ipyaveUis; Cp. Tr. 1232 ip9 9 5 f. ii|xas \iiv'. cp. 965. These
yatrelav: Ai. 326 Spaaeluv: fr. 897
words show the speaker's bitter sense
&Kowettn>. The only other examples in

<t>IAOKTHTHI

161

Sheltering thyself behind gods, thou makest those gods liars.


OD. Nay, true prophets.Our march must begin.
PH. Never! OD. But I say, Yes. There is no help for it.
PH. Woe is me! Plainly, then, my father begat me to be
a slave and no free man.
OD. Nay, but to be the peer of the bravest, with whom thou
art destined to take Troy by storm, and raze it to the dust.
PH. NO, never,though I must suffer the worst,while I
have this isle's steep crags beneath me!
OD. What would'st thou do ? PH. Throw myself straightway from the rock and shatter this head upon the rock below !
OD. Seize him, both of you ! Put it out of his power!
PH. Ah, hands, how ill ye fare, for lack of the bow
that ye loved to draw,yon man's close prisoners! O thou
who canst not think one honest or one generous thought,
1OOO eW L, after which y' has been erased, (as y' Triclinius, Blaydes, Cavallin.
1OO2 Hermann conj. irtrpas axwflex TTJGS' ivai/xd^di reffiiv.
1OO3 * fyWdfieTov
airbv Bernhardy: fuXXd/Ser' airrbv L : v\\df3eT4 y' avrbv A : ^vWafiere TOUT-OX Triclinius: v\\afieT' &p' avrby Wecklein (Ars p. 33) and Hartung: ,i;iAXd/3eT', &y',
avrbv Burges: fuXXd/Sere, vavrai Hense: fuXXa/Ser', dfy', OUTOJ Cavallin: t)XXa^ TIS
avrbv Bergk: ^vn/idp^ar' airbv M. Schmidt.

Tragedy are Eur. Phoen. 1208 Spaaelerov:


H. F. 628 (fievfrlai.
1OO3 irrp<j, locative (rather than
instrum.) dat. with ai|ida>: cp. 0. T.
1266 tirel Si Tjj | fteeiTo.irirpas, from
the rock, with irr<ov: cp. 613, 630.
Such a use of the simple gen. with irlirretr would be somewhat harsh, were
there nothing in the context to explain
it; but here, the adv. dv8v, 'from
above,' placed between irirpas and iretrthv, prevents any obscurity. (axwtfex
cannot be a prep, governing wh-pas, since
it could mean only, ' above the rock.')
Cp. Tr. 782 (where Lichas is hurled
from the cliff) uparbs SiaairapfrTos a't/iaT6I 8' bfwv.
1OO3 v\X(f3cTOv avrdv is far the
best correction of L's |nXXdpT* avT6v.
The addition of Y to |vX\df3crc was a
feeble makeshift, and cannot be excused
by assuming that the attendants had
taken the initiative, so that their master
merely says, ' Yes, seize him.' The use
of the dual' Seize him, you two men'
is the more natural here, since each
grasps one of his arms. Cp. O. C. 1437
pJdeaBe 6' ijSri, xafperox T' (as here, in
1054, we have the plur.): so in Ar. Plut.
76 the imperat. dual aKoierov follows i*6-

J. S. IV.

tirBe in 75. Other Attic examples of


the imperat. dual are Ar. Av. 107 e?7raTOV : Plat. Euthyd. 294 C lmSefdroi>.
In Homer it is frequent (//. 1. 322; 7.
279; 8. 186, 191; 20. 115; 23. 443; Od.
4. 60).
1OO4 f. & X64"S : his arms have been
seized by the two attendants, one of
whom stands on each side of him: but
we are not to infer from 1016 (txwiiiaas)
that he was actually bound. Cp. 1054.
Heracles in Tr. 1089 uses a similar apostrophe; <3 x^Pes x^p K-T.X.hi XPC'?:
for 4v, denoting circumstance, cp. 185 n.
<rw8i|fxa|Mvai: cp. Ant. 432 <rbv Si
xix J dijpufieB1 eu0t5s.
1OO6 w |]8^v byi.ls...<bpovav. The
phrase oi5it> vyiis was a common one
in Attic, and is often used by Eur.,
though never by Aesch., and only here
by Soph. It is thrice combined with
<t>poveiv by Eur.,twice to denote malevolence ; fr. 496 oiSiv SOKOVGIV iyite
&vdpd(nv tf>povtiv: fr. 821 WJ ityUt ofidtv
<l>affl fiTjrpvid.i tppovetv \ voQouri irauxiv:

and in Androm. 448 to describe the dishonesty of Spartans,eXi/cri KoiSiv byiis


dXXd TTOX ir^tf I (ppovovvres.(iT|8iv fryi^s,
nothing of a sound kind,the generic
/j.ri: cp. 409 nrjSh SUaiov, n. This use
II

20<J>0KAE0YI

162

of *av [JL vTrfjXdes, o>9 ju.' i0r)pdo-co, \afia>v


irpop^kq^a <ravTOV iralha. TOVS' dyvar' ifj-ot,
dvd^iov (lev crov, Kardtjiov S' ifiov,
os ovBev #Sei vXrjv TO Trpocrra^Bev iroeiv,
S77X09 8e KaX vvv icrriv dXyeivtos tyipotv
ot9 T auTos egyjfiaprev oi<s T eya> Tiauov.
aAA >/ K<UO) crq ota fii/)(Ci>v pkenovo- aei
t/>i^ry v' d<j>vd T ovra KOV Oikovd' /
eu vpovhCha^ev iv Ka/cois etvai cro(f>6v.
Kal I'ui' eft', to Svo-r^e, o-ui'ST7cras I'oets
ayeiv air a/CT^s T17o"O, ev f) fi.e npovpaKov
a<j)iXov iprj/jiov arrdkiv kv tfticrw veKpov.
oXoto* Kai 0-01 7ro\\a/s TOS )
dXK' ov yap ovSev deol vfiovo~w TJSV /IOL
cru fiev yiyr)6a<; t,<ov, eyw 8' dXyvvojjiai
TOVT

avff

OTL <3 crvv

IOIO

1015

IO2O

Kaxois TroXXot?

7rpo<s crov r e /cai T(3v

crTpaTTjycjv, oh o~u ravff


1OO7 of ai! /u' Hermann: ofa /it' L (with most MSS.): o?us r (and Porson /Wz>. p.
201): oTos /A' Triclin.: oKy /*' Blaydes.ois M' MSS. {V has 7/). 6 written above):
Wakefield conj. 8s p', and so Dindorf.
IOIO jjiSei L : ri$eiv Dind.
1O12 01s
T' OUT4S] ofs avT&s T.'iraOov] irildov MSS.
1O14 aipva Lud. Dindorf: d<pvrj
of nyStv (instead of oiSiv) here would
probably sound the more natural, since
the same combination oft. occurred in
phrases with the inf.: as Eur. Ph. 200

fair suspicion. And in Apoll. Rhod. 4.


786 oifws is much more probable than
ol'i;.4irij\8s : cp. 0. T. 386 Xd6pf /i'
iwe\0d>i>: cp. inroTp(xel-v. Ovid Ars
ildoiiii Si TIS I yvvai!-i firjdiv iyiis dXX^Xois
amat. 1. 742 Si tibi laudanti credidit,
\iyeui:
fr. 660 dXKifi S' dptexei /j.tiSiv
ipse subit ('supplants thee').
iryiis K <ppei>wv \ \iyovri veiffeiv roiis iri1OO8 irp^p\i))i.a, a screen: Plat. Soph.
\as To'X/tj; KaKy: A r . Plut. 50 T& nr/div
tiurKeiv iiyUs.
k\eif)epov=t\ev6{pw>i:
Tr. 63 5o6\i)
liiv, etpr/Kev 5' \eti0epoi> X670C: fr. 855
ei <rw/J.a SovKov, aXX' 6 vovs {\c68epos.

1OO7 of ad |i' virfjX0s : Odysseus


had 'stolen upon' Ph. before, when he
contrived that he should be left on Lemnos: cp. 264, 407 ff. Thus or at fi' is
the best and simplest correction of L's
ofo fi1. But Nauck is too hasty in saying
that ol'ws ft' is impossible, because the

261 A (a sophist is dvaSr/pcvros), <j>aXveT<u


ykp odv irpo(3\7]tiaTa)v y/j.eiv (to have a

large supply of outworks), ui> iiruScai


TtTpof3d\ri,TOVTOTrp6Tepoi>ai>ayKa.'iov8ia.imxeadai irpiv ir' airbv iiceivop d<pui(rBa.L.

1 0 0 0 f. dvd^iov fXv <rov, too good for


thee: cp. OVK tarn as ='greater,' oix
8/ioios as = 'more important': 0. T. 810
n. Wakefield cp. Ter. Phorm. 2. 2. 28
te indignas seque dignas contumelias j
Numquam cessavit dicere hodie. For the
emphatic place of <rov, cp. 907 Spa's (n.).
adv. was always OZOK or ola. In Ar.
ovS^v fjSa irXijv K.T.\., t.e., 'had no
Vesp. 1362 f., certainly, ifv' airbv roiBdew ideas' beyond obedience to orders: a
veaviKus \ mas vo6' OBTOS /J irpb Tun> freq. phrase in Comedy (Ar. Av. 19,
pvarripiuiv, the v. I. ol'ois is tenable: but Ran. 740, etc.).
in Ai. 923 ofos we oVus ?xs is beyond
1O11 f, Kai vvv, already, though the

<t>IAOKTHTHI

163

how hast thou once more stolen upon me, how hast thou snared
me,taking this boy for thy screen, a stranger to me,too good
for thy company, but meet for mine,who had no thought but
to perform thy bidding, and who already shows remorse for his
own errors and for my wrongs. But thy base soul, ever peering
from some ambush, had well trained him,all unapt and unwilling as he was,to be cunning in evil.
And now, wretch, thou purposest to bind me hand and foot,
and take me from this shore where thou didst fling me forth,
friendless, helpless, homeless,dead among the living!
Alas!
Perdition seize thee ! So have I often prayed for thee. But,
since the gods grant nothing sweet to me, thou livest and art
glad, while life itself is pain to me, steeped in misery as I am,
mocked by thee and by the sons of Atreus, the two chieftains,
for whom thou doest this errand.
MSS. BiXovS'] 8i\uv 6' L, made from Bi\ov8' (for nothing indicates that the 1st hand
meant 9i\ov 8').
1O17 irpovfixkov] wpo6pd\ov V.
1O18 airoKiv] Wakefield
conj. airopov.
1O19 KO.1 aoi] Wakefield conj. KCLITOI.ijv^d/irip L, with ev
written over r/v by 1st hand.
1O23 <rov re r: aov ye L.
time for remorse has been short.ols=
but cp. Her. 6. 101
^/
TO&TOIS (causal dat.) d.'iroOov: cp.
(put them ashore). The word is much
'(pirn Ant. 457 n.
stronger than el-idyic' (5), or irpodivres
(268): like lppi\pav (265), it implies ruth1O13 ff. Sid |u>x<3v pXlirovir', peering
less scorn: cp. Ai. 830 pi<p8u> Kvalv irpbforth through (the obscurity of) the secret
J3\7JTOS.diroXiv: cp. O. C. 1357 Kadijicas
places from which it watches. Cp. Tr.
914 \a8paX0v 6ufi' iireaKi.aaii.ivri \ <ppoi- airohiv. To have no JT<S\IS was to be an
povy'. EL 490 Setvots KpvTrroiiiva AA^ots outcast from human society. It is the
Homeric dippfy-wp, aSifuaros, dvianos
('EpivAs). Plat. Rep. 519 A 77 oDirw hrei>6riicas, T&v \eyofUvwv irovrip&v jiiv, (II. 9. 63).
aocpwv di, dis Spi/ii p.iv fiXiirei rb \pv1O2O 8eol: for the synizesis, cp. 1036,
xdpiov Kal 6i(os Siopg. i<p' a TirpiiirTm...; 0. C. 964 n.
The words are illustrated by the keenness
1O22 ff. Seyffert puts a comma after
with which Odysseus had seized, and
tfi, and takes <rvv KOKOIS iroXXots with
used, the weak side of the youth's chaYeXii(jitvos ('mocked, in addition to my
racter,his desire for glory (113120).
woes'). This punctuation, he argues, is
necessary to the sense; for Ph. means
d<j>vd. When -a is preceded by , the
that life itself (a joy to others) is a pain
contr. is -ed, as ipSea: when by 1 or v, it
to him; whereas, if (rvv KUKOIS iroXXots
is alternatively -10 or -irj; -vd or -urj.
be
joined with J3, Ph. will merely say
Of the alternative forms, those with d
that his pain consists in the misery of his
were the standard Attic down to about
life. Cavallin adopts this view. The
350 B.C.: thus Eii0ua is attested by an
answer to Seyffert's dilemma is, I think,
Attic inscription of 356 B.C. Afterwards
that <rvv KCXKOIS ITOWOIS is not merely an
the forms with TJ prevailed. Cp. Meisteradverbial qualification of J<3 (' live misehans, p. 66, who cites Moeris p. 316:
rably'), but is here equivalent to Kanoh
vyid 'ATTIKUS, iytij 'EMT/PUCWS.irpoiJiroKhoTs awiiiv ('live,in company with
S8a|ev: cp. 538 wpoti/iaffov (n.).
many woes'). There is no objection to a
1O16 ff. <rwSi]<ras with d-yeiv. He
comma after f<3, provided that there be
anticipates such an indignity from the fact
one after rdXos also; but it seems unthat the two attendants are still holding
necessary. For aiv, cp. 268 n.T&V
his arms (1005).irpotfpdXov is an ex'A^
cp. 943 n.
ceptional use of the midd. in this sense:
II 2

164

IO<t>OKAEOYI
KaiTOL crv fiev KXoTrfj re Kavdyicr) vyels
eVXeis d/x avrois, e/ie Se TO> wavdOXiov
ezcoVra irXevcravO' ewTa. vavcrl vavfidTrjv
aTLfiov epa\ov, <ws cry 9775, KCIVOI oe ere.
Kai vuv r i /x,' a y e r e ; r t /x' ctTrayecr^e; TOU

os ouSeV eijut xal riQwy^ vfuv TrdXai.

