Site management
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Selection of site in charge (site manager) quality site manager required Site organisation before starting site construction (it form a mini project) Types of project organisation Closing of site Site account Site input planning : labour, material, plant (money of course) schedule is made for each input on weekly daily, monthly basis A. labour schedule activity Vs time decide B. plant and vehicle decision to buy or hire (economical) Plant and vehicle to fit in bar chart

Role of site incharge (project manager ) 1. Ensure that the project is in progress exactly in accordance with the targets as shown in bar charts through proper co- ordination between materials, labours 2. Settlement of rates bills, , final bills , payment schedules vs work schedule ; disputes , legal agreements written communications etc with all working contractors and agencies. 3. Arrange preventive measures at sites for safety. In over all the construction industry needs efficient management of human resources and materials for successful completion of project at an optimum cost. Next the site set up is one of the most basic and the simplest aspects of the systematic , planned , economical and safe construction. This ensures better utilization of available resources, equipments, materials, and a better control over the project. For site mobilization and oraganisation;- project manager has to lead from front and should devise an effective communication system The mobilization also includes carrying out enabling works , they are as follows ;- on a large project costing a few hundred crores, the enabling work itself form into a miniproject 1. Workshop for repair and maintenance of static and mobile plant and equipments must be set up 2. There should be QC Laboratory for testing of material cement sand aggregate bricks concretes etc. 3. Store and stack yards is necessary for maintaining the material in good condition 4. Services such as electric ,sewage ,communication ,telephone should be available and maintained to avoid delay in work progress. 5. Services the site camp is to be provided with services like electric supply, sewage disposal, communication , telephone etc. The Site And Some Considerations. 1. size of site 6. reducing movements. 2. well laid out site. 7. access roads 3. site office for supervisor 8. water and services. 4. training foreman 9. plant and plant and equipment 5. reducing waiting time. 

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In mobilization includes enabling of works which includes actual project work also boundary wall around the project fixing security post and gates. Site office having camp acomodating engineers supervisors and workmen Store for materials onsite Arrangement for static and mobile plant onsite and can be shifted from place to place . Trucks dumpers bulldozers vibrators etc.

SITE ORGANIZATION The organization translates plans into activities which leads to completion of work. The size of site depends upon the workload, specialization, and nature of the projects Types of organizations 1. Functional organization 2. Divisional organization 3. Matrix organization In functional all the heads of various depts. reports to site in charge it is a centralized type of org Where as divisional is decentralized site management each headed by site manager and divide into section supported by qualified and experienced person The matrix org is task oriented. There are two distinct categories 1. Lower level recruited, 2. deported by other functional department. Dual control one report to site manager and other repot to their functional head Advantages of matrix is Flexibility in the department of resources Effective use of equipment Better opportunity to people for career growth, saving in cost. EXECUTION AND MONITORING The planning process organization agencies material and equipment all come into play in execution In execution it is important to monitor work on a daily basis from the master control network, sub network a daily plan of work is formulated. Forecasting and planning of material and labor is to avoid delays. Closing the site As per the contract schedule every project has a prefix date of completion list of defects pointed by client must be rectified  Physical completion of work as per contract to be checked  As when additional work is required to be done within a week apply for additional cost and time and obtain client approval for all extra work the contractor should maintain proper record labor material equipment utilization latter stage for claim.  Preparation of final bill for the executed according to contract and extra item carried out.  Resources temporary to be demobilise  To make ready as build drawings, operating manuals equipments installed. Site inputs planning The site needs inputs of labor material and plant. To make schedule for each Three schedule to be made to start the work


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Labor schedule based on bar charts and experience while deciding it should kept in mind that the number to be same throughout the project How to make labor schedule . using bar charts already prepared by using pencil and practical experience. The manager should study possible ways of keeping the skilled workforce busy the work order in some case be changed notably for items that are not to the completion of other items Labor needed . It is a practical planning task based on experience finding good solution to uneven spread of labor Planning =higher productivity=profit Plant and vehicle schedules Plant and transportation schedule are generally planned to fit in with the bar chart As with bar chart and labor schedules the best source of knowledge for preparing a plant and transport schedule is our own experience Monthly hire of plant always results in a lower daily rates than weekly hire Remember that planning never be ok first time, spend time trying out ideas by using paper and pencil Material schedules what material needed and when they should be on site, check list of material must be maintained delays means disorganization Calculation of labour strength required Total quantity of internal plaster of building A = 2000 m2 (21,500 ft2) Total quantity of external plastering of building „A”= 150 0m2 (16000 ft2) per day Total days given for plastering=25 days Assumed task work of one mason = 14m2 (150ft2) per day total mason required (actual working days 20 only) 3500/ 14= 250 masons Therefore mason per day = 250/20 =12.5 say 13masons /day Accordingly we can calculate other unskilled labours, male coolies , female coolies required /day. How to make material schedule Check the bar chart already made it gives name qty when and for which part of area of site ,timely delivery is criteria for efficiency. Monitoring progress A team has to monitor the progress and if not found as per schedule extra additional ways to complete in time. Site work planning is done by using bar chart ,pert, CPM, etc bar charts are used to plan work and then to monitor the progress of work Consultant to check how contractor is doing work and following bar chart and quality of work etc. Preparing a bar chart is simple but preparing a realistic and cost saving bar chart can be a difficult one should know the theory and then practice it several times How to make a bar chart six major steps Plan, list jobs , calculate qty ,time ,draw the bar chart ,check Ask yourself labor enough, equipment availability, material ok ,any problem with working space, transportation of material made best use of all resource Site Accounts the account should be maintained regularly and daily to know his financial position till the job is over PCA is 20% less than tendering cost ( prime cost allocation)

