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Whether you are a student, a clerk or a CEO of a multi-national

corporation, info is very important to you.

Knowledge economy, knowledge-based economy or K-Economy=
refer to making use of info or knowledge to create economic benefits for
the company and country.
As WOU student you need info to complete assignments or projects.
You need reliable info to present in written or oral form.

Primary sources of info = contemporary accounts of an event, written by

someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question.
= original materials which have not been filtered thru interpretation,
condensation or evaluation by a second party.
o Secondary source = info about primary or original info which has been
modified, selected or rearranged for a specific purpose or audience.
o The function is to interpret the primary source. e.g. if u write an
autobiography = primary info on your life. But when someone reviews or writes
comments about that autobiography = a secondary source of info.





Reference Material

Internet Website

















Proceedings of meetings

Video Tape


Audio Tape




1. Select one famous person or historical event(e.g. Tun Dr. Mahathir

Mohamad, Merdeka, etc). Then look for three primary
(speeches,interviews,photographs or autobiographies) and three
secondary sources (book, CD-ROM), related to the person or event.
Write them down in the appropriate columns below.
You may use Table 5.1 below to help locate the sources.

Primary Sources


Secondary Sources


2. Photographs are primary sources of info. Look at the photograph below.

Can you find any clues about who built this building, the time period
when it was built and for what purpose it was built? Write your answers
in the space provided.

(Picture courtesy of Penang Heritage Trust)


1. Print medium
Dictionaries and thesaurus
Brochures, leaflets, flyers, etc.
# The print media is the main source of content materials for learners
at WOU.= course materials & Course Guide

2. Audio-visual medium
Audio materials (sound only): cassette, CDs
Visual materials (pictures only): slides, photographs,
Audio-visual materials (sound and pictures): videotapes,
films,CD-ROMs, VCDs
# An e.g. of audio material used in WOUs courses is
Foundation English.

3. Internet
The internet is the fastest way of getting the latest and most up to- date
info on almost anything.
The internet = a network of connections linking computers to other
computers.- Connect to the World Wide Web or Web.
The Web = a network of networks that allows you to access, view and
maintain documents such as text, data , sound and video.
Gateways or portals allow you to access many different services.
What you need to do is log on, connect to networking service or ISP
and begin to exchange info.
The forms of info provided by the Internet include:
Ready-made power point presentations.

1. To search for info in internet you need search engine.

2. A search engine = a huge database that stores and categorises web pages
throughout the internet.
3. The common search engines are:


Alta Vista





Ask Jeeves


1. Store materials in electronic format.

2. Access DL thru the Web.
3. Can bring info right to the user.
4. Open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
5. Examples of DLs:
i. 24 x 7
ii. ebrary
iii. ITKnowledge
iv. xreferplus
v. SpringerLink
vii. infotrac
viii. proquest
ix. ebsco
x. emerald

1. Visit all the DLs listed from your computer. State what resources
(books/journals/theses/dissertations, etc) are available in the sites. Do you find
them user-friendly(easy to understand instructions, easy to move around, etc)?
Place a tick(/) against the sites that you feel are user-friendly. In the last
column, describe briefly the problems you faced in using the site.
24 x 7



Pfroblems faced

2. Go through all the assignments you have to do for this semester.

List down the assignments for which you can use the digital
libraries to search for info.


In IT age info will be available in minutes or seconds.

The newspaper will provide more details the following day.

A week later, popular magazines like Times and Newsweek

will provide greater in-depth analysis of the disaster.
10 or 20 years later, the reports of disaster will be
available in encyclopedias and reference books.


Report of Event
(Documentation and

Time Frame (is the info up Access to info(where and

to date?)
how to find the info)

Radio/TV/Internet News


TV News Indexes; Web

Search Tools

Newspapers (print)E.g
The Star, The NST, The


Newspaper Indexes

(print & electronic) E.g.

Week/ Weeks

Periodical Indexes

Journals, e-journals (print

& electronic)E.g. National

6 months+


Books, e-books

2+ years

Library Catalogue;

Reference Sources (print

& electronic ) E.g.

Average 10 years

Library Catalogue;

1. You have been requested to write an essay on Tourism in Malaysia. To help

you write, you begin by visiting the newspaper archives to locate articles
relevant to the topic. Write down the newspaper archives you used, the article
headings and the dates the articles were published in the space provided
below. You may use local as well as foreign newspaper archives.
Archive (The Headings
Star, NST,
Berita Harian


Name of

Place of

2. Do you think the articles you found are adequate for

you to write a good paper on the topic? Do the articles
provide you with all the necessary info to write the

Questions to ask after having found the info:

1. Is this info reliable?
2. Can I trust or believe this info?
3. Can I safely use this info in my assignments?

1. Who is the author or institution?

2. How current is the info?
3. Who is the audience?
4. Is the content accurate and objective?
5. What is the purpose of the info?


As mentioned earlier, even your trusted dictionary and the reference books you have may not
give you reliable info. This activity has been designed to help you determine the reliability of your
source. Select one book in the reference list given for any of your courses and answer the
following questions.

What is the title of the book?


When was it publshed?


What edition is it?


If it is not the first edition, when was the first edition published?

Is there info on the author?


Does the writer provide a reference or bibliography?


Try locating one book mentioned in the reference or bibliography list

(in the library or internet). Were you able to find it? Was it easy to find?

2. For this activity you need to do an internet search on the dangers

of smoking. Locate one website that gives you info on the topic.
Use the 5 guidelines and the questions given earlier to check the
reliability of info in that website. Fill in the info in the appropriate
columns in the table below.
Website address:
Who is the author or the
How current is the info?
Who is the audience?
Is the content accurate
and objective?
What is the purpose of
the info?

As a student, you will require info for various

purposes. Thus, in this unit, you were exposed
to the 2 major sources of info: primary sources
and secondary sources. You also learnt about
4 main info mediums: print medium, AV
medium, the Internet and DLs. This section
also emphasised that you need to check how
up-to-date and reliable the info is.

