You are on page 1of 30

A.

Parts of Speech: Conjunctions, Prepositions and Interjections

1. Conjunctions

a) Meaning

Conjunction is a set of words use to join words, phrases or sentences together. A


conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence.
Conjunctions could be divided into some categories, which are coordinating
conjunctions,

subordinating

conjunctions,

correlative

conjunctions

and

conjunctive adverbs.

i)

Coordinating Conjunctions

This is the most common used conjunctions. This type of conjunction consist of
and, but, or, yet, for, nor and so. It may help by recalling that they all have fewer
than four letters. Also, remember the acronym FANBOYS( For-And-Nor-But-OrYet-So ).

Conjunction and
a. To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: "Tashonda
sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response."
b. To suggest that one idea is the result of another: "Willie heard the weather
report and promptly boarded up his house."
c. To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced
by but in this usage): "Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant
personality.
d. To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage):
"Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight."

e. To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually


the first clause is an imperative): "Use your credit cards frequently and you'll
soon find yourself deep in debt."
f. To suggest a kind of "comment" on the first clause: "Charlie became
addicted to gambling and that surprised no one who knew him."

Conjunction but
a. To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: "Joey lost
a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably."
b. To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied
in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary): "The club never
invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor."
c. To connect two ideas with the meaning of "with the exception of" (and then
the second word takes over as subject): "Everybody but Goldenbreath is
trying out for the team."

Conjunction or
a. To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the
other: "You can study hard for this exam or you can fail."
b. To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: "We can broil chicken on
the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.
c. To suggest a refinement of the first clause: "Smith College is the premier allwomen's college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College
alumnae."
d. To suggest a restatement or "correction" of the first part of the sentence:
"There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us."
e. To suggest a negative condition: "The New Hampshire state motto is
the rather grim "Live free or die."
f. To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see
use of and above): "They must approve his political style or they wouldn't
keep electing him mayor."

Conjunction nor
The conjunction nor is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other
conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation or
writing. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neithernor (see below):

He is neither sane nor brilliant.

That is neither what I said nor what I meant.

It can be used with other negative expressions:

That is not what I meant to say, nor should you interpret my statement as
an admission of guilt.

It is possible to use nor without a preceding negative element, but it is unusual


and, to an extent, rather stuffy:

George's handshake is as good as any written contract, nor has he ever


proven untrustworthy.

Conjunction yet
The word yet functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings: in
addition ("yet another cause of trouble" or "a simple yet noble woman"), even
("yet more expensive"), still ("he is yet a novice"), eventually ("they may yet win"),
and so soon as now ("he's not here yet"). It also functions as a coordinating
conjunction meaning something like "nevertheless" or "but." The word yet seems
to carry an element of distinctiveness that but can seldom register.

John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton.

The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play
golf every day.

In sentences such as the second one, above, the pronoun subject of the second
clause ("they," in this case) is often left out. When that happens, the comma
preceding the conjunction might also disappear:

"The visitors complained loudly yet continued to play golf every day."

Yet is sometimes combined with other conjunctions, but or and. It would not be
unusual to see and yet in sentences like the ones above. This usage is
acceptable.

Conjunction for
The word for is most often used as a preposition, of course, but it does serve, on
rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunction. Some people regard the
conjunction for as rather highfalutin and literary, and it does tend to add a bit of
weightiness to the text. Beginning a sentence with the conjunction "for" is
probably not a good idea, except when you're singing "For he's a jolly good
fellow. "For" has serious sequential implications and in its use the order of
thoughts is more important than it is, say, with because or since. Its function is to
introduce the reason for the preceding clause:

John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on
the company's board of trustees.

Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had
been a long, dusty journey on the train.

Conjunction so
Be careful of the conjunction so. Sometimes it can connect two independent
clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can't. For instance, in this
sentence,

Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister,
and his Uncle Chet.

where the word so means "as well" or "in addition," most careful writers would
use a semicolon between the two independent clauses. In the following

sentence, where so is acting like a minor-league "therefore," the conjunction and


the comma are adequate to the task:

Soto has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that


he avoids crowds of his adoring fans.

Sometimes, at the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a kind of summing up


device or transition, and when it does, it is often set off from the rest of the
sentence with a comma:

So, the sheriff peremptorily removed the child from the custody of his
parents.

ii)

Subordinating Conjunctions

A Subordinating

Conjunction (sometimes

called

dependent

word

or

subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or Dependent)


Clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the
rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the
rest of the sentence for its meaning.

