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(Old Testament)........................................................................................................2 Genesis 1:26-31 (The creation of h manit! in the ima"e of God)..............................................2 Genesis 2:1#-3:2$ (The creation of woman and the first sin)......................................................2 Genesis 6:1-% (&n"els slee' aro nd with h man women( God "ets mad)..................................$ Genesis 16 (Ha"ar the s rro"ate mother)....................................................................................# Genesis 1) (&ttem'ted "an"-ra'e( s ccessf l incest).................................................................# Genesis 21:1-21 (Ha"ar sent awa! for "ood)..............................................................................% *+od s 1#:2,-21 (The son" of -iriam. sister of -oses and &aron)........................................../ 0 mbers 12 (-iriam ' nished for trash-tal1in" -oses)............................................................/ 2e3itic s 1/ (2aws abo t se+ al defilement)..............................................................................) 4e teronom! 22:13-3, (2aws abo t se+. marria"e. and ra'e)..................................................1, 5osh a 2 (6ahab the 'rostit te sa3es the 7sraelite s'ies)...........................................................11 5osh a 6:22-2# (8ollow- ' on 6ahab).......................................................................................12 5 d"es $ (4eborah. a woman 9: d"e; of 7srael)........................................................................13 5 d"es 11:2)-3) (5e'hthah<s rash 3ow).....................................................................................1$ 5 d"es 1) (¬her woman offered ' for "an"-ra'e)..............................................................1# =ro3erbs 1:2,-2:22 (2ad! >isdom)..........................................................................................16 *?e1iel 23 (The 'arable of two 'romisc o s women)..............................................................1/ Gos'els...........................................................................................................................................2, -atthew 1:1-16 (The "enealo"! of 5es s. incl din" fo r Gentile women)..............................2, -atthew 1#:21-2/ (The @anaanite woman)..............................................................................21 -atthew 26:26-2) (7nstit tion of the 2ord<s s ''er)................................................................22 -atthew 2%:##-2/:1, (>omen sta! with 5es s d rin" cr cifi+ion. witness res rrection).......22 -ar1 3:31-3# (5es s<s tr e famil!)............................................................................................23 -ar1 1$:3-) (& woman anoints 5es s)......................................................................................23 -ar1 16:1-/ (The res rrected 5es s a''ears to the women).....................................................2$ 2 1e 1:26-#6 (The stor! of the Air"in -ar!)............................................................................2$ 2 1e %:26-/:3 (The woman anoints 5es s( women then follow him)........................................2# 5ohn $:#-$2 (The Bamaritan woman).........................................................................................26 5ohn /:2-11 (The woman ca "ht in ad lter!)............................................................................2% 5ohn 2,:1-1/ (5es s a''ears first to -ar! -a"dalene).............................................................2/ Bt. =a l (a thentic).........................................................................................................................2/ Galatians 3:23-2/ (0o more male and female)..........................................................................2) Galatians $:21-31 (=a l<s inter'retation of the Ha"ar stor!).....................................................2) 1 @orinthians 11:2-16 (Gender and hairst!le)...........................................................................3, 1 @orinthians 1$:33b-3% (>omen be silent)..............................................................................3, Bt. =a l ('se don!mo s) C Other 0ew Testament Te+ts.............................................................3, @olossians 3:1/-2# (The @hristian ho sehold)..........................................................................3, *'hesians #:21-33 (The @hristian ho sehold a"ain).................................................................31 1 Timoth! 2:/-1# (>omen be silent and don<t dress li1e sl ts)................................................31 1 Timoth! #:3-16 (How to mana"e the widows of the ch rch).................................................32 Tit s 2:3-# (How to handle women. bro1en down b! a"e).......................................................32 Hebrews 11:31 (The one woman in a catalo" e of heroes of faith)..........................................32 6e3elation 1%:1-6 (The >hore of Bab!lon)..............................................................................33
Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
Genesis 1:26-31 (The creation of humanit in the ima!e of God) In what is known as the first creation account, God creates the world piece by piece over the course of six days. On the sixth day, he creates land animals and then turns to humankind. e is said to create humankind in the !image of God," which will become one of the most important concepts of #hristian theology. One of the ma$or points of debate among theologians is whether !male and female" counts as part of the !image of God." 26 Then God said. D2et s ma1e h man1ind in o r ima"e. accordin" to o r li1eness( and let them ha3e dominion o3er the fish of the sea. and o3er the birds of the air. and o3er the cattle. and o3er all the wild animals of the earth. and o3er e3er! cree'in" thin" that cree's 'on the earth.< 2% So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. 2/ God blessed them. and God said to them. DBe fr itf l and m lti'l!. and fill the earth and s bd e it( and ha3e dominion o3er the fish of the sea and o3er the birds of the air and o3er e3er! li3in" thin" that mo3es 'on the earth.< 2)God said. DBee. 7 ha3e "i3en !o e3er! 'lant !ieldin" seed that is 'on the face of all the earth. and e3er! tree with seed in its fr it( !o shall ha3e them for food. 3,&nd to e3er! beast of the earth. and to e3er! bird of the air. and to e3er!thin" that cree's on the earth. e3er!thin" that has the breath of life. 7 ha3e "i3en e3er! "reen 'lant for food.< &nd it was so. 31God saw e3er!thin" that he had made. and indeed. it was 3er! "ood. &nd there was e3enin" and there was mornin". the si+th da!. Genesis 2:1"-3:2# (The creation of woman and the first sin) %he second creation story has God creating the male human first, only arriving at the idea of a female partner through trial and error. &nfortunately, the woman is beguiled by a snake and breaks God's command, leading to humanity's expulsion from paradise. ch. 2 1# The 2ord God too1 the man and ' t him in the "arden of *den to till it and 1ee' it. 16&nd the 2ord God commanded the man. DEo ma! freel! eat of e3er! tree of the "arden( 1%b t of the tree of the 1nowled"e of "ood and e3il !o shall not eat. for in the da! that !o eat of it !o shall die.< 1/ Then the 2ord God said. D7t is not "ood that the man sho ld be alone( 7 will ma1e him a hel'er as his 'artner.< 1)Bo o t of the "ro nd the 2ord God formed e3er! animal of the field and e3er! bird of the air. and bro "ht them to the man to see what he wo ld call them( and whate3er the man called each li3in" creat re. that was its name. 2,The man "a3e names to all cattle. and to the birds of the air. and to e3er! animal of the field( b t for the man there was not fo nd a hel'er as his 'artner. 21Bo the 2ord God ca sed a dee' slee' to fall 'on the man. and he sle't( then he too1 one of his ribs and closed ' its 'lace with flesh. 22&nd the rib that the 2ord God had ta1en
from the man he made into a woman and bro "ht her to the man. 23Then the man said. DThis at last is bone of m! bones and flesh of m! flesh( this one shall be called >oman. for o t of -an this one was ta1en.< 2$ Therefore a man lea3es his father and his mother and clin"s to his wife. and the! become one flesh. 2#&nd the man and his wife were both na1ed. and were not ashamed. ch. 3 10ow the ser'ent was more craft! than an! other wild animal that the 2ord God had made. He said to the woman. D4id God sa!. 9Eo shall not eat from an! tree in the "arden;F< 2The woman said to the ser'ent. D>e ma! eat of the fr it of the trees in the "arden( 3b t God said. 9Eo shall not eat of the fr it of the tree that is in the middle of the "arden. nor shall !o to ch it. or !o shall die.; < $B t the ser'ent said to the woman. DEo will not die( #for God 1nows that when !o eat of it !o r e!es will be o'ened. and !o will be li1e God. 1nowin" "ood and e3il.< 6Bo when the woman saw that the tree was "ood for food. and that it was a deli"ht to the e!es. and that the tree was to be desired to ma1e one wise. she too1 of its fr it and ate( and she also "a3e some to her h sband. who was with her. and he ate. %Then the e!es of both were o'ened. and the! 1new that the! were na1ed( and the! sewed fi" lea3es to"ether and made loincloths for themsel3es. / The! heard the so nd of the 2ord God wal1in" in the "arden at the time of the e3enin" bree?e. and the man and his wife hid themsel3es from the 'resence of the 2ord God amon" the trees of the "arden. )B t the 2ord God called to the man. and said to him. D>here are !o F< 1,He said. D7 heard the so nd of !o in the "arden. and 7 was afraid. beca se 7 was na1ed( and 7 hid m!self.< 11 He said. D>ho told !o that !o were na1edF Ha3e !o eaten from the tree of which 7 commanded !o not to eatF< 12The man said. DThe woman whom !o "a3e to be with me. she "a3e me fr it from the tree. and 7 ate.< 13Then the 2ord God said to the woman. D>hat is this that !o ha3e doneF< The woman said. DThe ser'ent tric1ed me. and 7 ate.< 1$The 2ord God said to the ser'ent. DBeca se !o ha3e done this. c rsed are !o amon" all animals and amon" all wild creat res( 'on !o r bell! !o shall "o. and d st !o shall eat all the da!s of !o r life. 1# 7 will ' t enmit! between !o and the woman. and between !o r offs'rin" and hers( he will stri1e !o r head. and !o will stri1e his heel.< 16 To the woman he said. D7 will "reatl! increase !o r 'an"s in childbearin"( in 'ain !o shall brin" forth children. !et !o r desire shall be for !o r h sband. and he shall r le o3er !o .< 1% &nd to the man he said.