The pca is broken down weekly ,monthly and the duration of site also called rolling budget professional accountant is must Records of disbursement, purchase subcontract , salaries, wages bank transaction and stationary expenditures . Billing and collection follow organisation form of owner Billing for extra work recorded for claim  As a manager is to look at the each operation is being carried out to improve efficiency.  Reason for low productivity supervisor looking after too many people ,waiting for material ,tools ,instruction, machine breaking down.  Ways of increasing productivity efficient layout, tools incentive schemes ,good supervision etc.  Improving payment system effective payment schemes is to be introduced  Methods of payment daily wages easy to administer, piece work more the worker produce more they earn ,task work the faster they get a job done sooner they get paid bonus extra reward for good performance  Health safety accident illness means additional cost and disruption of contract  Improving safety effective communication , record keeping use of safety helmet Examples of accidents Causes of accidents poor planning ,construction defects lack of equipments, workers misbehavior Controlling plant cost to workout running cost to and hire. Then decide whether to buy new or hire it. Preventive maintenance and saving material cost Budgeting is concerned with two areas Cost, revenues. It is an estimate of cost and income to be generated if a proposed project is undertaken Budgets are predictions and are thus subject to accuracy constraints in respect of techniques employed, information available experts of personals and so on. Budgeting coupled monitoring and controlled is important to everyone concerned with construction projects. Cost Budgeting is based upon cost for any sale three basic concepts cost price value Site operative labor , contracts` costs On a typical building project the labor value is 20% of the project cost. Material cost is 50% of the project cost. subcontractors are used to carryout specialist operations. Plant;- usually hired by the contractors. The hire of large driven plant usually includes 1. drivers cost wages 2. hire of plant cost 3. fuel cost etc. The total operating and owning cost in budget Overheads ;- cost of head office rent, estimating , accounts etc H.O service to site ;- persons involved work largely on site. Supplementary depts cost Equipment cost;- like office machinery , computers, cars ,etc. H.O and other premises;-fixed cost and are changed to projects as part of H.O Profit.


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Factors Affecting Job-Site Productivity
Job-site productivity is influenced by many factors which can be characterized either as labor characteristics, project work conditions or as non-productive activities. The labor characteristics include: age, skill and experience of workforce leadership and motivation of workforce The project work conditions include among other factors: Job size and complexity. Job site accessibility. Labor availability. Equipment utilization. Contractual agreements. Local climate. Local cultural characteristics, particularly in foreign operations. The non-productive activities associated with a project may or may not be paid by the owner, but they nevertheless take up potential labor resources which can otherwise be directed to the project. The nonproductive activities include among other factors: Indirect labor required to maintain the progress of the project Rework for correcting unsatisfactory work Temporary work stoppage due to inclement weather or material shortage Time off for union activities Absentee time, including late start and early quits Non-working holidays Strikes Each category of factors affects the productive labor available to a project as well as the on-site labor efficiency. Improving site productivity • Two important contributors to productivity improvements are getting the site layout done in a right way and maximising the site activity. • Lower the level of activity on the site, lesser money will be made in the contract and if it is too low, the contractor might even make a loss. • Workers who stand idle either because they have nothing to do or because they are waiting for another operation to finish still have to be paid and it is just like investing in an idle machinery with no returns. CONTRIBUTORS TO PRODUCTIVITY • Productivity is a comparison between how much is put into the project in terms of manpower, material, machinery/ tools etc and the result that came out of the project. Productivity covers every activity that goes into completing the construction site works from “Planning” stage to „Final site clearing”.


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Reasons for low productivity: Supervisors looking after too many people. Dissatisfied workers with a perceived grievance ( ex. Low pay) Heavy work on a hot day Waiting for materials / tools Waiting for instructions Machine breakdown Waiting for another operator to finish so that they can follow on ( poor site layout) Working in a confined space and getting in each other‟s way Too many labourers attached to one mason resulting in gangs going out of balance More people allocated to a task than is needed to complete Ways of increasing productivity • Efficient site layout. • Efficient tools • Incentive schemes. • Efficient use of equipment • Efficient supervision. • Use of more skilled workers and training the workforce • Reduction in waiting time. • Every site has an average level of activity and every contractor should know what that level is when preparing the quotation and when calculating the allowables. • At the end of each day if the actual activity level is less than average activity level, the job is losing money. Hence, there is a need to look closer at the day‟s work and incorporate changes to improve productivity on the jobs where money was being lost. IMPROVING WORK METHODS: • Select the Job / operation • Record and describe the present method of doing the job. • Improve the method by thinking of better ways to do the job • Install new methods on the job. REASONS FOR SELECTING AN OPERATION FOR IMPROVEMENT • High production costs. • Low activity level • Not achieving the quality standards. • Limiting factor for other activities • Danger & fatigue • Double handling of materials • . (a): High production costs: • This may be due to (a) increase in operation costs through wages,rent of an equipment, material costs (b) more workers are needed than calculated (c) operation taking longer time than expected or consuming more materials than estimated. (b) Limiting factor for other activities: • If for some reason, are held up and there is a temporary delay, then the running costs due to delay will decrease the profits. Examples are: (1) Lorries waiting to be loaded (2) Masons waiting for blocks (3) Concrete gang waiting for steel fixers to finish.