A natural disaster has just struck an Asian country. Describe where and
how you would go about getting the following info:
1. The latest update on the natural disaster.

2. Info on the last time a natural disaster occurred in that country. Which
year, month, date and time? What were the consequences?

3. Info on major natural disasters around the world.


Writing is a tool that can facilitate learning between you and your tutors
or CCs.
Learning at higher or University level can be acquired at 6 stages:a. knowledge
b. comprehension
c. application
d. analysis
e. synthesis
f. evaluation

Informative report

1. Essay thesis support essay = intro, body & conclusion

2. Summary
3. Report i. Science Reports = lab reports that outline,analyse and
evaluate results from experiment.
ii. Reports for business studies e.g. cost-benefit analysis
reports; research and field reports; financial reports and
4. Research paper presents the results of your investigation on a
selected topic. It is based on your thoughts and the facts and ideas
that you have gathered from a variety of sources, e.g. from the library
survey, experiment, etc.

There are 5 stages:1. Analyse the topic.

Go thru the checklist below.
o What do I think about this topic?
o Is there anything related to this topic that I feel strongly about?
o Has there been any recent discussion(s) on this or related to htis topic
in any of the media?
o What are the words that I can think of that are related to this topic?
Jot down whatever words or ideas that come to your mind. A good tool for
analysing a topic is Edward de Bonos CoRT 1 Critical Thinking Tools:
PMI (Plus, Minus,Interesting)
CAF (Consider All Factors)
C & S (Consequence and Sequel)
AGO (Aims, Goals, Objectives)
FIP (First Important Priorities)

APC (Alternative, Possibilities, Choices)

OPV (Other Peoples View)
Apply some of the above critical thinking skills at the preparation stage of
your writing to help organise your thoughts better.
When analysing your topic, you will also want to consider the type, quantity
and format of info you will need. The following questions may help you: What kind of assignment do you have to complete?
How much info do you need?
Is currency important ?
What types of publications do you want to read?
Is point of view an issue ? Do you need opinions?
How much time do you have?

Find a newspaper article on the marketing of a new product or service (e.g.

handphone, washing machine, cable TV, etc) Read the article carefully and
analyse the contents by applying some of the critical skills (C&S, FIP or APC)
given above.

Title :........................................................................
Date published:......................................................
Author: ...................................................................
Place of publication: .............................................
State the skills you applied and the analysis

Web Reference:

You may want to visit the library to look for books, journals and/ or
audio-visual materials.
You can search online resources (digital libraries and newspaper

Evaluate and select the info

Evaluate your sources (Refer to the sections on How Up-to-date are
the Info Sources? and Reliability of the Info.
Discard info you do not want
Retain whatever you need
Plan your outline

1. Essay = intro, body and conclusion

2. Summary = jot down the main ideas of the text you are summarising. A
summary also requires introductory and concluding statement.

Preparing a draft
Once a rough draft is ready, you can improve on it.
tells the reader what you are going to write about and why.
how much you write as intro depends on the length of your entire
the two most important aspects of the intro are the hook and the
thesis statement. A hook helps to grab the readers attention.

1. Question hook :Posing a question that will get the reader to think
about it. e.g. Do you know how many peoples loved ones have been
killed .......?
2. Quotation hook : Quotes from experts or well-known people can give
emphasis to your discussion. e.g. Peace will not come out of clash
of arms but out of justice lived and done by unarmed nations in the
face of odds, said Gandhi.
3. Funnel hook : Moving from the general to the specific.e.g. Education
is the gateway to success. Many young people embark on higher
education with the hope of securing a high position and a good
4. Refutation hook : Providing a summary of opposing views
first.e.g.Many people say wars must be fought in order to defend
democracy. However, in reality, it is wars that destroy democracy.
5. Dramatic hook : By describing a scene or telling a story.e.g. It was
dark, stormy night. The winds lashed ferociously at the rubber trees
as she made her way through the darkness.

conveys the writers opinion, perspective or approach to the topic.

Thesis statement (T.S.) must be in complete sentences.
Examples of T.S.: The haze: This T.S. is too broad. You can write almost anything about the
The haze in Indonesia: The statement is narrowed down, but it is still broad.
How the haze in Indonesia is affecting its neighbours: This T.S. is narrow
enough to allow you to fully explore the issues. Your reader can see the
purpose of your writing and arguments.
# So make sure to include a good hook and a carefully constructed T.S. in your
written assignments.

The body contains info you want to convey. It is the most

significant part of your writing.It is where you display the
strength of your critical thinking abilities. This is where
ideas / arguments are laid out.
examples and evidence are provided to back-up
justifications for the ideas/arguments provided in the
introduction are elaborated.

basically a summary of your main ideas.

where you recap what you have presented in the body.
do not bring up any new points here.
make sure you have a final comment on the topic.
The comment should be a recommendation, a call for
research in the area or a prediction.
Start with , In conclusion or As a conclusion.

When you have completed the draft, revise it.

Check the sentences within the paragraphs.

Turn on the grammar and spelling checker in your word processor.

Make sure you have used appropriate transitional words like therefore,
consequently, in addition, similarly, however, then ,after that, for example

They show the relationship between sentences or paragraphs and make

your writing more coherent.

1. The thick smoke is hazardous to health. Therefore Malaysians have been
requested to stay indoors with the windows shut.
2. In view of the fuel shortage, city dwellers are encouraged to car pool. In
addition, public bus companies have been asked to increase the number
of buses.

1. State one difference between an:

a. essay and a report.
b. essay and a research paper.
2. One of the critical thinking skills put forward by Edward de Bono is
consider all factors. Explain what it means by giving a suitable example.
3. When selecting info, what are the 2 things that you need to consider?
4. The writers own opinion or prspective is contained in the ________.
5. When writing the conclusion in an essay, you should introduce new points.
True or False.

