List of contents


Cooling Towers Report

1.Introduction 1.1.Operation Principle 1.2.Cooling towers as a heat exchangers 1.3.Assessment of cooling towers 2.Types of Cooling Tower 2.1.Usage division 2.2.Air drafting system division 2.3.Natural drafting cooling tower 2.3.1.Counter. 2.3.2.Cross. 2.4.Mechanical draft cooling tower 2.4.1.Forced Draft Cooling Tower 2.4.2.Induced Draft Cooling Tower 3.Cooling towers as a heat exchangers 3.1.Overview On the components 3.1.1.Frame and casing 3.1.2.Ladder splash type polypropylene cooling tower 3.1.3.Fill 3.1.4.Cold-water basin 3.1.5.Drift Eliminator 3.1.6.Air inlet 3.1.7.Louvers 3.1.8.Nozzles 3.1.9.Fans 3.1.10.The Water-Distribution System 3.1.11.Fan Thermostats 3.1.12.Sound Attenuator Air Discharge 3.1.13.Sound Attenuator Air Inlet Side 3.1.14.Water Distribution Pipe 3.1.15.Fire protection 3.2.Tower materials Page 1 of 135

4.Starting Procedure of Cooling Towers & The affecting factors 4.1.Before Start-Up 4.2.Factors affecting Tower operation 4.2.1.Heat load 4.2.2.Air wet-bulb temperature 4.2.3.Water flow rate 4.2.4.Air flow rate 4.2.5.Fan cycling limits 4.2.6.Blow down 4.2.7.GPM, Range and Approach 4.2.8.Tower Sitting and Orientation 5.Inspection component and maintenance of the cooling tower 5.1.Rotating equipment. 5.1.1.Electric motor 5.1.2.Coupling and drive shaft assembly 5.1.3.Fan assembly 5.1.4.Cooling tower gear box 5.1.5.Coupling and drive shaft assembly 5.2.stationery equipment 5.3.distribution system inspection 5.4.external component inspection 5.5.control consideration 6.Deterioration in cooling Towers 6.1.Two Sources of Water 6.2.Concentration of Dissolved Solids 6.3.Impact of Blow down on Concentration Ratio 6.4.Corrosion 6.4.1.Types of Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Page 2 of 135

6.4.2.Four Step Corrosion Model 6.4.3.Affects of Corrosion 6.4.4.Methods To Control Corrosion 6.4.5.General Corrosion Inhibitors 6.5.Fouling 6.6.Chemical Treatment 6.7.Causes of Poor Performance in Cooling Towers 6.8.Poor Water Management 7.Troubleshooting 7.1.Troubleshooting Mechanical / Electrical Components 7.1.1.Uneven water distribution 7.1.2.Cold water too warm 7.1.3.Excessive water drift 7.1.4.Noisy gear and bearings in speed reducer 7.1.5.Excessive movement in speed reducer pinion and low-speed shafts 7.1.6.Vibration In couplings and drive shaft 7.1.7.Unusual motor noise 7.1.8.Motor, motor-bearing over/heating 7.2.Typical Problems and Trouble Shooting For Cooling Towers 7.2.1.Lowering of cooling capacity 7.2.2.Temperature rise 7.2.3.Oil Leaking 7.2.4.Air flow low 7.2.5.Rise in water temperature 7.2.6.Water flow less 7.2.7.Noise and Vibration 7.2.8.Water carries over 8.Performance testing of cooling Towers 8.1.Preparation for test Page 3 of 135

8.2.Data required for test 8.2.1.Water Flow rate 8.2.2.Water Temperatures 8.2.3.Air Temperatures 8.2.4.Brake horsepower 8.2.5.Tower pumping head 8.3. Conducting the test. 9.Cooling tower cleaning procedure 9.1.Step 1: Before chemical disinfection and mechanical cleaning 9.2.Step 2: Chemical disinfection 9.3.Step 3: Mechanical cleaning 9.4.Step 4: After mechanical cleaning 9.5.Scale Inhibition 9.6.Ion exchange resin 9.7.Physical Water Treatment Method 9.8.Filtration System and Equipment 9.9.Filtration Equipment 9.10.Bleed-off 9.11.Magnetic devices 9.12.Electronic de-scaling technology 9.13.Water Ionization

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Introduction: A cooling tower is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere. Cooling towers make use of evaporation whereby some of the water is evaporated into a moving air stream and subsequently discharged into the atmosphere. As a result, the remainder of the water is cooled down significantly. Cooling towers are able to lower the water temperatures more than devices that use only air to reject heat and are therefore more cost-

effective and energy efficient.

Figure 1. Natural draft wet cooling hyperbolic towers Operation principles: Page 6 of 135

Depending on the entering air and water temperatures, the water may be cooled by sensible and latent cooling of the air, or simply by latent cooling of the air. In either case, latent, i.e. evaporative, cooling is dominant.
A2 W1

A1 W2

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of a cooling water system For example, consider the case in which the air enters at a lower temperature than the water (Figure 3a). The air will leave completely saturated and the cooling is part sensible and part latent. The sensible portion occurs as the air temperature increases by absorbing heat from the water. The latent portion occurs as some of the water evaporates, which draws energy out of the water.

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Figure 3.a Psychometric process lines for air through a cooling tower when entering air temperature is less than the entering water temperature If the air enters at the same wet bulb temperature as before, but at a higher dry-bulb temperature than the water, then the air will cool as it saturates (Figure 3b). Thus, the sensible cooling component is negative, and the all the cooling is due to evaporation. In general, cooling is dominated by latent cooling.

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Figure 3.a Psychometric process lines for air through a cooling tower when entering air temperature is greater than the entering water temperature The total cooling, ma (ha2 – ha1) is the same for both cases since enthalpy is a function of wet-bulb temperature alone. However, the dry-bulb temperature significantly influences the evaporation rate, mwe = ma *(wa2-wa1). The rate of evaporation increases as the dry-bulb temperature increases for a given wet-bulb temperature.

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Cooling towers as heat exchangers: Based on the previous discussion, it is clear that cooling tower performance is a function of the wetbulb temperature of the entering air. In an infinite cooling tower, the leaving air wet-bulb temperature would approach the entering water temperature, and the leaving water temperature would approach the web-bulb temperature of the entering air. The difference between the leaving water temperature and the entering air wet bulb temperature is called the approach. The relationship between air wet bulb and water temperature is shown in the figure below. In an infinite cooling tower, the approach would be zero. Neglecting fan power and assuming steady state operation, an energy balance on a cooling tower gives: mw1*Cpw*Tw1 – mw2*Cpw*Tw2 + ma *[(ha1 + wa1*hv1) – (ha2 + wa2*hv2)] = 0 Assuming steady state operation, a mass balance on water flow gives: mw1 – mw2 + ma (wa1 – wa2) = 0 mw2 = mw1 + ma (wa1-wa2) Substituting mw2 into the energy balance gives: mw1*Cpw* (Tw1 – Tw2) + ma *(wa2 -wa1) *Cpw*Tw2 = ma *[ (ha2 + wa2*hv2) – (ha1 + wa1*hv1)]

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The fraction of incoming water that is evaporated, ma (wa2-wa1) / mw1, is typically less than 1%. Thus, the second term in the energy balance equation can be neglected with negligible error to give: mw1*Cpw* (Tw1 – Tw2) = ma *(ha2 – ha1) Both sides of this equation represent the total cooling capacity of the tower, Qct. The effectiveness, E, of a heat exchanger is the ratio of the actual to maximum heat transfer. E = Qactual / Qmax For a heat exchanger, Qmax occurs if the air leaves the cooling tower completely saturated at the temperature of the incoming water. Thus, effectiveness is E = Qactual / Qmax = [mw1*Cpw* (Tw1 – Tw2)] / [ma *(ha2, sat, tw1– ha1)]

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Assessment of cooling towers: This section describes how the performance of cooling powers can be assessed. The performance of cooling towers is evaluated to assess present levels of approach and range against their design values, identify areas of energy wastage and to suggest improvements. During the performance evaluation, portable monitoring instruments are used to measure the following parameters: • Wet bulb temperature of air • Dry bulb temperature of air • Cooling tower inlet water temperature • Cooling tower outlet water temperature • Exhaust air temperature • Electrical readings of pump and fan motors • Water flow rate • Air flow rate These measured parameters and then used to determine the cooling tower performance in several ways. These are:

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a) Range. This is the difference between the cooling tower water inlet and outlet temperature. A high CT Range means that the cooling tower has been able to reduce the water temperature effectively, and is thus performing well. The formula is: Cooling Tower Range = Cooling Water inlet temp– Cooling Water outlet temp b) Approach. This is the difference between the cooling tower outlet coldwater temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature. The lower the approach, the better the cooling tower performance. Although, both range and approach should be monitored, the `Approach’ is a better indicator of cooling tower performance. Cooling Tower Approach = Cooling Water outlet temp– Wet bulb temp Page 13 of 135

c) Effectiveness. This is the ratio between the range and the ideal range (difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature), the higher this ratio, the higher the cooling tower effectiveness. Effectiveness (%) = (Cooling Water in temp – Cooling Water out temp) / (Cooling Water in temp – Wet Bulb temp) x100 d) Cooling capacity. This is the heat rejected from water, given as product of mass flow rate of water, specific heat and temperature difference. e) Evaporation loss. This is the water quantity evaporated for cooling duty. The following formula can be used: Evaporation loss = ma* (wa1-wa2) f) Cycles of concentration (C.O.C). This is the ratio of dissolved solids in circulating water to the dissolved solids in makeup water. g) Blow down losses depend upon cycles of concentration and the evaporation losses and is given by formula: Blow down = Evaporation loss / (C.O.C. – 1)

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Types of cooling Towers: Introduction • In a cooling tower, a fan pushes or draws air from the atmosphere into the tower to cool recirculating water. • Warm water, that has removed heat from an air conditioning, refrigeration or industrial process, enters the top of the tower. As the water falls through the tower fresh air is forced through it. This fresh air

cools the water. The cooled water then falls to a storage basin before being recirculated through the system again. When the water is recirculating through the system it gathers heat from an air conditioner or industrial process before returning to the top of the tower. • In general Cooling Towers can be divided according usage, air drafting system …etc Usage division • According to usage the cooling tower, may be divided into HVAC cooling towers which reject heat off the chiller to ambient air. • There can be also industrial towers which they carry out the heating load of the machines, water (as in power stations), …..etc Page 16 of 135

Air drafting system division

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1.Natural drafting cooling tower • The natural draft or hyperbolic cooling tower makes use of the difference in temperature between the ambient air and the hotter air inside the tower. • As hot air moves upwards through the tower (because hot air rises), fresh cool air is drawn into the tower through an air inlet at the bottom. • Due to the layout of the tower, no fan is required and there is almost no circulation of hot air that could affect the performance. Concrete is used for the tower shell with a height of up to 200 m. • These cooling towers are mostly only for large heat duties because large concrete structures are expensive. Counter flow natural draft Cross flow natural draft

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There are two main types of natural draft towers: Cross flow tower: air is drawn across the falling water and the fill is located outside the tower.