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(c) Double handling of materials: • When materials for a particular operation are repeatedly located in a wrong place, they have to be picked up again and taken to place of their use. This means extra costs in wages and additional delays. The materials may also be damaged when handled. Move a pile of bricks three times and you‟ll have a pile of rubble” goes the apt saying and this should be avoided. d) Not achieving the quality standards • The reputation as a competent contractor is at risk whenever the specified quality standards are not met. Poor quality standards lead to low productivity because part of the work has to be done again or the contractor loses retention money. Some of the reasons for not meeting the quality standards are: 1) Wrong tools 2) Wrong materials 3) Wrong methods 4) Unclear instructions. (e) Danger and fatigue • A building site, workshop or fabrication yard is a hazardous place and when an operation is dangerous, it means that people‟s lives are put at risk. The risk can be reduced/eliminated by improving the method of work and providing proper equipment. When the work becomes extremely strenuous, productivity also goes down because the workers operate at reduced capacity. • For example, it may pay to add a few extra workers to the concreting gang at the time of pour, so that the work can be completed more quickly, but if the productivity is low because the scaffolding is dangerous, then the solution lies in not hiring workers but to make the scaffolding safer. Safety also means higher profit through a more loyal and productive workforce. (f) Low activity level: If the activity level is generally too low on a site or on a certain job, action must be taken to raise it. A low activity level means that a lot of money is lost everyday. • There is no point in selecting an operation where the cost of improvement are greater than the savings for the improved method. • Before choosing an operation for improvement, an assessment of the cost in terms of money and time to change and how much saving will result from the improvement will have to be made. IMPROVING PAYMENT SYSTEMS • The method used for paying the workers can have a major effect on productivity and efficiency at site. • If an effective payment scheme is introduced, profits can be increased through higher efficiency and at the same time the workers also earn more. • There are many different ways of rewarding the workers. Various methods of payment which reward workers with money, time off or both are: 1) daily wage- Fixed wage/day 2) Piece work- A fixed amount /unit of work done 3) task work- Finish the job and go home when it is ready 4) Bonus schemes- extra reward for efficient work.

DAILY WAGE: • The advantage of paying each worker a fixed daily rate is that it is easier to administer. The disadvantage is that there are no extra incentives for the workers to improve their productivity. In India, however, most workers expect to be paid on daily wage basis. PIECE WORK: • The idea of this system is that more the workers produce, the more they earn. Piecework requires considerable preparation, administration & supervision. The workers are paid according to the unit of work done such as number of blocks made, cubic metres excavated or square metres of roofing laid. Piecework can be used for gangs or for individuals. TASK WORK: • A lumpsum is fixed for a complete task- for example clearing the site of bushes and trees. When it is completed, the workers earn their wage and can chose to move to next task and have the facility of earning more. The incentive is that the faster they get the job done, the sooner they get paid, either in money or free time. PERFORMANCE INCENTIVE: • A bonus is an extra reward for good performance which is added to the existing system of payment, whether it is a daily wage, piecework or taskwork. A reward should be given when the result of workers extra effort gives the entrepreneur an advantage in getting the job done in time and thereby avoiding the need to pay liquidated damages. Benefits of safe working condition building construction site Prevention of accidents improve overall contract performance Prevention of accidents can be achieved through following methods. a. effective communication b. record keeping. c. Motivation of work force 2. Providing safety bonus for the workers 3. Use of safety equipments 4. Examples of accidents 5. Collapse of walls 6. Overturning of ladder ,scaffolding 7. Welding and cutting operations 8. Dangerous gasses 9. Causes of accidents 10. Poor planning or organisation 11. During the execution of work 12. Construction defects use of unsuitable material 13. Lack of equipments ,defects in equipments ,lack of safety devices 14. Workers behaviour careless, irresponsible act 15. Management and conduct of work inadequate preparation of work, examination of equipment, supervision etc.


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Main items of site layout design  Building/structure under construction  Main equipments  Auxiliary plants, yards, workshops  Stores and deposits  Site management offices  Sanitary/welfare rooms and buildings  Temporary roads  Electric power supply  Water supply  Storm-water drainage, dewatering  Waste/contaminated water treatment, sewer.

ON-SITE MAIN EQUIPMENTS Cranes (towercranes) Manipuilation area to be served/reached Location of other main equipments, cranes Height of beam Dimensions of effective lifting area served/reached Base frame – fixing (anchoring) (Pre-)Assembly of beam - spreading Assembly of crane by autocrane - climbing Other objects on the area to be served Elevators Proper location of feeding/picking area has great effect on performance Easy delivery of materials into the building should be provided in long period of Construction AUXILIARY YARDS, PLANTS AND WORKSHOPS Rest of work is organized to central production plants. Less on-site processing can be performed at (supported by) special on-site plants. Potential auxiliary plants and yards Wood yard (formwork, shutter, timbering) Steel yard (reinforcement processing plant) Batching (concrete mixing) plant On-site prefabrication/pre-assembply yard Lime and mortar plant Yards and workshops functioning rather as stores Plumbers yard and workshop Electricians workshop HVAC assemblies store Tinsmith workshop.