After completion, it is important you cite or list out all your sources of
You must show where you obtained your info.
This is done at the end of your written paper in alphabetical order.
Citation Style
The Chicago Manual Style (CMS)
American Psychological Association citation style (APA)
Modern Language Association citation style (MLA)
# You will use CMS at WOU.
There are 2 elements in this style to show where you obtained your
In-text usage
Reference section

tell the readers where you obtained your info within the text of your written
you do not need footnote.
you make use of the author-date system to cite your sources in the text.
Source put at References
According to Hunt (2002), a literature programme should have six objectives.

At the Reference:
Hunt, J (2002) Teaching Literature at the Elementary School, London:Oxford
University Press.

Insert the last name of the author and the year of publication at the
appropriate point.
A literature programme should have six objectives (Hunt 2002)
If it is a Chinese name, mention only the surname:
There are four causes of depression among teenagers (Lee 2004)
If it is a Malay name, write the full name:
The major cause of domestic unhappiness is a lack of trust (Haniz Johari
If the author has written 2 books or papers in the same year, use lower case
letters such as a and b in the in-text citation.
o A good school must have a counsellor (Martin 2004a)
o Bullying is the most serious problem in school nowadays (Martin 2004b)

Note that there is no punctuation between the name of the author and year. Do
not add a comma. Commas are used to separate page numbers:
Most students prefer to study full-time (Joshua 2003,55)
Semicolons are used to separate two or more references given together:
Most part-time students are housewives (Joshua; Lee 2003)
If the name of the author appears as part of the text, cite only the year of
publication in parentheses:
According to Joshua (2003), most students prefer to study full-time.
If you wish to mention the full name, you may do so:
According to Irene Joshua (2003), most students prefer to study full-time.
If the name and year has been mentioned earlier, do not put the name and year
in parentheses anymore:
o According to Irene Joshua, most students prefer to study full-time.
To help your reader locate the info in the book, you can write out the page
numbers within your text. The year, followed by page numbers should be
written in parentheses. The comma is to separate the year from the page
According to Irene Joshua (2003,55), most students prefer to study full-time.

If there are two authors, James Hunt and William Bond, you must give the two
of them credit. The names should be in parentheses:
The majority of university students do not like to read (Tan and Bock 2002)
The majority of university students do not like to read (Tan and Bock 2002,
If any work has two or three authors, always cite all the names in the text.
Connect the names with the word and. Look at how this is done in the three
examples below:
According to Tan and Bock (2002), the majority of university students do
not like to read.
According to Ivy Tan, William Bock and John Smith (2002), the majority of
university students do not like to read.
According to Tan, Bock and Smith (2002,88), the majority of university
students do not like to read.

According to Tan et al. (2002), the majority of university students do not like
to read.
According to Ivy Tan et al.(2002), the majority of university students do not
like to read.
According to Tan et al. (2002, 88), the majority of university students do not
like to read.

Works by more than three authors

If the work has more than 3 authors cite the first name plus et al. the first time
you mention them in your text:
According to Tan et al. (2002), the majority of university students do not like
to read.
Tan et al. (2002) claimed that......

Works by association, corporations, government agencies, etc.

The names of groups that serve as authors are usually written out of the first
time they appear in a text reference:
Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri Malaysia (LHDNM), 2006
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),2001
The first time you mention such groups, you have to spell out the name in full.
In the second and subsequent citations, you can use abbreviations or
acronyms. The general rule for abbreviation in this manner is to supply enough
info in the text citation for your reader to locate its source in the reference list
without difficulty:
(LHDNM 2006)
(NIMH 2001)
We have completed the first element, In-Text Usage. Now lets look at how we
shall prepare the reference list.

a list of all the references you cited in your writing.

provides the info necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
different from bibliography refers to the relevant sources you consulted in
your research, but was not mentioned at all in your written paper.
Here are the guidelines on preparing your reference list. You should provide
complete info on the book or title.
Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors surnames:
Hudson,L (2005)
Hunt, J (2006)

Single authors precede multiple-authors:

Hudson, L(2005)
Hunt, J (2006)
Hunt, J and Bond, W (2006)

Reference with the same first author and second author or third authors are
arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author and so on:
Ronald, J (2006)
Ronald, J and Band, K (2003)
Ronald, J and Band, K (2005)

Reference with the same author are arranged by year of publication, with the
earliest first:
James, T (2001)
James, T (2003)
James, T (2006)

Works of different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by
the first initial:
Smith,A (2004)
Smith, J (2006)
Smith,V (2001)

This is a sample reference entry for a single author:

Kourik, R (1998) The lavender garden:beautiful varieties to grow and gather, San
Francisco:Chronicle Books.

Mohd. Ridzuan Nordin (1992) Pendidikan Jarak Jauh Modul 1, Kuala Lumpur:
Utusan Publications.
In works by multiple authors, all the names must be mentioned:
James Hunt, William Bond, John Smith, Brad Jones and Samuel Pitt (2002)
Teaching Literature at the Elementary School,London: Oxford University Press.
HuntJ, Bond W, Smith J, Jones B and Pitts S (2002) Teaching Literature at the
Elementary School,London: Oxford University Press.

Edited books are written in the following manner:

Editors Name (ed.) Title of the book,Place of publication: Publisher.
Fraser, J H (ed.).(1978) Society and Childrens Literature, Boston: Godine.
Gibson, A and Jones, K (eds) (1999) Psychological Problems of Disadvantaged
Youths, Reading, England: Edwin.

In the example above, there is a single editor for the first book and two editors in
the second example.
Note that book and periodical titles are in italics. Capitalise these titles headlinestyle. This means capitalise all the important words:
Teaching Literature at the Elementary School

Articles and chapter titles are written differently. These titles are enclosed in
single quotation marks. Here you use sentence-style capitalisation, i.e., capitalise
the initial letter of the first word and any other proper names. The first example
below has the initial letter capitalised. The second example has the initial letters
for the proper name North America capitalised.
Morris, C (1984)University education in the 1990s, in Smith,D E and Jones,F
(eds) Tertiary Education Perspective, New York: McGraw Hill, 2 10.
Sedaka, J (1985) University education in North America, in Smith D E and
Jones, F (eds) Tertiary Education Perspective, New York: McGraw Hill, 22-35.