Counter flow tower: air is drawn up through the falling water and the fill is therefore located inside the tower, although design depends on specific site conditions.

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Mechanical draft cooling tower Mechanical draft towers have large fans to force or draw air through circulated water. The water falls downwards over fill surfaces, which help increase the contact time between the water and the air - this helps maximize heat transfer between the two. Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters such as fan diameter and speed of operation, fills for system resistance etc. Mechanical draft towers are available in a large range of capacities. Towers can be either factory built or field erected – for example concrete towers are only field erected. Many towers are constructed so that they can be grouped together to achieve the desired capacity. Thus, many cooling towers are assemblies of two or more individual cooling towers or “cells.” The number of cells they have, e.g., a eight-cell tower, often refers to such towers. Multiple-cell towers can be lineal, square, or round depending upon the shape of the individual cells and whether the air inlets are located on the sides or bottoms of the cells.

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Forced Draft Cooling Tower

Induced draft counter flow cooling tower

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Induced draft cross flow cooling tower

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Induced Draft Counter Flow Cooling Tower: This type of tower is very common. It can be identified by the fan at the top of the tower. The fan pulls air up through the tower in the opposite direction to which the water is falling. The air usually enters the tower through inlet louvers on the sides of the tower. Induced Draft Cross Flow Cooling Tower In an induced draught cross flow cooling tower, the fan is also mounted on the top. However in this type of tower the fan draws or induces air across the water that is falling from the top of the tower to the basin. Forced Draft Counter Flow Cooling Tower In a forced draught counter flow cooling tower, the water is cooled by air that is forced through the

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falling water and out through the top of the tower.

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Forced Draft Cross Flow Cooling Tower In a forced draught cross flow cooling tower the fan is mounted on one side of the tower. The fan forces air horizontally across the tower through the water that is falling from the top of the tower to the basin via the fill.

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Components of the cooling tower: All cooling tower designs have the following common features; • An air circulation system • A water distribution or spray system. • Packing or fill to maximize the contact between the water and air. • A cooling water collection and discharge basin. • Mist eliminators that minimize droplet carryover and water loss. The basic components of a cooling tower include the frame and casing, fill, cold-water basin, drift eliminators, air inlet, louvers, nozzles and fans. These are described below. 1. Frame and casing. Most towers have structural frames that support the exterior enclosures (casings), motors, fans, and other components. With some smaller designs, such as some glass fiber units, the casing may essentially be the frame.

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2.Ladder splash type polypropylene cooling tower The fill will be used in cross flow cooling towers. The fill will consist of injection molded polypropylene in a ladder configuration. Benefits:

Improved thermal performance The ladder configuration provides highly efficient water breakup to develop excellent heat transfer with low resistance to airflow. The horizontal spacing between ladders is variable to meet thermal performance requirements. Corrosion Resistant Injection molded polypropylene Ladder fills is extremely inert to chemical reaction. High Temperature Capability Ladder fill is capable of 150°F operation. Easy Adaptability to Most Cooling Towers Ladder fill can be installed in virtually any cross flow cooling tower regardless of its age or manufacturer.

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Fill. Most towers employ fills (made of plastic or wood) to facilitate heat transfer by maximizing water and air contact. The fill, or packing, is the heart of the cooling tower should provide both good water-air contact for high rates of heat transfer and mass transfer and low resistance to airflow. It should also be strong, light, and deterioration-resistant. There are two types of fill:

Splash fill: water falls over successive layers of horizontal splash bars, continuously breaking into smaller droplets, while also wetting the fill surface. Plastic splash fills promote better heat transfer than wood splash fills. Splash packing is made of bars stacked in decks that break the water into drops as it falls from deck to deck. The splash boards serve two functions:

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The first is to break the larger water droplets into smaller ones, thus increasing the air-water contact area. The second function is to slow the fall of the water droplets, and increase the water resident time in the tower. The bars come in different shapes; narrow, square, or grid, are smooth or rough, and are made of different materials, redwood, high-impact polystyrene, or polyethylene. Splash till provides excellent heat and mass transfer between water and air. Film fill: consists of thin, closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads, forming a thin film in contact with the air. These surfaces may be flat, corrugated, honeycombed, or other patterns. The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill. The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill. Film fill presents less resistance to airflow and requires less total height than splash fill. In general, the film-type packing has a denser configuration than do the splash-type fills. Thus, less volume of film-type packing is required to remove a given heat load. However, associated with the denser packing arrangements are higher fan power requirement. Therefore, when considering film or splash type fills, it must be Page 31 of 135

decided whether it is the fill volume or fan power that is to be kept at a minimum. The tower fill performance is affected not only by the fill arrangement, but also by the water and air loadings. A low water loading results in poor water distribution, while a high water loading causes the tower to flood, producing excessive air pressure losses. In both cases, these conditions cause a deteriorating fill performance. Another factor to consider in the selection of the tower fill is the actual physical shape. The tower dimensions should be kept in mind for the cross. How splashtype fill. For this fill the configuration parameter should be in the range of 0.4 to 1. If the configuration parameter

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Different types of fill and configurations used in cooling tower: Trickle Bloc™ clog-resistant splash fill is comprised of extruded polypropylene cylinders, heat fused to form blocks of splash media. The open weave of the vertical cylinders provides even water flow and promotes thermal efficiency. The lattice design promotes splashing to help facilitate self-cleaning. Advantages: • High density counter flow splash fill. • Most efficient non fouling counter flow splash fill. • Drastically improved thermal performance in many fouled film fill towers. • Structurally superior to withstand foot traffic resists erosion from water spray. • Significant pump head savings as compared to other offerings.

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Cold-water basin. The cold-water basin is located at or near the bottom of the tower, and it receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. The basin usually has a sump or low point for the coldwater discharge connection. In many tower designs, the coldwater basin is beneath the entire fill. In some forced draft counter flow design, however, the water at the bottom of the fill is channeled to a perimeter trough that functions as the coldwater basin. Propeller fans are mounted beneath the fill to blow the air up through the tower. With this design, the tower is mounted on legs, providing easy access to the fans and their motors. Drift eliminators. These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise would be lost to the atmosphere. Drift elimination in a cooling tower is accomplished using drift eliminators, or baffles, that change the path of air flowing through the tower. When air hits a baffle, it changes direction; but when water droplets hit a baffle, they lose velocity and fall back into the recirculation cooling water flow. One method of improving drift reduction may be to use two passes, rather than a single pass, of drift eliminators Page 34 of 135


in the cooling tower. The amount of additional drift reduction will be, however, difficult to verify. And, any reduction of drift below this range will not be directly proportionate to the amount of additional drift elimination media that is placed within a cooling tower. A second pass of drift eliminators may reduce drift below .001 percent of the recirculation rate; however, the degree of drift reduction below this range is verifiable only in controlled conditions and not in the field. And, because water droplets that are still entrained within the air pathway after one pass will be very fine, to a large extent, they will remain entrained in the air pathway and will not be influenced by a change in the direction of air flow created by the second pass of drift eliminators. Types of drift eliminator configurations include: 1-herringbone (blade-type) 2-wave form 3- cellular (or honeycomb) designs. The cellular units generally are the most efficient. Drift eliminators may include various materials, such as ceramics, fiber reinforced cement, fiberglass, metal, plastic, and wood installed or Page 35 of 135

formed into closely spaced slats, sheets, honeycomb assemblies, or tiles. The materials may include other features, such as corrugations and water removal channels, to enhance the drift removal further.


Air inlet. This is the point of entry for the air entering a tower. The inlet may take up an entire side of a tower (cross-flow design) or be located low on the side or the bottom of the tower (counter-flow design). Louvers. Generally, cross-flow towers have inlet louvers. The purpose of louvers is to equalize air flow into the fill and retain the water within the tower. Many counter flow tower designs do not require louvers. Nozzles. These spray water to wet the fill. Uniform water distribution at the top of the fill is essential to achieve proper wetting of the entire fill surface. Nozzles can either be fixed and spray in a round or square patterns, or they can be part of a rotating assembly as found in some circular cross-section towers.


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Fans. Both axial (propeller type) and centrifugal fans are used in towers. Generally, propeller fans are used in induced draft towers and both propeller and centrifugal fans are found in forced draft towers. Depending upon their size, the type of propeller fans used is either fixed or variable pitch. A fan with non-automatic adjustable pitch blades can be used over a wide kW range because the fan can be adjusted to deliver the desired air flow at the lowest power consumption. Automatic variable pitch blades can vary air flow in response to changing load conditions. The purpose of a cooling tower fan is to move a specified quantity of air through the system, overcoming the system resistance which is defined as the pressure loss. The product of air flow and the pressure loss is air power developed/work done by the fan; this may be also termed as fan output and input kW depends on fan efficiency.