WOOD YARD Its significance is vanishing due to more and more wide-spread use of formwork systems Irregular/unusual forms in architecture may recover (revitalize) its use  Storage:On sleepers (e.g. on concrete beams) laid on spacers (ventillation/airing)  Cutting:Power-saws located under shelter  band-saw : circular-saw ( properly located for to cut any sizes of log or timber )  Assembly:in joining yard  Infrastructure: electric power supply – burried cable  water supply – fire plug (hydrant)  road and surface  gravel-typed dry/hard surface  access for transportation  fencing/enclosing needed STEEL YARD  Central steel yard (reinforcement processing plant) as industrial supply is tending to be typical  On-site steel yard  Storage  Transport  straight rods and bars (length ~12 m)  rods and bars cut and bended (confected)  rolls of wires (e.g. for stirrups and for bonding)  Storage  by size and by mechanical characteristics (type, quality)  Cutting and bending  bending equipment(s), power tools  linear  parallel (overlapped) BATCHING (CONCRETE MIXING) PLANT On-site batching (radial or tower-system) plants are typical rather at distant, („greenfield”) investments. At municipal (in-city) sites less frequently applied. Functional units  Mixer, stand, dozing partition  Cement-silos  Radial deposit for fractions of aggregates (+ dragline excavator/feeder) Infrastructure  Electric power supply (high consumption, separated supply)  Water supply (high/intensive consumption) Road and surface  Access around the aggregate-deposit must be provided  Receiving cement transport – parking/loading bay  Supply, reach/access/service of mixer – height of stand  Hard surface (cover) under aggregate-deposit STORES AND DEPOSITS  Considerations  closed (lockable) stores

 shelters : open deposits , special stores,Closed stores, mostly containers, sometimes store houses, buildings, or parts/sections of some existing on-site buildings Shelters temporary structures (enclosed or fenced) Open deposits:hard surface (covered and/or enclosed) Special stores:special storage (safety, protection, hazard) regulations.

SITE OFFICES AND OTHER BUILDINGS Temporary building structures  located close to the only port/gate of site (in a „neutral zone/corner”)  container  special ready-made (pre-assembled) building  (separate section of) existing- or under-construction building Site management offices  single container  office rooms, cabinets,  documents‟ archives, office-tecnology rooms  meeting rooms  lavatory  refreshment room, tea-kitchen, (drink/food automat)  sub-contractors offices (as contracted)  emergency- or „clean” room (first-aid room for case of accidents, wounds) Changing room, dining room, shelter (if any)  sized for average workers‟ staff  container  shelter van  special ready-made (pre-assembled) building  refreshment room, buffet van  (drink/food automat) Sanitary  sized for maximum workers‟ staff  lavatory/wash-basin as fixture in container or in building  toilet  wash-down toilet as fixture in container or in building TEMPORARY ACCESS ROADS Even if no any structure was constructed as temporary road free access to all location on site must be provided during over-all time-span of accomplishment! Horizontal alignment  single-lane  roundabout access  controlled only entrance and exit (gate)  turning and manoeuvres of wehicles  designed in accordance with the traffic (usually 12-14m)


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TEMPORARY ELECTRIC SUPPLY Demand w : engine/equipment (pile driver, batching plant, tower crane, etc.) w: power tool (power saw, poker vibrator, vibro-hammer, etc.) w: illumination, lighting (lamp, spotlight, reflector tower, sign, office, etc.) TEMPORARY WATER SUPPLY Demand technology (concrete, plaster, paint, earthworks, etc.) sanitary (drinking water, cleaning, washing, etc.) fire protection (emergency water tank or water reservoir) WASTE- AND STORM WATER DRAINAGE To be provided for  technology wastes and cleaning ( must be collected and treated/transported )  sanitary ( if possible can be driven to public sewer system, otherways must be collected )  storm water and ground water ( driven to natural outlet )

• • • The first step in opening a site is to post a person to be the site in charge. Running a site is a full time job and this job must be given to person who is qualified and has got experience of work at sites. He/she should be a competent person with definite direction and strong inspiration, a natural leader with pleasing personality for leading a team of men successfully.

The following things are expected of a site manager: 1. KNOW THE CONTRACT:: He should thoroughly read the contract and should be knowing the contractual obligations and specifications so that the quality of performance is improved. 2. STUDY THE PLANS:  He /she is expected to have the plan before him and ensure that the key men of the site team look at the plans as often as possible.  When the target dates of approaching events & milestones stares, it will accelerate the speed of the whole team.