Sources without authors are arranged alpabetically by the title within the same
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 3rd edn. (1995) Essex, England:
Longman Group Ltd.
Meriam-Websters collegiate dictionary, 10th edn. (1993) Springfield, MA:
Merriam Webster.
Indentation means the first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all
subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a hanging indent:
LeBoeuf, M (1979) Working Smart: How to Accomplish More in Half the
time,New York: Warner Books.
There is indentation in the above example. The example below has no
indentation, and is therefore incorrectly written:
LeBoeuf, M (1979) Working Smart: How to Accomplish More in Half the Time,
New York: Warner Books.

How do we cite essays, articles or chapters in edited books? References to

essays, articles and chapters in edited books must include these elements in this
order: Author(s), Year of publication, Article or Chapter title, Editor(s), Book title,
Article or Chapter page numbers, Place of publication, and Publishers. The article
and chapter titles are enclosed in single quotation marks:
Egoff, S (1980) The problem novel in S Egoff, G.T. Stubbs, & L.F. Ashley, Only
Connect: Readings on Childrens Literature,Toronto: Oxford University Press, 6774.

References for encyclopedias, dictionaries or entries in encyclopedias must

include these elements: Author(s) or Editor(s), Year of publication, Title, Place of
Publication, and Publisher:
Bergman, P G (1993) Relativity in The New Encyclopaedia Britainnica,Vol. 26:
501-18, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

In the example above, note that there is no space between the colon and page

References to journals, magazines and newspapers must include the following

elements: Author(s), date of publication, Article or Journal title, Volume number,
Issue number (if any), and Page numbers.
Yap, J (2006) 30 April. Dont expect miracles Sunday Star, 39.
Brown, A (2001) Leonardo Da Vinci, The Great Artists, 5(2): 21-30.

Note that there is no space between the volume number and the parentheses
containing the issue number, but there is a space between the colon and the page
numbers following the issue number.

The following formats for volumes and issues are also acceptable, but only when
the situation requires it:
Brown, A (2001) Leonardo Da Vinci, The Great Artists, 5(2): 21-30.
Brown, A (2001) Leonardo Da Vinci, The Great Artists, 5 (Summer):21 -30.

This is the format for official documents:

Department of Economic Affairs (1989) The Intermediate Years, London: Her
Majestys Stationery Office.

This is the format for translated work:

Sun Tze The Art of War,translated by Griffith, SB (1971), Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Title for unpublished work are treated as journal articles. The word unpublished
is not necessary. The location or sponsoring body or both should appear, as well
as a date.
Jones, E F (1992) University education in the 1990s, 4th Annual Conference of
Asian Educators, Hong kong.
Papers printed in published proceedings of meetings are treated as chapters in a

For any online reference, you are required to provide the following info: Author(s),
date of document, Title of document, URL, date accessed. Date accessed is the
date last viewed by you, the writer. This is how you cite an article from an
electronic journal and an electronic book:
Beckleheimer, J (1994) How do you cite URLs in a bibliography? (Accessed 14 Oct 1998)
Thames, M (1999) The battle of Hastings Historical Review 55, no1: 25-35. (Accessed 5 May 2004).
Rollin, E (1998) The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain, and
Science, Ames, Iowa. The Iowa State University Press.
(Accessed 30 June 2005).

Make sure you preserve case (i.e.., do not capitalise the letters) in network server
directories and filenames, as it is usually significant. You may break URLs across
lines, but if possible arrange for breaks to occur only at punctuation separators.
Do not arrange breaks at hyphens and do not ever add hyphens!

If you come across a printed reference that has an online reference, this is how
you write it. Note the use of angled brackets < > :
Coleman, D (ed) (1997) The click here economy, Business Week. <>
Finaaly do remember that a well-cited and documented paper would win over the
reader as well as the person who is going to mark your written assignment. It is
one of the criteria used to decide your grades.

Now that you are more familiar with citation styles, how would you write out the
following in a reference list:
1. Title of book: Intelligence
Year published : 2004
Author: Allan J. Rowe
Publisher : Pearson Prentice hall
Place of publication : New Jersey
Citation : _________________________________________________

2. Title of book: The Malayan Union Controversy, 1942-1948

Year published : 1991
Author : Albert Lau
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Place of publication : Singapore
Citation: ___________________________________________________

3. Title of book : Banking Law

Year Published : 2002
Edition : Second
Authors: Lee Mei Phen
Detta Samen
Publisher : Malaysian Law Journal
Place of publication : Kuala Lumpur
Citation : _______________________________________________
4. Title of book : The New Encyclopedia Britainnica
Volume number :2
Pages : 57 68
Title of article : Cells
Authors: Harold Williams
Publisher : Encyclopedia Britainnica
Year Published : 1999
Place of publication : Chicago
Citation : _______________________________________________

5. Year and date published : 30 May 2005

Newspaper : The New Straits Times
Page : 33
Author : Wong Kok Leong
Title of article : The passive smoker
Citation : ___________________________________________________

6. Title : Its Time to Start the Slow School Movement

Year published: 2002
Author : Maurice Holt
Volume : 84
Number : 4
Pages : 265
Publisher : Phi Delta Kappan
Website address:
Citation: ___________________________________________________

This section discussed the sources of info and the media

used to convey info. The 5 stages in preparing a written
paper were also explained. The unit offered guidelines on
how to evaluate sources of info so that your written papers
are not only well-written but have credibility as well.