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7.The Water-Distribution System The water-distribution system dispenses hot condenser water evenly over the fill. There are several types, among them are: (1) Gravity distribution, used mainly on crossflow towers, consists of vertical hot-water risers that feed into an open concrete basin, from which the water Hows by gravity through orifices to the fill below. (2) Spray distribution, used mainly on counter flow towers, has cross piping with spraydownward nozzles. (3) Rotary distribution consists of two slotted distributor arms that rotate about a central 8.Fan Thermostats The fan thermostats serve to switch on or off the fan drives depending on the cold water temperature. The sensor is preferably placed in the piping for cooled water and should be protected by a threaded sensor cartridge. The sensor may also be placed in the cooling tower basin but it has to be taken into account that mechanical stress and vibrations to the sensor are to be avoided. For precise measurement of the water temperature it is important that sensor is completely covered by the water. 9.Sound Attenuator Air Discharge The sound attenuator at the air discharge is carried out with parallel arranged sound Page 38 of 135

absorbing elements. In most cases its noise absorption factor is sufficient to reach the required noise level. The casing is made of fiberglass reinforced polyester.

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10.Sound Attenuator Air Inlet Side At the air inlet side, sound attenuator casings of fiberglass reinforced polyester can be adapted. Sound attenuation is obtained by baffles with moisture resistant absorption material. 11.Water Distribution Pipe For cooling towers having multiple water pipe connectors a pre-distribution device is available to reduce the number of connectors. 12.Fire protection. There is the potential for tire on cooling towers, especially when wood or other combustible materials are used. Wood towers are susceptible to fire after they have been out of operation for a period of time, which would allow (hem to dry out. In order to provide protection, designs incorporating wood have fire-protection systems as part of their design.

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Tower materials Originally, cooling towers were constructed primarily with wood, including the frame, casing, louvers, fill and cold-water basin. Sometimes the cold-water basin was made of concrete. Today, manufacturers use a variety of materials to construct cooling towers. Materials are chosen to enhance corrosion resistance, reduce maintenance, and promote reliability and long service life. Galvanized steel, various grades of stainless steel, glass fiber, and concrete are widely used in tower construction, as well as aluminum and plastics for some components.

Frame and casing.

Wooden towers are still available, but many components are made of different materials, such as the casing around the wooden framework of glass fiber, the inlet air louvers of glass fiber, the fill of plastic and the cold-water basin of steel. Many towers (casings and basins) are constructed of galvanized steel or, where a corrosive atmosphere is a problem, the tower and/or the basis are made of stainless steel. Larger towers sometimes are made of concrete. Glass fiber is also widely used for cooling tower casings and basins because they extend the life of the cooling tower and provide protection against harmful chemicals. 2. FilL Plastics are widely used for fill, including PVC, polypropylene, and other polymers. When water Page 41 of 135

conditions require the use of splash fill, treated wood splash fill is still used in wooden towers, but plastic splash fill is also widely used. Because of greater heat transfer efficiency, film fill is chosen for applications where the circulating water is generally free of debris that could block the fill passageways. 3. Nozzles. Plastics are also widely used for nozzles. Many nozzles are made of PVC, ABS, polypropylene, and glass-filled nylon. 4. Fans Aluminum, glass fiber and hot-dipped galvanized steel are commonly used fan materials. Centrifugal fans are often fabricated from galvanized steel. Propeller fans are made from galvanized steel, aluminum, or molded glass fiber reinforced plastic.

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Starting Procedure of Cooling Towers & The affecting factors Before Start-Up 1- Inspect the Unit. 1.1. Check position of strainer screens and air inlet screens to be sure screens have not shifted during

shutdown 1.2. Check fans, bearings, fan motors, and pumps for lubrication 1.3. Rotate all fan shafts by hand to make sure they turn freely 14. Check fan motors for proper rotation. Directional arrows on fan cowls or housings indicate correct rotation 1.5. Clear fans of any trash or debris that may have accumulated during shutdown 1.6. Check make-up valve for shut-off ability. Check float ball for buoyancy 1.7. Check spray nozzles for proper distribution 1.8. Check surface for scale, sludge or debris and clean if necessary 1.9. Check access door gaskets and replace, if necessary

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1.10. Check the condition of the cooling tower fill. If it is clogged or deteriorated, replace it with Factory Authorized Replacement Fill. 2- Inspection of Casing. 2.1- While the unit is still drained, thoroughly inspect the unit casing Clean and touch-up any areas showing signs of deterioration. For galvanized steel construction units, any damaged area should be cleaned to bare metal and refinished with Zinc-Rich Compound (ZRC). This is also the time when any casing joint leaks can be easily repaired 2.2- Remove any deposits that have built up and were not cleared by flushing the basin. Touch up the area beneath deposits as required. 3- Fill the Cold Water Basin with Fresh Water to the Overflow level. 3.1- At initial start-up or before restart-up where the basin was completely drained; the initial biocide treatment should be applied at this time. 3.2- Following a shut-down period, where the basin was not completely drained: It is recommended that an initial shock treatment of appropriate biocides be administered at restart-up to eliminate accumulated biological contaminants. 4- Fill Basin with Water and Check Float Valve Level. After the unit has been in operation under load for several days, operating water level should be checked.

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5- Adjust Belt Tension of Fan Motors. Proper belt tension is determined by pressing against a single belt midway between sheaves with one finger, which should deflect the belt 1/2" with moderate pressure. To adjust belts, loosen locknut on the motor base and rotate the exterior nut as necessary. Re-tighten locknut and recheck tension. Start Clean During storage of cooling tower systems, a variety of debris, rust, and airborne dirt or silt will accumulate in the cooling tower. Unless a thorough cleaning is done before starting regular treatment, you will circulate this debris and cause plugging up of strainers, heat exchangers, and condensers and disrupt cooling tower water flow. This will also provide food for microbial growth, potentially increasing health risks. This procedure should be performed ideally on a semi-annual basis, in order to minimize the risk of disease. 1- Physically remove accessible sludge and debris such as leaves and twigs 2- Fill with water, flush, and refill with fresh water Finish Clean Many cooling tower systems are not operated year round. Prior to shutting down, inspect the tower system for algae, slime, scale, corrosion products, or other foulants such as mud and silt. If biogrowth is present (even in small quantities) perform a cleanup with prior to shutdown. This will

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help alleviate the corrosion and health hazards associated with stagnant water in the piping. Factors affecting Tower operation The cold water temperature obtained from an operating cooling tower will vary with the following influences: 1- Heat load; With the fan in full operation, if the heat load increases, the cold water temperature will rise. If the heat load reduces, the cold water temperature will reduce. 2- Air wet-bulb temperature; Cold water temperature will also vary with the wet-bulb temperature of the air entering the louvered faces of the tower. Reduced wet-bulb temperatures will result in colder water temperatures. However, the cold water temperature will not vary to the same extent as the wet-bulb. For example, a 20°F reduction in wet bulb may result in only a 15°F reduction in cold water temperature. 3- Water flow rate: Increasing the water flow rate (GPM) will cause a slight elevation in cold water temperature, while reducing the water flow rate will cause the cold water temperature to decrease slightly. However, at a given heat load water flow reductions also cause an increase in the incoming hot water temperature. Use care to prevent the hot water from exceeding 125°F in Page 47 of 135

order to prevent damage to the tower components. 4- Air flow rate: Reducing air flow through the tower causes the cold water temperature to rise. This is the approved method by which to control leaving water temperature If your tower is equipped with a single-speed motor, the motor may be shut off when the water temperature becomes too cold. This will cause the water temperature to rise. When the water temperature then becomes too warm for your process, the motor can be restarted. 5-Fan cycling limits: A cooling tower equipped with a two-speed motor, has a greater opportunity for temperature control. When the water temperature becomes too cold, switching the fan to half-speed will cause the cold water temperature to rise stabilizing at a temperature a few degrees higher than before. With a further reduction in water temperature, the fan may be cycled alternately from half-speed to off subject to the same constraint of 30 seconds of allowable acceleration time per hour as outlined above. If your tower consists of two or more cells, cycling of motors may be shared between cells, increasing your steps of operation accordingly. Multicell towers equipped with two-speed motors will maximize energy savings and minimize sound levels if fans are staged so that all fans are brought up to low speed before any fan goes to high speed.

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Control of tower air flow can be done by varying methods: starting and stopping (On-off) of fans, use of two- or three-speed fan motors, use of automatically adjustable pitch fans, and use of variable speed fans. On-off fan operation of single speed fans provides the least effective control. Two-speed fans provide better control with further improvement shown with three speed fans. 6- Blowdown A cooling tower cools water by continuously causing a portion of it to evaporate. Although the water lost by evaporation is replenished by the makeup system, it exits the tower as pure water leaving behind its burden of dissolved solids to concentrate in the remaining water. Given no means of control, this increasing concentration of contaminants can reach a very high level In order to achieve water quality which is acceptable to the cooling tower (as well as the remainder of your circulating water system), the selected water treatment company must work from a relatively constant level of concentrations. This stabilization of contaminant concentrations is usually accomplished by blowdown, which is the constant discharge of a portion of the circulating water to waste. As a rule, acceptable levels on which to base a treatment schedule will be in the range of 2-4 concentrations. The following table shows the minimum amount of blowdown (percent of flow) required to maintain different concentrations with various cooling ranges

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7- GPM, Range and Approach Although the combination of range and gpm is fixed by the heat load , approach is fixed by the size and efficiency of the cooling tower. A large tower of average efficiency will deliver cold water at a temperature which "approaches" a given wetbulb temperature no closer than a somewhat smaller tower having significantly better efficiency. Given two towers of reasonably equal efficiencies, operating with proportionate fill configurations and air rates, the larger tower will produce colder water. Important to note, from a tower cost standpoint, is the fact that the "base" tower (15T approach) would have had to be twice as large to produce a 7° F approach (8°F colder water), whereas it could have produced a 25° F approach (10° F warmer water) at only 60% of its size Page 50 of 135

Effect of chosen approach on tower size at fixed heat load, gpm, and wet-bulb temperature Note also that the deceasing approach curve is beginning its asymptotic movement toward zero approach. For this reason it is not customary in the cooling tower industry to guarantee any approach of less than 5°F. Where some variations by the process is acceptable, a smaller, less costly tower will be required when the range is increased and the GPM decreased.. Although practical design responsibility places flow and temperature restrictions on cooling towers as well, their latitude usually exceeds that of the typical processes they are designed to serve.