He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all
his life.

Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the


movies.

Unless we act now, all is lost.

Notice that some of the subordinating conjunctions in the table below after,
before, since are also prepositions, but as subordinators they are being used
to introduce a clause and to subordinate the following clause to the independent
element in the sentence.

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

iii)

after

if

though

although

if only

till

as

in order that

unless

as if

now that

until

as long as

once

when

as though

rather than

whenever

because

since

where

before

so that

whereas

even if

than

wherever

even though

that

while

Correlative Conjunctions

Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative
conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements
that should be treated as grammatically equal.

She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm.

Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."

Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your
best.

Correlative conjunctions sometimes create problems in parallel form. Here is a


brief list of common correlative conjunctions.

both . . . and

neither . . . nor

not only . . . but also

whether . . . or

not . . . but

as . . . as

either . . . or

2. Prepositions

a) Meaning

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.


There are three common types of preposition. They are preposition of time,
preposition of direction and preposition of place. Below are the most common
used words as the preposition and it will be discussed with the sample of the
sentences.

i.

Preposition of Time

at
Examples :
i. I wait at the cyber caf.
ii. The meeting was at night.
iii. They plan to leave at seven oclock.

by
Examples :
i. Please be back by seven oclock.
ii. They have to finish their homework by Wednesday.
iii. His students have to submit their task by tomorrow.

during
Examples :
i. They went to the farm during the holidays.
ii. During recess, they eat in the canteen.
iii. They did the experiment during their lesson.

for
examples :
i. He will study in Australia for four years.
ii. My brother studied for three hours this morning.
iii. They trained for two weeks for the competition.

in
Examples :
i. My father retired in 2010.
ii. The UPSR examination will be in September.
iii. My sister is getting married in a months time.

on
Examples :
i. They are going camping on Saturday.
ii. He celebrated his birthday party on 21st April.
iii. They are coming home on New Years Eve.

since
Examples :
i. He has not emailed me since he went to the college.
ii. They have been living in Kulim since 2005.
iii. They have been working on the project since Monday.

i.

Preposition of Direction

The learner must understand he/she is going to identify the direction some
object is moving in space. The basic preposition of direction is "to".

"To" signifies orientation toward a goal. When the goal is physical, such as
a destination, "to" implies movement in the direction of the goal.

Example : Samad is returning to his house.

"Toward" suggests movement in a general direction, without necessarily


arriving at a destination.
Example : They drove towards the lake.

"Into": signifies movement toward the interior of a volume


Example : He dropped a coin into the glass.

"Onto" signifies movement toward a surface.


Example : The cat jumped onto the chair.

"Over" signifies someone or something moving across the surface from


one side towards the other.
Example : The boys leaped over the hurdles.

"Under"signifies something moving from one side to the other by passing


below it.
Example : She put her book under her hand.

"Past" signifies moving in a direction so as to pass by.


Example : we have walked past the traffic lights.

ii.

Preposition of Place

The learner must understand he/she is going to identify locations of things.


Often, the answer to where questions contains a location preposition.
Obviously, a learner must possess the WH question form, if you are going to
use it as a probe question to elicit a location preposition in his/her response.
Here are some of the most frequently used prepositions which express
location relationships.

above
Example : The picture is above the desk.

across
Example : Alis house is across the street.

against
Example : The ladder is against the wall.

at
Example : The store is at the corner.

between
Example : Adlin is standing between the cars.

behind
Example : Bala is sitting behind the desk.

below
Example : The coffee table is below the fan.

by
Example : The vase is by the door.

in
Example : I live in that terrace house.

inside
Example : They are inside the hall.

near
Example : I live near the school.

opposite
Example : The mosque is opposite the hospital.

3. Interjections

a) Meaning
Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion.
They are included in a sentence - usually at the start - to express a sentiment
such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement or enthusiasm. Here are some of
the interjections and the examples.