1025

^apiv;

1030

7T<US, W ^COIS )(dL<TT, VVV OVK elfLi (TOL

TrXeucravros, aWeuv lepd;

TTWS (nrevSeiv e n ;
e/*e.

1O28 ?^aXoi<] Dindorf (after Diibner) says that L has I/C/SOXOK here,a statement
which is repeated by Blaydes, Cavallin, and Mekler. This is incorrect: L has
ifiaXov (see Autotype Facsimile, p. 91 A, 1. 5 from bottom). The error perh.
arose from the resemblance of L's /3 to K: see cr. n. on Ant. 1098.us] Hartung
conj. ous.S <rt L. The 1st hand wrote Si ae, which S corrected.
1O28

rl n' dyyere;] N a u c k conj. TI Spare;

Schubert, ri fiirtre;

1 O 3 2 Zi-enT'

Pierson: eve<r8' MSS. (?fe<r' the corrector of V).Brunck gives ?Jr0' ('id est,
SfBe'as
if it could stand for ?feTe): Herm., IT' HOT'. Wakefield conj. &;s:

115ff.Agamemnon and Menelaus brought


j J Y u J y s , brought
Odysseus from Ithaca to Troy by perunder the yoke (of military service) by
suasion.
stratagem and compulsion. For I
cp. Aesch. Ag. 841 \1Jbv0s S' 'Od
1 0 2 7 TTA vawl, the 'sociative' use
Savcp oi>x eK&v ? T \ , | feu%Seis Irot/ios of the dat., to denote attendant circumfiv ifnoi <reipa<p6pos. Odysseus was instance : cp. El. 704 exrfs 1- AiVwXios |
Ithaca when he was called to the war,
gavOatai ir<4Xois. Xen. An. 3. 1. 11 i\and feigned madness. Palamedes, the
dbvTwv. ..HepffQv.. .jrafiirXTjBe'iffT&kip.T h e
envoy of the Greeks, found him ploughpoet follows / / . 2. 718 TQV Si 4>iX<wcT77T7jt
ing with an ox and an ass yoked tojj/JXev, T<5wv eti eiSlis, | &rrA vewv.
gether, and placed the infant Telemachus
1028
^|3aXov == irpou/SaW : cp. At.
in front of the plough; when Odysseus
1333 &8airTov...fia\elv (and ib. 1309).
betrayed his sanity by stopping. As in
ws <ri ^rf\% K.T.X.: Blaydes (who comthe case of Solomon's judgment, the
pares Ar. Th. 801 Tj/ieu fiv yip <pa/j.ev
typically shrewd man relied on his coni/tas, I i/ieis 8' ^JUSJ) asks how Philoctetes
viction that art could be surprised by
could know this. We can only suppose
nature. Cp. Lycophron 815 ff., where
that, before he was put on shore at
Cassandra says to Odysseus, <3 <rxr\t\
Lemnos, the decision was announced to
us <rot Kpeieaov ^v fii/meiy v&rpq. (in
him by the Atreidae, who laid the reIthaca) I ^otfKaTOvfTtj... j ir\atTT(UGi Xtfo"sponsibility on Odysseus. It was he who
atp nijxavdis ol<rrfnintv<#. Tzetzes ad foe.,
actually put Philoctetes ashore; and,
and Hyginus Fab. 95, tell the story. Iri
when doing so, he may have cast the
Ovid Met. 13. 34 Ajax contrasts himself
blame on his superiors,as he does in
with Odysseus:An quod in arma prior
v. 6. The occasional visitors to Lemnos
nulloque sub indice veni \ Arma neganda
(307) cannot well have been Ph.'s inmihi? Potiorque videbitur ille \ Ultima
formants, since the Atreidae and Odysqui cepit, detrectavitque furore \ Militiam seus would not court notoriety for their
ficto: donee sollertior isto, \ Sed sibi inudeed (cp. 257).
tilior, timidi commenta retexit \ Naupli1O28 f. ayert, take me away,referades animi, vitataque traxit in arma ?
ring to the use of physical force; dirdSophocles wrote an 'Odvaaeds Maiv6/j.f- yeo-06,
carry me with you,referring to
vos on this theme. According to Od. 24.
their ulterior purpose. For the midd.,

4HA0KTHTHI

i65

Yet thou sailedst with them only when brought under their
yoke by stratagem and constraint; but Ithrice-wretched that
I amjoined the fleet of mine own accord, with seven ships,
and then was spurned and cast outby them, as thou sayest, or,
as they say, by thee.
And now, why would ye take me ? why carry me with you ?
for what purpose ? I am nought; for you, I have long been
dead. Wretch abhorred of heaven, how is it that thou no
longer findest me lame and noisome ? How, if I sail with you,
can ye burn sacrifices to the gods, or make drink-offerings any
more ? That was thy pretext for casting me forth.
Canter, apl-eaO': Wecklein, etcre<r0': Nauck, T\i<rvr8' (and so Cavallin). Blaydes
gives irwt iiiov '^iarax Beott.ifiov MSS. (yp. 6/J.OV V). 6/u>v Gernhard, Seyffert,
Wecklein.
1O33 n-Wtraxros] Nauck conj. TcapbvToi (and formerly, $ei/focTos):
Burges, 7re\a<ra7-os: Pierson, Kka.iaa.vTo*: Hartung, artvovrm. Mekler gives e<rr'
e/j.i | \eti<r<rovTa, <r' aldeui.iepck] lp& Dindorf.
1O34 auri;] avrr) L. Mollweide
rejects this verse.

613, 988.ovSlv t|u: cp. 951.


nx' v|itv, dat. of relation, meaning
here, ' so far as it rested with you to kill
m e . ' C p . O. C. 429 A,v&<TTa.Tos \ airoiv
evrii.<t>8riv ( n . ) : Ai. 1128 0ebs yi,p inaiptei.
ixe, TtpSc d' otxo/J.a.1.
1O31 ff. <roi, 'in thy sight,' ethic
dat.: cp. 0. T. 40 Kpa/narov iraaw. Ant.
904 n.Svo-uSr]s. This word might suggest that it was the presence of Ph. in
the same ship which the Greeks found insupportable. But the poet cannot have
meant that. Chryse was imagined by
him as close to Lemnos (fr. 352); and
Ph. would have been put on board one
of his own ships (1027). iiwi68ip must
refer, then, to his presence at the sacrifices in Chryse, which his cries interrupted (cp. 8, n.). Sophocles probably
took this touch from the Cypriathe
epic prelude to the Iliadin which it
was said that Ph. was bitten at Tenedos,
where the Greek warriors were feasting,
and then Sid rijv 8v(ro<r/iiav iv A
Ka.Tc\el<p6ri (Proclus Chrest. p. 475).

'how will ye be able' to do so. But such


a phrase would be peculiarly awkward
when the other sense of e0|e<r0e would
necessarily be suggested by 0eots, affleiv,
airivSuv. Thus the context condemns
i<r8\ With regard to the conjecture
?{H>' it should be noted that its probability is confirmed by that of the further
conjecture, 6|iou instead of 4|iov. The
traditional v|<r6* i\u>v might, indeed,
have arisen from ?5KrT> ^P 0 "' but would
have been a still easier corruption of
it<r8' 6|ioii. Given 8", the proximity
of Ocots would suggest to a scribe that
e<r8' must be a blunder for effe<r0'.
The corruption of Zi-effS' into eSea6'
occurred earlier, we may infer, than that
of 6/uoD into e/iov. And this inference
is supported by the fact that a tradition
of 6/ioO as a current v. I. is preserved
in r , while the only trace of I|e<r0' appears to be a correction (prob. conjectural) in V.
Against Ir0* it has been objected
that the fat. is required. But Ph. is
ironically
repeating what the Greek chiefs
ir<us...l!<r6', 6110S K.T.X. The MSS.
said long ago, and is supposing that he
have irs...6Hr, ifkov. For cvgco-0*
is once more their comrade. 'When I
only two senses are possible: (1) 'vmv'
have once sailed with you, how can ye
to sacrifice. The pres. inf. could stand:
cp. Aesch. Ag. 933 5)C|w 0e<Hs SeUras av sacrifice ?' With 6(>v irXcvcavros, tyou
a>S' (pSav r&Se. But here the question is is easily understood: cp. Plat. Parm.
137 C ifii ya,p \4ycts rbv veiirarov \iywv.
of actual sacrificing, not of vowing to do
o\V tpilrra. (is airoKpivoviiivov (sc. ifiov).
so at a future time. (2) ' H o w will ye
boast that ye sacrifice?'a way of saying,

IO*OKAEOYZ

166

okoicrB'- dXeicr#e 8' J J


TOV dvSpa Tovhe, deoiaw el SIKT^S /
e^oiSa 8' ws /xeXet y ' - eTret OUTTOT' aV aroXov
iTrXevaar' aV TOVS' ovveK aVSpos ddXCov,
el fjurj TL ttevrpov Oeiov rjy vfici's ifiov.
d\X', (o TraTpcpa yrj deoi T eTroxfuoL,
reicracrOe Teiaacrff dXXa TW -^povai irore
fu/ATravras avrovs, et r t /cdju,' oifcripere'
(OS 4 W / i C OLKTpO)?,

t O

LOOI.fl

IO

35

1040

OA.CoA.OTaS

SoKotfi av TTJS VOO"OU Tre<f>evyevcu.