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Effect of varying range on tower size when heat load, wet-bulb temperature and cold water temperature are constant

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8- Recirculation and interference

Local heat sources upwind of the cooling tower can elevate the wet bulb temperature of the air entering the tower, thereby affecting its performance. One such heat source might be a previously installed cooling tower on site, or in the immediate vicinity. A phenomenon called "interference", wherein a portion of the saturated effluent of an upwind tower contaminates the ambient of a downwind tower. Although proper cooling tower placement and orientation can minimize the effect of interference, many existing installations reflect some lack of long range planning, requiring that design adjustments be made in preparation for the installation of a new tower, cannot accept all of the blame for recirculation. At any given wind condition, the velocity ratio will decrease if the plume velocity is decreased, resulting in an increase in the recirculation ratio. This is what makes forced draft towers so susceptible to recirculation. The normal discharge velocity from an induced draft tower is about 20 mph, whereas the plume velocity leaving a forced draft tower is approximately 5-6 mph. This 4:1 difference in velocity ratios results in

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considerably greater recirculation in a forced draft tower

Recirculation potential in a forced draft cooling tower For that reason, accepted codes under which cooling towers are tested for thermal performance limit wind velocity during the test to 10 mph. Without this, and similar limitations, cooling tower testing and design would become infinitely more uncertain and difficult. 9- Tower Sitting and Orientation Every effort should be made to provide the least possible restriction to the free flow of air to the tower. In addition to this primary consideration, the Owner must give attention to the distance of the tower from the heat load, and the effect of that distance on piping and wiring costs; noise or vibration may create a problem, which can be expensive to correct; drift or fogging may be objectionable if the tower is located too close to an area that is sensitive to dampness or spotting; also easy access and adequate working space should be provided on all sides of the tower to facilitate repair and maintenance work

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The performance of every cooling tower, large or small, is dependent upon the quantity and thermal quality of the entering air. External influences which raise the entering wet-bulb temperature, or restrict air flow to the tower, reduce its effective capacity. Air restrictions, recirculation and interferences can be minimized, possibly eliminated, by careful planning of tower placement using the following guidelines: a- Air Restrictions: In residential, commercial, and small industrial installations, towers are frequently shielded from view with barriers or enclosures. Quite often, these barriers restrict air flow, resulting in low pressure areas and poor air distribution to the air inlets. Sensible construction and placement of screening barriers will help to minimize any negative effect upon thermal performance. Screening in the form of bushes, fences, or louvered walls should be placed several feet from the air inlet to allow normal air entry into the tower. When an induced draft tower is enclosed, it is desirable for the enclosure to have a net free area opposite each louvered face which is at least equal to the gross louver area of that tower face. Screening barriers or enclosures should not be installed without obtaining some input concerning their design and placement from the cooling tower manufacturer. b- Recirculation: Except in the case of single flow towers , the proper placement to minimize recirculation is to orient the tower such that the Page 55 of 135

primary louvered faces are situated parallel not broadside to the prevailing wind coincident with the highest ambient wet bulb temperature. On towers of relatively shorter length, this allows the saturated effluent to be carried beyond the air inlets. Longer multiple-fan towers in this orientation benefit from the wind having concentrated the separate-cell plumes into one of greater buoyancy Because of the restricted sitting areas available in some plants, the Owner may have no choice but to orient towers broadside to a prevailing wind, and to adjust his design wet-bulb temperature accordingly. The amount of adjustment necessary can be reduced by recognizing that recirculation potential increases with the length of the tower and by splitting the tower into multiple units of lesser individual length with a significant air space in between. c- Air Discharge Velocity: At any given atmospheric condition, the velocity at which the discharge plume from a tower will rise depends upon the kinetic energy imparted by the fan, and the buoyant energy decrease in density) imparted to the effluent plume by the tower heat load, both of which are changed to potential energy by virtue of ultimate elevation of the plume. The direction that a plume will travel depends upon the speed, direction, and psychrometric characteristics of the wind it encounters upon leaving the fan cylinder. Low wind velocities, will permit an almost vertical plume rise, barring retardation of that rise by unusual atmospheric conditions. For an induced draft tower operating Page 56 of 135

under calm conditions, with a vertically rising plume, entering and ambient wet-bulb temperatures can be considered to be equal. Higher wind velocities will bend the plume toward the horizontal, where a portion of it can become entrapped in the aforementioned lee-side low pressure zone for re-entry into the tower

Effect of wind velocity and discharge velocity on plume behavior The velocity ratio is the result of dividing the plume discharge velocity (V)) by the velocity of the ambient wind (Va). For all intents and purposes, the recirculation ratio is the percent of total effluent air that is reintroduced into the tower air inlets by virtue of recirculation. As can be seen, lower velocity ratios (higher wind velocities) result in greater recirculation. The values for the rectangular tower represent those anticipated for an industrial tower of moderate size operating broadside to the prevailing wind. The recirculation ratio for that tower would reach minimum value with a 90 degree directional change. Since the velocity ratio is also a function of plume discharge velocity, ambient wind force

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d- Tower shape: The wind flows in a much more civilized fashion around a round cylindrical shape than the rectangular, creating an almost negligible zone of reduced pressure on the downwind side; the air requirements of which are easily satisfied by streamlined flow around the shape.

Comparative recirculation potential of round and rectangular towers The Round Mechanical Draft tower is, of course, unaffected by wind direction, and the centralized clustering of the fans produces a concentrated, buoyant plume.

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Inspection component and maintenance of the cooling tower The cooling tower contain

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➢ rotating equipment
1. Electric motor (a) Electric motor overload (b) Vibration and noise (c) Motor temperature (d) Torque output control 1. Coupling and drive shaft assembly A. Bearing conditions The surface of the bearing should be smooth to be sure of the oil lubrication pressure. B. Lubrication efficiency The oil temperature and viscosity and the oil pump discharge. 1. Fan assembly (a) Tip clearance (b) Vibration or pulsating (c) Leading edge inspection (d) Pitch setting (e) Foil surface inspection due to contamination will form unbalance for the fan

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(f) Hub shaft connection hardware Note: A. The connections of the fan should be checked every 6 months for tightness and corrosion and erosion and to prevent vibration and unbalance due to high inertia and high speed. B. The blades surface should checked periodically due to contamination formation and vibration monitoring and if the vibration or the contamination increases, the fan blades should cleaned or changed immediately to have good vibration limit and the best performance.

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1. Cooling tower gear box A. The oil level in the gear box should be checked every week and the proper oil level maintained B. Over filling with the oil will cause oil seal premature. C. Low level oil in the gear box will damage the teeth of the gears and the surface of the bearing. 1. Coupling and drive shaft assembly A. The shaft alignment should be kept in the manufacturer’s limit; else the vibration and the fatigue will increase. B. Input bearing and output bearing backlash should be in the safe region.

➢ stationery equipment
1) Cold water basin. 2) Basin sump. A. The cooling tower collects the dust and other solids from the scrubbed air and collects them in the basin. B. Basin sump can contain concrete cracks that will cause side leakage. C. The method of cleaning the basin is the vacuum pump (pump out). 1) Basin piping. Deterioration in the piping system will cause side leakage. 2) Fill area component inspection. 3) Basin walls. 4) Sump screen ✔ The screen could reduce the flow rate due to contamination accumulation 1) Basin base. 2) Welding component. 3) Fan stack assembly

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A. Vibration and the flow rate speed (if chocked or at high pressures and over expanded) in Exit top area And Deck support area and Throat area of the stack. B. Stack material should withstand thermal stresses. C. Tip clearance.

➢ distribution system inspection
A. Supply pump should be checked and to be sure of its performance and discharge and the oil level for lubrication and strainer pressure drop due to contamination. B. Entrance flange and elbow’s leakage. C. The pump header corrosion and erosion. D. Valves and fitting

➢ external component inspection
Nozzles and orifices that will make us able to calculate the discharge.

➢ control consideration
A. The speed of the fan and the power consumed should increase for other reduction in the output temperature. B. The pump discharge should increase. C. The maintenance and shutdown occurs for the successive conditions: A. The higher temperature output. B. High leakage from piping system, header, basin, valves and fittings… C. Lager pressure drops on the strainer or the orifices or the valves. D. Higher rate of vibration and noise in the stack or the fan due to unbalance in the fan because of

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contamination accumulation on the blades or erosion or corrosion.

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Deterioration in cooling Towers :
The majority of the cooling tower deterioration problems are due to poor water management. Biofouling, corrosion and scale forms the triangle of industrial water problems.

The high temperature and relative humidity forms a favorable environment for bacterial growth which causes tube fouling and forms a hazard for human health. Evaporating water leaves its salts in the circulating water. At certain point, salts will precipitate causing formation of scales on cooling tower parts. Scale reduces heat transfer and hence reduces the cooling tower efficiency. Corrosion can result from water vapor, from water additives or even the construction materials. Page 68 of 135

Corrosion may attack several parts in the cooling towers such as concrete, shell and water distribution elements.