1. Give one reason why citation styles are used in writing ?


2. What do the abbreviations MLA and APA stand for ?


3. What is the citation style adopted by WOU ?


4. The following part of a text on Television Violence and Behaviour

contains language errors and sources that are not properly cited.
Read the text carefully and correct the errors.

There is growing concern that television violence increases violent and

aggresive tendencies in young children (Tan Mei Lee, Malaysia Post,April
2005). David (2002)also stated that the majority of Malaysians feel that
television entertainment has now become too violent (page 33). Dan Hurt
identified that several of the variables in the relationship between television
violence and aggression, are related to the viewers characteristics
(Television and Crimes, Media Journal,Volume 10, Number 27, 2003). Dan Hurt
says (page 10) viewers who are angry or frustrated before watching a violent
scene are mre prone to aggression than others.

Oral presentations (O.P.) often are developed from written assignments.

They may take the following forms of public speaking: persuasive speeches,
informative speeches, entertaining speeches, debates, group presentations.
The ability to speak effectively is just as important as the ability to write well.
O.P. can enhance your reputation as a student as well as an employee.
Every opportunity to present orally should be looked upon not just as an
opportunity to sell your ideas but also your competence.

1. Analyse your audience

How much do they know about the subject?
What is their age group ?
What is their educational background?
What is their cultural/ethnic background?
What is their interests?
Why are they attending my O.P.?
What do they expect from me?
What will they gain from listening to my presentations?

2. Know your objectives

The benefits of saving money: To inform
How to solve a mathematical problem: To teach
Study hard in order to achieve good grades: To motivate
Buy this product: To persuade
Dont buy the product as it is faulty: To dissuade
The streets are unsafe as snatch thefts are on the increase: To appeal for

3. Research your topic

Determine first and foremost, what info you will
Choose info that appeals to your audience
particularly their age, educational background, etc.
Bear in mind the duration of your presentation.

4. Organise your O.P.

make sure your content is well organised.
Your O.P. consists of 3 parts:a. Introduction :
b. Body
c. Conclusion

Effective Introduction
1. Get the attention of your audience. You can do this by:
a. Telling them a story or anecdote related to the topic.
b. Beginning with a quotation related to the topic.
c. Telling a joke.
d. Listing out a series of interesting or shocking facts related to the
2. State your purpose:
a. Tell your audience your topic.
b. Present an oral or visual outline of your presentation, i.e., the
main points or ideas you will be covering: First, I will talk about...,
Secondly, I will discuss...

The Body
1. Go through the points in the order that you wish to present them.
2. Make use of examples to support your points.
3. Prepare visual aids to present the contents of your topic. Your audience will
understand better with visuals. It will also make your presentation much
more interesting.
Make a list of visual aids you plan to use.
4. Include signposts in your presentation.
a. Numerical signposts: First..,Second..,Third...,Finally...
Numbering helps your listeners visualise your presentation better.
b. Parallel structure: Make use of parallel structures to show transitions
between main ideas.
The main effect of the tsunami in Indonesia is...
The main effect of the tsunami in Thailand is...
c. Old-to-new transition:is a sentence that alerts your audience to where you
have been to and where you are going next in your presentation.

The purpose is to leave your listeners with a clear idea of everything that
you have spoken about.
1. Use phrases like, In conclusion, I would like to say..., I would like to
summarise by stating..., To recap what I have just said..., etc. Write your
summary here:
2. Restate the purpose of your presentation by saying, I hope you can see the
purpose of my talk is..., My intention is..., I hope that you are aware that...,
so we have to do something about it..., etc. Remind your audience the
purpose of your talk here:
3. Thank your audience.
4. Invite questions from your audience and do not forget to thank the audience
for posing questions.

1. Imagine you are giving a talk on procrastination, describe four ways that
you can use to arouse your audiences attention in the introduction of
your presentation.
2. Give an example of each of the following purpose or objectives of your
a. To inform :
b. To teach:
c. To persuade :
d. To motivate :

In this section, you were introduced to the steps in

preparing an O.P. such as knowing your audience,
knowing your objectives, choosing your topic. You were
also taught how to organise your presentation in order to
make the presentations work for you.

Tips for effective O.Ps.

1. Preparation
highlight the main points of your presentation.
after each point construct a transition
decide if a pause is necessary and for how long.

2. Practice
Practice makes perfect- do not memorise or write down your wntire presentation.
Use the outline you created for your presentation
make brief notes if you have problems remembering your points
rehearse your presentation until you are comfortable with it

3. Style of speaking
style in O.P. refers to nonverbal cues such as pauses before you move to another
the style you choose will depend on whether your audience knows you, your
rank(above or below them) and their ranks.

Languages come in two forms verbal and non-verbal.

Non-verbal language refers to how you communicate without words-eye
contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture, movement, voice and
a. Eye-contact : always maintain eye contact with the audience.
: Good eye contact also helps you reflect self-confidence and
gives credibility to what you are saying.
b. Facial expression: Expression should reflect what you are saying.
c. Gestures: Use natural, animated gestures.
d. Movement: Dont stand in a frozen position. Moving about can help
accentuate your enthusiasm.
e. Voice: Enunciate the words clearly and use different tones. It should not
be too harsh or nasal but a pleasing melody.
f. Appearance: Pay significant attention to personal grooming.

this is where your ability to interact with the audience will be teste.
Tips to handle questions better:a. Repeat the question, loudly and clearly, so that the audience knows what
has been asked.
b. Take a moment to reflect on the question before answering it.
c. If, you are not sure of the answer, ask for clarification or restate the
d. If you do not know the answer, say so. You dont have to apologise but
offer to look into it. You may ask the audience to help you with the answer.
e. Always wait for the questioner to finish asking the question before you
begin to answer the question.
f. Do not have lengthy discussions with one person, engage the entire

1. Take three breaths to relax yourself before you get out of your chair.
2. Then go up and thank the person who introduced you and then count to
10 before you start speaking.
3. This allows the audience to get settled and be ready to hear you.
4. Before you give your speech, think of them as caring, friendly people who
want to hear you speak.
5. The positive image should relax you and put you in a good frame of mind.
6. A good place to practise your speeches is Toastmasters Club.
7. To know more go to

You would have witnessed people giving talks or speeches

at functions or during meetings. Describe briefly what you
liked about the way they spoke and what you didnt like.
What do you think they could have done to improve their

defined as any graphical representation of data used to

communicate the contents or meaning (including spatial
and temporal location) of the data.
Advantages of using visual aids:a.helps the audience to focus on what you are saying.
b. The audience retains the message better.
c. The message is conveyed more efficiently.
A strictly O.P. may be boring to an audience nowadays.

basically there are 2 categories: standard visual aids and electronically

enhanced visual aids.