Interjection

Meaning

Example

expressing pleasure

"Ah, that feels good."

expressing realization

"Ah, now I understand."

expressing resignation

"Ah well, it can't be heped."

expressing surprise

"Ah! I've won!"

expressing grief or pity

"Alas, she's dead now."

expressing pity

"Oh dear! Does it hurt?"

expressing surprise

"Dear me! That's a surprise!"

asking for repetition

"It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot

ah

alas

dear

eh

today."

er

expressing enquiry

"What do you think of that, eh?"

expressing surprise

"Eh! Really?"

inviting agreement

"Let's go, eh?"

expressing hesitation

"Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."

expressing greeting

"Hello John. How are you today?"

expressing surprise

"Hello! My car's gone!"

calling attention

"Hey! look at that!"

expressing surprise, joy etc

"Hey! What a good idea!"

expressing greeting

"Hi! What's new?"

expressing hesitation, doubt or

"Hmm. I'm not so sure."

hello, hullo

hey

hi

hmm

disagreement
expressing surprise

"Oh! You're here!"

expressing pain

"Oh! I've got a toothache."

expressing pleading

"Oh, please say 'yes'!"

expressing pain

"Ouch! That hurts!"

uh

expressing hesitation

"Uh...I don't know the answer to that."

uh-huh

expressing agreement

"Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."

um, umm

expressing hesitation

"85 divided by 5 is...um...17."

expressing surprise

"Well I never!"

introducing a remark

"Well, what did he say?"

oh, o

ouch

well

Introductory expressions such as yes, no, indeed and well are also classed as
interjections.

Examples:
Indeed, this is not the first time the stand has collapsed.
Yes, I do intend to cover the bet.
I'm sure I don't know half the people who come to my house. Indeed, for all I
hear, I shouldn't like to.
Well, it's 1 a.m. Better go home and spend some quality time with the kids.

Some interjections are sounds:

Examples:
Phew! I am not trying that again.
Humph! I knew that last week.
Mmmm, my compliments to the chef.
Ah! Don't say you agree with me. When people agree with me, I always feel
that I must be wrong.

B.

Sets of exercises for each Parts of Speech

a) Set 1 - Conjunctions

Q.1) The bus stopped __________ the man got off.


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.2) We stayed at home __________ watched a film.


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.3) I wanted to buy a newspaper __________ didn't have enough money.


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.4) I have a lot of homework to do now __________ I can't go to the cinema with you.
A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.5) He's very rich __________ he doesn't spend a lot of money.


A.and

B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.6) Do you want tea __________ coffee?


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.7) Is the Empire State Building in New York __________ London?


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.8) Is it a new house __________ an old house?


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.9)

I enjoy visiting many different countries __________ I wouldn't want to live


anywhere else but Lisbon.

A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

Q.10) We can go by bus __________ we can walk.


A.and
B.but
C.or
D.so

b) Set 2 - Conjunctions

Question Excerpt From Conjunctions

Q.1) A fine day was planned, but the weather ruined everything.
A.fine
B.day
C.was
D.but
E.weather

Q.2) Both the car and the truck suffered heavy damage in the accident.
A.Both . . . and
B.car
C.truck
D.heavy
E.in

Q.3) Tim will drive us to the airport, or we can take the bus.
A.us
B.to
C.the
D.airport
E.or

Q.4)

Because of the storm, the plane sat on the runway for two hours, but the
passengers did not complain.

A.of
B.plan

C.on
D.but
E.to

Q.5) I have been waiting since Thursday, but no one has called.
A.I
B.have
C.been
D.since
E.but

Q.6) Neither the police officer on the corner nor any of the passers by saw the car
approach.
A.Neither
B.Neither . . . nor
C.nor
D.on
E.saw

Q.7) I held the grocery bags, and my mother unlocked the door.
A.held
B.grocery
C.and
D.my
E.mother

Q.8) The leaves must be removed from the lawn, or the grass will die.
A.leaves
B.must be
C.or

D.grass
E.will

Q.9) I would have gone, but I was sick.


A.I
B.would
C.have
D.gone
E.but

Q.10) Physical education and health are required courses.


A.education
B.and
C.health
D.are
E.courses

a) Set 1 - Prepositions

Use in, on, or at in the appropriate blank spaces.

1. I live ___________ Denver.

2. I live ___________ Main Street.

3. I live ___________ 55 Main Street.

4. She lives ___________ California.

5. They used to live ___________ 84 Lincoln Street.

6. Mary's home is ___________ San Francisco.

7. Her house is ___________ Market Street.

8. She has lived ___________ 70 Washington Street for a long time.

9. My home is ___________ New York City.

10. Their house is __________ 19 Broadway.

b) Set 2 - Prepositions

1. I'll arrive sometime ___ 8 and 9 am.

on
between
in
next to

2. The shops here are open ___ 9am until 5pm.

for
at
from
on

3. They should be ready to go ___ 20 minutes.

on
to
by
in

4. She wants to stay ___ home tonight.

at
in

to
of

5. Did you watch the football ___ TV last night?

on
in
to
by

6. Do you always come to work ___ bike?

on
by
in
of

7. I read the news ___ the newspaper.

in
to
on
by

8. I'll be in the office ___ 5pm.

for
until
on
since

9. You must have this report finished ___ Monday.

by
while
at
since

10. I haven't had a call from him ___ last Wednesday.

in
since
for
on

a) Set 1 - Interjections

Circle the interjection in the following sentences.