DBeca se !o ha3e listened to the 3oice of !o r wife. and ha3e eaten of the tree abo t which 7 commanded !o . 9Eo shall not eat of it;. c rsed is the "ro nd beca se of !o ( in toil !o shall eat of it all the da!s of !o r life( 1/ thorns and thistles it shall brin" forth for !o ( and !o shall eat the 'lants of the field. 1) B! the sweat of !o r face !o shall eat bread ntil !o ret rn to the "ro nd. for o t of it !o were ta1en( !o are d st. and to d st !o shall ret rn.< 2, The man named his wife *3e. beca se she was the mother of all who li3e. 21&nd the 2ord God made "arments of s1ins for the man and for his wife. and clothed them. 22 Then the 2ord God said. DBee. the man has become li1e one of s. 1nowin" "ood and e3il( and now. he mi"ht reach o t his hand and ta1e also from the tree of life. and eat. and li3e for e3er<G 23therefore the 2ord God sent him forth from the "arden of *den. to till the "ro nd from which he was ta1en. 2$He dro3e o t the man( and at the east of the "arden of *den he 'laced the cher bim. and a sword flamin" and t rnin" to " ard the wa! to the tree of life. Genesis 6:1-$ (%n!els slee& around with human women' God !ets mad) %his passage is often ignored in retellings of the story of (oah and the flood, perhaps because it's so strange. #learly the interbreeding between angels )sons of God* and humans is a problem for God, and the root problem seems to be the attractiveness of human women )either there are no female angels or else the female angels found human men unappealing, because such unions are not mentioned*. 1>hen 'eo'le be"an to m lti'l! on the face of the "ro nd. and da "hters were born to them. 2 the sons of God H s all! considered to be an"elsI saw that the! were fair( and the! too1 wi3es for themsel3es of all that the! chose. 3Then the 2ord said. D-! s'irit shall not abide in mortals for e3er. for the! are flesh( their da!s shall be one h ndred and twent! !ears.< $The 0e'hilim H'res mabl! half-breed h manJan"elsI were on the earth in those da!sGand also afterwardsG when the sons of God went in to the da "hters of h mans. who bore children to them. These were the heroes that were of old. warriors of renown. # The 2ord saw that the wic1edness of h man1ind was "reat in the earth. and that e3er! inclination of the tho "hts of their hearts was onl! e3il contin all!. 6&nd the 2ord was sorr! that he had made h man1ind on the earth. and it "rie3ed him to his heart. %Bo the 2ord said. D7 will blot o t from the earth the h man bein"s 7 ha3e createdG'eo'le to"ether with animals and cree'in" thin"s and birds of the air. for 7 am sorr! that 7 ha3e made them.<
Genesis 16 (Ha!ar the surro!ate mother) +y this point, God had promised Abraham a son who would make him the father of many nations several times, but nothing seemed to have happened yet. ,ince both Abraham and his wife were getting old, they decided to take matters into their own hands by using the slave woman agar as a surrogate mother. %he story of agar plays a central role in one of the key works of womanist theology, -elores .illiams' Bisters in the >ilderness. 10ow Barai. &bram<s wife. bore him no children. Bhe had an *"!'tian sla3e-"irl whose name was Ha"ar. 2and Barai said to &bram. DEo see that the 2ord has 're3ented me from bearin" children( "o in to m! sla3e-"irl( it ma! be that 7 shall obtain children b! her.< &nd &bram listened to the 3oice of Barai. 3Bo. after &bram had li3ed for ten !ears in the land of @anaan. Barai. &bram<s wife. too1 Ha"ar the *"!'tian. her sla3e-"irl. and "a3e her to her h sband &bram as a wife. $He went in to Ha"ar. and she concei3ed( and when she saw that she had concei3ed. she loo1ed with contem't on her mistress. #Then Barai said to &bram. D-a! the wron" done to me be on !o K 7 "a3e m! sla3e-"irl to !o r embrace. and when she saw that she had concei3ed. she loo1ed on me with contem't. -a! the 2ord : d"e between !o and meK< 6B t &bram said to Barai. DEo r sla3e-"irl is in !o r 'ower( do to her as !o 'lease.< Then Barai dealt harshl! with her. and she ran awa! from her. % The an"el of the 2ord fo nd her b! a s'rin" of water in the wilderness. the s'rin" on the wa! to Bh r. /&nd he said. DHa"ar. sla3e-"irl of Barai. where ha3e !o come from and where are !o "oin"F< Bhe said. D7 am r nnin" awa! from m! mistress Barai.< )The an"el of the 2ord said to her. D6et rn to !o r mistress. and s bmit to her.< 1,The an"el of the 2ord also said to her. D7 will so "reatl! m lti'l! !o r offs'rin" that the! cannot be co nted for m ltit de.< 11&nd the an"el of the 2ord said to her. D0ow !o ha3e concei3ed and shall bear a son( !o shall call him 7shmael. for the 2ord has "i3en heed to !o r affliction. 12 He shall be a wild ass of a man. with his hand a"ainst e3er!one. and e3er!one<s hand a"ainst him( and he shall li3e at odds with all his 1in.< 13 Bo she named the 2ord who s'o1e to her. DEo are *l-roi<( for she said. DHa3e 7 reall! seen God and remained ali3e after seein" himF< 1$Therefore the well was called Beer-lahai-roi( it lies between Ladesh and Bered. 1# Ha"ar bore &bram a son( and &bram named his son. whom Ha"ar bore. 7shmael. 16&bram was ei"ht!-si+ !ears old when Ha"ar bore him 7shmael. Genesis 1( (%ttem&ted !an!-ra&e' successful incest) After reiterating his promise to give Abraham a son, God )represented by three angels* shares his plans to wipe out ,odom and Gomorrah for their excessive pride and inhospitality. %hrough a lengthy process of negotiation, Abraham is able to convince God to spare the city if ten righteous men can be found. %wo of the three angels go to ,odom to do some reconnaissance
work, and the ,odomites' inhospitality is on graphic display when they demand that /ot, Abraham's cousin, hand over the angels so that they may !know" them )in the +iblical sense*. /ot offers up his virgin daughters in place of the angels, a gesture that is repeated with variations in the book of 0udges. As a kind of postscript to the story, /ot's daughters seduce him in order to make sure they will have progeny. 1The two an"els came to Bodom in the e3enin". and 2ot was sittin" in the "atewa! of Bodom. >hen 2ot saw them. he rose to meet them. and bowed down with his face to the "ro nd. 2He said. D=lease. m! lords. t rn aside to !o r ser3ant<s ho se and s'end the ni"ht. and wash !o r feet( then !o can rise earl! and "o on !o r wa!.< The! said. D0o( we will s'end the ni"ht in the sM are.< 3B t he r"ed them stron"l!( so the! t rned aside to him and entered his ho se( and he made them a feast. and ba1ed nlea3ened bread. and the! ate. $B t before the! la! down. the men of the cit!. the men of Bodom. both !o n" and old. all the 'eo'le to the last man. s rro nded the ho se( #and the! called to 2ot. D>here are the men who came to !o toni"htF Brin" them o t to s. so that we ma! 1now them.< 62ot went o t of the door to the men. sh t the door after him. %and said. D7 be" !o . m! brothers. do not act so wic1edl!. /2oo1. 7 ha3e two da "hters who ha3e not 1nown a man( let me brin" them o t to !o . and do to them as !o 'lease( onl! do nothin" to these men. for the! ha3e come nder the shelter of m! roof.< )B t the! re'lied. DBtand bac1K< &nd the! said. DThis fellow came here as an alien. and he wo ld 'la! the : d"eK 0ow we will deal worse with !o than with them.< Then the! 'ressed hard a"ainst the man 2ot. and came near the door to brea1 it down. 1,B t the men inside reached o t their hands and bro "ht 2ot into the ho se with them. and sh t the door. 11&nd the! str c1 with blindness the men who were at the door of the ho se. both small and "reat. so that the! were nable to find the door. 12 Then the men said to 2ot. DHa3e !o an!one else hereF Bons-in-law. sons. da "hters. or an!one !o ha3e in the cit!Gbrin" them o t of the 'lace. 138or we are abo t to destro! this 'lace. beca se the o tcr! a"ainst its 'eo'le has become "reat before the 2ord. and the 2ord has sent s to destro! it.< 1$Bo 2ot went o t and said to his sons-in-law. who were to marr! his da "hters. DN'. "et o t of this 'lace( for the 2ord is abo t to destro! the cit!.< B t he seemed to his sons-in-law to be :estin". 1# >hen mornin" dawned. the an"els r"ed 2ot. sa!in". DGet '. ta1e !o r wife and !o r two da "hters who are here. or else !o will be cons med in the ' nishment of the cit!.< 16B t he lin"ered( so the men sei?ed him and his wife and his two da "hters b! the hand. the 2ord bein" mercif l to him. and the! bro "ht him o t and left him o tside the cit!. 1%>hen the! had bro "ht them o tside. the! said. D8lee for !o r life( do not loo1 bac1 or sto' an!where in the =lain( flee to the hills. or else !o will be cons med.< 1/&nd 2ot said to them. DOh. no. m! lords( 1)!o r ser3ant has fo nd fa3or with !o . and !o ha3e shown me "reat 1indness in sa3in" m! life( b t 7 cannot flee to the hills. for fear the disaster will o3erta1e me and 7 die. 2,2oo1. that cit! is near eno "h to flee to. and it is a little one. 2et me esca'e thereGis it not a little oneFGand m! life will be sa3edK< 21He said to him. DAer! well. 7 "rant !o this fa3or too. and will not o3erthrow the cit! of which !o ha3e s'o1en. 22H rr!. esca'e there. for 7 can do nothin" ntil !o arri3e there.< Therefore the cit! was called Ooar. 23The s n had risen on the earth when 2ot came to Ooar.
2$ Then the 2ord rained on Bodom and Gomorrah s l'h r and fire from the 2ord o t of hea3en( 2# and he o3erthrew those cities. and all the =lain. and all the inhabitants of the cities. and what "rew on the "ro nd. 26B t 2ot<s wife. behind him. loo1ed bac1. and she became a 'illar of salt. 2% &braham went earl! in the mornin" to the 'lace where he had stood before the 2ord( 2/and he loo1ed down towards Bodom and Gomorrah and towards all the land of the =lain. and saw the smo1e of the land "oin" ' li1e the smo1e of a f rnace. 2) Bo it was that. when God destro!ed the cities of the =lain. God remembered &braham. and sent 2ot o t of the midst of the o3erthrow. when he o3erthrew the cities in which 2ot had settled. 3, 0ow 2ot went ' o t of Ooar and settled in the hills with his two da "hters. for he was afraid to sta! in Ooar( so he li3ed in a ca3e with his two da "hters. 31&nd the firstborn said to the !o n"er. DO r father is old. and there is not a man on earth to come in to s after the manner of all the world. 32@ome. let s ma1e o r father drin1 wine. and we will lie with him. so that we ma! 'reser3e offs'rin" thro "h o r father.< 33Bo the! made their father drin1 wine that ni"ht( and the firstborn went in. and la! with her father( he did not 1now when she la! down or when she rose. 3$On the ne+t da!. the firstborn said to the !o n"er. D2oo1. 7 la! last ni"ht with m! father( let s ma1e him drin1 wine toni"ht also( then !o "o in and lie with him. so that we ma! 'reser3e offs'rin" thro "h o r father.< 3#Bo the! made their father drin1 wine that ni"ht also( and the !o n"er rose. and la! with him( and he did not 1now when she la! down or when she rose. 36 Th s both the da "hters of 2ot became 're"nant b! their father. 3%The firstborn bore a son. and named him -oab( he is the ancestor of the -oabites to this da!. 3/The !o n"er also bore a son and named him Ben-ammi( he is the ancestor of the &mmonites to this da!. Genesis 21:1-21 (Ha!ar sent awa for !ood) .hen we last saw agar, she and her son had been instructed to return to Abraham's camp. .hen ,arah has a son of her own, however, she will not put up with the slave woman's son teasing him and orders that both be sent away1 Abraham complies. 1The 2ord dealt with Barah as he had said. and the 2ord did for Barah as he had 'romised. 2Barah concei3ed and bore &braham a son in his old a"e. at the time of which God had s'o1en to him. 3 &braham "a3e the name 7saac to his son whom Barah bore him. $&nd &braham circ mcised his son 7saac when he was ei"ht da!s old. as God had commanded him. #&braham was a h ndred !ears old when his son 7saac was born to him. 60ow Barah said. DGod has bro "ht la "hter for me( e3er!one who hears will la "h with me.< %&nd she said. D>ho wo ld e3er ha3e said to &braham that Barah wo ld n rse childrenF Eet 7 ha3e borne him a son in his old a"e.< / The child "rew. and was weaned( and &braham made a "reat feast on the da! that 7saac was weaned. )B t Barah saw the son of Ha"ar the *"!'tian. whom she had borne to &braham. 'la!in" with her son 7saac. 1,Bo she said to &braham. D@ast o t this sla3e woman with her son( for the son of this sla3e woman shall not inherit alon" with m! son 7saac.< 11The matter was 3er! distressin" to &braham on acco nt of his son. 12B t God said to &braham. D4o not be distressed beca se of the bo! and beca se of !o r sla3e woman( whate3er Barah sa!s to !o . do as she tells !o . for it is thro "h 7saac that offs'rin" shall be named after !o . 13&s for the son of the sla3e