Standard visual aids

1. Handouts

given to audience to be taken with them

2. Pictures and photographs

they mst be large enough to be seen by everyone in the audience.

3. Flipcharts and posters

it sets a more informal mood and are better used with a small audience (<30)
are useful if you want your audience to compare and contrast a set of facts or

4. Objects and models

A physical object displays exactness and realism.
Must be large enough to be seen by the audience and small
enough to be carried around.
models are three dimensional. scaled-down replicas of a
car, building, atom, etc.

1. Transparencies
are transparent plastic sheets.
can photocopy text and pictures onto special thermal transparencies.
then make sure the venue or institution has an OHP.

2. Audiovisual aids and power point

with the digital revolution, words, sound, and images are available in binary
digital format.
The power point is an excellent visual aid that can create very professional
and impressive presentations.
It allows the use of colour, animation and sound.

2 major factors are quality and clarity to grab and maintain audiences
audience too expect professionally developed and competently used visual
Typeface and type size
Visual Aids




Flipcharts & posters

3 inches high

2 to 2 inches high

1 high

Transparencies &
power point

30 36 pt











Typefaces can also affect the clarity of the message that the visuals are trying
to convey. The following are some suggested typefaces and the sort of image
they project.




Times Roman


Goals are dreams we convert to plans

and take action to fulfill. Zig Ziglar



You are the sum total of all your choices

up to now. Dr. Wayne Dyer



Its faith in something and enthusiasm

for something that makes life worth
living. Oliver Wendell Holmes

Helvetica shows an urban image. Century and Bodoni typeface describe a friendly and
trendy image.
Generally do not use more than 2 different typefaces for a visual. Also the typeface(s)
used must be consistent for all the visuals in your presentation.

1. use only 4 to 6 lines for a visual.

2. Limit each line to not more than 40 characters.
3. Use phrases rather than sentences.
4. Use both uppercase and lowercase to make it more readable.
5. Emphasise man points with different colours and type sizes.
6. Select only 2 or 3 colurs per visual.
7. One visual should only contain one point or idea.
8. Make them near and simple.
9. Ensure that the spelling, grammar and punctuaion are correct in order to
make the visual appear professional.
# Visual aids are just aids- they can either make your presentation a success
or failure-depending on how you use them.

Make sure the visuals supplement your speech rather

than replace them.
Otherwise the audience may get the impression that you
are not well prepared or are unfamiliar with the content.

the use of appropriate visuals also depends on your

audiences knowledge of the subject matter.
If you are talking to a group of foreigners on how to make
laksa, you may need to supplement with pictures,
photographs or slides of the various local ingredients.
But if the same presentation is made to a group of locals,
yu only need to tell them what is required.

The size of the room or hall, the seating arrangement,

lighting and equipment available should be taken into
consideration in preparing your speech.
Does the seating arrangement allow everyone to see the
visual aid being used?
If you are using a projector, are there adequate plugs or
outlets for the equipment to be used?
Do you need room to be completely dark when you are
showing your visual?

In this section, we offered you guidelines and tips not only

on developing visual aids but also on how to present well.
It also focussed on the types of O.Ps, i.e., informative,
persuasive and goodwill presentations. We also
discussed in detail the types of visual aids you can use in
your presentation and why you need to use them.

1. The use of visual aids benefits not only the audience, but also the
speaker. Discuss 3 advantages of visual aids to the listener.
2. Discuss 3 advantages of using visual aids to the speaker.
3. For the following situations, what visual aids would be used:
a. A talk to kindergarten children on road safety.
b. A talk to a group of foreigners on Malaysian batik.
c. A talk to your course mates on revising effectively for examinations.

1. The Virtual Presentation Assistant Using Visual Aids

2. Visual Aids

3. Outloud Online Visual Assistant

In this unit, you were introduced to the 2 main important

things you will be engaged in as a learner: producing
written papers and O.Ps. We talked about the sources and
the info media that you can use particularly in ODL. This
unit also introduced you to the strategies that you can
apply to ascertain that the info that you have gathered is
current nd reliable. Apart from these, you learnt how to cite
sources using the Chicago editorial style. Finally, you were
introduced to O.Ps: the types of O.Ps and the types,
benefits and guidelines for using visual aids to enhance
your presentations.

Quizzes will be available on the LMS starting next

week. Do attempt these questions as part of your
revision. Have you looked through the past
semester examination papers yet?
Good luck!
PS: Be reminded that the Examination
Notification Slip will be sent to the address you
have provided to the University. If you have not
received yours a week before the exams, please
do contact your respective ROs.

Shortlisted Topics for Learning Skills July 2014

1. Questions that you can ask yourself when you
evaluate your daily schedule.

2. Strategies that can help you remember what

you study.

3. Types of motivation.
1. an encouragement.
2. Extrinsic motivation = encouragement
from outside or external force.
3. Is the driving power behind all our
4. Intrinsic motivation = motivation from
5. If you are intrinsically motivated you do
not need external encouragement or
rewards to study hard.
6. Motivation is a goal-directed behaviour.
7. Our motivation depends on our own
individual values and beliefs.

4. Ways of taking notes.

1. Outline method

dash (-) or indentation is commonly used.

jot down points in an organised pattern based on space indentation.