1)

Wow! That new shirt looks good on you!

2)

Eeew! I really dont like peas!

3)

My brother ate a penny, Oh no!

4)

I think I know the answeruh10?

Fill in the blanks with an interjection.


5)

________! My underwear turned pink in the washer!

6)

________, Ill see you later.

7)

________, I can go to the movies with you.

8)

My mom made tuna casserole again, __________!

Put a star next to sentences where the interjection is correct, and underline
sentences with the wrong interjection.
9)

Yuck! I made the baseball team.

10)

I love homemade pizza, Yum!

11)

Hello, Ive got to leave now.

12)

Hurray! My favorite pair of shoes got lost!

b) Set 2 Interjections

Question Excerpt From quiz on interjections


Q.1) "_____! You're stepping on my foot."(expressing pain)
A.Ah
B.Oh
C.Ouch
D.Hmmm
E.Well

Q.2) "Oh _____! Does it hurt?"(expressing pity)


A.alas
B.er
C.dear
D.eh
E.hmmm

Q.3) "_____, that seems good."(expressing pleasure)


A.Ah
B.Er
C.Hmmm
D.Hey
E.O

Q.4) "_____, she's dead now."(expressing grief or pity)


A.Oh
B.Er
C.Hay
D.Alas
E.Ah

Q.5) "_____ me! That's a surprise!"(expressing surprise)


A.Woop
B.Na-a
C.Ouch
D.Hey
E.Dear

Q.6) "It's hot today." "_____?" "I said it's hot today."(asking for repetition)
A.Yow
B.Oh
C.Eh
D.Yeah
E.Hmmm

Q.7) "Lima is the capital of..._____...Peru."(expressing hesitation)


A.hmmm
B.er
C.yow
D.yhup
E.hey

Q.8) "_____ John. How are you today?"(expressing greeting)


A.Hullo
B.Yeah
C.Yow
D.Er
E.Ah

Q.9) "_____! What a good idea!"(expressing surprise, joy etc)


A.Hey
B.Le
C.Yow
D.Hi
E.Er

Q.10) "_____, please say 'yes'!"(expressing pleading)


A.Le
B.Er
C.Ah
D.Eh
E.Oh

Answers
Conjunction
Set 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
A
B
D
B
C
C
C
B
C

Set 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
E
E
D
E
B
C
C
E
B

Preposition
Set 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

in
on
at
in
at
in
in
at
in
on

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Set 1
Wow
Eeew
Oh, no
Uh
Oh, no
Well
Hurray
Oh, no
Yuck
*
*
Hurray

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Set 2
between
from
in
at
on
by
in
until
by
since

Conjunction
Set 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C
C
C
A
D
C
A
A
C
E

Bibliografi

1.

Amar Asha Sarna, Sai Perinparajah, S. Subathira & Matilda Xavier. (2009)
Success English UPSR. Selangor Darul Ehsan. Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.

2.

http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/prepositerm.htm

3.

http://www.usingenglish.com/forum/ask-teacher/141779-prepositions-questionsobjectpronouns-prepositions.html

4.

www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/10-prepositions-questions

5.

www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/grammar/Conjunc3.html

6.

grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm

7.

http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=conjunctions_3

8.

www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/interjections.htm

9.

www.lessonsnips.com/docs/pdf/interjectionuse.pdf

10.

http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=quiz-on-interjections

11.

http://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/search/node/prepositions

12.

http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/bl_prepositions1.htm

13.

http://isu.indstate.edu/writing/esl/setvi/prints/SETVI4AP.html

14.

http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/blgrquiz_prep1.htm

15.

www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=conjunctions--but...

16.

grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm

17.

www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=interjections

18.

answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid... - United States

19.

www.lessonsnips.com/docs/pdf/interjectionuse.pdf

20.

english.stackexchange.com/questions/.../is-there-another-interjection-...

21.

wiki.answers.com ... Prepositions Conjunctions and Interjections

22.

www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/interjections.htm

23.

www.ask.com/questions-about/Examples-of-Interjections

24.

wps.ablongman.com/long_hult_nch_3/22/5796/.../index.html