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Surface Water • Low in dissolved solids • High in suspended solids • Quality changes quickly with seasons & weather • • • • • Ground Water High in dissolved solids Low in suspended solids High in iron & manganese Low in oxygen, may contain sulfide gas Relatively constant quality & temperature

Two Sources of Water

What Chemical Properties of Water Are Important? Important Properties of Water 1. Conductivity 2. Hardness 3. Alkalinity 4. pH 5. Silica 6.0ther impurities, Iron, Manganese, Chlorides, Phosphate etc. Note: PH: a scale for expressing acidity or alkalinity of the circulating or make up water .a PH below 7 indicates acidity, and above 7 indicates alkalinity, a PH of 7 indicates neutral water.

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Concentration of Dissolved Solids Only pure water can evaporate, no dissolved solids leave the liquid water. If there are no other water losses from the system, the evaporation process causes an increase in the concentration of dissolved solids in the recalculating cooling water. Mineral scale will form if the dissolved solids concentration in the cooling water becomes too high Impact of Blow down on Concentration Ratio Blow down: Deliberate discharge of water to prevent the dissolved solids from getting to high Makeup Water: Amount of water required to replace water lost by evaporation and blowdown Makeup = Evaporation + Blowdown Corrosion Corrosion is the condition wherein metal starts to dissolve because of high oxidation level. When a system that makes use of such metal starts to show some signs of corrosion, it wouldn't be long before you realize that your cooling tower won't last that long. This is because the strength as well as the thickness of your metal is has greatly decreased. Moreover, the metal cannot withstand the pressure. When it comes to cooling tower water treatment, ensure, too, that you can protect the device from Page 71 of 135

corrosion. One of the best ways is to make use of ozone treatment. Cooling Systems are exposed to many types of corrosion, from general electrochemical corrosion, to pitting caused by deposits, electrolysis, or micro organisms. Corrosion can reduce the life-span of equipment by years, requiring expensive replacement. It can lead' to costly equipment repairs and production downtime. Corrosion related deposits lead to reduced capacity and wasted energy because of heat transfer efficiency losses. Types of Corrosion All cooling system metallurgy experiences some degree of corrosion. The objective is to control the corrosion well enough to maximize the life expectancy of the system... 1. 2. 3. General Corrosion Localized Pitting Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion

General Corrosion • Preferred situation Take a small amount of metal evenly throughout the system • Anode very large

Generalized Corrosion - This 40 year old sample of 8 in, while clearly containing deposits of iron oxide, shows very even wall loss and long

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remaining service life. The pipe was cleaned using high pressure water jet and returned to service with approximately schedule 40 thickness remaining

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B.Galvanic Corrosion Occurs when two different metals are in the same system, more reactive metal will corrode in presence of less reactive metal.

Potential for galvanic corrosion increases with increasing distance on chart.

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Active End Magnesium Galvanized Steel Mild Steel Cast Iron 18-8 Stainless Steel Type 304 (Active) 18-12-3 Stainless Type 316 (Active) Lead Tin Muntz Steel Nickel (Active) 76-NM6 Cr-7 Fe Alloy (Active) Brass Copper 70:30 Cupro Nickel 67-Ni-33 Cu Alloy (Monel) Titanium 18-8 Stainless Steel Typ 304 18-12-3 Stainless Steel Type 316 (Passive) Graphite Gold Platinum


Passive End C.Localized Pitting Corrosion Pitting corrosion, or pitting, is a form of extremely localized corrosion that leads to the creation of small holes in the metal. The driving power for pitting corrosion is the lack of oxygen around a small area. This area becomes anodic while the area with excess of oxygen becomes cathodic, leading to very localized galvanic corrosion. The corrosion penetrates the mass of the metal, with limited diffusion of ions, further Page 76 of 135

pronouncing the localized lack of oxygen. The mechanism of pitting corrosion is probably the same as crevice corrosion.

Diagram showing a mechanism of localized corrosion developing on metal in a solution containing oxygen

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Four Step Corrosion Model Step 1: At the anode, pure iron begins to break down in contact with the cooling water. This step leaves behind electrons. Step 2: Electrons travel through the metal to the cathode. Step 3: At the cathode, a chemical reaction occurs between the electrons and oxygen carried by the cooling water. This reaction forms hydroxide. Step 4: Dissolved minerals in the cooling water complete the electrochemical circuit back to the anode. Affects of Corrosion • Destroys cooling system metal • Corrosion product deposits in heat exchangers • Heat transfer efficiency is reduced by deposits • Leaks in equipment develop • Process side and water side contamination occurs • Water usage increases • Maintenance and cleaning frequency increases • Equipment must be repaired • Unscheduled shutdown of plant Methods To Control Corrosion • Use corrosion resistant alloys • Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale • Apply protective coatings: Integrity • Use "sacrificial anodes": Zn/Mg • Apply chemical corrosion inhibitors Page 78 of 135

General Corrosion Inhibitors Protect metal by filming all surfaces whether they are anodic or cathodic, General Inhibitors: Soluble Oils, Tolyltriazoles, Benzotriazoles Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors: Stop corrosion cell by blocking the anodic site. Severe localized pitting attack can occur at an unprotected anodic sites if insufficient inhibitor is present Anodic Inhibitors : Chromates, Nitrites, Orthophosphates, Silicates, Molybdates Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors: Stop corrosion cell by blocking the electrochemical reaction at the cathode .Corrosion rate is reduced in direct proportion to the reduction in the size of the cathodic area. Cathodic Inhibitors: Bicarbonates, Polyphosphates, Polysilicates, Zinc, PSO

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Fouling Fouling occurs when solid materials form or contribute to the formation of deposit on equipment surfaces. They are introduced to the system as suspended solids and may enter by the makeup water, from corrosion by products, or as airborne materials. Examples include mud, sand, silt, clay oils, debris, organics, microbes, etc. These materials adhere to eat transfer surfaces and reduce heat transfer and water flow

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Factors Influencing Fouling • Water Characteristics • Water Temperature • Water Flow Velocity • Microbio Growth • Corrosion • Process Leaks Economic Impact of Fouling • Decreased plant efficiency • Reduction in productivity • Production schedule delays • Increased downtime for maintenance • Cost of equipment repair or replacement • Reduced effectiveness of chemical inhibitors. Affects of Fouling • Foulants form deposits in hot and/or low flow areas of cooling systems • Shell-side heat exchangers are the most vulnerable to fouling • Deposits ideal for localized pitting corrosion • Corrosive bacteria thrive under deposits • Metal failure results

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Three Levels of Attack Can Be Employed to Address The Effects of Fouling. A.Prevention Good control of makeup quality. Good control of corrosion, scale, & microbio. High Efficiency Multimedia Filters Capable of 80% removal of 0.5 micron Typical multimedia depth filters capable of 80% removal only down to 10 micron Most (greater than 90%) of particles found in a cooling tower are less than 10 micron. Do not overlook sidestream filtration and choose wisely B.Reduction • Increase blowdown • Sidestream filter A.Ongoing Control • Backflushing, Air rumbling, Clean tower.

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Chemical Treatment Charge Reinforces • Anionic polymers increase strength of charge already present on suspended solids • Keep particles small enough so they do not settle out Wetting Agents: Surfactants, Penetrate existing deposits, Wash away from metal surfaces Microorganisms Bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms are present everywhere throughout the environment. They can often be found in cooling tower water. When cooling towers contain an open recirculation system, microorganisms can spread from air to water. Microorganisms can rapidly multiply, when a substrate is present and a number of conditions are ideal for microbial growth. Examples are pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and nutrients. The nutrient content in water increases, because of water evaporation. Process leaks and water use can also cause the nutrient content in the water to increase. This can cause problems. If you will not be able to use it, microorganisms will start to grow and multiply, which will then produce a biological film. This film shall then appear on the water's surface. And if the problems weren't enough, you'll soon realize that it will be very hard for you to remove them, especially if you're only applying basic Page 84 of 135

cooling tower water treatments. The process is commonly known as biological fouling.

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Microbiological Contamination Water treatment is about managing three fouling processes... ➢ Corrosion ➢ Scale ➢ Microbiological The microbial fouling process is... • The most complex • The least understood • The hardest to measure and monitor • Controlled using the least desirable, most expensive, & potentially hazardous products Cooling systems provide the ideal environment for microbiological growth ■ Nutrients: Ammonia, oil, organic contaminants ■ Temperature: 70-140°F acceptable ■ pH: 6.0 - 9.0 ideal ■ Location: Light/No Light ■ Atmosphere: Aerobic/Anaerobic Three Kinds of Troublesome Microorganisms In Cooling Water : Bacteria, Algae and Fungi/Mold/Yeast. They cause plugging, fouling, corrosion, and destruction of wooden cooling tower components. Many different bacteria species may exist in cooling water systems. Some of the problems caused include severe bacterial slimes and fouling, sulphuric acid, under deposit corrosion and health hazards

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Bacteria Bacteria extremely small compared to a human, a bacteria is like a grain of sand to the Sears Tower. Size allows many (millions) to fit into a small volume of water. Types of Bacteria 1. Slime Forming 2. Anaerobic Corrosive 3. Iron Depositing 4. Nitrifying 5. Denitrifying Two Classifications of Bacteria Planktonic: Free-floating bacteria in bulk water Sessile: Bacteria attached to surfaces. Over 95% of bacteria in a cooling system are sessile and live in BIOFILMS Bio film When a significant microbial growth takes place, a slime layer is formed. This contains both organic and inorganic matter. Some microorganisms excrete polymers, which can form a gel-like network around cells after hydrolysis takes place. This is called a bio film. As a result of bio film formation, microorganisms can attach themselves to surface layers. This causes microorganisms to no longer be flushed away by cooling tower water. Bio films protect microorganisms from other microorganisms and from toxic disinfectants. This causes water disinfection to be much more difficult when a bio film is present. Page 87 of 135