woman. 7 will ma1e a nation of him also. beca se he is !o r offs'rin".< 1$Bo &braham rose earl! in the mornin". and too1 bread and a s1in of water. and "a3e it to Ha"ar. ' ttin" it on her sho lder. alon" with the child. and sent her awa!. &nd she de'arted. and wandered abo t in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. 1# >hen the water in the s1in was "one. she cast the child nder one of the b shes. 16Then she went and sat down o''osite him a "ood wa! off. abo t the distance of a bowshot( for she said. D4o not let me loo1 on the death of the child.< &nd as she sat o''osite him. she lifted ' her 3oice and we't. 1%&nd God heard the 3oice of the bo!( and the an"el of God called to Ha"ar from hea3en. and said to her. D>hat tro bles !o . Ha"arF 4o not be afraid( for God has heard the 3oice of the bo! where he is. 1/@ome. lift ' the bo! and hold him fast with !o r hand. for 7 will ma1e a "reat nation of him.< 1)Then God o'ened her e!es. and she saw a well of water. Bhe went. and filled the s1in with water. and "a3e the bo! a drin1. 2, God was with the bo!. and he "rew '( he li3ed in the wilderness. and became an e+'ert with the bow. 21He li3ed in the wilderness of =aran( and his mother "ot a wife for him from the land of *"!'t. )*odus 1":2+-21 (The son! of ,iriam- sister of ,oses and %aron) After the famous crossing of the 2ed ,ea, in which the army of 3haraoh is drowned once 4oses stops parting the waters, the Israelites celebrated with a long song, which is followed by this brief number from 4oses's sister, 4iriam. Along with other female biblical figures, a later !4iriam" ) ebrew for 4ary*, the mother of 0esus, will offer up a similar, though much longer, song. Then the 'ro'het -iriam. &aron<s sister. too1 a tambo rine in her hand( and all the women went o t after her with tambo rines and with dancin". &nd -iriam san" to them: DBin" to the 2ord. for he has tri m'hed "lorio sl!( horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.< .umbers 12 (,iriam &unished for trash-tal/in! ,oses) A few decades of wandering in the wilderness, however, strains relations among 4oses and his siblings Aaron and 4iriam, leading the latter two to start critici5ing 4oses for having a foreign wife and to wonder aloud whether 4oses should be the sole authority for Israel. God becomes very angry at their presumption and punishes 4iriam with leprosy1 curiously, Aaron is left untouched. <imately, 4iriam dies before reaching the promised land6but so do 4oses and Aaron. 1>hile the! were at Ha?eroth. -iriam and &aron s'o1e a"ainst -oses beca se of the @ shite woman whom he had married (for he had indeed married a @ shite woman)( 2and the! said. DHas the 2ord s'o1en onl! thro "h -osesF Has he not s'o1en thro "h s alsoF< &nd the 2ord heard it. 30ow the man -oses was 3er! h mble. more so than an!one else on the face of the earth. $ B ddenl! the 2ord said to -oses. &aron. and -iriam. D@ome o t. !o three. to the tent of meetin".< Bo the three of them came o t. #Then the 2ord came down in a 'illar of clo d. and
stood at the entrance of the tent. and called &aron and -iriam( and the! both came forward. 6 &nd he said. DHear m! words: >hen there are 'ro'hets amon" !o . 7 the 2ord ma1e m!self 1nown to them in 3isions( 7 s'ea1 to them in dreams. % 0ot so with m! ser3ant -oses( he is entr sted with all m! ho se. / >ith him 7 s'ea1 face to faceGclearl!. not in riddles( and he beholds the form of the 2ord. >h! then were !o not afraid to s'ea1 a"ainst m! ser3ant -osesF< )&nd the an"er of the 2ord was 1indled a"ainst them. and he de'arted. 1, >hen the clo d went awa! from o3er the tent. -iriam had become le'ro s. as white as snow. &nd &aron t rned towards -iriam and saw that she was le'ro s. 11Then &aron said to -oses. DOh. m! lord. do not ' nish s for a sin that we ha3e so foolishl! committed. 124o not let her be li1e one stillborn. whose flesh is half cons med when it comes o t of its mother<s womb.< 13&nd -oses cried to the 2ord. DO God. 'lease heal her.< 1$B t the 2ord said to -oses. D7f her father had b t s'at in her face. wo ld she not bear her shame for se3en da!sF 2et her be sh t o t of the cam' for se3en da!s. and after that she ma! be bro "ht in a"ain.< 1#Bo -iriam was sh t o t of the cam' for se3en da!s( and the 'eo'le did not set o t on the march ntil -iriam had been bro "ht in a"ain. 16&fter that the 'eo'le set o t from Ha?eroth. and cam'ed in the wilderness of =aran. 0e1iticus 12 (0aws about se*ual defilement) %hese sexual regulations are strange to modern readers in many ways6but the overarching point to notice is that all the commands, even those touching on women's behavior, are directed toward men. 1The 2ord s'o1e to -oses. sa!in": 2 B'ea1 to the 'eo'le of 7srael and sa! to them: 7 am the 2ord !o r God. 3Eo shall not do as the! do in the land of *"!'t. where !o li3ed. and !o shall not do as the! do in the land of @anaan. to which 7 am brin"in" !o . Eo shall not follow their stat tes. $-! ordinances !o shall obser3e and m! stat tes !o shall 1ee'. followin" them: 7 am the 2ord !o r God. #Eo shall 1ee' m! stat tes and m! ordinances( b! doin" so one shall li3e: 7 am the 2ord. 6 0one of !o shall a''roach an!one near of 1in to nco3er na1edness: 7 am the 2ord. %Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r father. which is the na1edness of !o r mother( she is !o r mother. !o shall not nco3er her na1edness. /Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r father<s wife( it is the na1edness of !o r father. )Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r sister. !o r father<s da "hter or !o r mother<s da "hter. whether born at home or born abroad. 1, Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r son<s da "hter or of !o r da "hter<s da "hter. for their na1edness is !o r own na1edness. 11Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r father<s wife<s da "hter. be"otten b! !o r father. since she is !o r sister. 12Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r father<s sister( she is !o r father<s flesh. 13Eo shall not nco3er the
na1edness of !o r mother<s sister. for she is !o r mother<s flesh. 1$Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r father<s brother. that is. !o shall not a''roach his wife( she is !o r a nt. 1# Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r da "hter-in-law: she is !o r son<s wife( !o shall not nco3er her na1edness. 16Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of !o r brother<s wife( it is !o r brother<s na1edness. 1%Eo shall not nco3er the na1edness of a woman and her da "hter. and !o shall not ta1e her son<s da "hter or her da "hter<s da "hter to nco3er her na1edness( the! are !o r flesh( it is de'ra3it!. 1/&nd !o shall not ta1e a woman as a ri3al to her sister. nco3erin" her na1edness while her sister is still ali3e. 1) Eo shall not a''roach a woman to nco3er her na1edness while she is in her menstr al ncleanness. 2,Eo shall not ha3e se+ al relations with !o r 1insman<s wife. and defile !o rself with her. 21Eo shall not "i3e an! of !o r offs'rin" to sacrifice them to -olech. and so 'rofane the name of !o r God: 7 am the 2ord. 22Eo shall not lie with a male as with a woman( it is an abomination. 23Eo shall not ha3e se+ al relations with an! animal and defile !o rself with it. nor shall an! woman "i3e herself to an animal to ha3e se+ al relations with it: it is 'er3ersion. 2$ 4o not defile !o rsel3es in an! of these wa!s. for b! all these 'ractices the nations 7 am castin" o t before !o ha3e defiled themsel3es. 2#Th s the land became defiled( and 7 ' nished it for its iniM it!. and the land 3omited o t its inhabitants. 26B t !o shall 1ee' m! stat tes and m! ordinances and commit none of these abominations. either the citi?en or the alien who resides amon" !o 2%(for the inhabitants of the land. who were before !o . committed all of these abominations. and the land became defiled)( 2/otherwise the land will 3omit !o o t for defilin" it. as it 3omited o t the nation that was before !o . 2)8or whoe3er commits an! of these abominations shall be c t off from their 'eo'le. 3,Bo 1ee' m! char"e not to commit an! of these abominations that were done before !o . and not to defile !o rsel3es b! them: 7 am the 2ord !o r God. 3euteronom 22:13-3+ (0aws about se*- marria!e- and ra&e) %hese laws provide a vivid reminder that women were treated as property in the early biblical period6first as property of the father, then the husband. If something happened to disrupt this pattern, restitution had to be made, but not the kind we might expect. 13 B ''ose a man marries a woman. b t after "oin" in to her. he disli1es her 1$and ma1es ' char"es a"ainst her. slanderin" her b! sa!in". D7 married this woman( b t when 7 la! with her. 7 did not find e3idence of her 3ir"init!.< 1#The father of the !o n" woman and her mother shall then s bmit the e3idence of the !o n" woman<s 3ir"init! to the elders of the cit! at the "ate. 16 The father of the !o n" woman shall sa! to the elders: D7 "a3e m! da "hter in marria"e to this man b t he disli1es her( 1%now he has made ' char"es a"ainst her. sa!in". 97 did not find e3idence of !o r da "hter<s 3ir"init!.; B t here is the e3idence of m! da "hter<s 3ir"init!.< Then the! shall s'read o t the cloth before the elders of the town. 1/The elders of that town shall ta1e the man and ' nish him( 1)the! shall fine him one h ndred she1els of sil3er (which the! shall "i3e to the !o n" woman<s father) beca se he has slandered a 3ir"in of 7srael. Bhe shall remain his wife( he shall not be 'ermitted to di3orce her as lon" as he li3es.