XO. {5apv<; r e /cai fiapeiav 6 ^ivo<; <j>d.Tw
TT^VS' etTr', 'OSucrcrei', /<ov^ vireiKovo-av /caK
TOUTOVS,

OA. 770XX' av \4yeiv

IO

45

evot/ni TTOOS TCI TOUS' ITJT;,

ei fJLOL irapeucoL' vvv o evos Kparw \oyov.


ov yap ToiovTwv Sei, TOIOVTOS CI/A' eycJ*
X<SiTOV SIKOLCWV KayaOwv

dvhpatv

OVK av XaySots /AOU fxdXkov


VLKOLV ye

fievroi

vavra^ov

ovSiv

Kpicris,

evcref3yj.

yjprjt,a>v etj>vv,

ets ere* vvv he crot y ' kc<i>


ktc<i>v

e-Tro

1O35 6\u(T$e 5' Brunck: 8XorSc 5' MSS. (8\our$' T, which illustrates the origin of the
error).
1O37 oi5a 8' L : ?oi5a y' A, T, etc.: QoiSa T' Harl.eTrei OOTTOT' A : eir'
OUTTOT' Lt ^7re yt KOVTTOT' K.: ^Tref Y' elr' OVTTOT1 B. Triclinius wrote ^?ret our' ac (rriXoi*
(assumiflg hiatus).
1O38 Brunck prints a comma after u/tSs, taking ^uou with
dvSpbs d8\lov in 1038/Nauck rejects this v.
1O43 us] Reiske conj. os.
1O46 {nrelKomav made from bTfyovaav in L.
1O48 eyos Kparu \6yov] For e6s
1O3S f. o'Xoio-6' dXetordc 8" : Blaydes
cp. Ar. Th. 887 xaKus dp' e{6\oio#
/caJoXef 7' &< [7^ TOI vulg.].BtoZrtv,

emOv/da, since nhrpov, like olffTpos, was


constantly associated with that idea.
Plat. Rep. 573 E iSffirep y7r6 Kivrpuv
** I cp. 1020.
eXavvof/.tvovs TWV ... eindv[u)i> ... oltrrpav
('rage'). Eur. Hipp. 39 Kfrrpots Ipiaros:
1O37 f. |i4\i Y' : 7 emphasises the
?^. 1303 Siixt)ei<ra Kivrpon ('A0poS/T^s).
verb, cp. 660.4iri OSITOT : for this
So an objective gen. can follow oT<rr/>os
synizesis, cp. 446 n.Philoctetes has not
found the gods kindly: cp. 254, 452, when it means olarpdiStis eiriOvfda.: Anthol.
11. 389. 4 iiO\ ai y' direcpealuv
1020. But the very fact that Odysseus
oforpos eX?j Kre&vuv.
and his comrade have taken the trouble
to visit Lemnos shows that at least the
1O4O 6coC T ' eirot|>ioi, gods who look
gods have some care for justice. Maimed
upon the deeds of men, noting the good
as Ph. is (dvSpos d6\Cov), he is not one and the evil. The name ivbipLOS was
whom those pitiless warriors would have
specially given to Zeus,primarily in
sought, had not the gods driven the
reference to the fact that, as Sfurros, he
sense of need for him like a goad into
was so often worshipped on mountain
their souls. The Greeks must be failing
summits,as on Parnassus, Cithaeron,
at Troy; and their failure is the proof
Parnes, Hymettus, Ida, etc. Hence his
that the gods are just.
epithets iirditpios, dxpatos, and in Boeotia
1O39 For the place of TI, cp. 104 n.
p
K'vTpov...t|J.ou, the sting of need for
Thus the invocation of iraTpiia ^rj, in
me. The objective gen. is like that after connection with luot|>ioi, is peculiarly ap-

*IAOKTHTHS

167

Miserably may ye perish!and perish ye shall, for the


wrong that ye have wrought against me, if the gods regard
justice. But I know that they regard it; for ye would never
have come on this voyage in quest of one so wretched, unless
some heaven-sent yearning for me had goaded you on.
O, my fatherland, and ye watchful gods, bring your vengeance,
bring your vengeance on them all,at last though late,if in
my lot ye see aught to pity! Yes, a piteous life is mine; but,
if I saw those men overthrown, I could dream that I was
delivered from my plague.
CH. Bitter with his soul's bitterness are the stranger's words,
Odysseus; he bends not before his woes.
OD. I could answer him at length, if leisure served ; but
now I can say one thing only. Such as the time needs, such
am I. Where the question is of just men and good, thou wilt
find no man more scrupulous. Victory, however, is my aim in
every field,save with regard to thee: to thee, in this case,
I will gladly give way.
Schneidewin conj. K&V: F. W. Schmidt, dvds. Wecklein, vvv 5' M s Kaipos \6yov.
1O51 \df3ms pov r : \a/So<cr
1O49 08 r : ou L.TOIOI5TOM'] Nauck conj. iravoipywv.
1O53 vvvSicroly'
(without/tow) L.
1O52 XPVtav] "IP- Kpelcnrw L in marg.
exuiv] Bergk conj. ool Si vvv y' exOiv : Blaydes, ool Si vvv KWV.

propriate for Ph., in whose country Zeus


cp. Ant.
472 etxeiv S' oix iirlarwrai
Kaxots (n.).
was worshipped on Oeta (cp. 728 n.).
The secondary sense of eir6^ioj'watch1 O 4 8 irapctxoi, impers., here=<rxX')
ing over' human lifeis associated with
efi?: Thuc. 3. 1 irpoafioKal...kylyvovTo...
STTJ irapelxM.evos Kpa.T<3 \6you, ' I have
the first by Callimachus in his Hymn to
Zeus, 82 ff.: Swxas Si TrrdKUBpa <f>v\a<r- the power (i.e., leisure) to say only one
aiiuev ffeo 5' airos | ixprp iv irroMeemv,
thing.' Cp. 0. T. 409 t<x' avrCKi^ac
iv6^/ios ot re SUxi<n | \abv tiwi <rico\iys, rovSe yhp Kayo) KparQ.Not, 'lay hold
upon' one saying, i.e., 'take my stand
ot T' l/ixaXiv Wivovcrai. Apoll. Rhod. 2.
upon'it.
1125 avrbixcOa irp&s Zrjvbs iwo^/lov: and
ib. 1182 Zetis airrbs T& ?KOCTT' iiriStpKerai
1O49 ff. 709, prefacing the statement:
915.TOU>TWV, 'such or such' a man,
(as Soph. El. 175 Zeis 8s (<pop<} iravra
icai Kparivei). As the vindicator of right,
' any given kind' of person:euphemistic
for So\lav, or the like. Such a colloquial
Zeus was also called duccudcrvvos, aXdimap,
Tinwp6s. Ace. to Hesych. s. v. vb\pu>s, use of TOIOOTOS seems quite intelligible,
the epithet was also given to Apollo.
since it could be interpreted by an exBut, next to Zeus, the deity whom iirbpressive tone of the voice, or by a slight
^ios most directly suggests is Helios iravgesture. (Not, ' such as thou hast deinrrris, 6eS>v GKOTT&S i)Sk KO! dvSpQv
scribed.') It would be grievous to change
(Horn. hym. 5. 62).
TOIOUTWV into iravoup-yiov, as Nauck pro1 0 4 1 TtitraaSi: cp. 959.<i\Xd TU poses.KpCiris, lit., trial, competition
Xpo'v([>: so in El. 1013: in Tr. 201 a\X&
(7>. 266 irpbs Tt>%ov Kpl<nv): the usual
(xvv xpt>v<#. Cp. above, 950 n.
word would be d.yihv, but euphony would
1 0 4 2 K&p. : i.e., 'me, on the other
not permit it here.|iov: see n. on 47.
1OS2 f. vucdv: cp. 109, 134.ye
p a r t ' : for this Kal, cp. 0. C. 53 Sir' oXSa
Kayii (n.). _
\Uvroi: 93 n.els art, with regard to
1O44 rfjs vo<rou: Od. 1. 18 oi)S' ivda.
thee: Ant. 731 ei)<re/Seu< ds rote mKois.
V(^>vy/jUvos %ev dd0\uv. Cp. Ant. 488 n.
Odysseus is resigned to Ph. carrying his
point by staying in Lemnos.4KOTI]1O46 f. (3apvs: 368 n.KOV\ iirtCK.:

168

IO0OKAEOYI
acfrere ydp avrov, /ATJSC TrpocnfjavcrrjT' en*
eare [iCfivecv. ovhe crov Trpoo~)(pril,ofi.ev,
rd y oV\' e^o^res ravr'
kirel ndpeo-Tt, p
TevKpos nap' "qfJ^v, Trjvh' hno-Tr\[Lt)v evatv,
eyo tr, os ot/xai crov KCLKIOV ovotv av
TOVTCOV Kparvvew fjurjh' eTndvvetv \pL
a
e T1 I/
TC Si^ra crov Set; X '/
7 A-YJ/JLVOV ira/rav.
77/AeIs 8' iwfjLtv iced Ta^' a^ TO crov yipas

1060

TL/xrjv ifiol vev/Jbeiev, rjv o~ XPVV ^XeLV'


<&I. olfioi'
T I Spacra) Bvcrfiopos',
o-v rots ejaois
O7rX.oicrt Koo-jj.r)6el<i iv ' A p y e i o t s <f>avel;

OA. /AT/ /A' dvrufxoveL [iTjSev, ws (rret^ovra S77.

1065

1 O 5 5 ou& iroO] ouSeffou (V) L . Of the later MSS. some have ouS^ croO, others ovdi iron.
Wakefield conj. otm <rou.
1 O 5 6 ^irei irapean /iv\ F o r /J^C, Blaydes conj. Hi).
W u n d e r , iirdircp fan i*iv.
1 O 6 7 TeOxpos 7rap' ^/UK] Erfurdt conj. xal Ted/epos ij/ui
1 O 5 8 yii 9' MSS.: eyii 8' Benedict.
1 O 5 0 nyS'] Nauck c o n j . ^ 5 ' i B i
MSS.: eircuSid'Ki' N a u c k .
1 O 6 O nji'] C . Walter conj. oip>, and so N a u c k .

<ropai, 'make way for' (and so, here,


iliuv=simply, 'Teucer is with u s ' : but
'defer t o ' ) : Ar. Ran. 353 e6(pTineiv xi"l irdpeori Teikpos Trap' TI/UH = ' Teucer is
available, being with us,''Teucer is at
1O54 f. a<}>Te 7ap avrov K.T.X. The hand to serve us.'So in Plato I.e., 'he
is at your command,quite near you.'
Yolp confirms extrTiiffo/tat. ' I will yield;
TapeTvu vapdnvi, though rare, is parallel
for (I now say) 'loose him." Hence we
with ipeTvai 2i> TIKI (0. C. 115 f.), and
may render, ' Yes, loose him.' Cp. 1004.
similar to Trdpos rtvis irporlBeaOcu (ib.
ovSJ <rou. If we wrote oiii <rov, then
418).
the stress would fall on irpo<rxp^o|J.Ev.
' (We shall leave thee here.) Nor do we
1O58 4Y<4 8'. After xdpeim pAv
need thee.' This is possible. But it seems
Tempos, the regular constr. would have
to extort a little too much from the verb:
been trdpei/u Si iyiii. But, having omitand o-ot! is also recommended by the conted to repeat the verb, the poet has
trast with TO 7' SirX" in 1056.
written {yd $', since iy> S' would now
have been awkward. Cp. Ant. 1162
1O57 f. TtUKpos: //. 13. 313 levxpis
0', Ss apurros 'Axaivv | Tootr6i>ri, aya$bsffthffas fj.iv... I \afi<hv re (n.).
Si (tot ii> araSly iaiilrg. The words
|M|S* iri8vveiv. The Ionic and Epic
TTJVS* 4irwmj|j,T|v express that skill with
form Wivta, though unknown to Comedy
the bow was not a regular attribute of the
or classical prose, occurs in our MSS. of
Homeric warriorwhoseordinary weapon
Aesch. and Eur.,and not in lyrics only.
was the spearbut the special accomSome edd. now always give eidtivoi in
plishment of a few, such as Teucer,
Trag.; unnecessarily, I think.
Meriones, Philoctetes. Cp. Ai. 1120,
After a verb of thinking or saying, 01)
where Menelaus tauntingly calls Teucer
is the ordinary negative with the inf. :
6 TO6TI;S.irap' ^piv. The addition of
but nil sometimes occurs (0. T. 1455 n.,
irapa, after irrfporri, is unusual: but cp.
2nd ed.). Here the question is, why the
Plat. Phaedr. 243 E oBros irapi. <roi n&\a second inf. should have |J.T)S' , when ovSiv
irXyalov del tr&peanv. where Thompson
precedes the other. Two answers are
rightly rejects Cobet's proposal (Fitr.
possible. I place first that which seems
Led. p. 119) to delete iripeffriy and write
to me right. (1) ovSiv belongs to KaKiov
T&pa am. It should be noticed that,
only, and not to Kparvwiv. Thus there
both there and here, a slightly different
is no incongruity between obSbi and
shade of meaning is given by the preivrfii, since only nrfit belongs to an inf.
sence of the prep.: i. e., xdpeffn TeCxpot
This may be seen by supposing an equi'
KcLt-l<FTatT0ai rots Tjfj.eripoi(ri "XPP&GW'

4HA0KTHTHI

i69

Yes, release him, lay no finger upon him more,let him


stay here.Indeed, we have no further need of thee, now that
these arms are ours; for Teucer is there to serve us, well-skilled
in this craft, and I, who deem that I can wield this bow no
whit worse than thou, and point it with as true a hand. What
need, then, of thee ? Pace thy Lemnos, and joy be with thee!
We must be going. And perchance thy treasure will bring to
me the honour which ought to have been thine own.
PH. Ah, unhappy that I am, what shall I do ? Shalt thou
be seen among the Argives graced with the arms that are mine ?
OD. Bandy no more speech with meI am going.
J H e r w e r d e n conj. Kipas.
1 O 6 2 ijc <r' ixPV" M s s > (v ^XPV" "' '
XPV" EUendt.
1 O 6 4 <f>avei;] tpcwrjt.; L.Mekler conj. OTTXOK if 'Apydotiri
1 O 6 5 ii<r] I n L the <r has been added b y S.