3. READ THE ERECTION MANUAL  The erection manual must be read so that whatever is not clear should be discussed and clarification should be sought in advance.  In this process, the manager must ensure that his team members become competent enough to attend to the erection job so that he can concentrate on other activities at the site


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4. MOBILISATION OF RESOURCES:  Apart from the items mentioned in the mobilisation checklist given by the planning manager, there are requirements of various registration under relevant law for starting a new establishment employing people.  Resource mobilisation shall be done as per the plan of head office in line with the work schedule, keeping the time, quality and economy in mind. If something planned by head office is unnecessary @ site, it is not necessary to do that. But, if something more is to be done, permission is necessary for budget allocation. 5. DIVIDE THE SITE INTO MANAGEABLE SECTIONS: If the site is unwieldy, divide it logically into units/sections/divisions and put an engineer/foreman in charge of each. Allocate the resources according to the needs. In allocation of resources, diversion should be made possible by ensuring least wastage & idleness. 6. TRAIN AND DELEGATE RESPONSIBILITIES: The manager must train the supervisors to do the work well, guide them in every step until they become competent enough to take correct decisions at their level independently, and motivate them by delegating more responsibility in recognition of their competence in their assignments. All key men @ site must be trained to know the scope, capacity, their use, maneuverability and use of machines that are used in site. The manager must delegate part of his authority to subordinates so that they can exercise control over the resources to the extent necessary for carrying out their responsibilities efficiently. 7. SITE BUDGET: The head office consolidated budgets of various items of inputs and outputs for the whole site. It is necessary to break them section wise and delegate responsibility to section heads so that they learn to work independently & produce results. Measure & compare the performance every week. 8. REMOVE CONSTRAINTS:  As a site manager, he /she should ensure that constraints are foreseen by way of advance planning of drawings, foundations, clearances,material indents,  Working fronts, erection schemes etc so that they are removed in time.All constraints will cause delay and delay will cause financial loss to the organization.In construction work, “time lost is money lost” and hence the site manager is always under emergency.  Narrating excuses will not help and what stands at the end of the month is figures of achievements.He should be a “creator” and should not wait for things to happen by themselves without human effort. 9. CLOSELY MONITOR ACTIVITIES:  The site manager‟s task doesn‟t end by making resource allocation and holding of meetings.Instead of team leaders coming to manager for guidance,  the manager should go to them for monitoring the performance, and where ever necessary, should guide them before any damage is done.  No construction manager worth his name should say “Progress is poor because of failure of an engineer in charge of some activity”. As the boss of site, the manager should know the daily progress in every area of work, measure it and compare it with the planned programme and take effective steps for the same. 10. MANAGE TIME: At the construction site, there is always pressure of work and lack of time.The manager should learn the art of time management in a better way.

 A very important component of site management is the organization.  Depending upon the size and nature of the project, the organization would coordinate and carry out activities as determined.  The success of a project very largely depends upon the commitment,involvement,attitude and understanding amongst the project team.  A very close coordination needs to be maintained by the project manager with client/ owner, consultant, vendor/supplier,sub-contractor and local authorities.  In view of uncertainties, the project manger & his team must rise to the occasion and innovate ways & means to come out of the crisis or a difficult situation as & when it develops.

Site mobilisation involves the following:
1. Enabling works: • Under works of this category, structures which would facilitate undertaking the actual project work are included in the master control network & planning.In a large project running into crores, enabling works itself will form a mini-project. Enabling works will include: (a) Fencing/boundary wall around the project, fixing security check post and gates. (b) Camp for engineers,supervisors & workmen (c) Store for materials (d) Construction plant & equipment: (1) Static plant such as concrete batching plant, pre-cast concrete element plant, hot mix plant etc. (2) Mobile plant such as dumper, bulldozers, transit mixer, concrete ,compressor,trucks,bitumen sprayer,road roller etc. 2) Workshop: • For maintenance of plant and equipment(static & mobile), it is necessary to have a workshop which will undertake maintenance, repair,overhauling and major replacement of equipment. • The workshop should have a small machine shop attached with lathes,drilling machines,welding,sheet metal work and also battery charger, tyre repair etc. 3) Quality control laboratory: • For testing of material and building component, it is essential to set up a quality control laboratory at site. • This laboratory should test materials such as cement,sand,aggregate,bricks,concrete etc. • If any item needs to be tested for which facilities are not available at site, then such samples are sent to reputed laboratories/research institutions for testing. 4)Stores and stacking yards: • In the project site, open storage is necessary for maintaining the material in good condition. • Cement is usually supplied in bags which is stored at site in covered shed. • If more than 10 bags are stacked, then the lower bags tend to set, making cement non-usable. • In case cement is used in large quantities for concreting by batching plant, it is stored in bulk in vertical silos from where it is conveyed to batching plant by means of a screw conveyor. 5) Services:
• The site camp is to be provided with services like electric supply, sewage disposal, communication, power, telephone ,&water supply Page 69


In order to carry out the enabling work which is required at the very initial stage of the project,a team is sent in advance to the site for building up all temporary structures,services required for enabling works. • On the other hand, if a project team that has been assigned with the main work is to first build up enabling works, a lot of time is lost in the project. In some international projects and some major projects within the country, structures are being adopted for the site camp which are of portable nature.