2, 7f. howe3er. this char"e is tr e. that e3idence of the !o n" woman<s 3ir"init! was not fo nd. 21 then the! shall brin" the !o n" woman o t to the entrance of her father<s ho se and the men of her town shall stone her to death. beca se she committed a dis"racef l act in 7srael b! 'rostit tin" herself in her father<s ho se. Bo !o shall ' r"e the e3il from !o r midst. 22 7f a man is ca "ht l!in" with the wife of another man. both of them shall die. the man who la! with the woman as well as the woman. Bo !o shall ' r"e the e3il from 7srael. 23 7f there is a !o n" woman. a 3ir"in alread! en"a"ed to be married. and a man meets her in the town and lies with her. 2$!o shall brin" both of them to the "ate of that town and stone them to death. the !o n" woman beca se she did not cr! for hel' in the town and the man beca se he 3iolated his nei"hbor<s wife. Bo !o shall ' r"e the e3il from !o r midst. 2# B t if the man meets the en"a"ed woman in the o'en co ntr!. and the man sei?es her and lies with her. then onl! the man who la! with her shall die. 26Eo shall do nothin" to the !o n" woman( the !o n" woman has not committed an offence ' nishable b! death. beca se this case is li1e that of someone who attac1s and m rders a nei"hbor. 2%Bince he fo nd her in the o'en co ntr!. the en"a"ed woman ma! ha3e cried for hel'. b t there was no one to resc e her. 2/ 7f a man meets a 3ir"in who is not en"a"ed. and sei?es her and lies with her. and the! are ca "ht in the act. 2)the man who la! with her shall "i3e fift! she1els of sil3er to the !o n" woman<s father. and she shall become his wife. Beca se he 3iolated her he shall not be 'ermitted to di3orce her as lon" as he li3es. 3, & man shall not marr! his father<s wife. thereb! 3iolatin" his father<s ri"hts. 4oshua 2 (5ahab the &rostitute sa1es the 6sraelite s&ies) +efore starting the invasion of the 3romised /and, the Israelites' leader, 0oshua, sends spies to do some recon. %hey find themselves in trouble and take refuge in the home of 2ahab, a prostitute, who is promised her own safety in return. 1Then 5osh a son of 0 n sent two men secretl! from Bhittim as s'ies. sa!in". DGo. 3iew the land. es'eciall! 5ericho.< Bo the! went. and entered the ho se of a 'rostit te whose name was 6ahab. and s'ent the ni"ht there. 2The 1in" of 5ericho was told. DBome 7sraelites ha3e come here toni"ht to search o t the land.< 3Then the 1in" of 5ericho sent orders to 6ahab. DBrin" o t the men who ha3e come to !o . who entered !o r ho se. for the! ha3e come onl! to search o t the whole land.< $B t the woman too1 the two men and hid them. Then she said. DTr e. the men came to me. b t 7 did not 1now where the! came from. #&nd when it was time to close the "ate at dar1. the men went o t. >here the men went 7 do not 1now. = rs e them M ic1l!. for !o can o3erta1e them.< 6Bhe had. howe3er. bro "ht them ' to the roof and hidden them with the stal1s of fla+ that she had laid o t on the roof. %Bo the men ' rs ed them on the wa! to the 5ordan as far as the fords. &s soon as the ' rs ers had "one o t. the "ate was sh t. / Before the! went to slee'. she came ' to them on the roof )and said to the men: D7 1now that the 2ord has "i3en !o the land. and that dread of !o has fallen on s. and that all the
inhabitants of the land melt in fear before !o . 1,8or we ha3e heard how the 2ord dried ' the water of the 6ed Bea before !o when !o came o t of *"!'t. and what !o did to the two 1in"s of the &morites that were be!ond the 5ordan. to Bihon and O". whom !o tterl! destro!ed. 11&s soon as we heard it. o r hearts failed. and there was no co ra"e left in an! of s beca se of !o . The 2ord !o r God is indeed God in hea3en abo3e and on earth below. 120ow then. since 7 ha3e dealt 1indl! with !o . swear to me b! the 2ord that !o in t rn will deal 1indl! with m! famil!. Gi3e me a si"n of "ood faith 13that !o will s'are m! father and mother. m! brothers and sisters. and all who belon" to them. and deli3er o r li3es from death.< 1$The men said to her. DO r life for !o rsK 7f !o do not tell this b siness of o rs. then we will deal 1indl! and faithf ll! with !o when the 2ord "i3es s the land.< 1# Then she let them down b! a ro'e thro "h the window. for her ho se was on the o ter side of the cit! wall and she resided within the wall itself. 16Bhe said to them. DGo towards the hill co ntr!. so that the ' rs ers ma! not come 'on !o . Hide !o rsel3es there for three da!s. ntil the ' rs ers ha3e ret rned( then afterwards !o ma! "o on !o r wa!.< 1%The men said to her. D>e will be released from this oath that !o ha3e made s swear to !o 1/if we in3ade the land and !o do not tie this crimson cord in the window thro "h which !o let s down. and !o do not "ather into !o r ho se !o r father and mother. !o r brothers. and all !o r famil!. 1)7f an! of !o "o o t of the doors of !o r ho se into the street. the! shall be res'onsible for their own death. and we shall be innocent( b t if a hand is laid 'on an! who are with !o in the ho se. we shall bear the res'onsibilit! for their death. 2,B t if !o tell this b siness of o rs. then we shall be released from this oath that !o made s swear to !o .< 21Bhe said. D&ccordin" to !o r words. so be it.< Bhe sent them awa! and the! de'arted. Then she tied the crimson cord in the window. 22 The! de'arted and went into the hill co ntr! and sta!ed there for three da!s. ntil the ' rs ers ret rned. The ' rs ers had searched all alon" the wa! and fo nd nothin". 23Then the two men came down a"ain from the hill co ntr!. The! crossed o3er. came to 5osh a son of 0 n. and told him all that had ha''ened to them. 2$The! said to 5osh a. DTr l! the 2ord has "i3en all the land into o r hands( moreo3er. all the inhabitants of the land melt in fear before s.< 4oshua 6:22-2" (7ollow-u& on 5ahab) After God destroys the walls of 0ericho due to the Israelites walking around them several times, 0oshua's army sets about completely destroying the city with all its inhabitants6but keeps the promise the spies made to 2ahab. ,he will later figure in the genealogy of King -avid and of 0esus, and she will be the only woman in a famous catalogue of heroes of faith in the (ew %estament. 22 5osh a said to the two men who had s'ied o t the land. DGo into the 'rostit te<s ho se. and brin" the woman o t of it and all who belon" to her. as !o swore to her.< 23Bo the !o n" men who had been s'ies went in and bro "ht 6ahab o t. alon" with her father. her mother. her brothers. and all who belon"ed to herGthe! bro "ht all her 1indred o tGand set them o tside the cam' of 7srael. 2$The! b rned down the cit!. and e3er!thin" in it( onl! the sil3er and "old. and the 3essels of bron?e and iron. the! ' t into the treas r! of the ho se of the 2ord. 2#B t 6ahab the 'rostit te. with her famil! and all who belon"ed to her. 5osh a s'ared. Her famil! has li3ed in 7srael e3er since. 8or she hid the messen"ers whom 5osh a sent to s'! o t 5ericho.
4ud!es # (3eborah- a woman 89ud!e: of 6srael) %he book of 0udges tells of the time between the death of 0oshua and the installation of the first king of Israel, a period where the Israelites fail to con7uer the 3romised /and and clear8cut it as the /ord had commanded and as a result often find themselves sub$ected to local kingdoms. A series of !$udges" arise periodically to set the people free, one of whom, -eborah, was a woman. The 7sraelites a"ain did what was e3il in the si"ht of the 2ord. after *h d Ha 're3io s : d"eI died. 2 Bo the 2ord sold them into the hand of Lin" 5abin of @anaan. who rei"ned in Ha?or( the commander of his arm! was Bisera. who li3ed in Harosheth-ha-"oiim. 3Then the 7sraelites cried o t to the 2ord for hel'( for he had nine h ndred chariots of iron. and had o''ressed the 7sraelites cr ell! for twent! !ears. $ &t that time 4eborah. a 'ro'hetess. wife of 2a''idoth. was : d"in" 7srael. #Bhe sed to sit nder the 'alm of 4eborah between 6amah and Bethel in the hill co ntr! of *'hraim( and the 7sraelites came ' to her for : d"ement. 6Bhe sent and s mmoned Bara1 son of &binoam from Ledesh in 0a'htali. and said to him. DThe 2ord. the God of 7srael. commands !o . 9Go. ta1e 'osition at -o nt Tabor. brin"in" ten tho sand from the tribe of 0a'htali and the tribe of Oeb l n. %7 will draw o t Bisera. the "eneral of 5abin<s arm!. to meet !o b! the >adi Lishon with his chariots and his troo's( and 7 will "i3e him into !o r hand.; < /Bara1 said to her. D7f !o will "o with me. 7 will "o( b t if !o will not "o with me. 7 will not "o.< )&nd she said. D7 will s rel! "o with !o ( ne3ertheless. the road on which !o are "oin" will not lead to !o r "lor!. for the 2ord will sell Bisera into the hand of a woman.< Then 4eborah "ot ' and went with Bara1 to Ledesh. 1,Bara1 s mmoned Oeb l n and 0a'htali to Ledesh( and ten tho sand warriors went ' behind him( and 4eborah went ' with him. 11 0ow Heber the Lenite had se'arated from the other Lenites. that is. the descendants of Hobab the father-in-law of -oses. and had encam'ed as far awa! as *lon-be?aanannim. which is near Ledesh. 12 >hen Bisera was told that Bara1 son of &binoam had "one ' to -o nt Tabor. 13Bisera called o t all his chariots. nine h ndred chariots of iron. and all the troo's who were with him. from Harosheth-ha-"oiim to the >adi Lishon. 1$Then 4eborah said to Bara1. DN'K 8or this is the da! on which the 2ord has "i3en Bisera into !o r hand. The 2ord is indeed "oin" o t before !o .< Bo Bara1 went down from -o nt Tabor with ten tho sand warriors followin" him. 1#&nd the 2ord threw Bisera and all his chariots and all his arm! into a 'anic before Bara1( Bisera "ot down from his chariot and fled awa! on foot. 16while Bara1 ' rs ed the chariots and the arm! to Haroshethha-"oiim. &ll the arm! of Bisera fell b! the sword( no one was left. 1% 0ow Bisera had fled awa! on foot to the tent of 5ael wife of Heber the Lenite( for there was 'eace between Lin" 5abin of Ha?or and the clan of Heber the Lenite. 1/5ael came o t to meet Bisera. and said to him. DT rn aside. m! lord. t rn aside to me( ha3e no fear.< Bo he t rned aside to her into the tent. and she co3ered him with a r ". 1)Then he said to her. D=lease "i3e me a little water to drin1( for 7 am thirst!.< Bo she o'ened a s1in of mil1 and "a3e him a drin1 and co3ered him. 2,He said to her. DBtand at the entrance of the tent. and if an!bod! comes and as1s !o . 97s
an!one hereF; sa!. 90o.; < 21B t 5ael wife of Heber too1 a tent-'e". and too1 a hammer in her hand. and went softl! to him and dro3e the 'e" into his tem'le. ntil it went down into the "ro ndGhe was l!in" fast aslee' from wearinessGand he died. 22Then. as Bara1 came in ' rs it of Bisera. 5ael went o t to meet him. and said to him. D@ome. and 7 will show !o the man whom !o are see1in".< Bo he went into her tent( and there was Bisera l!in" dead. with the tent-'e" in his tem'le. 23 Bo on that da! God s bd ed Lin" 5abin of @anaan before the 7sraelites. 2$Then the hand of the 7sraelites bore harder and harder on Lin" 5abin of @anaan. ntil the! destro!ed Lin" 5abin of @anaan. In 0udges 9, -eborah sings a lengthy song similar in spirit to 4iriam's. 4ud!es 11:2(-3( (4e&hthah;s rash 1ow) :et again, the Israelites have fallen on hard times, and this time it falls to 0ephthah, described as !the son of a prostitute," to lead them to victory6inadvertently sacrificing his daughter along the way. 2) Then the s'irit of the 2ord came 'on 5e'hthah. and he 'assed thro "h Gilead and -anasseh. He 'assed on to -i?'ah of Gilead. and from -i?'ah of Gilead he 'assed on to the &mmonites. 3, &nd 5e'hthah made a 3ow to the 2ord. and said. D7f !o will "i3e the &mmonites into m! hand. 31 then whoe3er comes o t of the doors of m! ho se to meet me. when 7 ret rn 3ictorio s from the &mmonites. shall be the 2ord<s. to be offered ' b! me as a b rnt-offerin".< 32Bo 5e'hthah crossed o3er to the &mmonites to fi"ht a"ainst them( and the 2ord "a3e them into his hand. 33He inflicted a massi3e defeat on them from &roer to the nei"hborhood of -innith. twent! towns. and as far as &bel-1eramim. Bo the &mmonites were s bd ed before the 'eo'le of 7srael. 3$ Then 5e'hthah came to his home at -i?'ah( and there was his da "hter comin" o t to meet him with timbrels and with dancin". Bhe was his onl! child( he had no son or da "hter e+ce't her. 3#>hen he saw her. he tore his clothes. and said. D&las. m! da "hterK Eo ha3e bro "ht me 3er! low( !o ha3e become the ca se of "reat tro ble to me. 8or 7 ha3e o'ened m! mo th to the 2ord. and 7 cannot ta1e bac1 m! 3ow.< 36Bhe said to him. D-! father. if !o ha3e o'ened !o r mo th to the 2ord. do to me accordin" to what has "one o t of !o r mo th. now that the 2ord has "i3en !o 3en"eance a"ainst !o r enemies. the &mmonites.< 3%&nd she said to her father. D2et this thin" be done for me: Grant me two months. so that 7 ma! "o and wander on the mo ntains. and bewail m! 3ir"init!. m! com'anions and 7.< 3/DGo.< he said and sent her awa! for two months. Bo she de'arted. she and her com'anions. and bewailed her 3ir"init! on the mo ntains. 3)&t the end of two months. she ret rned to her father. who did with her accordin" to the 3ow he had made. Bhe had ne3er sle't with a man. Bo there arose an 7sraelite c stom that $, for fo r da!s e3er! !ear the da "hters of 7srael wo ld "o o t to lament the da "hter of 5e'hthah the Gileadite.