Bio film partly consists of microbiological cells and components. Bio film, which is very sticky, also contains organic and inorganic matter that is present in the water and is absorbed by the film. This concerns chemical precipitation, organic flakes and dead cell mass. Bio film consists of 90% water. Bio film causes a number of problems, knowing: Within the protected slime layer microorganisms can cause a speedy corrosion, causing the walls of cooling towers and heat exchange systems to be corroded. The bio film prevents materials that cause corrosion protection from reaching the surface. Furthermore, microbiological reactions can accelerate corrosion reactions and microbial products can corrode materials. Bio film creates an isolation layer on heatexchange systems, causing them to no longer function properly. Microorganisms present in the bio film accelerate oxygen uptake. This can cause an oxygen deficiency in the system. Some microorganisms switch to fermentative metabolisms and produce a number of organic acids, which causes a decrease in pH. Anaerobic bacteria form sulphide byproducts, which are corrosive Foulant Thermal conducti vity CaC03 1.3-1.7 CaS04 1.3 CaP04 1.5 MgP04 1.3 Fe oxide 1.7 Page 88 of 135

Biofilm Algae • • • • • • •


Require sunlight to grow Found on tower decks & exposed areas Form "algae mats" Plug distribution holes on tower decks Plug screens/foul equipment Consume oxidants Provide food for other organisms

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Fungi Use carbon in wood fibers for food . Destroy tower lumber by either surface or internal rotting (deep rot) . Loss of structural integrity of tower

Iron depositing Rods bacteria Bio film

Controlling Microbiological Growth • Water Quality • Eliminate organic contaminants (food) • No food =No bugs System Design Considerations • Clean tower and sumps, cover decks • Chemical Treatment with Biocide • Oxidizing Biocides • Non-oxidizing Biocides • Biodispersants

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Causes of Poor Performance in Cooling Towers The performance of a cooling tower degrades when the efficiency of the heat transfer process declines. Some of the common causes of this degradation include: A.Scale Deposits When water evaporates from the cooling tower, it leaves scale deposits on the surface of the fill from the minerals that were dissolved in the water. The most common scales are calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate and silica or silicates. Scale build-up acts as a barrier to heat transfer from the water to the air. Excessive scale build-up is a sign of water treatment problems. B.Clogged Spray Nozzles Algae and sediment that collect in the water basin as well as excessive solids get into the cooling water and can clog the spray nozzles. This causes uneven water distribution over the fill, resulting in uneven air flow through the fill and reduced heat transfer surface area. This problem is a sign of water treatment problems and clogged strainers. C.Poor Air Flow Poor air flow through the tower reduces the amount of heat transfer from the water to the air. Poor air flow can be caused by debris at the inlets or outlets of the tower or in the fill. Other causes of poor air flow are loose fan and motor mountings, poor motor and fan alignment, poor gear box maintenance, improper fan pitch, damage to fan blades, or excessive vibration. Reduced air flow due to Page 91 of 135

poor fan performance can ultimately lead to motor or fan failure. D.Poor Pump Performance An indirect cooling tower uses a cooling tower pump. Proper water flow is important to achieve optimum heat transfer. Loose connections, failing bearings, cavitations, clogged strainers, excessive vibration, and non-design operating conditions result in reduced water flow, reduced efficiency, and premature equipment failure. Poor Water Management Poor water management causes the following problems: 1. Algae, Slime, and Bacteria Warm temperatures increase the Microbiological growth which substantially reduces evaporation performance, increases Bio-Slime on the condenser tubes and is a serious threat to life and health as a result of increased Legionnaires Disease potential. Airborne bacteria & algae grow rapidly in the warm water cooling tower condenser loop system. The customary treatment process is to use algaecides & biocides such as chlorine or other oxidizing biocides as a preventative measure. 2. Corrosion Historically, corrosion reduces the equipment life span by 50%. Replacement time accelerates 2 fold. Corrosion is typically controlled by the addition of corrosion inhibitor chemicals such sodium or molibdate compounds. Rarely does this procedure result in corrosion. 3. Lime Scale Build Up on Condenser Tubes Page 92 of 135

NBS statistics show 1/4" scale thickness reduces heat transfer by 38%. In hard water areas scale control is normally accomplished by the addition of acid which unfortunately counteracts corrosion control chemical inhibitors. This becomes a domino balancing game where the customer rarely wins. 4.Sediment and Sludge Dirty cooling tower sumps create toxic waste disposal problem as well as a hiding place for the acid producing bacteria. This is another source of corrosion. When solids precipitate, those drop to bottom of the sump and low flow areas in the piping. The customary method of treatment is to do nothing, then muck out the sump once or twice a year. Some opt to install sand or centrifugal filters on the sump. The sand filters will be rapidly become obsolete without continuous maintenance. How to limit deterioration in cooling towers? • Blow down • Scale Prevention • Corrosion Control • Erosion control • Control of Biological Growth • Foaming and Discoloration • Control of Foreign Matter • PH control • Conductivity check

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Uneven water distribution

Causes • Broken or plugged nozzles • distribution piping • broken fill • distribution pan out of level • excessive or uneven water flow ➢ Remedy • Replace or repair defective parts • clean distribution system and pump suction screen • adjust water flow to design conditions 1.Cold water too warm Causes • Over pumping, • fill improperly installed • not enough air ➢ Remedy

Adjust water flow to Design conditions Page 95 of 135

make sure all till sections are intact and properly installed • make certain motor Hp is correct • see if fill or eliminators need cleaning • See if anything obstructing inlets or discharge. 1.Excessive water drift

Causes • • • • Broken or plugged distribution system broken or missing drift eliminators fan pitched above design over pumping

➢ Remedy • Replace or clean nozzles • see that all fill and eliminator sections are in place and intact • pitch fan to design conditions • reduce water flow to tower design 1.Noisy gear and bearings in speed reducer Causes • Worn bearings or gear set • warped gearing • low oil level • contaminated oil protective shield • rubbing gear case • bearing fatigue ➢ Remedy Page 96 of 135

• • • •

Check oil Tor level and contamination adjust oil shield replace worn bearings oil seal or gear sets check tooth contact of gears Add oil if necessary.

1.Excessive movement in speed reducer pinion and low-speed shafts Causes • Worn high-speed and low-speed bearings. ➢ Remedy • Replace wont bearings and oil seats • check tooth contact or gears after replacing gears and/or bearings. Vibration In couplings and drive shaft


Causes Misalignment of Coupling • Foreign matter adhering to coupling • shaft out of balance, bent or off-centre • worn bearing or bent shaft in motor or gear unit.

➢ Remedy • Realign coupling and recheck alignment after 30 days Page 97 of 135

• tighten motor and speed-reducer hold-down bolts.

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1.Unusual motor noise Causes • Motor running single-phased • electrical unbalance • worn bearings. ➢ Remedy Stop motor, try to restart (unit won't start if single-phased) • check wiring, controls, motor and all three lines-correct if required • check lubrication • replace bad bearings.
• 1.

Motor, motor-bearing over/heating


• • • •

Overload (measure load, compare with nameplate rating) Misalignment excessive end thrust too much grease (ball or roller bearing) insufficient lubricant

➢ Remedy • Check for excessive friction in motor drive or unit • check for over voltage, improper connections • realign set Page 99 of 135

• reduce thrust from drive or machine • relieve grease supply and boost oil to points set by manufacturer. Typical Problems and Trouble Shooting For Cooling Towers 1. Lowering of cooling capacity Causes a. Motor stoppage • Electric blackout • Fuse burnout due to damaged Contacts • Insufficient switch capacity • Bad switch contact ➢ Remedy • Contact power company • Get proper fuse • Change to proper switch • Adjust / Clean Contacts. a. Sudden lowering of motor speed (rotations per minute) • Defective starter • Too heavy load • Low supply voltage ➢ Remedy • Check starter for defects • Reduce the load by checking motor current • Consult power company a. Cannot rev up motor speed (rotations per minute) • Defective starter / starter connections • Connection of rotary and fixed section Page 100 of 135

Motor winding damaged ➢ Remedy • correct connection according to name plate • Check supply voltage across all 3 • Check current in all 3 phases • Send out to repair shop • Send out to repair shop 1. Temperature rise Causes Motor getting over heated • Too heavy load • Lowering of voltage supply • Unbalanced voltage supply • High surrounding temp

➢ Remedy • Lighten load proper level • Consult power company • Consult power company 1. Oil Leaking Causes In case of gear speed reducer oil leakage • Too much oil • Loose bolt ➢ Remedy • Lower the oil face to proper level • Tighten properly 1. Air flow low Cause • fan speed low Page 101 of 135

• Fan blade angle incorrect • Inlet jali chocked ➢ Remedy • Check bearings/motor • Correct blade angle to required setting • Clean air path

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1. Rise in water temperature Causes • • • • • Water flow above specified flow Air flow below specified flow Load higher than design Fill checked or coated Fresh air intake not sufficient or area sufficient or area around tower not as specified. • WBT high • Water bypassing fills • Sprinkler jammed/water not being sprinkled and distributed ➢ Remedy • Regulate to correct flow rate. • Adjust blade angle check and clean jail • Adjust load to correct level. • Clean / replace fills. Use proper water (Make up) quality • Improve ventilation and ensure exhaust air does not get recycled. • Check design condition and ensure no recycling of exhaust air. • Check sprinkler head and pipe leakages. • Repair sprinkler and distribution system.

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1. Water flow less Causes • • • • Filter chocked Sprinkler pipes chocked Level of water low in pump Pump small

➢ Remedy • Clean water filter. • Clean pipes and holes • Adjust float/inlet flow ensure proper make-up • Replace for correct flow volume 1. Noise and Vibration: Causes • • • • • • Fan mounting loose Fan blocks loose Fan unbalanced Motor bearing faulty Hub mounting on motor shaft loose Many parts rubbing against tower components

➢ Remedy • Tighten mounting bolt and correct/ replace if needed. • Tighten blade in hub • Rebalance and adjust • Check and grease or replace bearing on motor.