valent phrase substituted for aov KIXKIOV


1 0 6 0 njv Atjuvov: the art. here is
oibiv:
e.g., olfiai SfioLa trot Tofrroiv a?
like our possessive pron. used with a
v
KpaTtiveu/, ftfjfe x&P eirid6vetv.
Schnei- scornful tone: cp. 3 8 : : Ant. 324 n6pdewin cp. Plat. Prot. 319 B S0ev dt airb
riyov/juu oiSiSanrov elvai, /zijo" vir' ivBpili- 1 0 6 1 f. Y^pas, the bow, which can be
fitly so called because Ph. received it as
p
p
,
a reward for good service (670).^v ari
el/u eliretv: where, if oi> belonged to
Xpflv. It is possible to write 4jv <r' lxf"lv>
etvai, the immediately following pujSt
as though <ri (not ire) were elided: cp.
would be extremely harsh; while there
339. But yjv <ri XPV" ' s ' l e r e much better,
is no such harshness if oi5 belongs to
SISOKT&V only, oi-iiianrbv being equiva- and is favoured by the fact that Soph,
has XPV" in nine other places (430, 1363 :
lent to dSvvarov SiSdffKeaSai.
O. T. 1184, 1185: El. 529, 579, 1505:
(2) The less probable view is that oiTr. 1133: fr. 104. 5), but i\prpi only
Siv belongs to Kparivtiv, and, in using
once,
viz. in fr. 104. 6, where metre
|ii]8* instead of oM' before firiSvvciv, the
prompted
it. The form ixPW, though a
writer has merely used the other alterproduct of false analogy (since XPVV=:XP^
native which ol|iai left to him. Now,
r)v), was, of course, equally correct in
idiom is partly governed by association,
Attic: it is attested by metre in Ar.
and can even be influenced by false
analogy. The sequence of oil and \t.r\S4 Mq. 11 : Pax 135: Av. 364, 1177, 1201:
Ran. 152, 935: Th. 598: Eccl. 19: fr.
was most familiar to the Attic ear in a
n o and 304.
constr. which opposed their clauses to
1O64 Since iv must be considered as
each other (oti Oaaaov ofireis ixi)S' airurTT)<reit ipu>i;). It seems unlikely, then, belonging t o ' ApytCoii, this v. has no caesura either in the 3rd or in the 4th foot:
that an Attic writer would wantonly have
cp. 101, 1369. It may seem strange that
used ov...|it|& instead of ov.ovSi in a
the poet did not writefiVXoisiv '\pydoun
short sentence where the two negatives
KoeprideU <j>avei, as Mekler proposes.
were simply coordinate.Eur. Andr. 586
But the halting rhythm of oirXouri KOT(quoted by Schneidewin) is not apposite:
|M|9cls, etc., seems to express the anSpav ei, KUKQS S' oi, jttijS' AjroKTeiveiv /3i{i:
where l<rn is understood with Spat>, and guish with which Ph. dwells on this
bitter thought,that his bow is to win
again with off: 'they are thine to benefit,
glory for his enemy. A similar effect of
(but not to injure,)and not to slay': i. e.,
HT}d4 contrasts diroxr. with Spar ev, and rhythm occurs in Ant. 44, 1J y&p voels
the words KanQs 6" off form a parenthesis. d&irreiv <r<p\ &.Teoppi\Tov iroXei;
1O66 p i p.* dvTKJ>vti: the ace, as
Nauck's conjecture, ij8' eirevffiveiv, is
with vpoa<t>avw or ifieiflofiuu ( f t C. 991
specious, but not necessary.

170

SOOOKAEOYS

<i>I. <h cnrep/x' 'A^iXXecos, ovSe crov (fxovrjs en


yev^crofiai Trpocr^OeyKTos, dXX' ourws direi;
OA. xwpei <r"' H-V vpoo-Xevcro-e, yevratos nep a>v,
tjfjiav ova)<s /u.17 TTJV TVXQV 8i,a(f>depeL<s.
1070
sPl. 77 Kai TT/Jos v/xcov wo e/3^ju,os, &> gevoi,
Xei(f)07j(TOfj,ai, Srj KOVK eTTOLKTepeire fie;
A O . 00 ecrnv rjfuov pavKparcop o Trais1 ocr az>
ovros Xeyy croi, r a S r a croi -)^ixel<; <f>afiev.
NE. anovcroiiai fiev GJS e^uz' OI/CTOU TrXew?
TOUS' - o/Acos Se jxeCvaT, el TOVTCO SoKei,
1075
TOCTOVTOV eis ocrov r a T 4K ve<o<;
aKnai KOX 6eoi<; ev^ca/jbeda.
)(oiros Ta^' oiv (f>p6i>7)criv ev TOVTCO XaySot
Xwco ro*' TJJU.II'. i/ci /u.ei' ovv opfico/jd
v[iel<s 8', OTOLV KaXcofxev, opiiaadat
1080
1O68 irpoaXevcrtre] TrfxxrXevffe L . The ist hand made the same error in 815, though
not in 716. Cp. 0. C. 111.
1 O 6 9 SuufrBepe'ur L, with A and most of the rest;
Siatpdaprjs T.
1O71 XeupBtfiroii' ijdr) MSS.: Xa0Si}(ro/tat Si) Wakefield. Blaydes

b> yip fi' dfiectf/ai fiovrov)'. so Ai. 764 0


liiv yap airhv tvviitu.j\ = fjhi). Cp.
Ant. 939 ayo/iai Si] KoiKin p.\\<a.
1 0 6 7 irpoo-<f>8eyKT6s: see n. on 867 f.
e\irl8uv | OJTKTTOCOISTWS, without more
a d o : Ant. 315 elireiv r t Stiff as, fj <rrpa-

1O74 ctKOvcro(j.ai, have it said of m e :


cp- 378, 382.
1O76 f. els 8<rov: cp. 83 n.T<x...eK
v<Js <mCKaari, make ready the things in
the ship,i.e., set the tackle, etc., in
order. The only difference between ra
(pels OCTWS tw\
K veiis here and ra h> vr\l is that the
former suggests the notion of the quarter
1068 f. 7vvat6s ittp wv, noble, geneat some distance from the speaker
rous, though thou art,and therefore
where the preparations are to be made.
naturally disposed to pity him. (Not,
Cp. Plat. Lack. 184 A r/v Si yi\o>s Kal Kpdros
' loyal to thy duty, 'and so capable of
iicb T&V (K T7js O\K&SOS:'the people
pitying him without yielding to him.)
off there in the merchant-ship.' Thuc. 6.
n)v T^r]v Siacf>6pis, i.e., spoil the good
32 <rvveir7)ixoi>TO Si Kal 6 d\\os o/uXos 0
fortune which has enabled us to secure
CK rijs yyjs (where ex carries the mental
the bow. H e fears that N . may give
the bow back.SITUS |II} with fat. ind., eye from the scene on board the ships to
the scene ashore). <rTCX<i><ri, as Od. 2.
as an object clause, would be regular if
287 vrja. 8o7jv <rTe\t<n (fit out).On reacha verb of ' taking care' (like 0iA<<r<ro/iiu)
ing Lemnos, the sailorsif they followed
had preceded. But here a final clause
with the subjunct. (birws /j.ii SuupSelprjs) Homeric practicewould have unshipwould be usual. Cp. Andoc. or. 1 43 ped the mast (larks), and laid it down so
that
(<pr) XRWal M&V...T6 \j/ii<t>i<xiJ,a...., Hwas
/IT] its top should rest on the mastTrpbrepov vii l-crai trplv irvd^a'dau Xen. holder (laroSiKrj) at the stern. Cp. Horn,
Cyr. 2. 1. 21 oiSi 5i' lv aWo Tpitpovrai. rj hym. 2. 278 oi55' iirl 70101/ | eK/3^r', oiSi
Ka$' 8w\a /ieXai'cTjs vqbs 28e<r$e; They
SITUS /laxovvrai.
have now to raise the mast,make it fast
1O72 vavKpaTwp = vaiap%os: elsewhere = vaval KpwrS>v, 'having naval su- by the fore-stays (irp&rovoi),and hoist
the sails. (Cp. Od. 2. 416 ff.)
periority' (Her. and T h u c , always in
plur.).

8eots vuSj8a.

When all was ready

0IAOKTHTHI

171

PH. Son of Achilles, wilt thou, too, speak no more to me,


but depart without a word ?
OD. (to NE.) Come on! Do not look at him, generous
though thou art, lest thou mar our fortune.
PH. (to CHORUS). Will ye also, friends, indeed leave me
thus desolate, and show no pity ?
CH. This youth is our commander; whatsoever he saith
to thee, that answer is ours also.
NE. (to CHORUS). I shall be told by my chief that I am too
soft-hearted; yet tarry ye here, if yon man will have it so, until
the sailors have made all ready on board, and we have offered
our prayers to the gods. Meanwhile, perhaps, he may come to
a better mind concerning us.So we two will be going: and
ye, when we call you, are to set forth with speed.
[Exeunt ODYSSEUS and NEOPTOLEMUS.
writes Xei00ijffo/tat 5IJT', OUS'.
1O73 xviie^<r made from 7' fipdur in L.
1O76 TO. T' {K veiis] Tournier conj. TA TIJS ceiis.
1O79 TJ/UV] Blaydes conj. ^
vvvL has not va, but z>ci: cp. on 945 (e\iw).6pfuip.e9ov MSS. (opfidifieSa V).
6p/u.d}fie8a Elmsley, Nauck.
1O811O85 L divides the vv. thus:<3 Kol\a<r
jd v

j a1 OVK | \elif/eiv | xal $V^<

for sailing, a prayer was recited, and this form before the time of the dramalibations poured. Cp. Thuc. 6. 32 e6x&.s tists : we cannot assume that it was merely
Si rhs vo/u^opUvas irpb TTJS avayayrjs... a figment of later grammarians. I should
eiroiovvTO. Od. 2. 430 Srj<rd/xevoi 8' dpa therefore keep 6pfu&ite$ov here and \e8r\a Boty dvi, vrja iU\aaiav \ <rri
'\eip.fi.effov in El. 950; though in //. 23.
485, considering all the facts, I should
ppqp
1O79 op(iu(it0ov: pres. subjunct. Only prefer ircpi8iaiJ.e0a.
1O8O 6p|j,ao-6ai, infin. for imperat.
two other instances of a 1st pers. dual
occur in texts of the classical period:(1) //. (57): Taxis with adverbial force (526).
23. 485 ^ Tpirodos irepiSthneBov r/i XiptjTos. X.O811217 Second Ko/j./i6s (cp.
827), taking the place of a third stasimon.
Here, while the greater MS. authority
supports the dual, one MS. gives irepiSib- 1st strophe, 1081 1101 = 1st antistr.
11021122: 2nd str. 11231145 = 2nd
p.t$a: and the hiatus can be defended by
the 'bucolic diaeresis,' just as in //. 5. antistr. 11461168. From 1169 to 1217
484 6l6v K' 17^ <p4potej> 'Ax<wo ^f icev ayoiev. the verses are without strophic correspondence (i.vonoibaTpo(t>a). For the
(2) El. 950 \tkd\t.ji6ov:
where again
one of the minor MSS. has \e\elnneda. metres see Metrical Analysis.
Philoctetes apostrophises the cave
Elmsley denied the existence of such a
which has so long known his miserable
1st pers. dual, because it is so rare, and
life, and must soon witness his death,
is nowhere required by metre. Bieler
since, now that he has lost his bow, he
(De duali numero, p. 18) pushes this unhas no means of procuring food. The Chosafe argument further by pointing out
rus remind him that the fault is his own,
how often Homer and the dramatists
as he has chosen to stay in Lemnos; and
abstained from this form where they
urge him to come with them to the ship.
might have used it. Leaf (on //. 23.
He passionately refuses, and begs for
485) thinks that it can be explained only
some weapon with which to kill himas due to the analogy of the 2nd dual
self.Then
Neoptolemus enters, follow(i.e., -/xeOov : -/J.e0a :: -adov : -<r9e). But
ed by Odysseus.
even so, analogy might have produced

I04>0KAE0YI

172

<i>I. <5 KoiXas TreTpas yvakov


2 deploy Kal irayercSSes, <ws cr' OVK e/jueWov dp', a
3 XeCxj/eiv ovSevoT', dk\d fioi /cat dvrjo-Kovn * crvvtCcrei. 1085
4 w/xot ^iot /i,ot.