4ud!es 1( (%nother woman offered u& for !an!-ra&e) %hroughout the book of 0udges, the author emphasi5es the lawlessness of the pre8king period of Israel's history1 this story and its aftermath provide a fitting climax to this trend of depravity. As in the story of ,odom, a woman is offered as a substitute for a man threatened with rape1 this time, however, the rapists accept the substitute6and things only get worse from there. 7n those da!s. when there was no 1in" in 7srael. a certain 2e3ite. residin" in the remote 'arts of the hill co ntr! of *'hraim. too1 to himself a conc bine from Bethlehem in 5 dah. 2B t his conc bine became an"r! with him. and she went awa! from him to her father<s ho se at Bethlehem in 5 dah. and was there for some fo r months. 3Then her h sband set o t after her. to s'ea1 tenderl! to her and brin" her bac1. He had with him his ser3ant and a co 'le of don1e!s. >hen he reached her father<s ho se. the "irl<s father saw him and came with :o! to meet him. $ His father-in-law. the "irl<s father. made him sta!. and he remained with him for three da!s( so the! ate and dran1. and he sta!ed there. #On the fo rth da! the! "ot ' earl! in the mornin". and he 're'ared to "o( b t the "irl<s father said to his son-in-law. D8ortif! !o rself with a bit of food. and after that !o ma! "o.< 6Bo the two men sat and ate and dran1 to"ether( and the "irl<s father said to the man. D>h! not s'end the ni"ht and en:o! !o rselfF< %>hen the man "ot ' to "o. his father-in-law 1e't r"in" him ntil he s'ent the ni"ht there a"ain. /On the fifth da! he "ot ' earl! in the mornin" to lea3e( and the "irl<s father said. D8ortif! !o rself.< Bo the! lin"ered ntil the da! declined. and the two of them ate and dran1. )>hen the man with his conc bine and his ser3ant "ot ' to lea3e. his father-in-law. the "irl<s father. said to him. D2oo1. the da! has worn on ntil it is almost e3enin". B'end the ni"ht. Bee. the da! has drawn to a close. B'end the ni"ht here and en:o! !o rself. Tomorrow !o can "et ' earl! in the mornin" for !o r :o rne!. and "o home.< 1, B t the man wo ld not s'end the ni"ht( he "ot ' and de'arted. and arri3ed o''osite 5eb s (that is. 5er salem). He had with him a co 'le of saddled don1e!s. and his conc bine was with him. 11>hen the! were near 5eb s. the da! was far s'ent. and the ser3ant said to his master. D@ome now. let s t rn aside to this cit! of the 5eb sites. and s'end the ni"ht in it.< 12B t his master said to him. D>e will not t rn aside into a cit! of forei"ners. who do not belon" to the 'eo'le of 7srael( b t we will contin e on to Gibeah.< 13Then he said to his ser3ant. D@ome. let s tr! to reach one of these 'laces. and s'end the ni"ht at Gibeah or at 6amah.< 1$Bo the! 'assed b! and went on their wa!( and the s n went down on them near Gibeah. which belon"s to Ben:amin. 1# The! t rned aside there. to "o in and s'end the ni"ht at Gibeah. He went in and sat down in the o'en sM are of the cit!. b t no one too1 them in to s'end the ni"ht. 16 Then at e3enin" there was an old man comin" from his wor1 in the field. The man was from the hill co ntr! of *'hraim. and he was residin" in Gibeah. (The 'eo'le of the 'lace were Ben:aminites.) 1%>hen the old man loo1ed ' and saw the wa!farer in the o'en sM are of the cit!. he said. D>here are !o "oin" and where do !o come fromF< 1/He answered him. D>e are 'assin" from Bethlehem in 5 dah to the remote 'arts of the hill co ntr! of *'hraim. from which 7 come. 7 went to Bethlehem in 5 dah( and 7 am "oin" to m! home. 0obod! has offered to ta1e me in. 1)>e !o r ser3ants ha3e straw and fodder for o r don1e!s. with bread and wine for me and the woman and the !o n" man alon" with s. >e need nothin" more.< 2,The old man said.
D=eace be to !o . 7 will care for all !o r wants( onl! do not s'end the ni"ht in the sM are.< 21Bo he bro "ht him into his ho se. and fed the don1e!s( the! washed their feet. and ate and dran1. 22 >hile the! were en:o!in" themsel3es. the men of the cit!. a de'ra3ed lot. s rro nded the ho se. and started 'o ndin" on the door. The! said to the old man. the master of the ho se. DBrin" o t the man who came into !o r ho se. so that we ma! ha3e interco rse with him.< 23&nd the man. the master of the ho se. went o t to them and said to them. D0o. m! brothers. do not act so wic1edl!. Bince this man is m! " est. do not do this 3ile thin". 2$Here are m! 3ir"in da "hter and his conc bine( let me brin" them o t now. 6a3ish them and do whate3er !o want to them( b t a"ainst this man do not do s ch a 3ile thin".< 2#B t the men wo ld not listen to him. Bo the man sei?ed his conc bine. and ' t her o t to them. The! wantonl! ra'ed her. and ab sed her all thro "h the ni"ht ntil the mornin". &nd as the dawn be"an to brea1. the! let her "o. 26&s mornin" a''eared. the woman came and fell down at the door of the man<s ho se where her master was. ntil it was li"ht. 2% 7n the mornin" her master "ot '. o'ened the doors of the ho se. and when he went o t to "o on his wa!. there was his conc bine l!in" at the door of the ho se. with her hands on the threshold. 2/DGet '.< he said to her. Dwe are "oin".< B t there was no answer. Then he ' t her on the don1e!( and the man set o t for his home. 2)>hen he had entered his ho se. he too1 a 1nife. and "ras'in" his conc bine he c t her into twel3e 'ieces. limb b! limb. and sent her thro "ho t all the territor! of 7srael. 3,Then he commanded the men whom he sent. sa!in". DTh s shall !o sa! to all the 7sraelites. 9Has s ch a thin" e3er ha''ened since the da! that the 7sraelites came ' from the land of *"!'t ntil this da!F @onsider it. ta1e co nsel. and s'ea1 o t.; < %he rest of the Israelites agree that the behavior of the +en$aminites is outrageous and go to war with them, nearly wiping them out and cursing anyone who gives their daughter in marriage to a +en$aminite. .hen they reali5e that they are about to destroy an entire tribe, however, they decide to allow the +en$aminites to repopulate themselves by hiding outside the town of ,hiloh and kidnapping and raping the women of that town. )%he tribe of +en$amin later went on to produce ,aul, the first king of Israel, as well as ,t. 3aul the Apostle.* <ro1erbs 1:2+-2:22 (0ad =isdom) %his is a sample from the long monologue of !/ady .isdom" in the book of 3roverbs. Often called ,ophia, this feminine figure has been very important for many feminist theologians6 especially in light of the fact that early #hristian thinkers tended to identify her with #hrist. (ote, however, that even in a passage identifying .isdom as a woman, !loose women" are scapegoated. ch. 1
>isdom cries o t in the street( in the sM ares she raises her 3oice. 21 &t the b siest corner she cries o t( at the entrance of the cit! "ates she s'ea1s: 22 DHow lon". O sim'le ones. will !o lo3e bein" sim'leF
How lon" will scoffers deli"ht in their scoffin" and fools hate 1nowled"eF 23 Gi3e heed to m! re'roof( 7 will 'o r o t m! tho "hts to !o ( 7 will ma1e m! words 1nown to !o . 2$ Beca se 7 ha3e called and !o ref sed. ha3e stretched o t m! hand and no one heeded. 2# and beca se !o ha3e i"nored all m! co nsel and wo ld ha3e none of m! re'roof. 26 7 also will la "h at !o r calamit!( 7 will moc1 when 'anic stri1es !o . 2% when 'anic stri1es !o li1e a storm. and !o r calamit! comes li1e a whirlwind. when distress and an" ish come 'on !o . 2/ Then the! will call 'on me. b t 7 will not answer( the! will see1 me dili"entl!. b t will not find me. 2) Beca se the! hated 1nowled"e and did not choose the fear of the 2ord. 3, wo ld ha3e none of m! co nsel. and des'ised all m! re'roof. 31 therefore the! shall eat the fr it of their wa! and be sated with their own de3ices. 32 8or wa!wardness 1ills the sim'le. and the com'lacenc! of fools destro!s them( 33 b t those who listen to me will be sec re and will li3e at ease. witho t dread of disaster.< ch. 2 1-! child. if !o acce't m! words and treas re ' m! commandments within !o . 2 ma1in" !o r ear attenti3e to wisdom and inclinin" !o r heart to nderstandin"( 3 if !o indeed cr! o t for insi"ht. and raise !o r 3oice for nderstandin"( $ if !o see1 it li1e sil3er. and search for it as for hidden treas resG # then !o will nderstand the fear of the 2ord and find the 1nowled"e of God. 6 8or the 2ord "i3es wisdom( from his mo th come 1nowled"e and nderstandin"( % he stores ' so nd wisdom for the 'ri"ht( he is a shield to those who wal1 blamelessl!. / " ardin" the 'aths of : stice and 'reser3in" the wa! of his faithf l ones. ) Then !o will nderstand ri"hteo sness and : stice
and eM it!. e3er! "ood 'ath( for wisdom will come into !o r heart. and 1nowled"e will be 'leasant to !o r so l( 11 'r dence will watch o3er !o ( and nderstandin" will " ard !o . 12 7t will sa3e !o from the wa! of e3il. from those who s'ea1 'er3ersel!. 13 who forsa1e the 'aths of 'ri"htness to wal1 in the wa!s of dar1ness. 1$ who re:oice in doin" e3il and deli"ht in the 'er3erseness of e3il( 1# those whose 'aths are croo1ed. and who are de3io s in their wa!s.
Eo will be sa3ed from the loose woman. from the ad lteress with her smooth words. 1% who forsa1es the 'artner of her !o th and for"ets her sacred co3enant( 1/ for her wa! leads down to death. and her 'aths to the shades( 1) those who "o to her ne3er come bac1. nor do the! re"ain the 'aths of life.