GOOD SITE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES: 1) Well laid out site: • A tidy and workmanlike site is important because it helps the contractor to operate more efficiently and saves wasted time & resources. Secondly, it shows the client that the contractor takes pride in his work. 2) Site office for supervisor: • The site supervisor should be provided with an office where he can keep the drawings, documents, update the bar chart programme and prepare labour,plant and material returns as required by head office. • When the project manager or any authorised person as contractor visits the site, he should make sure that upto date drawings, client‟s instructions and other information is available 3) Training foreman: • The foreman is in the frontline of management and he will always perform better if he is made to understand that he is a member of team rather than an as a person to take orders. • It is worthwhile taking a little time to explain the reasons for requiring them to keep the site office tidy and submit time sheets regularly rather than simply saying “it has to be got done”. 4) Reducing waiting time: • Waiting time is far too common occurrence on many sites e.g operators wait to be told as to what to do next, lorry drivers wait while the foreman goes off to the supplier for an urgent item and the concreting gang has to stop until the fitter comes out to repair the mixer.‟Waiting time‟ is a polite way of describing wasted time and wasted time means wasted money.This can be eliminated provided a site management plan is prepared in advance. 5) Reducing movements: • Half of the man hours that is expended on a construction site are concerned with the movement and handling of materials.Much of this time could be saved, leading to greater productivity and lower costs, if the site layout has been planned from the start of job to minimise unnecessary movements. The key factors in designing an efficient layout are: 1) access roads 2) water & other services 3) Materials stores & stockpiles 4) Placing of plant & equipment. Ex: a)Not enough room for storage of aggregates b) Inadequate access to loading /unloading c) Cement stored too far away d) Hoist of insufficient capacity or height in relation to the loads to be handled. e) Mixer wrongly located for fast delivery of mixed concrete.

A) Access roads: • If the construction of permanent roads is included in the contract, it may be sensible to undertake the drainage and basic road work at the start of a job rather than building temporary roads that need to be levelled and a sufficient base course to be provided to cope up with the traffic that is unlikely to use it. B) Water & Services • Concreting is a key operation and hence water supply should be arranged at the start of the project. • If the contract calls for permanent water supply, this could be combined with temporary supply to cut the need for extra excavation & piping. • The best way to move water around the site is through a pipe. • The most wasteful and expensive way is to pay wages to people for carrying water in buckets. • If electricity is to be provided, it may be helpful for lighting purposes or to power small tools like drills. C) Material stores & stockpiles: Store sheds & stockpiles should be carefully planned so that the materials will be available as close as possible to the place where they are to be used and also will not interfere with building operations. Valuable items should be stored in locked sheds. There should be good road access through the site to the storage area, so that the materials & components can be unloaded directly from the trucks without unnecessary handling /transport.The „materials @site‟ are the property of client and hence, he has a right to expect that his possessions are stored and handled with due diligence. d) Placing of plant & equipment • An area should be set aside for storage, maintenance & repair of mechanical plant & equipment together with diesel tanks etc, if these are provided on the site. If a hoist is to be employed, it is worth taking care to think about its usage at various stages of construction work so that it can be placed conveniently to minimise the transport of finished product and it will pay to relocate at various stages of work. Handling of wet concrete should be reduced to an absolute minimum for reasons of quality control & economy. e)Choice of Plant & equipment: • An important aspect of the site organisation is the choice of appropriate tools, plant & equipment. • Expensive mechanical equipment is only worth buying,if you have enough work to keep it fully employed and if there are trained & motivated operators who will ensure that it is properly used and regularly maintained. • We cannot expect high levels of productivity from men with poor levels and it is worth paying more for tools that are properly made for the job and are sufficient robust enough to stand up to the hard work.


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• It must provide a straight forward statement of work accomplished, predict future accomplishment in terms of project cost & schedule and measure actual accomplishments against the goals set forth in the plan. It should also review current & potential problems and indicate management action that are underway to overcome the effects of the problem.

A comprehensive “Monthly Progress Report” can convey the essential information. The contents of a sample report are as follows: (a) Summary of project status. (b) Procurement status (c) Construction status (d) Schedule status (e) Cost report summary (f) Progress photos / videos.

a) SUMMARY OF PROJECT STATUS:  This item represents short & overall summary of project status.  It may contain a brief narrative description of the status of each major phase, provide quantitative information such as physical percentage completed as compared with scheduled completion and forecast “at completion” costs as against budget. b) PROCUREMENT STATUS:  This item reviews contracts awarded during the period, contracts currently out for bid and other significant information.  A simple bar chart showing actual procurement status and contracts awarded as compared with the original plan is often helpful. c) CONSTRUCTION STATUS:  This unit of progress report should provide description of work accomplished during that period, significant work to be accomplished in the next period, and discussions of major problems with proposed solutions.  Quantitative information is more significant than general discussion. d) SCHEDULE STATUS:  This item should contain the summary of control schedules by contract and by facility showing actual progress as compared to early & late start schedules.  In case contracts or facilities are behind schedule or slipping, an explanation of the problems and the indicated solution /measures being adopted to solve the problem must be included. e) COST REPORT SUMMARY:  This should show actual recorded costs, committed costs and estimated costs required to complete the project.  It should compare the completion costs with the project budget and identify / explain changes from the previous report.  An evaluated contingency costs should be included in the overall estimate of actual cost at completion.