5 <5 irhqpdcrTaTov avkiov


6 AUTras Tas an

~'*TLTTT

8 eorai;

av fioi

C/AOT
TO

/car' a/jiap

TOV TTOTC T

1090

9 crcTovofiov fieXeos irodev


10

" TTeACtOCt

CCVCt)

11 TmuKaSes O^UTOVOU Sta

12 *eXa5o"ti'$ *OVK4T *ttrYa).


XO. 13 cru rot cru TOI Karr)gC(o(xa<;,

IO

95

1O82 O(pn&r Kal] Bepfiov re Kal Mss. The correction is a v. I. noted in the ed. of
Turnebus.
1O83 w ToXas] tS TaXaa" (sic) L.
1O84 oJ5^7ror'] ou5^7rore L.
1O85 avveiaei Reiske : avvolaei MSS. (ffwolarji L).
1 O 8 6 wi juo( fwi fwl L .
1 O 8 7 auXioi'] av\lov L .
1 O 8 9 WTTT' B o t h e : TI TOT' MSS.ayua/9 Dindorf: %uap
MSS.
1 O 9 2 ff. L has H0' aWtpotr &via | irruKoSeo- d|uroTOi; Sid irveinaTOtr [contr.

sible. <rv/j.<ptpofj.ai never means, or could


mean, merely tritei/xi or ovvSiayu. Dindorf, who quotes a schol. for this, has not
perceived that this schol., the second,
prefaced by i) OCTW,is explaining, not
crwo(<rei, but, manifestly, <rwC<ri:
<ri>v efiol <r Kal 6^/ec fie aTrodavbvra.
1 0 8 7 f. avXiov: cp. 19 n.Xuiros
TOS dV 4|io>S. Ph. addresses the cave as
if it were a living companion, long condemned to endure his presence. (With
irXupfortiTOV cp. what he says of Neopt.
1 O 8 5 OvfjcKOvri <rwc(o-ci, thou wilt
in v. 876, /So^s re xal Svaoafilas yifiwv.)
be conscious of my death,i.e., wilt be
Hence Xi57ras r d s air* i\u>v (instead of
the only witness of it. C p . El. 92 rd. Si
TSS i/uis) is fitting,' the anguish on my
iravvvxlSwv ijSi] anyepal | fwitraff' dual
part,'so painful for thee to witness.
poyep&v otKwv: and so oft. The MSS.
Cp. 0. C. IQI TavOvfi^ifiara.. .raxb trov
have crvo<ri. This has been rendered:
(n.).
(1) 'thou wilt be a fit place for me' to
die in,i.e., good enough. Now, the
1 0 8 8 f. TCITT' 0.$ (=1105 avSpuv),
midd.ffv/xtpipofiaidoes, indeed, mean ' to
Bothe's correction of ri iror' ad, has been
agree with' one,in opinions, or tastes:
generally received. As Dind. remarks,
O. C. 641 n.: Her. 4. 114 oix dc uv 6vAesch. has twice used this epic TITTC in
valfieSa iKe'ir-gai <rv/j.<fitpar6ai (' live in lyrics (Ag. 975, Pers. 554).TA KO,T'
harmony with them').
But trwoCo-ei
d|utp, daily provision. Cp. Isocr. or. 11
here could not mean simply, conveniel
39 dXijToi Kal T&V KaO' i)n4pay irSeeis.
mihi morienti. (1) ' Thou wilt be proEur. uses this phrase as an adv. (' every
fitable to me,'by giving me a grave.
day,' Ion 123, El. 182), like TO Ka6'
So the first s c h o l . : atcoKKvtkkvtp fwi aiftr
r)n4pav (Ar. Eq. 1126 etc.).
<l>opov tea Kal <!xpi\i/iov, Kal S^jei /te awo1O91 <rirov<S|Jiov...!XirC8o$. As UITOBavbvra. This version confounds <rwovifios (found only here)=<RToi' vlfuav,
<rei with <rwo(<rcis. (3) 'Thou wilt be
affording food, aiTovbiim ftirlj='a hope
with me,'simply. This last is imposconcerning the provision of food.' Hence

1O81 f. -ytJoXov, 'hollow' (O. C.


1491 ff., n.), is here properly the chamber
itself, while KoCXas ircrpas (possessive
gen.) is the cavernous rock which contains it. Cp. Eur. Helen. 189 icifpiva
ix&xara | "ytfaXa, ' inmost recesses of the
rocks.'Seppiv Kal iraYTwSes. Contrast this with the description by Odysseus, 17 ff. Cp. Hes. Op. 640 "A.<TKPXI,
J 64
Xi
55^
'

*IAOKTHTHS

173

PH. Thou hollow of the caverned rock, now hot, now icy 1st
cold,so, then, it was my hapless destiny never to leave thee! stroPhe>
No, thou art to witness my death also. Woe, woe is me! Ah,
thou sad dwelling, so long haunted by the pain of my presence,
what shall be my daily portion henceforth ? Where and whence,
wretched that I am, shall I find a hope of sustenance ? Above
my head, the timorous doves will go on their way through the
shrill breeze; for I can arrest their flight no more.
CH. Tis thou, 'tis thou thyself, ill-fated man, that hast so
into T W ] \2\w<rt n' oi yi.p IT' urxiia. The only variant in the MSS. is B's e\acri H'
for iKuat /*'. For the conjectures, see comment, and Appendix.
1O95 ff. L
has <ri) T04 oi TOL Karq^lti>\<T&a' (3 |8apviror/ie | OVK a\\o9ev %xe 1 [i)t superscr.] ruxai |
TSIS' [made from raS'] diro (sic) fiei^ovoo-. On ?x there is a marg. gl., crvvixrii.

the phrase is not really parallel with


had been partly obliterated, so as to
atrrvvo/ioi opyal (Ant. 355), ' dispositions leave only BIAI ANO. The words ava
which regulate cities.' It is more like
and 6I-VT6VOV nveiy.aTos would readily
avSi, rpvffivap in 208 (n.).Tov...irf0v:
suggest that AI was a vestige of aidtpos.
for the double question, cp. 243, and n.
And the very fact that the schol. accepts
on 220.
etde \u<rt fie as possible shows how, in
post-classical times, ?X<ri might have
1O92 ff. A discussion of this passage,
elicited eW from the letters El. The
and a notice of conjectures, will be found
birds which will now fly harmless over
in the Appendix. Here I briefly give
his head are such as those which his bow
the results.
used to slay,T&S iirowTipovs | fl&Wov
niXeuu 8* aria is my emendation of
xeXeiaj (288).
the corrupt tt8 aMKpost auto. The
word tl0* would be possible only if, in
OVTOVOV. . .irvcvparos. shrill-sounding
1094, we read p.' UXouv for the MS. '{Kao-l breeze: cp. / / . 14. 17 Xi-y&u' hviixuv
H*. But the general sense of the pasaiipripa. ie4\ev(la. The epithet is perh.
sage forbids this. {Xwriv (conjectured
intended to suggest also the vrepuv poi/3by Erfurdt and others, and found in one
dos (Ant. 1004).
MS.) is a certain correction of '(kutrl p.':
OKT' t<rx>, I do not restrain them,
as i<r\a (Heath) is of t<rxvo>. He is not
i.e., do not arrest their career (i\Sxnv)
here praying to be caught up by winds,
by my arrows. Cp. 1153 ^
F r this
or slain by birds, but sayingin continuasense of la%ia cp. El. 242 CKTI/IOVS tation of TOV Tore rei^ofxxu. | cvrovbfwv rrddevXovaa irripvyas \ d^vrbvuv y6wv,where
i\wl5osthat now the birds will fly unL has uTxtiowa., by the same error as
harmed over his head. That aiWpos, no
here. The MS. oii ydp ir' layya raises
less than ct8', is spurious, is made almost
the question whether we should read
certain by two distinct considerations.
IXwr ?T" OV yip t<rx<">. For IT' oi, cp.
(1) The antistrophic v., 1113, X\Sot
1117: Tr. 161 cis T' oiiK uv. But the
/MV 8? I vTv, is a dochmiac. aidtpos reMS. i\a<rl ft.' would have arisen from
solves the second long syll. of the baci\uatv more easily than from e\u<r' IT'.
chius ( = the final syll. of iSol/tap); not an
It is more probable that ^dp was an
unexampled licence, but still a most rare
interpolation here, as it is in L's text of
one.
(2) irnoicaScs is sound, but could
0. C. 1766 and Ai. 706.
not be used, without art. or subst., to de1O95 ff. (rv TOI...diro peCijovos. In
note ' timid birds' alOc'pos has probably
this passage I adhere to the MS. text,
supplanted that subst.
merely writing, with Wecklein, KOUK for
OWK. The words oXXofltv i\a " X ^ Ta8'
But if so, the corruption has been a
cannot be metrically reconciled with the
deep one; i.e., AV al0'pos was an attempt
corresponding words in the antistrophe
to supply, from the context, words which
(1118 f.), <rx' viro xpds i\uis. Dinhad been wholly or partly lost. Now
dorf assumes that the latter words are
suppose that the words IIEAEIAI A ANQ

IO<t>OKAEOYI

174

KOVK

15 dWodev evei
16 r a o a?ro /xe
17 eure ye irapov
18 TOU "fXaWos Sai/xovos eiXou

TO K^KLOV

aiveiv.

IIOO

. 3>I. w T\d{j.o)v T\d[ian> dp' ey<a


2 /cat fji6)($(p Xw/3aTos, os 17S7; /ACT' ouSei'os v&Tepov
3 dvBpSv eicroTTLcro) TaXa5 vaiiav ivddh' oXou/xat,
1105
4 aiai a tat,

5
6
7
8

ou <f>op/3dv eri irpocrtyipwv,


ou irravav dif ifiav OTTXCOV
/cpaTatais /XCTO, ^(epcrlv
L<T)((ov' aXXa /xoi acrKoira

11IO

The later MSS. vary betweenfiapvTOTiieand f3apvirorix\ For TUX? T ? 5 ' , T has Taxa
[with 7p. TUX] TaSe. The Aldine has T^5' for T$S\ For the conjectures, see below.
1 O 9 8 f.

L has evTi ye wapbv <ppovijo-ai\Tov Xi6tOKO<r Salfxovoa ei'|Xou T6 KB.KIOV (\ea>.

Opposite the words TOV X. Salfxovocr is the marg. gl. Xebrei r/ avri: and over TOU
\<!>IOI>O&, the gl. TOO avucptpovroG. Instead of etri ye, A and Harl. have eBre 7oip.
sound, and that the fault is in the strophe.
icr<Mf>p6r>riiTas. So the aor. partic. in 0.
He therefore writes a\\o$a> d T^xa oCS*
T. 649 viBov 9eX?}(ros ^pocijcras T' (n.).
airb /Aelfrvos, and thus obtains a dactylic
rov Xwovos 8a(iovos, the Ms. reading,
tetrameter, answering to <rx' i"rd xpds is metrically impossible. The words TOV
2/J.S.S' OTvyepav %xe. This alteration is, X<(Wos must represent - - ( = 1121
however, extremely bold, since it eliKOX yh.p (fiol). But the first syllable of
minates t\ti without attempting to ac\<povos is necessarily long. A shortencount for it. On Dindorf's view, I should
ing of wi before 0 cannot be justified by
prefer to conjecture KOS <r' | fiXXou ?%e' the similar shortening of <u or 01, as
rtixa o^' """^ fiflfavos. The traditional
in Se/Xoios (Ant. 1310 n.) or olwvofc (El.
rixf T?5' would thus be explained; it
1058). Musgrave compares fwijs and
would have arisen from the ambiguous
Sywras from Eur.; but in He(. 1108
%&, after KOS <r' had become KO6K. But,
we must read f6i7S, and in Heracl. 995
on the whole, it appears safer to suppose
diuaas. In the few places where irarpQthat the fault is in the antistrophe. A
os appears to have the 2nd syll. short,
very slight change will bring the words
iraVpios is a certain correction (cp. 724 n.).
l<rx' vvb xpis epas into agreement
Are we, then, to admit the v. I. TOU
with a\\o8ei> ?%ei rtxt T<jfi'. We have
wXfovos ? It occurs in the first schol.
only to write, with Bergk, tax*" *"* Xon this v.:TTXC/OVOS 5 SaLfiovos X^yet
pt>$ d/i|Ss. ' (Wecklein obtains the same TOV XuffiTeXeor^pou xal (rviupbpov. Hermetrical result by conjecturing ?<rxe "'oXdmann, Dindorf and Wecklein are among
yaais iiMt\<7u>.)See Appendix.
those who accept it. In its favour two
points may be noticed, (a) Sal/iav, when
Kan]|(<i)(ros, hast thought it right (to
it means /junpa, is sometimes quite imhave it so). Cp. 0. T. 944 diw Sareip:
personal; e.g., fr. 587 fj.iiffwcipeTTOXXOIS
Plat. Rep. 337 D H 4KJ iraBeiv;t\a
ri\a T^S' : cp. At. 272 oTaiv ?%' h rbv vapbvTtt, Sat/iorn ('spread not thy
present trouble abroad' by speech).
KOKOIS.dird nci^ovos, explaining aXXo(b) TOO irX^ovos dal/novos would be sug0v: for this dird, cp. 0. C. 1533 ff. n.
gested
by such phrases as irXtov txav:
1O99 f. irapiv: cp. fr. 323 jjv irapbv
BiaBai icaXfis | airds TIS ai5ry rijv fiK&fSriv i.e., it might be possible to say T6C
Sal/iov' Ixw, or the like, though
irpoaBfi <j>4put>.((ipovrjorai, to come toirXe(ii)
a
not 6 TrXeiWP Saifiwv fie o~<pei. And so
sound mind (ingressive aor.). Cp. 1259