Therefore wal1 in the wa! of the "ood. and 1ee' to the 'aths of the : st. 21 8or the 'ri"ht will abide in the land. and the innocent will remain in it( 22 b t the wic1ed will be c t off from the land. and the treachero s will be rooted o t of it. )>e/iel 23 (The &arable of two &romiscuous women) %he Israelite prophets make fre7uent use of the metaphor of adultery to castigate Israel for its unfaithfulness to God. %his passage is among the most graphic and extreme. 1The word of the 2ord came to me: 2-ortal. there were two women. the da "hters of one mother( 3the! 'la!ed the whore in *"!'t( the! 'la!ed the whore in their !o th( their breasts were caressed there. and their 3ir"in bosoms were fondled. $Oholah was the name of the elder and Oholibah the name of her sister. The! became mine. and the! bore sons and da "hters. &s for their names. Oholah is Bamaria. and Oholibah is 5er salem. # Oholah 'la!ed the whore while she was mine( she l sted after her lo3ers the &ss!rians. warriors 6clothed in bl e. "o3ernors and commanders. all of them handsome !o n" men. mo nted horsemen. %Bhe bestowed her fa3o rs 'on them. the choicest men of &ss!ria all of
them( and she defiled herself with all the idols of e3er!one for whom she l sted. /Bhe did not "i3e ' her whorin"s that she had 'racticed since *"!'t( for in her !o th men had lain with her and fondled her 3ir"in bosom and 'o red o t their l st 'on her. )Therefore 7 deli3ered her into the hands of her lo3ers. into the hands of the &ss!rians. for whom she l sted. 1,These nco3ered her na1edness( the! sei?ed her sons and her da "hters( and the! 1illed her with the sword. 5 d"ment was e+ec ted 'on her. and she became a b!word amon" women. 11 Her sister Oholibah saw this. !et she was more corr 't than her sister in her l stin" and in her whorin"s. which were worse than those of her sister. 12Bhe l sted after the &ss!rians. "o3ernors and commanders. warriors clothed in f ll armor. mo nted horsemen. all of them handsome !o n" men. 13&nd 7 saw that she was defiled( the! both too1 the same wa!. 1$B t she carried her whorin"s f rther( she saw male fi" res car3ed on the wall. ima"es of the @haldeans 'ortra!ed in 3ermilion. 1#with belts aro nd their waists. with flowin" t rbans on their heads. all of them loo1in" li1e officersGa 'ict re of Bab!lonians whose nati3e land was @haldea. 16>hen she saw them she l sted after them. and sent messen"ers to them in @haldea. 1%&nd the Bab!lonians came to her into the bed of lo3e. and the! defiled her with their l st( and after she defiled herself with them. she t rned from them in dis" st. 1/>hen she carried on her whorin"s so o'enl! and fla nted her na1edness. 7 t rned in dis" st from her. as 7 had t rned from her sister. 1)Eet she increased her whorin"s. rememberin" the da!s of her !o th. when she 'la!ed the whore in the land of *"!'t 2,and l sted after her 'aramo rs there. whose members were li1e those of don1e!s. and whose emission was li1e that of stallions. 21Th s !o lon"ed for the lewdness of !o r !o th. when the *"!'tians fondled !o r bosom and caressed !o r !o n" breasts. 22 Therefore. O Oholibah. th s sa!s the 2ord God: 7 will aro se a"ainst !o !o r lo3ers from whom !o t rned in dis" st. and 7 will brin" them a"ainst !o from e3er! side: 23the Bab!lonians and all the @haldeans. =e1od and Bhoa and Loa. and all the &ss!rians with them. handsome !o n" men. "o3ernors and commanders all of them. officers and warriors. all of them ridin" on horses. 2$The! shall come a"ainst !o from the north with chariots and wa"ons and a host of 'eo'les( the! shall set themsel3es a"ainst !o on e3er! side with b c1ler. shield. and helmet. and 7 will commit the : d"ment to them. and the! shall : d"e !o accordin" to their ordinances. 2#7 will direct m! indi"nation a"ainst !o . in order that the! ma! deal with !o in f r!. The! shall c t off !o r nose and !o r ears. and !o r s r3i3ors shall fall b! the sword. The! shall sei?e !o r sons and !o r da "hters. and !o r s r3i3ors shall be de3o red b! fire. 26The! shall also stri' !o of !o r clothes and ta1e awa! !o r fine :ewels. 2%Bo 7 will ' t an end to !o r lewdness and !o r whorin" bro "ht from the land of *"!'t( !o shall not lon" for them. or remember *"!'t an! more. 2/8or th s sa!s the 2ord God: 7 will deli3er !o into the hands of those whom !o hate. into the hands of those from whom !o t rned in dis" st( 2)and the! shall deal with !o in hatred. and ta1e awa! all the fr it of !o r labor. and lea3e !o na1ed and bare. and the na1edness of !o r whorin"s shall be e+'osed. Eo r lewdness and !o r whorin"s 3,ha3e bro "ht this 'on !o . beca se !o 'la!ed the whore with the nations. and 'oll ted !o rself with their idols. 31Eo ha3e "one the wa! of !o r sister( therefore 7 will "i3e her c ' into !o r hand. 32Th s sa!s the 2ord God: Eo shall drin1 !o r sister<s c '. dee' and wide( !o shall be scorned and derided. it holds so m ch.
Eo shall be filled with dr n1enness and sorrow. & c ' of horror and desolation is the c ' of !o r sister Bamaria( 3$ !o shall drin1 it and drain it o t. and "naw its sherds. and tear o t !o r breasts( for 7 ha3e s'o1en. sa!s the 2ord God. 3#Therefore th s sa!s the 2ord God: Beca se !o ha3e for"otten me and cast me behind !o r bac1. therefore bear the conseM ences of !o r lewdness and whorin"s. 36 The 2ord said to me: -ortal. will !o : d"e Oholah and OholibahF Then declare to them their abominable deeds. 3%8or the! ha3e committed ad lter!. and blood is on their hands( with their idols the! ha3e committed ad lter!( and the! ha3e e3en offered ' to them for food the children whom the! had borne to me. 3/-oreo3er. this the! ha3e done to me: the! ha3e defiled m! sanct ar! on the same da! and 'rofaned m! sabbaths. 3)8or when the! had sla "htered their children for their idols. on the same da! the! came into m! sanct ar! to 'rofane it. This is what the! did in m! ho se. $, The! e3en sent for men to come from far awa!. to whom a messen"er was sent. and the! came. 8or them !o bathed !o rself. 'ainted !o r e!es. and dec1ed !o rself with ornaments( $1 !o sat on a statel! co ch. with a table s'read before it on which !o had 'laced m! incense and m! oil. $2The so nd of a ra co s m ltit de was aro nd her. with man! of the rabble bro "ht in dr n1en from the wilderness( and the! ' t bracelets on the arms of the women. and bea tif l crowns 'on their heads. $3 Then 7 said. &h. she is worn o t with ad lteries. b t the! carr! on their se+ al acts with her. $$ 8or the! ha3e "one in to her. as one "oes in to a whore. Th s the! went in to Oholah and to Oholibah. wanton women. $#B t ri"hteo s : d"es shall declare them " ilt! of ad lter! and of bloodshed( beca se the! are ad lteresses. and blood is on their hands. $6 8or th s sa!s the 2ord God: Brin" ' an assembl! a"ainst them. and ma1e them an ob:ect of terror and of 'l nder. $%The assembl! shall stone them and with their swords the! shall c t them down( the! shall 1ill their sons and their da "hters. and b rn ' their ho ses. $/Th s will 7 ' t an end to lewdness in the land. so that all women ma! ta1e warnin" and not commit lewdness as !o ha3e done. $)The! shall re'a! !o for !o r lewdness. and !o shall bear the 'enalt! for !o r sinf l idolatr!( and !o shall 1now that 7 am the 2ord God.
,atthew 1:1-16 (The !enealo! of 4esus- includin! four Gentile women) Genealogies admittedly don't make for exciting reading, but 0esus's is interesting from a feminist perspective because it breaks with the patriarchal mold and lists several women6 what's more, those women are Gentiles. I have bolded their names below. %amar's husband died and her father8in8law 0udah dragged his feet on providing a replacement husband )which was her duty*, so she took the initiative and seduced 0udah in order to gain progeny1 2ahab the 2,
prostitute has already been mentioned1 2uth has an entire book devoted to her story, where her attempt to find an Israelite husband is overshadowed by the story of love and devotion between her and (aomi1 and the wife of &riah, +athsheba, caught King -avid's eye while bathing in the nude, leading him to set up &riah to die in battle and take his wife, who became the mother of King ,olomon. 1&n acco nt of the "enealo"! of 5es s the -essiah. the son of 4a3id. the son of &braham. 2 &braham was the father of 7saac. and 7saac the father of 5acob. and 5acob the father of 5 dah and his brothers. 3and 5 dah the father of =ere? and Oerah b! Tamar. and =ere? the father of He?ron. and He?ron the father of &ram. $and &ram the father of &minadab. and &minadab the father of 0ahshon. and 0ahshon the father of Balmon. #and Balmon the father of Boa? b! Rahab. and Boa? the father of Obed b! Ruth. and Obed the father of 5esse. 6and 5esse the father of Lin" 4a3id. &nd 4a3id was the father of Bolomon b! the wife of Uriah Bathsheba!. %and Bolomon the father of 6ehoboam. and 6ehoboam the father of &bi:ah. and &bi:ah the father of &sa'h. /and &sa'h the father of 5ehosha'hat. and 5ehosha'hat the father of 5oram. and 5oram the father of N??iah. )and N??iah the father of 5otham. and 5otham the father of &ha?. and &ha? the father of He?e1iah. 1,and He?e1iah the father of -anasseh. and -anasseh the father of &mos. and &mos the father of 5osiah. 11and 5osiah the father of 5echoniah and his brothers. at the time of the de'ortation to Bab!lon. 12 &nd after the de'ortation to Bab!lon: 5echoniah was the father of Balathiel. and Balathiel the father of Oer bbabel. 13and Oer bbabel the father of &bi d. and &bi d the father of *lia1im. and *lia1im the father of &?or. 1$and &?or the father of Oado1. and Oado1 the father of &chim. and &chim the father of *li d. 1#and *li d the father of *lea?ar. and *lea?ar the father of -atthan. and -atthan the father of 5acob. 16and 5acob the father of 5ose'h the h sband of -ar!. of whom 5es s was born. who is called the -essiah. ,atthew 1":21-22 (The ?anaanite woman) %hough this story is in many ways appalling, it is noteworthy that this woman )and the parallel figures in other gospels* is the only person who ever persuades 0esus to change his mind about anything. 21 5es s left that 'lace and went awa! to the district of T!re and Bidon. 225 st then a @anaanite woman from that re"ion came o t and started sho tin". DHa3e merc! on me. 2ord. Bon of 4a3id( m! da "hter is tormented b! a demon.< 23B t he did not answer her at all. &nd his disci'les came and r"ed him. sa!in". DBend her awa!. for she 1ee's sho tin" after s.< 2$He answered. D7 was sent onl! to the lost shee' of the ho se of 7srael.< 2#B t she came and 1nelt before him. sa!in". D2ord. hel' me.< 26He answered. D7t is not fair to ta1e the children<s food and throw it to the do"s.< 2%Bhe said. DEes. 2ord. !et e3en the do"s eat the cr mbs that fall from their masters< table.< 2/Then 5es s answered her. D>oman. "reat is !o r faithK 2et it be done for !o as !o wish.< &nd her da "hter was healed instantl!.
,atthew 26:26-2( (6nstitution of the 0ord;s su&&er) A ma$or point of dispute in the debate about women's ordination comes down to the institution of the /ord's supper )or communion, or ;ucharist*. %raditionalists argue that only the <= )male* apostles were present at the final supper where #hrist instituted the sacrament of communion, meaning that only males could subse7uently administer it. .omen's ordination advocates point out that the wording is often unclear6some gospels refer only to the !disciples," and it's clear that 0esus had woman followers6and that in any case, women should be counted among the apostles because all the gospels agree that women were the first witnesses of the resurrection and therefore the first to deliver the good news )one of the definitions of an apostle, which comes from a root word meaning !sent"*. 26 >hile the! were eatin". 5es s too1 a loaf of bread. and after blessin" it he bro1e it. "a3e it to the disci'les. and said. DTa1e. eat( this is m! bod!.< 2%Then he too1 a c '. and after "i3in" than1s he "a3e it to them. sa!in". D4rin1 from it. all of !o ( 2/for this is m! blood of the co3enant. which is 'o red o t for man! for the for"i3eness of sins. 2)7 tell !o . 7 will ne3er a"ain drin1 of this fr it of the 3ine ntil that da! when 7 drin1 it new with !o in m! 8ather<s 1in"dom.< ,atthew 2$:""-22:1+ (=omen sta with 4esus durin! crucifi*ion- witness resurrection) All the gospels agree that while 0esus's male disciples were busy betraying, denying, or abandoning him, women followed him all the way to his death and even showed up to give him proper burial rites, making them the first to receive the news that 0esus had risen from the dead 6and the first to see the resurrected 0esus firsthand. ch. 2% ## -an! women were also there Hwhere 5es s was cr cifiedI. loo1in" on from a distance( the! had followed 5es s from Galilee and had 'ro3ided for him. #6&mon" them were -ar! -a"dalene. and -ar! the mother of 5ames and 5ose'h. and the mother of the sons of Oebedee. #% >hen it was e3enin". there came a rich man from &rimathea. named 5ose'h. who was also a disci'le of 5es s. #/He went to =ilate and as1ed for the bod! of 5es s( then =ilate ordered it to be "i3en to him. #)Bo 5ose'h too1 the bod! and wra''ed it in a clean linen cloth 6,and laid it in his own new tomb. which he had hewn in the roc1. He then rolled a "reat stone to the door of the tomb and went awa!. 61-ar! -a"dalene and the other -ar! were there. sittin" o''osite the tomb. 62 The ne+t da!. that is. after the da! of =re'aration. the chief 'riests and the =harisees "athered before =ilate 63and said. DBir. we remember what that im'ostor said while he was still ali3e. 9&fter three da!s 7 will rise a"ain.; 6$Therefore command that the tomb be made sec re ntil the third da!( otherwise his disci'les ma! "o and steal him awa!. and tell the 'eo'le. 9He has been raised from the dead;. and the last dece'tion wo ld be worse than the first.< 6#=ilate said to them. DEo ha3e a " ard of soldiers( "o. ma1e it as sec re as !o can.< 66Bo the! went with the " ard and made the tomb sec re b! sealin" the stone.