Write major points on the far left.

Indent each of the more specific points to the right.

Minor points will be placed further away from major points

Definition : means of carrying objects from one place to
- three modes
- air transport
- land transport
- sea transport
Figure 3.3 Outline method of taking notes

2. Summary method
Write in note form, in own words, the essential facts and ideas from
your reading.
Example : The following is a paragraph taken from your
reading material on Strategies to enhance motivation for
Big tasks may worry you. Break down the big tasks into
smaller ones so that they are more manageable. For
example, as a working person, it may be too demanding
to revise one whole chapter at one tme for your test. You
may want to break down the task into revising one
section of the chapter at a time.
A sample of the note made using the summary method:

Break dow n big tasks into sm aller units so that you can
m anage it better.

Figure 3.4 Summary method of taking notes

3. Annotation method
o The blank space in the margins are commonly used.
o Can write down the main points, question marks, ticks or crosses to show
various meanings.
o e.g. for important points, put asterisk beside the point in the margin.
o For a point which needs more explanation, you may put a question mark in
the margin.
o You may also highlight or underline important points.
o Refer to Figure 3.5 on page 52

4. Charting method
group the important points into categories.
draw columns headed by these categories.
record info (words,phrases,main ideas, etc) into the appropriate category.
Is useful when you want to get an overview of the whole course in a sequential

Example Chart format of Learning Styles

Visual Learner

Audio Learner

Kinesthetic Learner


Listen to tapes
Explain to friends


5. Mind map method

Created by Tony Buzan
a very effective method of taking notes.
show not only facts but also overall structure of a subject and relative imporance of individual parts of
show relationships between ideas and/or conceptsand the connections between or among them.
Main topic placed in centre,main topic linked to 6 main ideas and main idea linked to other sub ideas.

Conduct study

Suitable time

Strategies to enhance
learning motivation

down big
Set goals

Learn actively


Have incentives

To learn more about mind maps go to

Mind Map Tips Use titles, subtitles and bullet points.

Look for key issues and main details which form the focus of the reading
Use short sentences.
Underline key points in red or with a highlighter.
Produce a summary list/table at the end of a section.
Leave lots of blank space while taking notes- add addtional notes later
Leave out full descriptions and explanation- notes short and to the pt.
Dont be afraid to produce table e.g. Advantages & Disadvantages of...
Include topical examples and case study references in your notes
Be selective not jot everything you read/hear.
Write memory jogs to yourself in the margin e.g. Good diagram p.146 in
Book X
Keep notes in order and in one place.
Develop own short forms which you can use all the time e.g. i.e.- in other
words, @ - at etc.

5. Roles played by tutors in an open

distance learning system.

For every course you take WOU assigns a tutor to help you.
The tutor is your main contact with the University.
For each course there will be 10 hours of tutorial classes where the
tutor will facilitate your learning process.
The tutor will make the learning process smoother & less lonely for
You may contact him by telephone, Internet or video conferencing.

It is your tutor who will:

give you advice & guidance on problems related to your studies.
help you build-up your study skills.
helps you increase your self-confidence.

6. Weaknesses of the traditional learning system.

The TL system has a few weaknesses: Expensive to build schools-a physical building brick & mortar
system, double sessions
Teacher dependent controls student learning, students not
proactive & do not question the teacher, teacher sets the pace & what
teacher says is largely true.
Teacher oriented- Teacher tells students when to do, what to do and
how to do it.
Fixed years of instruction Elitist education system favours those from better social economic
families,poor students do not go to school as only few schools & far
For children only 7 years old start & only a small % to tertiary
education, they start work & no longer study .

7. Teaching strategies used in the

conventional learning system and the open
distance learning system.

8. Strategies for reducing test anxiety on the

day of the examination.
1. Eating well nutritious food
2. Dressing comfortably-so your
concentration & performance not
3. Getting materials ready- make a
checklist before exam.
4. Being early on the day of the
examination- make allowance for traffic
jam etc.
5. Positive thinking- Whether you think
that you can, or that you cant, you are
usually right....Henry Ford.
- avoid people who
have negative thoughts.

9. Fabrication. Examples of fabrication.

1.Fabrication: making up false info or

10. Types of academic dishonesty.

1. Cheating : Getting someone to do
your assignment,copying, etc
2. Fabrication: making up false info or
3. Facilitation: to make an activity
easier-provide test answers to
another student, etc.
4. Plagiarism: intentionally or
unintentionally using an authors
words, ideas or research.
To avoid plagiarism every quotation
you use must be indicated by
quotation marks and cited in the text
or in the reference section.

11. Types of hooks you can use in essay

1. Question hook :Posing a question that will get the reader to think about it.
e.g. Do you know how many peoples loved ones have been killed .......?
2. Quotation hook : Quotes from experts or well-known people can give
emphasis to your discussion. e.g. Peace will not come out of clash of
arms but out of justice lived and done by unarmed nations in the face of
odds, said Gandhi.
3. Funnel hook : Moving from the general to the specific.e.g. Education is
the gateway to success. Many young people embark on higher education
with the hope of securing a high position and a good salary.
4. Refutation hook : Providing a summary of opposing views first.e.g.Many
people say wars must be fought in order to defend democracy. However,
in reality, it is wars that destroy democracy.
5. Dramatic hook : By describing a scene or telling a story.e.g. It was dark,
stormy night. The winds lashed ferociously at the rubber trees as she
made her way through the darkness

12. Characteristics of effective goals.

1. Challenging and realistic

your goal must not be so easy

your goal must not be too difficult or


set a goal which is slightly difficult and


You must know your own ability

Getting a degree at WOU is both

realistic and challenging to you ??????

a. I will get high scores for all my exams.
b. I will get no less than 75 marks for all my exams.
1. (b) is definitely more specific and measureable because
you can judge when you have completed or reached
the goal-75 marks or more.