<t>IAOKTHTHI

175

decreed; this fortune to which thou art captive comes not from
without, or from a stronger hand : for, when it was in thy power
to show wisdom, thy choice was to reject the better fate, and to
accept the worse.
PH. Ah, hapless, hapless then that I am, and broken by 1st antisuffering ; who henceforth must dwell here in my misery, with str0Pheno man for companion in the days to come, and waste away,
woe, woe is me,no longer bringing food to my home, no
longer gaining it with the winged weapons held in my strong
hands.
But the unsuspected
For the conjectures, see below.
11O4 f. In order that v. 1104 may end with a
long syllable, Herm. proposes vo-rep&v: Meineke, ipunuv instead of dvSpav.
11O9 f. Doederlein and Schneidewin would point thus:irpo<r<pipai>, | ov, TTav&v
air' i/iuv OT\WI>, | jc/xmueus K.T.X. For ov Trrav&y Bergk conj. evitTavwv. For ta%u>v
Schenkel conj. apxw-KparaiaXs MSS.: Kparaituffiv Campbell ( = T( ITOT'OU ftoiin 1089).
1 1 1 1 affKoira] yp. 8e Kal a*po<pa dirb TOV fj.ij -tyofpeiv : schol. in L .

the bold phrase seems just conceivable


his thoughts. Hence the emphatic rehere, where the idea is, ' Instead of the
petition :oi> (popflav (TI vpoa(j>ipwv, ov
better portion, thou hast chosen the
(irpoaQipuv) irravwv dir* |i<ov oirXwv.
worse.' Omitting TOV, Bothe would read
The general word, irpoa<pipiav, is underXwtovos (cp. Simonides Amorg. 7. 30
stood again with the adverbial phrase
XwiW yvvfj), and Wunder Xuiripov.
which specialises it. Thus the rhetoriBut, for Soph., neither seems probable.
cal effect is much as if he had said, O&K
aypeiwv 6pvi0as, oi roi-etiav. The object
The gen. Tov...8cu'pu>vos depends not
on t'iXov alone (as if it were irpot/cpwas), to t<r\av is aird (i.e. TO. SirXa) understood. Cp. 1058 K6,KIOV ofrbev av | Totirwv
but on the idea of comparison suggested
Kparivew fiijS' iirMveiv %e/>. Hartung
by the whole phrase tXov TO Kaiaov
alvctv. Cp. At. 1357 vtKq. ykp aperf fie objects that it is the bow which is held,
rijt ?xfy>as iroXiS, where JTOXI) vucq. /*e= whereas irrovav suits only the arrows:
To\i/ Kpelafftai' Trap' ifwi <JTI. For aivciv hence he writes, ov irravCbv 8irX* ifiuiy
as, = arripytu>, cp. Eur. Ale. 1 Brjaaav TO<OV (for the final spondee cp. 1151
dX/nix). The simple answer is that, at
Tpdirefav alviaai.
the moment of shooting, the archer holds
The passage would be simplified if we
could read eiri ye irapbv Kvprjom | Xyovos both bow and arrow: and the epithet
Kparcuats suits precisely that moment,
aS Salfnovos et\ov rb K6.KI.OV alvelv.
since it suggests the effort of drawing the
11O3 ft. TJSi]...vcrTepov...tto-OTr<rio:
bow. Brunck was clearly wrong in supthe redundant diction marks strong feeling, as in Ai. 858 Traviararov Sri KOVTOT' plying (popfidv with fffxwK.
addis iarepov. virnpov: for the short
1 1 1 1 f. <Io-KOJira = aV/)0<rS6K7)To : cp.
syll. at the end of the verse, cp. 184 n.
El. 1315 etpyaffat Se1 p. a<rKOTa.The dative
1108
irpo<r$4p<ov, bringing home. with wir^Sv would not be unusual if the
sense were, ' came into my thoughts':
The act. denotes the simple act of
Od. 10. 398 iraaiv 5* ifiepbeis inr48v (y6os;
'carrying towards' the cave; the midd.
irpoo-tpepofievos would have further ex- Tr. 298 ipioX ykp OIKTOS elo-ipy : cp. O. C.
372 n. But here the sense is, 'bepressed that the food was for his own
use. Cp. 708 atpav. 0. C. 6 <p4povTa guiled,' for which we should have expected the a c e , as after irwe'pxo/iai, imo( = (pepofievoy).
vlirrdi. The explanation may 'be that
1109 f. ov irTavJv...to-x<i>v. The
the sense, ' beguiled,' is here derived
only food which Ph. could obtain was
from the sense, 'insinuated themselves
that which his bow procured (287). And
into my mind.'
here the loss of the bow is uppermost in

i;6

ZO*OKAEOYI

9 KpviTTa. T errrf SoXepds virdSv <f>pevos%


10 iooifiav he viv,
11 TOV TctSe firjard.iJ.evov, TOI> Icrov \povov
12 e/xds XOLXOVT' dvias.
XO. 13 TTOT/XOS, < iroT/io? > ere haipovoiv raS',
14 ovSe ere ye SoXos
15 (T)(V

VTTO J^ClpOS

Ol[lOL fLOl,

*d/A-

16 a s ' CTvyepav
^
17 hicnroTfiov dpdv in* dXXois.
18 Kat ydyo e/uu TOVTO /xeXei, /A77
arrp. )3'. <&I.

llI

112O
<J>I\6TT)T

KOI 7TOV

2 TTOVTOV duvets icfrff


3 *eyye\a, ^e/i iraXXwi'
4 Tav ejudv fj.e\eov Tpo<f>dv,
5 r a v ouSeis TTOT' ifidcrTacrcv.
6 <3 TOOV <f>i\ov, to <f>C\(ov
7 veipoiv iKf3e/3i.a(riLevov,
8 7 TTOV eXeti'oi' o/)a?, <f>peva<i ei rivas
9 e^eis, TOV 'HpdfcXetoj'
10 *dpdix.iov wSe trot

1125

1130

1 1 1 2 inetSv] Hartung reads aviSv (sc. T& Sr\a), ' have stripped me of my arms': a
sense which would require dwiSvae.
1114 f. Nauck conj. rois raSe nyaaiitvovs..*
11161131 L divides the vv. thus:7ro-ryxroi\Sl|
ifiAs XOXOKTOS aras.
XpAff\%X(\dpiLvdpiv\icaiy&p\IJLTJoxiiaiji.
1116 The second irar/tos
was added by Erfurdt. Gleditsch follows the MSS. in reading TOT/MS once only, and
ev
"*& xelP?>s &nas Bergk: Itrx'
deletes the second av rot in 1095.
1 1 1 8 (vx
{ITO xp4s i/idt MSS. Campbell gives foxer ^T4 XP^S ^f^ (changing Tiix? TQ5' to
T6X<"S in 1097): Wecklein, ftrxe iroXd^ais efiauriv. Blaydes reads lax' *""* XCP*! M:
but he does not bring strophe and antistrophe into metrical agreement. For t<rx' he
1 1 1 3 ISoCjiav: for the midd., cp.
790.d|uts. Bergk's correction of inat:
351.
cp. 1095 ff., n.
1116 ff. in>T|ios...Sai|iov<i>v: Ant.
1110 f. orvycpdv, pass., abhorred,
dreadful: cp. Ai. 1214 arvyepif dac/iovt.
157 6tbv...<rvvTvxL<w5, n. Two construetions are possible: I prefer the first. <X> 'direct,' like a missile: cp. //. 3.
(1) Ta8t (nom.)<rc irorpios...Jrxev, 'these
263 7re5/o*5' Ix0" uixiat iirTovt.iir dXthings have come upon thee as a doom
Xovs: cp. //. 1. 295 oXXourix Si) TOOT'
from heaven.' (2) IT6T|IOS <T T<18( (cogn.
^irtrAXeo, ^ ykp i/iot ye. There is no
ace.) &rxv, 'fate hath put this constraint
reference to Odysseus, whom they preon thee.' We can say /3tdo/uu (or dy<rysently defend (1143), or to any definite
person.
icdfu) TU>& Tt: but (xu Tiv& n would be
harsher. There is a like ambiguity in
1121 f. Kal yip 4|iol K.T.X. The
Aesch. Pers. 750 iruis riS' 01) v6aos sense is:'Do not blame us: so far
ippevwv j' etxe va!S' ft,6i>; and there, too,
from being thy foes, we are sincerely
T&8' seems best taken as nom. For the
anxious to win thy friendship.' TOSTO,
sense of Jo^cv, cp. 331 n.oiSk a~i yt:
i.e., utij 4>IX6TT)T i.iria<rf\. The constr.
for ye with the repeated <re, cp. Ant.
of |Xei with /i?j ivia-g is like that of

4MA0KTHTHI

177

deceits of a treacherous soul beguiled me. Would that I might


see him, the contriver of this plot, doomed to my pangs, and
for as long a time!
CH. Fate, heaven-appointed fate hath come upon thee in
this,not any treachery to which my hand was lent. Point not at
me thy dread and baneful curse! Fain indeed am I that thou
shouldest not reject my friendship.
PH. Ah me, ah me! And sitting, I ween, on the d
marge of the white waves, he mocks me, brandishing the str0 P he
weapon that sustained my hapless life, the weapon which
no other living man had borne! Ah, thou well-loved bow,
ah, thou that hast been torn from loving hands, surely, if thou
canst feel, thou seest with pity that the comrade of Heracles is
conj.?p', which Nauck approves.
112O apdvt: apav apav ~L. 1 1 2 1 0I\6TIJT'
made from ipiXbrrp-i. in L.
1 1 2 3 of fioi /jiol L.irov, omitted by the first hand in L,
has been added by S. For KO.1 irov, Blaydes conj. ^ irov. 1 1 2 4 Icjrqiievos] ?</>' fifievos
Cavallin.
1125 ye\q. /wv MSS.: ye\$ /toi Cavallin. x e P' Turnebus: x e 'p' L.
1 1 2 6 Hermann (Retract, p. 16) would transpose these two vv.
113O fj\ L has
<J (el), but the first hand has added strokes to the stem which indicate i;.fXeivov
e
Brunck: Xecoe MSS.
1 1 3 1 ?x ] A letter (<r?) has been erased before this word
in L.
1 1 3 2 &p$/Mov Erfurdt: dffXiov MSS. (yp. a$Xov L in marg.). Dindorf gives
aimionov : Blaydes, TJXuca TbvSe CM: Campbell, affkov l/j,' wSt <roi.

opu and CTKOTQ (meaning, 'to take care')


1 1 2 6 rav ifiav (lAt'ov: cp. O. C.
with /U17 instead of OTWS /}. Others 344 rdynii SvffT'qvov Kaicd.rpo<pdv: cp.
make |iirj...dir<o<rn imperative: 'do not
reject,' etc. Then TOVTO becomes awk113O ff. i] irov: cp. 1123 KO.1 irov
ward, since it can hardly refer to the n.IXeivov opcjs, lookest piteously, i.e.,
coming deprecation, nor can it well with a look expressing sorrow for thymean 'thy welfare.'
self, and pity for him. Cp. Hes. Scut.
1 1 2 3 f. iroXias, not iroXwv, since 426 Seivbv bp&v oaaoiai.Tov'HpciKXciov
the words T6VTOV $LVOS form a single <jp0(iiov, the ally, friend, of Heracles.
notion: Ant. 794 n. The gen. goes p0|uov seems a certain correction of the
with 4<j]|Uvos: cp. Pind. N. 4. 67 ras MS. &8X10V. The word apfffuos (express...{<pe6pa>oi: Ap. Rhod. 3. 1000 f. 1-1765 ing the bond of alliance or friendship)
...iipefonitni. Some take the gen. as was a poet, synonym for 0Xos: Od. 16.
partitive, after irov: but the latter clear- 427 ol 5' Tifjuv apdfuot rjcav'. Theognis
ly means here, ' I ween': cp. At. 382
1312 ot<rirep vvv apOfuos TjSi 0Xos. Cp.
77 irov iroXiv yt\wd' iip' ^Sopiys dyeis.
Horn. hym. 3. 524 iir' apff/iif ml 0iX6112S *bjyek$ is my emendation of TIJTI : and the Homeric iplijpes eratpoi.
yX-a |jw>u. The antistrophic verse (1148 The adj. 'HpdicXaov represents the gen.
X&pos ovpeaifiibTas) shows the true metre; 'KpaKXiovs, since dp8/uos with the art.
and a substitution of
for - - - is can be treated as a subst. (like oUeios,
iiri.TiiSei.os, etc.): cp. 0. T. 267 T$ AajSimpossible here. If, on the other hand,
the 47 of y7X had been accidentally SaKeliji ircuSl (n.). Prof. Campbell reads
lost, the insertion of |iov is just such an SJfXor <?/*'> uS4 aoi, adopting aBXov
expedient as might have occurred to a from the margin of L, and conjecturally
post-classical corrector. There is no adding fy'. fie renders : 'me thus desclassical example of a gen. after the tined no more to use thee in the Herasimple yeSav, though Lucian has that con- clean exercise,'taking the 'HpeUXe<os
SffXos to be archery.
struction (Dem. Enc. 16 yiKa.v lireurl
pot TOV T4S difipvs ovv&yovTos).