Overall cost controls should be integrated with schedule controls. Computer based system with common data files facilitate this integration. Overall cost control designed to measure project status against budget includes the following: 1. Preliminary estimates 2. fair cost estimates 3. Definitive estimates 4. Cost report summary 5. value engineering studies 6. Value engineering status 7. other significant data 1. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES:  They assist the overall cost control program by serving as the first check against the budget and indicating the cost overrun early enough for the project team to review the design for possible alternatives.  Since preliminary estimates are made prior to the completion of detailed drawings, the margin for error is usually greater than for fair cost estimates.  For a phased construction program, it is especially important to prepare preliminary estimate by contract package.  By comparing actual contract awards with the preliminary estimate, a running total of the current status of the project is available. Indicated overruns can stimulate revision of criteria for later work packages in order to preserve overall budgets. 2.FAIR COST ESTIMATE:  Fair cost estimates are best prepared from actual bid documents provided to bidders.  They represent project manager‟s appraisal of fair value of bid package to the owner.  Local conditions such as material prices, wage rates, labour productivity and anticipated competition are important in achieving a reasonable estimate  This estimate includes 1) estimate of total man hours of field effort 2) Estimated quantities for major items 3) An estimate of reasonable unit costs for various components of work 3.DEFINITIVE ESTIMATE • They fix the anticipated cost of the project with little margin for error. • As contracts are bid on a phased construction program, overall estimated cost becomes certain. • When 90% of the contracts have been awarded, less contingency is required than @ 50% level. • When 100% of the contracts have been awarded, contingency is limited to providing for plan changes due to an inherent error,omissions,conflicts or other risks in projects. • The managers heading various departments in construction will indicate the time at which a reliable definitive estimate can be prepared. 4.COST REPORT SUMMARY : • Cost report summaries indicate the actual & forecast status of the project. • They generally commence with the preliminary estimate and end when the project is complete and when all claims, if any, are settled. • In a normal program, cost reports can be prepared from committed costs plus estimated costs to complete for the various contracts involved.

5.VALUE ENGINEERING STUDIES • These studies help in determining the most economical approach to detailed design. If best results are to be obtained, value engineering must involve a partnership where the professional construction manager, designer and owner all work together. • Application of construction cost knowledge during design and consideration of alternatives proposed by the tam can be of great benefit to the owner. • Value engineering status: A report showing value engineering savings approved to date by the owner can keep results of the program clearly in focus and can be of long term benefit to all parties on future projects. • Use of expansive cement in lieu of PCC based on alternate quotations for base slab for interior special floor slabs ,Use of asbestos based cement pipe in straight runs for domestic water mains and use of XHHW wire for electrical connections are some examples of value engineering studies. 6.FIELD COST CONTROLS • Overall cost controls can be developed and administered either at job site or in head office, depending upon a particular project. • Evaluation of plan changes, claims and other change order requirements can often be done better at the job site. • Whenever and wherever possible, the price for a modification should be settled before the work is commenced/ performed. • In case the schedule demands immediate performance, the contractor can be asked to proceed on a lumpsum charge based on time and materials and negotiated soon thereafter. • The most troublesome changes to adjudicate involving work modifications, that eliminate certain items and replace them with either more or less complicated items. Here, performance of work on a time and material basis is not possible until credit is negotiated for the work not performed. • An important aspect of field cost control is scheduling contractors to avoid interference, delays and other detrimental effects of one contractor‟s operation on others. • In a professional construction management programme, the owner through his manager is largely responsible for the coordination among the site contractors.

 Control schedules are defined and refined through preparation and revision of overall plan.  As project construction proceeds, it is evident that actual accomplishments must be compared with the overall plan if effective control is to be achieved.  Cost control systems integrated via common computerised data base have been successful in very large projects.  The control is achieved by 1) CPM schedule 2) Physical progress measurement & 3) Field schedules and progress controls  CPM is the foundation of the progress control system.  A bar chart schedule consistent with CPM, upon which superimposed S- curves shoe cumulative percent complete at the end of each month for both early & late start schedules.


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 The double S-curves form an envelope. If actual performance is within the envelope, project goals have a good chance of being accomplished on schedule.  If actual performance is below the late start schedule, the project will not normally be completed on schedule without a revised program.  Field effort in man hours is the criteria for weighing the various components in the chart. This is obtained from fair cost estimates.  Basing program upon estimated man hours has numerous advantages in an integrated cost schedule progress control system.  Man power forecasts can be developed and compared with actual man hours expended to accomplish various work in a project.  The productivity of the contractor is calculated on monthly basis.  Physical progress measurement: The physical percentage that is completed is calculated based on actual quantities completed during the period as against planned/estimated quantity.  This physical progress measurement is more efficiently achieved by way of computer than by manual computations.

 Field schedules i.e weekly meetings with all contractor representatives are a must. They provide the opportunity to review the current status of the program and to develop key dates for “move in” or “move out” and completion of critical items affecting several contractors.  Preparation of job site posting of detailed bar chart schedule, listing key requirements for each contractor can be helpful.  Reporting by the project manager of actual quantities completed ach month forms the very lifeline of overall progress control.  If an integrated system is being used, a computer can effectively take out much of the clerical effort even for small projects.

• Individual contractors on construction management may range from small to medium/general or sub-contractors who may bid other portions of work such as some of the interior finishes or other qualified speciality. Smaller companies may minimise formal reporting methods by utilising the owner or a coordinator who will oversee all projects using periodic job visits to manage & control the work. Other bigger companies may develop reporting methods which includes increased details about productivity, unit cost and scheduling information. Daily report shall be prepared showing the number of craftsmen, labourers , machinery, significant start & completions, problems/delays and other information as felt important by the contractor.