1. Success = a series of little victories.

2. Effective goals encourage steady progressDAD,WAW.
3. Make small goals which you can achieve weekly.
e.g. From Mon to Fri , I must read thru section 1.3 of
Unit 1. I must also complete the 3 activities and the
self-test paper.
4. This means you must read the entire unit and write
down all the answers.
5. Whenever you have progress, rejoice, feel proud of
what you have done and you will feel motivated.

1. A +ve goal = getting high marks in exam = positive

state of mind = pleasant memories and experiences.
2. -ve goals = unpleasant memories.
3. Success = we focus on striving towards +ve
Let us think which is +ve or ve.
a. I do not want to fail WUC 131
b. I want to get a Grade A in WUC 131.
Which of the above is a +ve goal ?

It is good to set a starting point and a finishing point for

your goal.
Instead of saying : I will get my ODL assignment done
this month,
You may want to say: I will start my oDL assignment on
10 October and complete it by 21 October.

13. Steps you have to take when preparing an

oral presentation.

1. Analyse your audience

How much do they know about the subject?
What is their age group ?
What is their educational background?
What is their cultural/ethnic background?
What is their interests?
Why are they attending my O.P.?
What do they expect from me?
What will they gain from listening to my presentations?

2. Know your objectives

The benefits of saving money: To inform
How to solve a mathematical problem: To teach
Study hard in order to achieve good grades: To motivate
Buy this product: To persuade
Dont buy the product as it is faulty: To dissuade
The streets are unsafe as snatch thefts are on the increase: To appeal for

3. Research your topic

Determine first and foremost, what info you will
Choose info that appeals to your audience
particularly their age, educational background, etc.
Bear in mind the duration of your presentation.

4. Organise your O.P.

make sure your content is well organised.
Your O.P. consists of 3 parts:a. Introduction :
b. Body
c. Conclusion

14. Reasons why open distance learning

graduates are in demand.
ODL students go thru a very vigorous academic process.
Being an ODL learner you need to : Organise and manage your own learning.
Take responsibility for your own learning by making decisions as to
what, when & how you will learn.
Responsible - employees increasingly recognises the value.
Dedicated - ODL learners are recognised as goal-oriented
individuals who see education as ongoing process lifelong learners.
Possess multitasking skills- ODL learners are recognised as
individuals who perform effectively in a multi-tasking environment
cos majority are full-time or part-time working adults who juggle job,
coursework & family responsibilities. They understand the need to

Motivated - ODL learners are seen to be

motivated self-starters with the ability to complete
assignments on time & adapt to dynamic
environments. They strive on challenge.
Forward thinkers ODL learners are perceived to
be capable of stretching their thoughts & ideas
into new territories to be innovative & creative
people. They also seek to understand the
competencies & personality traits of their
colleagues or team members.

15. Learning styles.

Learning Style


Active Learner

Have group discussions.

Group members can take turns to explain different topics to each other.
Group members can also try to predict potential test or examination
questions and discuss answers to these questions.

Reflective Learner

Sensing Learner

Intuitive Learner

Always think about what you read quietly.

Stop periodically to review what you have read by thinking of possible
questions or applications.
Memorisation method does not work for you.
As you read your course materials, write short summaries of readings or
tutorial notes in your own words.
Find many facts about the topic to be learnt.
You need specific examples of concpts and procedures.
Try to find out the applications of concepts.
Try to find out its application in the real world.
Use brainstorming methods with friends or classmates among the application
of those concepts.
Like to discover possibilities.
Ask your instructor for interpretations or theories that link the facts or try to
find the connections yourself.
Take time to read the entire questions before you start answering and be
sure to check your results.

Learning Style


Visual Learner

Try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photograph, flow charts, or

other visual representation of course materials.
Get relevant videotapes or CD-ROM related to the course materials
Prepare concept maps by listing key points, enclosing them in boxes or
circles, and drawing lines with arrows between concepts to show
Highlight important points.
Use different coloured highlighter for different main points.

Verbal Learner

Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own words.

Have group discussions.
Take turns to explain to your classmates.

Sequential Learner

Global Learner

Copy every step to a solution carefully. Fill up any missing ones by

making additional references.
Take time to outline the course material for yourself in logical order.
Relating each new topic you study to things you already know.

You need the big picture of a subject before you can master details.
Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a text, skim
through the entire chapter to get an overview.
Instead of spending a short time on every subject every night, you might
find it more productive to immerse yourself in individual subjects for a
longer period of time. Try to relate the subject to things you already
know, either by asking your tutor to help you see connections or by
looking up references

16. Ways the Wawasanlearn can help your

learning experience at WOU.
help enrich and accelerate your

learning experience at WOU.

made available forum where you

interact with tutors, CC

& course mates. ( not only from your
centre but also from
other centres as well)
where you have the opportunity to

discuss, collaborate,
and brainstorm with all of them.
provides you with info & resources to

help you complete and/ or submit

assignments & quizzes.

17. Characteristics of Open Distance

separation of teacher & learner in time or place or in both time &
self-managed learning learners have to be independent & organise
their own learning.
synchronous & asynchronous learning teaching & learning take
place simultaneously or at different times.
unlimited access to course 24 hours a days, 7 days a week, 52
weeks a year.
just in time and on-demand learning digital learning is delivering

knowledge when & where the student needs it, and as often as they need it.
This concept of :anywhere-anytime learning leads to greater retention and
satisfaction, in addition to a significant cost savings for employees.

instituitonal accreditation that is, learning is accredited or certified

by some institution or agency.
use of mixed-media courseware including print, radio and television
braodcasts, video and audio cassettes, computer-based learning and
two-way communication - allows learners & tutors to interact as
distinguished from the passive receipt of broadcast signals.
Communication can be synchronous or asynchronous.
face-to-face meetings for tutorials - learner-learner interaction, library
study & lab or practice sessions

18. Reasons why assessments (assignments

and examinations) are conducted at