ch. 2/ 2/&fter the sabbath. as the first da! of the wee1 was dawnin". -ar! -a"dalene and the other -ar! went to see the tomb. 2&nd s ddenl! there was a "reat earthM a1e( for an an"el of the 2ord. descendin" from hea3en. came and rolled bac1 the stone and sat on it. 3His a''earance was li1e li"htnin". and his clothin" white as snow. $8or fear of him the " ards shoo1 and became li1e dead men. #B t the an"el said to the women. D4o not be afraid( 7 1now that !o are loo1in" for 5es s who was cr cified. 6He is not here( for he has been raised. as he said. @ome. see the 'lace where he la!. %Then "o M ic1l! and tell his disci'les. 9He has been raised from the dead. and indeed he is "oin" ahead of !o to Galilee( there !o will see him.; This is m! messa"e for !o .< / Bo the! left the tomb M ic1l! with fear and "reat :o!. and ran to tell his disci'les. )B ddenl! 5es s met them and said. DGreetin"sK< &nd the! came to him. too1 hold of his feet. and worshi''ed him. 1,Then 5es s said to them. D4o not be afraid( "o and tell m! brothers to "o to Galilee( there the! will see me.< ,ar/ 3:31-3" (4esus;s true famil ) In this passage and its parallels in other gospels, many see 0esus working to displace the patriarchal family as the primary social bond, a key goal of feminism. 31 Then his mother and his brothers came( and standin" o tside. the! sent to him and called him. 32 & crowd was sittin" aro nd him( and the! said to him. DEo r mother and !o r brothers and sisters are o tside. as1in" for !o .< 33&nd he re'lied. D>ho are m! mother and m! brothersF< 3$ &nd loo1in" at those who sat aro nd him. he said. DHere are m! mother and m! brothersK 3# >hoe3er does the will of God is m! brother and sister and mother.< ,ar/ 1#:3-( (% woman anoints 4esus) %his story provides the title for ;li5abeth ,ch>ssler8?ioren5a's magnum opus 7n -emor! of Her, which attempts to excavate the evidence for women's role in the origins of #hristianity. 4any identify the woman in this story with 4ary 4agdalene1 I am not convinced. 3 >hile he was at Bethan! in the ho se of Bimon the le'er. as he sat at the table. a woman came with an alabaster :ar of 3er! costl! ointment of nard. and she bro1e o'en the :ar and 'o red the ointment on his head. $B t some were there who said to one another in an"er. D>h! was the ointment wasted in this wa!F #8or this ointment co ld ha3e been sold for more than three h ndred denarii. and the mone! "i3en to the 'oor.< &nd the! scolded her. 6B t 5es s said. D2et her alone( wh! do !o tro ble herF Bhe has 'erformed a "ood ser3ice for me. %8or !o alwa!s ha3e the 'oor with !o . and !o can show 1indness to them whene3er !o wish( b t !o will not alwa!s ha3e me. /Bhe has done what she co ld( she has anointed m! bod! beforehand for its b rial. )Tr l! 7 tell !o . where3er the "ood news is 'roclaimed in the whole world. what she has done will be told in remembrance of her.<
,ar/ 16:1-2 (The resurrected 4esus a&&ears to the women) %his is the earliest ending to the Gospel of 4ark, believed to be the earliest gospel. 4any believe that the abruptness of the ending indicates that the original conclusion has been lost, and a few variations were appended by later editors. %his story complicates the vision of women as the first apostles somewhat1 virtually no one knows what to do with it, though. 1>hen the sabbath Hafter 5es s was cr cifiedI was o3er. -ar! -a"dalene. and -ar! the mother of 5ames. and Balome Halso a womanI bo "ht s'ices. so that the! mi"ht "o and anoint him. 2&nd 3er! earl! on the first da! of the wee1. when the s n had risen. the! went to the tomb. 3The! had been sa!in" to one another. D>ho will roll awa! the stone for s from the entrance to the tombF< $ >hen the! loo1ed '. the! saw that the stone. which was 3er! lar"e. had alread! been rolled bac1. #&s the! entered the tomb. the! saw a !o n" man. dressed in a white robe. sittin" on the ri"ht side( and the! were alarmed. 6B t he said to them. D4o not be alarmed( !o are loo1in" for 5es s of 0a?areth. who was cr cified. He has been raised( he is not here. 2oo1. there is the 'lace the! laid him. %B t "o. tell his disci'les and =eter that he is "oin" ahead of !o to Galilee( there !o will see him. : st as he told !o .< /Bo the! went o t and fled from the tomb. for terror and ama?ement had sei?ed them( and the! said nothin" to an!one. for the! were afraid. 0u/e 1:26-"6 (The stor of the @ir!in ,ar ) %he @irgin 4ary is an ambivalent figure for feminist theologians62osemary 2adford 2uether devotes an entire chapter of her Be+ism and God-Tal1 to 4ary, concluding that 4ary is best viewed as an advocate of liberation, as evidenced by her song )known as the 4agnificat*, which echoes the songs of 4iriam, -eborah, and others. %he dark side of the @irgin 4ary for women is that her perfect faith and virginity set up a model that no other woman can attain. 26 7n the si+th month the an"el Gabriel was sent b! God to a town in Galilee called 0a?areth. 2% to a 3ir"in en"a"ed to a man whose name was 5ose'h. of the ho se of 4a3id. The 3ir"in<s name was -ar!. 2/&nd he came to her and said. DGreetin"s. fa3ored oneK The 2ord is with !o .< 2)B t she was m ch 'er'le+ed b! his words and 'ondered what sort of "reetin" this mi"ht be. 3,The an"el said to her. D4o not be afraid. -ar!. for !o ha3e fo nd fa3or with God. 31&nd now. !o will concei3e in !o r womb and bear a son. and !o will name him 5es s. 32He will be "reat. and will be called the Bon of the -ost Hi"h. and the 2ord God will "i3e to him the throne of his ancestor 4a3id. 33He will rei"n o3er the ho se of 5acob for e3er. and of his 1in"dom there will be no end.< 3$-ar! said to the an"el. DHow can this be. since 7 am a 3ir"inF< 3#The an"el said to her. DThe Hol! B'irit will come 'on !o . and the 'ower of the -ost Hi"h will o3ershadow !o ( therefore the child to be born will be hol!( he will be called Bon of God. 36&nd now. !o r relati3e *li?abeth in her old a"e has also concei3ed a son( and this is the si+th month for her who was said to be barren. 3%8or nothin" will be im'ossible with God.< 3/Then -ar! said. DHere am 7. the ser3ant of the 2ord( let it be with me accordin" to !o r word.< Then the an"el de'arted from her. 3) 7n those da!s -ar! set o t and went with haste to a 5 dean town in the hill co ntr!. $,where she entered the ho se of Oechariah and "reeted *li?abeth. $1>hen *li?abeth heard -ar!<s "reetin". the child H5ohn the Ba'tistI lea't in her womb. &nd *li?abeth was filled with the Hol! B'irit $2and e+claimed with a lo d cr!. DBlessed are !o amon" women. and blessed is the fr it
of !o r womb. $3&nd wh! has this ha''ened to me. that the mother of m! 2ord comes to meF $$ 8or as soon as 7 heard the so nd of !o r "reetin". the child in m! womb lea't for :o!. $#&nd blessed is she who belie3ed that there wo ld be a f lfillment of what was s'o1en to her b! the 2ord.< $6 &nd -ar! said. D-! so l ma"nifies the 2ord. $% and m! s'irit re:oices in God m! Ba3ior. $/ for he has loo1ed with fa3or on the lowliness of his ser3ant. B rel!. from now on all "enerations will call me blessed( $) for the -i"ht! One has done "reat thin"s for me. and hol! is his name. #, His merc! is for those who fear him from "eneration to "eneration. #1 He has shown stren"th with his arm( he has scattered the 'ro d in the tho "hts of their hearts. #2 He has bro "ht down the 'owerf l from their thrones. and lifted ' the lowl!( #3 he has filled the h n"r! with "ood thin"s. and sent the rich awa! em't!. #$ He has hel'ed his ser3ant 7srael. in remembrance of his merc!. ## accordin" to the 'romise he made to o r ancestors. to &braham and to his descendants for e3er.< #6 &nd -ar! remained with her for abo t three months and then ret rned to her home. 0u/e $:26-2:3 (The woman anoints 4esus' women then follow him) In this variation on the story of the woman anointing 0esus, we get more of a picture of the controversy she causes and are also told that after this incident, a group of women begin following 0esus from place to place, providing for 0esus and his other disciples. %his may echo the social reality of many early #hristian communities, where independently wealthy women often served as patrons. ch. % 36 One of the =harisees as1ed 5es s to eat with him. and he went into the =harisee<s ho se and too1 his 'lace at the table. 3%&nd a woman in the cit!. who was a sinner. ha3in" learned that he was eatin" in the =harisee<s ho se. bro "ht an alabaster :ar of ointment. 3/Bhe stood behind him at his feet. wee'in". and be"an to bathe his feet with her tears and to dr! them with her hair. Then she contin ed 1issin" his feet and anointin" them with the ointment. 3)0ow when the =harisee who had in3ited him saw it. he said to himself. D7f this man were a 'ro'het. he wo ld ha3e 1nown who and what 1ind of woman this is who is to chin" himGthat she is a sinner.< $, 5es s s'o1e ' and said to him. DBimon. 7 ha3e somethin" to sa! to !o .< DTeacher.< he re'lied. Ds'ea1.< $1D& certain creditor had two debtors( one owed fi3e h ndred denarii. and the other fift!.
>hen the! co ld not 'a!. he cancelled the debts for both of them. 0ow which of them will lo3e him moreF< $3Bimon answered. D7 s ''ose the one for whom he cancelled the "reater debt.< &nd 5es s said to him. DEo ha3e : d"ed ri"htl!.< $$Then t rnin" towards the woman. he said to Bimon. D4o !o see this womanF 7 entered !o r ho se( !o "a3e me no water for m! feet. b t she has bathed m! feet with her tears and dried them with her hair. $#Eo "a3e me no 1iss. b t from the time 7 came in she has not sto''ed 1issin" m! feet. $6Eo did not anoint m! head with oil. b t she has anointed m! feet with ointment. $%Therefore. 7 tell !o . her sins. which were man!. ha3e been for"i3en( hence she has shown "reat lo3e. B t the one to whom little is for"i3en. lo3es little.< $/Then he said to her. DEo r sins are for"i3en.< $)B t those who were at the table with him be"an to sa! amon" themsel3es. D>ho is this who e3en for"i3es sinsF< #,&nd he said to the woman. DEo r faith has sa3ed !o ( "o in 'eace.< ch. / 1Boon afterwards he went on thro "h cities and 3illa"es. 'roclaimin" and brin"in" the "ood news of the 1in"dom of God. The twel3e were with him. 2as well as some women who had been c red of e3il s'irits and infirmities: -ar!. called -a"dalene. from whom se3en demons had "one o t. 3and 5oanna. the wife of Herod<s steward @h ?a. and B sanna. and man! others. who 'ro3ided for them o t of their reso rces. 4ohn #:"-#2 (The Aamaritan woman) %he ,amaritans were a kind of splinter group from the 0ews, following their understanding of the law of 4oses with a different center of worship. %he 0ews hated ,amaritans and would not associate with them6particularly not their women. 0esus's enigmatic teaching catches the ,amaritan woman's imagination and she goes on to win her entire village to the cause of 0esus, providing another example of a woman as an !apostle."