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• Tighten and use end plate and shims if required. • Give proper clearances and adjust/ align components

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1. Water carries over: Causes • • • • Sprinkler rotation too faster Blocking of filter Defective eliminator Sprinkler too high above filter

➢ Remedy • Adjust sprinkler angle as to match the specified rotation • Clean up any blocked part • Replace eliminator • Adjust as specified: 25mm-DMA 2116 toDMB4116 / 50mm-DMA 6616 toDMB8416

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Problem/ Difficulty Excessive absorbed current/ electrical load

Possible Causes 1. Reduction

Remedies/Rectifyi ng Action Voltage Check the voltage

The motor is cooled proportionately and hence delivers more than name plate power Drift/carry1. Uneven Adjust the nozzle over of operation of spray orientation and water nozzles eliminate any dirt outside the unit 2. Blockage of the Eliminate any dirt fill pack in the top of the fill 3. Defective or Replace or realign Page 107 of 135

2a. Incorrect angle of axial fan blades 2b. Loose belts on centrifugal fans (or speed reducers) 3. Overloading owing to excessive air flow-fill has minimum water loading per m" of tower section 4. Low ambient air temperature

Adjust the blade angle Check belt tightness Regulate water flow means of valve the by the

Adjust the water flow-rate by means of the regulating valves. Check for absence of damage to the fill Loss of 1. Float-valve not Adjust the makewater from at correct level up valve basins/pans 2. Lack of Equalize the equalizing basins of towers connections operating in parallel Lack of 1. Water flow Regulated the coohug and below the design flow by means of hence valve the valves increase in temperature s owing to increased temperature range 2. Irregular airflow Check the or lack of air direction of rotation of the fans and/or belt tension (broken belt possible) 3a. Recycling of Check the air humid discharge descent velocity air 3b. Intake of hot Install deflectors Page 108 of 135

displaced droplet eliminators 4. Excessive circulating water flow (possibly owing to too high pumping head)

the eliminators

air from other sources 4a. Blocked spray nozzles (or even blocked spray rubes) 4b. Scaling of joints 5. Scaling of the fill pack

Clean the nozzles and/or the tubes Wash or replace die item Clean or replace the material (washing with inhibited aqueous sulphuric acid is possible but long, complex and expensive)

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Performance testing of cooling Towers
Preparation for test 1. The water distribution system must be empty of strange materials 2. Fill must be level and free of strange material. 3. Drift eliminators must be clean. Positioning of instruments for obtaining temperature and water flow measurements must be so established so as to reflect the true tower


capability. Data required for test Water quantities and temperatures, as well as any miscellaneous water sources, may need to be measured, depending upon their effect upon the aforementioned primary variables. 1. Water Flow rate Water flow rate to the cooling tower can be determined by several means. the pitot tube traverse method.( Most commonly used) It is both practical and accurate provided laboratory calibration has been made. Other acceptable means include the orifice plate, venturi tube, and flow nozzle, all of which also require laboratory calibration. Tracer methods, as Page 110 of 135

well as acoustic methods, have been developed (usually dilution techniques) and are being refined. Occasionally,pump curves are used to approximate the flow. Distribution basin nozzle curves (gpm vs depth of water over nozzle) are frequently used as a check method and, in the absence of other methods, may be used to measure flow directly.

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2. Water Temperatures Water temperatures should be obtained with calibrated mercury-in-glass thermometers or resistance-type sensors (RTD's, thermostats, etc.), either used in direct contact with the flowing water or inserted in thermometer wells. These instruments must reflect the true average temperature to and from the tower. The return water temperature to the tower is usually well mixed, and a single paint of measurement will normally suffice., However, cold water temperatures from the tower can vary considerably throughout the collection basin. Therefore, care must be taken to select a point of measurement where thorough mixing has occurred. The pump discharge is geney considered to be a satisfactory location. 3. Air Temperatures Air temperatures include both the wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures. Wet-bulb temperatures should be measured with mechanically-aspirated psychrometers whenever feasible, although sling psychrometers are occasionally used and do afford an alternate and accurate means of measuring this variable. The location of wet-bulb temperature measurement stations will depend on the contract guarantee. That is, whether the guarantee basis is ambient or entering wet-bulb temperature. (Sect. Page 112 of 135

1-E-l) Reference should be made to the appropriate test code for exact locations of instruments. Any effect on wet-bulb thermometers from extraneous. sources of heat must be taken into account when data evaluation is made. Dry-bulb temperatures must also be measured with laboratory-calibrated instruments at locations called out by the appropriate test code. The measurement of dry-bulb temperature is confined primarily to natural draft towers. 4. Brake horsepower Brake horsepower refers to the output of the fan prime mover, which is usually an electric motor. Thermal performance guarantees are based on a specific brake horsepower at the design thermal conditions, which establish a design air density. Fans should be adjusted prior to a scheduled test so that the horsepower is within 10% of the design value, after corrections to design air density have been made. Since input electric power is usually measured, the brake or output power must be computed by multiplying the input power by the motor efficiency. The efficiency and power factor are obtained from the motor manufacturer. The preferred instrument for power determination is a wattmeter, Power may also be obtained with a volt ammeter, but power factor as well as efficiency must be applied as multipliers to determine the brake horsepower. Line losses from the point of measurement to the fan motor must be considered when the power is remotely measured.

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5. Tower pumping head Tower pumping head is the total dynamic head of water at the centerline of the circulating water inlet to the cooling tower, with equalized flow to all sections, and referred to the tower basin curb as a datum. It is the sum of the static pressure at the inlet centerline, the velocity pressure at that point, and the vertical distance between that point and the top of the basin curb. The tower pumping head does not normally include the friction loss in the riser. The static pressure is seldom measured directly at the inlet centerline because of the unsuitability of this location. It is usually measured at some point in the tower riser by using either a differential manometer or a calibrated pressure gauge. Pitot tube tap locations are usually suitable for this measurement. The measured static pressure must be converted to the equivalent pressure at the centerline of the inlet. The velocity pressure at inlet centerline is calculated from the measured water flow rate and the flow area of the conduit at that point. The vertical distance from the inlet centerline to the top of the basin curb is obtained by direct measurement. CONDUCTING THE TEST The accuracy of the test depends upon stable operating and atmospheric conditions. Those conditions which are subject to control should be closely regulated. For conditions that cannot be controlled (such as wet-bulb temperatures and Page 114 of 135

wind velocity), tests should be confined to time periods when minimum variances occur. The duration of any test period should not be less than one hour after steady state conditions have been established, A test schedule should be established, and a sufficient number of qualified or competent observers provided, to obtain the necessary simultaneous readings at the required time intervals. The normally recommended number and interval of readings are as follows: • • • • Water Flow: 3 check readings per hour. Hot Water Temperature: 12 per hour. Cold Water Temperature: 12 per hour. Wet-Bulb Temperature: 36 per hour per station. (12 recordings) • Dry-Bulb Temperature: 36 per hour per station. (12 recordings) • Wind Velocity: 12 per hour. • Fan Power:0.4 check readings per hour or Continuously recorded.

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OPERATING CONDITIONS DURING TEST Current ASME and CTI Test codes suggest the following limitations to variations from design to be observed during testing: Water Rate Cooling Range Heat Load Wet-Bulb Temperatu e Wet-Bulb Temperatur e Dry-Bulb Temperat ue Wind Velocity Fan Power ± 10% of design ±20% of design ±20% of design ± 10°F of design. +5°F, -15°F of design. ±20°F of design. <10mph. . ± 10% of design.

CTI Test Code ASME Test Code There will be times when operating or atmospheric conditions will not permit a test to be performed within the above limits. However, testing can proceed by mutual agreement among responsible testing parties provided test conditions are covered by the manufacturer's performance curves.

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Cooling tower cleaning procedure Regular cleaning of cooling systems and towers reduces accumulated nutrients, a main cause of Legion Ella growth. All cooling tower cleaning procedures should include disinfection, cleaning and re-disinfection, include all wet surfaces in the cleaning process .and be carried at least every six months Step 1: Before chemical disinfection and mechanical cleaning

Provide workers with correct personal protective equipment (PPE) to safeguard them from exposure to cleaning or disinfecting chemicals and water that could contain Legionella bacteria. PPE includes: • impervious gloves , • goggles , • full or half-face mask that combines a high efficiency , • particulate air filter Provide workers with appropriate equipment so they can access the plant safely and work safely (such as working at heights). Ensure that all workers are trained in the task. Correct shutdown procedures: Page 118 of 135

• Shut off and isolate the heat load source • Shut off and isolate cooling tower fans. • Shut off the system blown-down (purge) valve and automated blow-down controller (if present) and set the system controller to manual. • Keep make-up water valves open. • Continue to operate all water circulation pumps needed to circulate water through all areas of the cooling system Step 2: Chemical disinfection • Add either a low foaming chlorine-compatible biodispersant or low foaming brominecompatible biodispersant to the recirculating system. • Add chlorine-based compound (with detergent properties) to achieve a free residual chlorine (FRC) level of at least 10 mg/L. • Then maintain the FRC at not less than 10 mg/L while continuously circulating the water through the system for one hour and maintaining the pH of the water between 7.0 and 7.6. • Measure the FRC and pH at 15 minute intervals and record on the tower clean service report. OR • Add a bromine-based compound (with detergent properties) to achieve a free residual bromine (FRB) level of at least 20

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• •

mg/L. Then maintain the FRB at not less than 20 mg/L while continuously circulating the water through the system for one hour and maintaining the pH of the water between 7.0 and 8.5. Measure the FRB and pH at 15 minute intervals and record on the tower clean service report. During recirculation, use a high bleed off rate to remove suspended particles. Record the type and quantity of all chemicals used for disinfection plus the time of measurement and results of FRC or FRB and pH Chlorine is one of the most commonly used disinfectants for water disinfection. Chlorine can be applied for the deactivation of most microorganisms and it is relatively cheap.