• • •

COST CONTROL BY CONTRACTOR • Overall cost control may or may not be integrated with the schedule control.if the contractor utilises man hours in his estimating, he an easily develop an integrated system to suit his requirements. • Preparation of regular cost reports.

SCHEDULE AND PROGRESS CONTROL BY CONTRACTOR • Bar charts can be prepared at the time of bid. Once the work commences, a comparative chart can be prepared between planned /actual progress at site. • Method of measurements/progress can be mutually agreed by the contractor and project manager. • This can be used as a reference for progress payments . • • If the general contractor wants to perform the concrete/allied work with his own forces, progress reports based on unit cost, and manpower would be prepared. Schedule and progress control for general contractor are similar to project manager‟s programme. CONCLUSION The control system is only a tool which can assist the project manager in bringing the project in a completed shape. In itself it cannot manage, it cannot tell what must be done to improve unsatisfactory performance. The control system can never replace the judgement of competent head office and project managers. Project managers must be knowledgeable enough to use the control system as a valuable tool , but they must also sufficient experience and skill to know when the tool becomes dull.

• • •

     Determining the consultants role in the project Types of consultants Role of domestic consultant Selection and appointment of consultant Terms of reference( containing precise statement of objectives of assignment, scope & timing of required services, inputs to be provided by the owner, particulars of reports/drawings required of the consultant)  Coordination procedure  Professional liability.  Actual use of consultant. ROLE OF CONSULTANTS • A consultant can be used either in advisory role or in a participatory role. • In advisory role, after accomplishing the tasks of the study phase, the consultant will continue as an advisor without involving himself in implementation. 1. ADVISORY ROLE  Pre-investment investigation  Preparation of PFR,TEFR & DPR  Design & Drafting  Preparation of project specifications and tender documents  Giving advice on problems referred.

2. PARTICIPATORY ROLE  In the participatory role, besides being a knowledge resource, he will be a planner, an organiser, an effective coordinator, an advisor in decision making, a counsellor in overcoming the usual resistance to change and a multidisciplinary management guide committed to client‟s success and profitability.  The larger role in implementation will include full involvement in defining the project scope, organising the project team, listing/selecting/ assisting in the procurement of critical equipment, preparation of bulk material takeoff sheets and on-site delivery schedules, scheduling of all activities in general, selection of contractors & vendors, contract documentation, quality assurance, site management, monitoring and trouble-shooting , commissioning of plant and other services as determined and included in Terms of reference (TOR). TYPES OF CONSULTANTS • Technical experts • Functional experts • Multi-disciplinary experts. 1.TECHNICAL EXPERTS • They are technical specialists / experts in individual disciplines like civil/mechanical designs, foundation engg ,structural engg, environmental engg etc. 2.FUNCTIONAL EXPERTS • They are experts in individual /specialised works such as lifts, HVAC, STP etc. 3.MULTIDISCIPLINARY EXPERTS  The consultant may operate in partnership with other professionals having similar attributes in different forms of business organisation.  These experts will be of high intellectual ability with sound professional knowledge and flair for latest management techniques and information technology and is committed to high professional standards.  In an effective project organisational set up, the representatives of the consultant will be members of the project team.  He will be managing his practice through a team of specialists and experts from diverse disciplines with qualifications & experience relevant to the assignment he accepts, building competence by training them and perfecting them systematically with personal attributes and making them wellversed in latest technology and management techniques.  For achieving success, the consultants and his team leaders must be able to persuade and motivate client‟s line managers into larger participation in the project, should be able to clear the usual mistrust, freeze project specifications, introduce simple working forms & procedures , show quickly visible performance success, display high image and leadership qualities, should employ latest management tools best suited to the environment and should be willing to forego small short term gains for long term ones. ROLE OF DOMESTIC CONSULTANT • Central govt. guidelines require that a foreign consultant should deliver his services in India through a domestic consultant. • IDBI has the register of Indian consultants. • The worlds bank and other institutions also encourage and develop domestic consultants. • The bank encourages borrowers to appoint qualified and capable domestic consultants for assistance in funded projects.

Wherever necessary, the domestic consultant shall work in association with foreign consultants, with highly technological aspects being entrusted to foreign party while the management aspects and detailing parts of technical aspects being handed to domestic party. SELECTION PROCESS • Determination of consultants role. • Determination of prequalification criteria. • Estimation of expendable consultancy cost. • Short listing or pre-qualification of consultants • Determination of final selection criteria • Selection procedure- Work proposals, bio-data and consulting experience of the firm and the members to be employed for the job. • Evaluation of the capabilities on the basis of work proposals, data and bids received. • Selection of one or more consultants for the whole project or for different work packages. • Negotiations on terms and conditions. Selection criteria should also include (a) General & technical qualifications of the personnel to be employed on the project (b) Suitability of their experience to the specific requirements of the tasks (c) ability to converse fluently in local language. (d) Knowledge of the cultural background of the project country or region (e) Experience related to general social environment of the place (f) The probable impact of the consultancy assignment on the end product of the project.


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