I S. IV.

12

IO*OKAEOYZ
11 OVKCTI

12
13
14
15

TO

*aXXot> S' ev jueraXXaya


TroXu/i^avov dvSpos ipeaa-ei,
oocoz/ uev aicrvpds dirctTas, cnvyvov re (itur'
[jLvpi an aia")(p(iiv ava.TeKK.ovff
os e<p
efjLrjo-aT, <u Zeu.
XO. 16 avSpos TOL *Ta ju,ei> **ev8u< aiev etireiv,
17 etTTOVTOs Se /xyj <f>6ovepav
18 efftlcrai yXa)<xcras oSwcw.
19 Ktivos 8' els <MTO TTOXA.&H'
20 Ta^^eis * T W S ' i<fyr)/jLOo-vva
21 KOivav yjvvo-ev es (^>iXous dparydv.

I1[

35

)(0O8OTT6V,
T\[LIV

/ca/c
1140

XI

45

1133
nMtsrepov] /tcff' 8<XTepm> L .
1 1 3 4 dXV & /teToXXoY? MSS.
( y ^
A syllable is w a n t i n g : cp. 1157 ^uas aapnhs alb\as.
Dindorf conj. fr', dXX'
/ieroXXa7si: H e r m a n n , aXXou S' iv /jteraWayf: Bergk, dXX' aliv peraWayp:
Hartung,

Xepoiv S' iv (leTaWayy: Cavallin, dXX' aliv per' ayndXais: Wecklein, dXX' aXXji ner'
dyKdkq.: Mekler, dXX' (vdev fter' ayxdXf.
1 1 3 5 tp<raei\ Wecklein conj. e\l<r<xa:
Bergk, eptiaaei: Seyffert, iwiaaei ('wilt be on his shoulders'). Blaydes reads dp' laaei.
1 1 3 6 3 9 L divides the vv. thus:bpdv | arvyvbv | /ivpi'T)\IUViivaaeia.
1 1 3 7 a-Tvyi/dv re MSS.: GTvyvbv Si T u r n e b u s .
1 1 3 8 f. pvpt' &*' aUrxPu" dvariWovB'
Sir' i<j>' TJ/UV tcdic' ^/ijj<ror' bSvirceis MSS. (dvariWopTa Sir' L : c p . Ant. 1147 n.). F o r

p.vpl' dir' Gernhard conj. iivpla r': Kaibel, /tupio S' dBp&v (with arvywv re for arvyvbv
1 1 3 4 f. d'XXov S* ev (WTaXXaYij is
for p-tra xePa^v- Such phrases as iv
Hermann's emendation of oXV kv (ieraX&yK&\cus tyew are used only of what is
Xa-ya, which is shorter by a syllable than
carried 'in the arms.' Odysseus does not
the antistrophic v., 1157 /ias <rapK&shug the bow.
atbXas, It is the simplest and most
1 1 3 6 ff. opwv |i{v: for the place of
probable correction. Iv here denotes an
fib, cp. 279 n.OT\>YV6V rt: for re after
attendant circumstance (cp. Eur. H. F.
p.kv, cp. 1058 n.()>' x6o8oir6v is a
931 6 8' OVK6' avrbs w<\ <&X' &> orpoperiphrasis for i%6pbv (subst.), hence ^X"
(pdiaiv 6JX}JA.T(J!V itpDapiiivos): and the
0oSovbv can follow urvyvov without seemgen. after |xeToXXa-y<j denotes the ownering weak.
ship to which the change is made: cp.
& Zvi is Dindorf's correction of 'OSwrThuc. 6. 18 dwpay/i.o<rtii>r)s /leTa/SoXj, <rvs,
a
instead of which we require a
change to inactivity. Thus the phrase is
spondee or trochee ( ala 1162). He
equiv. to /lerdWagav dWov iro\vii.iix<ivov cites the w ZeO in O. T. 1198; and Ar.
avSpa, ipiaaet. (iir' avTov): ' having got a
Ach. 225 O(TTIS, <3 Zed wdrtp KOX deal,
new mastera man of many wjlesthou
roiaai ix^P0^1" iirireUraTO. But he might
art wielded (by him).' For the idiomatic still more fittingly have quoted Dem. or.
dXXou cp. Aesch. Th. 424 7170s 38' <JXXos. 19 113, where, as here, the indignant
Ipiava means that the new owner's invocation closes the sentence :iroXXois
&pr} rods Bopvjjovuras e&tu, SKiyovt Si
hands can deal with the bow as they
will. For ipiaaw ('row,' then fig., 'ply'), robs a-Tparevo/iMvovs, irav S(y, (/ii/iiniade
Sijirov,) avrbs, ol/xai, 0av/j.daios arpaTiticp. Ant. 158 n. The word is here a
TIJS, W ZeC. At v. 1181 Ph. appeals to
poet. synonym for voi/ndw. Cp. //. 5.
dpcuos Zefc. Reading <S Zev, it is best
594 %yX0S iv&lM' Tr. 512 r6!-a Kal
to adopt Bothe's Ss for the MS. So-*, and
\byxas pbtraXbv re nvdiraw.
to make dvarAXovO' intrans.: 'countless
Cavallin's conject., dXX' aUv |MT' 0 7 ills, arising from (effected by) shameful
KaXaiS (which others have modified, see
arts.'
cr. n.), is liable to this primary objection,
that AICT' dyKdXais could not here stand
Next to & Ztv, the most attractive

4>IA0KTHTHZ

179

now to use thee nevermore! Thou hast found a new and wily
master; by him art thou wielded; foul deceits thou seest, and
the face of that abhorred foe by whom countless mischiefs,
springing from vile arts, have been contrived against me,be
thou, O Zeus, my witness !
CH. It is the part of a man ever to assert the right; but,
when he hath done so, to refrain from stinging with rancorous
taunts. Odysseus was but the envoy of the host, and, at their
mandate, achieved a public benefit for his friends.
re in 1137). For 8<r' Bothe conj. Ss, and so Dindorf. For infrar' 'OSv<r<reis Dindorf
conj. 4/j.fyra.T\ <S ZeO: Hermann (Retract, p . 16) i/j.^<ra.To Zei/s: Campbell, ifiiiaaB' OSTOS :
Arndt, i^ffar' oidels: Ziel, ^ c r a r ' oirns: Blaydes, e ^ r a ' ' ' Ipyuv. Others suggest
(pya, &ni\p, airr6s, w ffeoi, or 0X777.
1 1 4 O &p5p6s TOI rb fib eS dlxaiov eiweiv MSS.
See comment, and Appendix.
1 1 4 3 Keivos 0" MSS.: Brunck omits B\ for
the sake of closer correspondence with 1166 (Kijpa.).
1 1 4 4 TOSS' t<j>rnj.oaivai
L, with most MSS.: TOVS' ei<p7]fiot7^vav Triclinius: TOV$' ei<f>t)p.offijvq. T u r n e b u s : TOD5'
3
i^>riixoaivq. V , and so Hermann. Most of the recent edd. read rSivd' i<pT\ii.oa{/va.
All MSS. have TODS': TWVS' is due to Gernhard and Thudichum. Blaydes reads
T&vS' tyriiioativav ('charged with this order'). Musgrave conj. Tox^eis TOUT', ei0rif. ('by good management').
1 1 4 5 r/vvaai h <pl\ovs] Blaydes conj. jjvvire TOIS
s: Gleditsch, ijvvcreii eis tpl\iM> apwy&v.
correction of 'O5u<7(rei5s is Arndt's ovScCs,
which would require us to take avar^XXov8* as ace. sing, masc, with transitive
sense, and to keep 8<r*: 'causing countless
ills to spring up..., more than any other
man ever contrived against me.' Cp. //.
22. 380 os Kaxi. TT6W ?ppefe, &a' ov <ri/iiracTes 0! iXXot. But this is far less forcible.
114O dvSpiis TOI r d |iiv &SIK' attv
ctiretv. Arndt thus amends the MS. dvSpos. TOI ri |Uv (v SCxaiov elirctv. The
change involved is very slight,ra for
T3, v for v, and t for o. The sense is:
' The part of a (true) man is ever to
assert what is right, but to dp so without
adding invectives.' That is, Philoctetes
is justified in expressing his sense of the
wrong done to him; but not in reviling
Odysseus. Odysseus was merely the
agent of the Greek army, and acted for
the public good. Cp. 0. T. n 58 /tij
\iyon> yc roUvdiKov: Eur. Tro. 970 KOX
njcSe 5e(f&) /IT; \iyovaan &dtKa. Nauck
objects that with oliv we ought to have
the pres. inf. Xeytiv. But oUv eliretv =
'to assert on each occasion,'the aor.
inf. marking the moment of the assertion.
The combination of altv with the aor. is
therefore no less correct than (e.g.) in //.
11. 263 ihs aid 'AxiXija Kix^traro KVfia pboio.
The only sound version of the vulgate,
dvSpcSs TOI TO fiv eS Stxaiov eliretv, is
Hermann's:' It is the part of a man to

say that what is expedient (quod utile est)


is just':i.e., Philoctetes, if he is a true
man, ought to remember that the act of
taking him to Troy is for the public good
(TO ev); and ought therefore to admit that
it is just. But we may object:(1) This
sense of TO S is too obscure. (2) The
Chorus may properly remonstrate with
Philoctetes on his invectives against Odysseus ; but they could scarcely require him
to allow that his treatment had been
dlzcuov. (3) The antithesis between the
first clause and the second (tlir6vTos Si
K.T.\.) thus loses its force; for a man who
conceded the justice of the act would not
revile the agent.Other versions of the
vulgate, and other emendations, will be
found in the Appendix.
1 1 4 1 f. elirovTos 8fc...d8wvav. The
gen. eivivTos depends, like 6.v8p6s, on iarl
understood* eiirdvTa would be equally
correct, but would be subject to ^f&rai.
Cp. 552 wpoaTvxbm, where similarly the
ace. could stand 4|uo-ai, like a sting:
cp. Ar. Vesp. 423 K&i-dpas rb icivrpov etr'
iir' airbv U<ro.y\A<r<ra.s d8<lvav, lit.,
' pain arising from (given by) the tongue,'
i.e., galling speech: not 'garrulity,' like
KXl
1 1 4 3 ff. Kttvos 8'. Odysseus acted
by the public command for the public
good. He himself has used a similar plea
(109).els dirdiroXXwv TOX8W, appointed
122

ZO*OKAEOYI

i8o
,S>I.

<u TTTaval Orjpai ^apoiroip r


Wvf] drjpcov, ovs oS' ej(ei
3 X<wpos ovpecriftcoTas,
*IAr)KT* d/rr avkioiv (j>vya
5 7T7)oaT ou ya/D e^w ^epotv
6 rav irpocrdev /Sekecov OXKOM,
2

7
8
9
10

IIJ

(O OVCTTCLVOS i.y(ti TGLVVV

aXA aveorjv, o oe j(ft)pos


fofirjTos, ovKeff vfilv,
ipirere' vvv KOKOV

ap OVKCTL

1146 irraval r : irTyval L .