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Chlorine dioxide • The search for the disinfectant replacement of chlorine resulted in several possible candidates. Although no one disinfectant is perfect, Chlorine dioxide is a very good alternative due to its characteristics.

How effective is it? 1)The effectively of chlorine dioxide is at least as high as chlorines, though at lower concentrations. 2)The bactericidal efficiency is relatively unaffected by pH values 3)between 4 and 10 4)Chlorine dioxide is clearly superior to chlorine in the destruction of bacteria's, viruses and other pathogen organisms on an equal residual base; The required contact time for C102 is lower; 5)Chlorine dioxide has better solubility 6)No corrosion associated with high chlorine concentrations. Reduces long term maintenance costs. Sodium hypochlorite • Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a compound that can be effectively used for water Page 121 of 135

purification. It is used on a large scale for surface purification, bleaching, odor removal and water disinfection. What are the advantages of sodium hypochlorite use?

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Advantages 1)It can easily be stored and transported when it is produced on-site. 2)Dosage is simple. 3)Transport and storage of sodium hypochlorite are safe. 4)Sodium hypochlorite is as effective as chlorine gas for disinfection. 5)Sodium hypochlorite produces residual disinfectant. What are the disadvantages of sodium hypochloriteuse? Disadvantages 1-Sodium hypochlorite is a dangerous and corrosive substance. 2-While working with sodium hypochlorite, safety measures have to be taken to protect workers and the environment 3-Sodium hypochlorite should not come in contact with air,because that will cause it to disintegrate, 4-Both sodium hypochlorite and chlorine do not deactivate Giardia Lambia and Cryptosporidium. What are the environmental effects of bromine use? 1)Bromine is used as a disinfectant, because it is harmful for microorganisms.

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2)When organic bromine enters surface waters, it has negative effects on the health of water fleas, fishes, lobsters and algae. 3)When bromine is used to disinfect water, bromamines and hypobromous acid react with organic matter in the water to form brominated disinfection byproducts. These can be harmful to human health.

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Step 3: Mechanical cleaning Shutdown and isolate the water circulation pumps. Isolate incoming make-up streams and drain the cooling tower. If necessary, neutralize the drain-off with sodium bisulphate. • Inspect all water contact areas for sediment, sludge and scale. Use brushes and a water hose or high pressure water cleaner to thoroughly clean the drift eliminators and fan inlet screens. • Clean all the cooling tower water contact areas including the basin, sump, fill spray nozzles and fittings. • Remove loose deposits from the sump and cooling tower basin. A wet vacuum cleaner makes it easier to remove waste from the basin floor. • Reassemble components and hose with clean water. If drift eliminators are moved, ensure they are correctly replaced. Step 4: After mechanical cleaning

• Fill the cooling tower with water and switch on the recirculating pump. • If the water is not visually clear, repeat steps 2 and 3. Clean the water filters and strainers then repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 until the water quality is satisfactory. • Immediately reinstate comprehensive effective water treatment including biocide(s), anti-corrosives and scale control. Page 125 of 135

• Record all actions in an operations and Cooling filters maintenance logbook. • returned to the basin. A pair of reusable filter cartridges allows the operator to clean cooling tower water down to 5 microns

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Scale Inhibition Causes of Scaling Problems

Scale is caused by the precipitation of mineral particles in water to form a hard deposit on heating transfer surfaces. The most common type of scaling is formed by carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, as well as iron salts in water. Calcium dominates in fresh water while magnesium dominates in seawater. Therefore, consideration on makeup water composition is required to select an appropriate scale inhibition method. Scale leads to reduction in heat transfer efficiency due to the formation of an insulating deposit on heat transfer surface and reduction of water flow resulting from partial or complete blockage of valves, strainers, pipes and heat exchangers, etc. Hardness is considered as the major cause of scale formation, with chain effect connecting to other principle factors, such as evaporation, alkalinity, pH value, total dissolved solids and ambient temperature that influencing the rate of scale formation. Evaporation causes the salt remaining in the circulating water becomes more concentrated and results in an increase of total dissolved solids. Page 127 of 135

Negative solubility of calcium and magnesium salts, biocarbonate decomposition is other factors that cause scale formation. Optimum scale control for water-cooled air conditioning system depends on make up water composition (mineral concentration), operating parameters of the cooling tower system, cycle of concentration adopted and the effluent restrictions. • Inhibitor salts. Therefore, proper pH control is required to provide a suitable environment for both scale and corrosion inhibitors work effectively. Ion exchange resin

Ion exchange resin is a softening process and suitable for makeup water containing dissolved salts. • The techniques make use of ion exchange process. • The ion exchange process is to remove calcium and magnesium ions by replacing them with an equivalent amount of sodium ions and takes place in a vessel containing resin beads incorporating sodium ions. • Sodium ions form highly soluble salts, which will not precipitate and form scale. Physical Water Treatment Method

• Physical treatment methods can also used to prevent scale formation in water-cooled systems and are always considered as Page 128 of 135

effective supplement in water treatment process. • Also, many physical methods can improve water quality by minimizing corrosion, scale formation and bio-fouling simultaneously.

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Filtration System and Equipment Filtration System Filtration is a mechanical process to remove suspended matter from water by collecting the solids on a porous medium. Both in-line filtration and side-stream filtration processes help in reducing suspended solids to an acceptable level. a) In-Line Filtration - In-line filtration allows all system circulating water to pass through a strainer or filter in order to remove impurities and suspended solids. b) Side-stream filtration - Side-stream filtration means placing a filter in a bypass stream so that a portion of the total cooling water circulation rate (at least 5%) is filtered. Higher bypass portion leads to better water quality but also increase the filtration equipment capacity. The advantage of side-stream filtration includes lower capital and space requirement than in-line filtration using the same filtration method. In addition, side-stream filtration has the advantage of being able to process the recirculation cooling system and remove debris.

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Filtration Equipment A number of mechanical filtration devices commonly used in cooling tower system are described as follows.



Strainers – A strainer is a closed vessel with a cleanable screen to remove and retain foreign particles down to 25jam diameter inside cooling water. It shall only be used as pre-filtration to remove large particles in the system. Routine inspection and cleaning is necessary to ensure strainers are in good condition and normal function. Cartridge filters Cartridge filters can be used as final filters to remove nearly all suspended particles from about lOOum down to ljim or less. Cartridge filters are typically disposable, which shall be replaced if required. Frequency of replacement depends on the concentration of suspended solids in water, the size of the smallest particles to be removed and the removal efficiency of the cartridge filter selected. Sand filters (Permanent media filters) – The degree of suspended solids removal in sand filters depends on the combinations and grades of the medium being used in the vessel. Typical sand filter can remove Page 131 of 135



suspended contaminants down to logic. Specialized fine sand media filters are designed to remove suspended particles down to less than lum. Multimedia vessels with each layer containing medium of different size may also be used for low suspended solids application. When the vessel has retained enough suspended solids to develop a substantial pressure drop, the unit must be backwashed either manually or automatically by reversing the direction of flow. Centrifugal-gravity separators – Cooling water is drawn through tangential slots and accelerated into the separation chamber. Centrifugal action losses the particles heavier than the liquid to the perimeter of the separation chamber. Efficiency of centrifugal-gravity separator depends on the gravitational mass of suspended solids; performance data indicate that separator efficiency is about 40% for particles in the range of20um to 40um. Bag type filters – Bag filters are composed of a bag of mesh or felt supported by a removable perforated metal basket, placed in a closed housing with an inlet and outlet. Filter bags can be made of many materials (cotton, nylon, polypropylene and polyester) with a range of ratings from 0.01mm to 0.85mm. Mesh bag are generally Page 132 of 135

coarser, but are reusable. However, periodic replacement of filters is required to ensure the efficiency of filters. Bleed-off Evaporative loss from a cooling tower system leads to an increased concentration of dissolved or suspended solids within the system water as compared to the makeup water. Over concentration of these impurities may lead to scale and corrosion formation, hence, fouling of the system. Therefore, concentration of impurities must be controlled by removing system water (bleed-off) and replacing with makeup water.

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Magnetic devices This method involves the exposure of incoming make up water under the intense magnetic field. Magnetic field affects the suspended particles or the ions in solution and prevents the deposition of a hardened deposit. The particles will then form a mobile suspension or do not precipitate at all. Also, existing deposits of scale can be converted into solution. Some magnetic devices use permanent magnets and hence do not require electrical power input to the device. Electronic de-scaling technology Electronic de-scaling technology makes use of induced oscillating electric fields using timevarying magnetic fields generated in the solenoid wrapped around a water pipe. Dissolved ions are then charged and collided with each other. Collisions between positive and negative ions facilitate precipitation of the ions in the pipe work. Electronic de-scaling technology can be used to enhance a chemical-based water treatment program. Selection of chemicals used in corrosion inhibition and microbiological control shall be compatible with the technology. Scale inhibitor is not recommended to use together with this method. Also, filtration system is essential to remove any precipitate formed during the descaling process. Page 134 of 135

Water Ionization The water ionization and water purification system consists of a state-of-the-art high frequency electronic controller unit with copper or silver ionization electrodes combined with option of a Magnetic Field and Ultra-Violet Light. Water Ionizer releases copper and silver ions into the water system through its specially designed flow-cell chamber that houses a pair of copper/silver alloy electrodes. The Copper Ion generators above release controlled amounts of copper ions into the water to kill algae, biofilm, fungi & other microorganisms. It is a well-documented fact that copper & silver ions kill algae, bacteria, viruses, MRSA, coli forms, Salmonella, Streptococci & even Legionnaire's Disease. These ions provide residual, long term, nontoxic purification and prevent any recontamination. They maintain a continuous, cumulative, residual disinfection process automatically while allowing you to reduce chemical usage dramatically. This will prevent biofilm formation, blocked water passages and severe deterioration of metal surfaces

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