1 1 4 8 otopefrifidyTas r : oftpe<r<Ti{$(i>Ta<F L .
1149 f. 0i>7fi yu' ou/c^r' aV aAXfoii' | ircXor' MSS. In L 7reXaT' has been made from
', the i having been erased, and a stroke drawn from a to T. For conjectures
the task as one out of many, i.e., as
took the adj. as nom. sing., with X"P0S> it
their agent. For the prep., cp. 647 n.
would mean, 'affording pasture on the
Though v. 6 might suggest iird, change
hills': as Ai. 614 (ppevbs olofH&ras, 'feedis needless.k^i\^oa-uv<^=i4>erfi.y, eyroXij: ing lonely thoughts.' But the first view
a Homeric and Pindaric word.T<3V8*
seems to agree better with usage: and in
is a clearly true correction of the MS.
such a compound the ending -/Siinjs could
TOS8*. Blaydes, reading rdvd'i^juxjimav,
represent either 6<TKUV or poo-Ko/ievos.
joins it with TaxBdt ('intrusted with this
1149 f.
*|IT)KT' dir' avXCuv
commission').-Is 4>CXous, 'towards' his
|*irr)8dT'. The MSS. give 4>YW Vfriends,in their interest, es has been
ttir' avXCuv I ireXaT*, of which the only
suspected (see cr. n.); but is 0Xous is
tenable rendering is Hermann's:'No
better than rots <pi\ois here, where two more, in your flight, will ye draw me
aspects of the same act are contrasted.
after you from my cave.' On this we
Cp. At. 679 8 T' ix^pos iHur is roaivS'
remark:(1) The use of IMX&T', though
ixSaprios | cis KOX <pi\rf<r<i>i> aS#is* Is possible,
re
is strange. When ireXdfav is
rbv (j>l\ov I ToaaW iwovpyeiv tbfeXeiv
trans., the place to which the object is
brought is almost always expressed, either
^OVXljffO/tOl (C.T.X.
by a dat., or by a prep, and case: or, if
1 1 4 6 \apoiruv. The rt xaP (xa^Pat
not expressed, it is at least clearly imXapd, x^P") ' s akin to the Sanskrit ghar
plied; as in / / . 21. 92 oi yap 6iw | <rcts
(Mr), 'glow,' 'shine' (Curt. Etyvi. 185).
X^Tpas tpetiiieadai, iirel y' iiriXtKrffi ye
xapoirbs, 'bright-eyed,' was used esp. to
Sal/uni*: where the context implies i/xol
denote the fierce light in the eyes of wild
animals: Od. 11. 611 %ap<nrol re \iovres. far more clearly than (pvyif here implies
a mr
ri
i/uv airrois. Comparing //. 5. 766 rj i
So in Ar. Pax 1065, where x P '<
wiB^KOts alludes to the Spartans, the adj. fadXiffr' eluOe KOKrjs iSivgvi ire\deui, and
Pind.
0. 1. 77 i/ii...KpdTei...Tri\a(Tov, we
implies 'truculent.' In men, according
might surmise that, to a Greek ear, ipvyq.
to Arist. Physiogn. 3, the xapoTrdj/ i^iw. is
characteristic of the avSpeios, and also of /t' oiKir' dir' aiXluv | TreXSr' would rather
suggest this sense,'Ye will no longer
the eiipwfis. Though not descriptive of
force me to flight from my cave.' (2)
colour, xapovfe is sometimes associated,
But, apart from the use of TTEXST', there is
or even identified, with y\avic6s (Theocr.
20. 25 8p./MT& fun y\a.VKas x a /"" r w T e P a a further difficulty. Verse 1149 should
iroKKbp 'Addras): cp. Tac. Germ, /^.truces correspond with v. 1126, ray ifiiv fieXiov
rpo<pdv. These are glyconic verses. An
et caerulei oculi.
iambus, tpvyij., could not begin such a
1 1 4 8 ovpeo-ifioTas, ace. plur., 'finding
verse, unless its first syll. served merely
food on the hills*: cp. 937, 955: / / . 12.
as anacrusis. If we transpose <j>vy but
299 \iu>v dpeffirpofos: Hes. Scut. 407
/i.' otiKir', then we have another
0/765 6par<nv6/j.ov: and so dpeiXex^s, opei-keep
impossibility, viz. a sentence beginning
vo/ios, 6pe<7K<jios, oipcaLipoiTos, etc.

If we

<t>IAOKTHTHI

181

PH. Ah, my winged prey, and ye tribes of bright-eyed 2nd antibeasts that this place holds in its upland pastures, start no more stroPhein flight from your lairs; for I bear not in my hands those shafts
which were my strength of old,ah, wretched that I now am!
Nay, roam at large,the place hath now no more terrors for
you,no more! Now is the moment
see comment, and Appendix.
1 1 5 1 Tp6<r$ev r: irpbaOe L.dX/cdv] As the corresponding word in the strophe is <pC\av (1128), Herm. gave rkv irpoadev y' d\K&.v
/SeX&iB'. He also conj. aKfiav.
1 1 5 3 ff. aXX' dviSrji' 3Se x&Pos ipiKertu \ oixiri,
<pofii}Tbs 6/uf I Ipirere' MSS. Instead of dviSrjv, L has aualbqv, but with e written
with /xe. Other versions of the vulgate
MS. text are impossible:(a) 'this place
which have been proposed are examined
is remissly guarded'; IS) 'this place is
in the Appendix.
heldhy you infreedom' (schol. tpiKtrac
Auratus and Canter saw that |i OUKIT' KartxeTau). Seyffert understands, 'this
is corrupted from prynlr'. Auratus, keep- place detains you with it in freedom':
ing ireXar', understood (like Wunder), but, even if we could make the verb
'No longer approach, in order to fly from midd., dviSrjv could not represent dverotis
,
my cave,'an impossible sense for the or dvei/xivom.
dat. <j>vya: though ireXar' as imperat. In the Journ. Phil. II. p. 80 (1869)
might be defended by the verse of an I proposed the emendation which I beunknown poet in Plut. Mor. 457 D /Seuee lieve to be true. spvKerai ought to be
Xci ivl Tpaxfrov, /Saiee Kal irt\a x""*"'- &p oittin.
The error would have been
Canter read IXCIT', 'no longer rush.' For
an easy one if the apostrophe after dp'
this imperat. (from iXdw) cp. Eur. H. F. had been lost, since \upo$ has no verb.
819 (fXa), and Eur. fr. 779 ?X'a Si /Mjre That the initial o of dp' would have
K.T.X. But I feel certain that the true been no obstacle, may be seen from the
reading is wrfiax', which I proposed in converse case in 0. C. 550, where the
the Journ. of Philology vol. 11. p. 80 MSS. give iveffTdXi), corrupted from e<p'
(1869). HEAAT' (as it would have been
affrdXi). Many other false readings have
written by Sophocles) would most easily arisen from two words being made into
become UEAAT". The change of in)8aT
one (or vice versa), often with a further
into ireXaT* would have facilitated that
corruption of the letters; as O. C. 775
of |IT]K^T' into |i" OK4T\ since xeXar'
Toaairr) for rls afiri;: ib. 1482 avvriwould naturally be taken as fut. indie, of
Xoijiu for <rov Tixoifu. The parenthesis,
TreXdfw, not as imperat. of Te\&o>.
6 Si x<2p5 P* oi<4n | 0O/SI;T6S, oitciB'
The metre would be restored by reading iiuv, is naturally placed, because the
emphatic word of the whole sentence is
pi) tpvyais fr' dir' ai\tw.
But a simpler
remedy is to place <j>"Y$ ' a s ' ' instead of dv#5t|v, and the parenthesis justifies it:
' Without restraintand there is nothing
first, in the v. It is not essential to the corhere now, it seems, to restrain yougo
respondence of glyconic verses in strophe
on your way.' dpa expresses his new
and antistrophe that the dactyl should
occur in the same place: thus v. 1124 and bitter sense of helplessness. With
T6VTOV 0ivbs ty-q/ievos answers to 1147, regard to the repeated OVK^TI, it should
10VT) $r)pwi> ous SB' t%ei.See Appendix.be noted that such pathetic iteration is
peculiarly frequent in this Kop,/j,6$: see
1 1 5 3 ff. d\X* dW8T|v K.T.X. The
reading of the MSS. here (see cr. n.) 1095 ffi Tot, G6 rot: 1102 <3 rXdjUOjy, rXctpresents two great difficulties. (1) dvi- fj.ai> dp' iyui: 1 1 2 8 w TOJOK <pi\oi>, <3 <pL\(ai>
K.T.X. : 1165 dXXa yyaS', ev yvwd': n 8 6
orjv yields no possible sense when joined
Saifiwv, dalfuav: 1197 oi)5^7ror', ovSiwor'.
with iptiiceTcu. T h a t a d v . (from CLVLTJUI.,
'to let go') means, 'without restraint,'
The simple transposition, <J>O|3T]T6S, OV'with free course' (immissis habenis), as K48" (for the MS. OI)K<-TI 0O;S7/T6S) , is the best
in Aesch. Suppl. 15 <pdyeiv A.vSt)v di& mode of restoring the metre ( = 1131 ?xel*
KVfi.' aXtop. (2) epvKcrai, as the whole T6J 'HpcUXeioi'). Cp. 156 where ^ irpouusage of the verb shows, must mean
veaiiv fie XdSg has become in the MSS. ^J
either 'is detained,' or else, 'is warded jue \d6y\ vpoavvriliv (n.).See Appendix.
off.' Hence the following versions of the
1155 ff. vvv KaXov: cp. Ar. Pax 292

182

IO<t>OKAEOYS

11 dvrtyovov KopecraL crroyxa 7T/JOS \dpiv


12 eju.as crapicos aioXas 1
13 aTro y a p fiiov avriKa Xeiipco.
14 TTodev ydp ecrrcu j S t o r a ; TIS CSS' et au/aais
15 firjKeTL [ivjSevoi Kparvvcov ocra
7reju,7rei
afa;
XO. 16 TT/JOS ^ewj/, et T I creySet ivov, trika(T<TOv,
17 evvoia Tracra, ireXdrav
18 dXAd yvcoff', ev yvcaO', *iirl <rol
19 icfjpa Tai>S' diro<f)evyei,v.
20 olicrpd yap fBocriceLv, dSarjs 8'
21 exew fivpiov a ^ ^ o s o (jvvouceL

1165

<1>I. ndXiv ndXiv vaXaLov aXyrjiJ,' viriyuvacras, w


1170
XaJcrre TWV 77/311/ ivroircov. TC /J.' alXeaas; Tt JU,'eipyacrai;
above 01 by the first hand. For conjectures see comment, and Appendix.
1157 ^/ias capKbs alohas] TCUTS' at'dXas <rapKos Triclinius. For aioXas Nauck writes
dBXlas. 1161 f. Ldivides thus: liTjKh-i...Serairefi.-\vei...ata.
1163 <r^/S] ai^i
L..%ivov, n-Acurffox] Hermann conj. j^coy, /iaXdcro-oi;: Arndt, tvov y' ItKaoaov.
1165 &TI sot. L: 6Vi aol r. Dindorf writes STI eriv: Seyffert, iwl aol. 1167 dSa<TTI.V ev^air0ai
KOK6I>.avrfyovoy,
957 n'irffwrei here=ai'a?r^7ret, like
taking blood for blood:lvEl.
248 avTi.<pby-i Vforirpatqai etc.PioSapos: cp. 391.
a
ovs Sinai.irpos X*P ' ' ' your pleasure': 1163 f. & TI o-ifla J^vov, if thou hast
see Ant. 30 n. aioXas, discoloured, any regard for a friendly stranger, evvoC^
spotted, by the disease. When this word vda-f, TreXaTav, who draws near to thee
refers to light or colour, the primary with all good will, ir&cunrov (intrans.),
notion of rapid movement is usu. pre- draw near to him:i.e., meet his adsent,i.e., the sense is 'glancing,' 'gleam- vances half way, instead of repelling him.
ing' (as in the Homeric (TOKOS aloXov, II.Philoctetes is at the mouth of his cave,
7. 222, with Leaf's n.), or 'sheeny' {Spi- as if about to enter it (952): the Chorus
KO)V, Tr. 11). But it could also mean now advance a little towards him, as they
' variegated' simply, as in Callim. Dian. make t