Bo he came to a Bamaritan cit! called B!char. near the 'lot of "ro nd that 5acob had "i3en to his son 5ose'h. 65acob<s well was there. and 5es s. tired o t b! his :o rne!. was sittin" b! the well. 7t was abo t noon. % & Bamaritan woman came to draw water. and 5es s said to her. DGi3e me a drin1<. /(His disci'les had "one to the cit! to b ! food.) )The Bamaritan woman said to him. DHow is it that !o . a 5ew. as1 a drin1 of me. a woman of BamariaF< (5ews do not share thin"s in common with Bamaritans.) 1,5es s answered her. D7f !o 1new the "ift of God. and who it is that is sa!in" to !o . 9Gi3e me a drin1;. !o wo ld ha3e as1ed him. and he wo ld ha3e "i3en !o li3in" water.< 11 The woman said to him. DBir. !o ha3e no b c1et. and the well is dee'. >here do !o "et that li3in" waterF 12&re !o "reater than o r ancestor 5acob. who "a3e s the well. and with his sons and his floc1s dran1 from itF< 135es s said to her. D*3er!one who drin1s of this water will be thirst! a"ain. 1$b t those who drin1 of the water that 7 will "i3e them will ne3er be thirst!. The water that 7 will "i3e will become in them a s'rin" of water " shin" ' to eternal life.< 1#The woman said to him. DBir. "i3e me this water. so that 7 ma! ne3er be thirst! or ha3e to 1ee' comin" here to draw water.<
16 5es s said to her. DGo. call !o r h sband. and come bac1.< 1%The woman answered him. D7 ha3e no h sband.< 5es s said to her. DEo are ri"ht in sa!in". 97 ha3e no h sband;( 1/for !o ha3e had fi3e h sbands. and the one !o ha3e now is not !o r h sband. >hat !o ha3e said is tr eK< 1) The woman said to him. DBir. 7 see that !o are a 'ro'het. 2,O r ancestors worshi''ed on this mo ntain. b t !o sa! that the 'lace where 'eo'le m st worshi' is in 5er salem.< 215es s said to her. D>oman. belie3e me. the ho r is comin" when !o will worshi' the 8ather neither on this mo ntain nor in 5er salem. 22Eo worshi' what !o do not 1now( we worshi' what we 1now. for sal3ation is from the 5ews. 23B t the ho r is comin". and is now here. when the tr e worshi''ers will worshi' the 8ather in s'irit and tr th. for the 8ather see1s s ch as these to worshi' him. 2$God is s'irit. and those who worshi' him m st worshi' in s'irit and tr th.< 2#The woman said to him. D7 1now that -essiah is comin"< (who is called @hrist). D>hen he comes. he will 'roclaim all thin"s to s.< 265es s said to her. D7 am he. the one who is s'ea1in" to !o .< 2% 5 st then his disci'les came. The! were astonished that he was s'ea1in" with a woman. b t no one said. D>hat do !o wantF< or. D>h! are !o s'ea1in" with herF< 2/Then the woman left her water-:ar and went bac1 to the cit!. Bhe said to the 'eo'le. 2)D@ome and see a man who told me e3er!thin" 7 ha3e e3er doneK He cannot be the -essiah. can heF< 3,The! left the cit! and were on their wa! to him. 31 -eanwhile the disci'les were r"in" him. D6abbi. eat somethin".< 32B t he said to them. D7 ha3e food to eat that !o do not 1now abo t.< 33Bo the disci'les said to one another. DB rel! no one has bro "ht him somethin" to eatF< 3$5es s said to them. D-! food is to do the will of him who sent me and to com'lete his wor1. 3#4o !o not sa!. 98o r months more. then comes the har3est;F B t 7 tell !o . loo1 aro nd !o . and see how the fields are ri'e for har3estin". 36The rea'er is alread! recei3in" wa"es and is "atherin" fr it for eternal life. so that sower and rea'er ma! re:oice to"ether. 3%8or here the sa!in" holds tr e. 9One sows and another rea's.; 3/7 sent !o to rea' that for which !o did not labor. Others ha3e labored. and !o ha3e entered into their labor.< 3) -an! Bamaritans from that cit! belie3ed in him beca se of the woman<s testimon!. DHe told me e3er!thin" 7 ha3e e3er done.< $,Bo when the Bamaritans came to him. the! as1ed him to sta! with them( and he sta!ed there for two da!s. $1&nd man! more belie3ed beca se of his word. $2 The! said to the woman. D7t is no lon"er beca se of what !o said that we belie3e. for we ha3e heard for o rsel3es. and we 1now that this is tr l! the Ba3ior of the world.< 4ohn 2:2-11 (The woman cau!ht in adulter ) %his story includes one of 0esus's most famous 7uotes. As with any woman of 7uestionable morals who appears in the +ible, some have identified this woman with 4ary 4agdalene. (oteworthy here is that, as shown in the laws 7uoted above, both the man and the woman caught in adultery should have been killed6so it is possible to read this story as showing 0esus's ob$ection to a double standard for men and women.
*arl! in the mornin" he came a"ain to the tem'le. &ll the 'eo'le came to him and he sat down and be"an to teach them. 3The scribes and the =harisees bro "ht a woman who had been ca "ht in ad lter!( and ma1in" her stand before all of them. $the! said to him. DTeacher. this woman
was ca "ht in the 3er! act of committin" ad lter!. #0ow in the law -oses commanded s to stone s ch women. 0ow what do !o sa!F< 6The! said this to test him. so that the! mi"ht ha3e some char"e to brin" a"ainst him. 5es s bent down and wrote with his fin"er on the "ro nd. % >hen the! 1e't on M estionin" him. he strai"htened ' and said to them. D2et an!one amon" !o who is witho t sin be the first to throw a stone at her.< /&nd once a"ain he bent down and wrote on the "ro nd. )>hen the! heard it. the! went awa!. one b! one. be"innin" with the elders( and 5es s was left alone with the woman standin" before him. 1,5es s strai"htened ' and said to her. D>oman. where are the!F Has no one condemned !o F< 11Bhe said. D0o one. sir.< &nd 5es s said. D0either do 7 condemn !o . Go !o r wa!. and from now on do not sin a"ain.< 4ohn 2+:1-12 (4esus a&&ears first to ,ar ,a!dalene) Of all the gospel accounts, 0ohn's is most emphatic in insisting that women are the first to see the resurrected #hristA the two primary male disciples come and go before 0esus appears to 4ary 4agdalene. 1*arl! on the first da! of the wee1. while it was still dar1. -ar! -a"dalene came to the tomb and saw that the stone had been remo3ed from the tomb. 2Bo she ran and went to Bimon =eter and the other disci'le. the one whom 5es s lo3ed. and said to them. DThe! ha3e ta1en the 2ord o t of the tomb. and we do not 1now where the! ha3e laid him.< 3Then =eter and the other disci'le set o t and went towards the tomb. $The two were r nnin" to"ether. b t the other disci'le o tran =eter and reached the tomb first. #He bent down to loo1 in and saw the linen wra''in"s l!in" there. b t he did not "o in. 6Then Bimon =eter came. followin" him. and went into the tomb. He saw the linen wra''in"s l!in" there. %and the cloth that had been on 5es s< head. not l!in" with the linen wra''in"s b t rolled ' in a 'lace b! itself. /Then the other disci'le. who reached the tomb first. also went in. and he saw and belie3ed( )for as !et the! did not nderstand the scri't re. that he m st rise from the dead. 1,Then the disci'les ret rned to their homes. 11 B t -ar! stood wee'in" o tside the tomb. &s she we't. she bent o3er to loo1 into the tomb( 12 and she saw two an"els in white. sittin" where the bod! of 5es s had been l!in". one at the head and the other at the feet. 13The! said to her. D>oman. wh! are !o wee'in"F< Bhe said to them. DThe! ha3e ta1en awa! m! 2ord. and 7 do not 1now where the! ha3e laid him.< 1$>hen she had said this. she t rned ro nd and saw 5es s standin" there. b t she did not 1now that it was 5es s. 1# 5es s said to her. D>oman. wh! are !o wee'in"F 8or whom are !o loo1in"F< B ''osin" him to be the "ardener. she said to him. DBir. if !o ha3e carried him awa!. tell me where !o ha3e laid him. and 7 will ta1e him awa!.< 165es s said to her. D-ar!K< Bhe t rned and said to him in Hebrew. D6abbo niK< (which means Teacher). 1%5es s said to her. D4o not hold on to me. beca se 7 ha3e not !et ascended to the 8ather. B t "o to m! brothers and sa! to them. 97 am ascendin" to m! 8ather and !o r 8ather. to m! God and !o r God.; < 1/-ar! -a"dalene went and anno nced to the disci'les. D7 ha3e seen the 2ord<( and she told them that he had said these thin"s to her.
AtB <aul (authentic)
/etters attributed to ,t. 3aul make up a large chunk of the (ew %estament, but modern scholars believe that only a few of them62omans, < and = #orinthians, Galatians, 3hilippians, < %hessalonians, and 3hilemon6were actually written by the historical 3aul1 the others were 2/
written by later followers in his name. As will become clear, however, the !bad" stuff is not limited to the pseudonymous letters. Galatians 3:23-22 (.o more male and female) %he concluding verse of this passage is a call for radical e7uality6unfortunately, 3aul does not always seem to follow up on this insight. 23 0ow before faith came. we were im'risoned and " arded nder the law ntil faith wo ld be re3ealed. 2$Therefore the law was o r disci'linarian ntil @hrist came. so that we mi"ht be : stified b! faith. 2#B t now that faith has come. we are no lon"er s b:ect to a disci'linarian. 26for in @hrist 5es s !o are all children of God thro "h faith. 2%&s man! of !o as were ba'ti?ed into @hrist ha3e clothed !o rsel3es with @hrist. 2/There is no lon"er 5ew or Gree1. there is no lon"er sla3e or free. there is no lon"er male and female( for all of !o are one in @hrist 5es s. Galatians #:21-31 (<aul;s inter&retation of the Ha!ar stor ) In this passage, 3aul is trying to displace the privileges of the !insiders" )in this case, 0ews*, who claim descent from the child of the promise, by claiming that it is really the !outsiders" who are now inheriting the promise. owever liberating such language might have felt in context, it later served to underwrite the scapegoating of 0ews6and even taking context into account, it still continues the oppression of agar even in an argument intended to include those who had been excluded. 21 Tell me. !o who desire to be s b:ect to the law. will !o not listen to the lawF 228or it is written that &braham had two sons. one b! a sla3e woman and the other b! a free woman. 23One. the child of the sla3e. was born accordin" to the flesh( the other. the child of the free woman. was born thro "h the 'romise. 2$0ow this is an alle"or!: these women are two co3enants. One woman. in fact. is Ha"ar. from -o nt Binai. bearin" children for sla3er!. 2#0ow Ha"ar is -o nt Binai in &rabia and corres'onds to the 'resent 5er salem. for she is in sla3er! with her children. 26 B t the other woman corres'onds to the 5er salem abo3e( she is free. and she is o r mother. 2% 8or it is written. D6e:oice. !o childless one. !o who bear no children. b rst into son" and sho t. !o who end re no birth 'an"s( for the children of the desolate woman are more n mero s than the children of the one who is married.< 2/ 0ow !o . m! friends. are children of the 'romise. li1e 7saac. 2)B t : st as at that time the child who was born accordin" to the flesh 'ersec ted the child who was born accordin" to the B'irit. so it is now also. 3,B t what does the scri't re sa!F D4ri3e o t the sla3e and her child( for the child of the sla3e will not share the inheritance with the child of the free woman.< 31Bo then. friends. we are children. not of the sla3e b t of the free woman.
1 ?orinthians 11:2-16 (Gender and hairst le) In addition to arguing for a clearly hierarchical relation between the sexes, this passage demonstrates that 3aul is the first of many #hristian theologians to display a pronounced anxiety about maintaining clear expectations for gender difference in dress and hairstyle. 2 7 commend !o beca se !o remember me in e3er!thin" and maintain the traditions : st as 7 handed them on to !o . 3B t 7 want !o to nderstand that @hrist is the head of e3er! man. and the h sband is the head of his wife. and God is the head of @hrist. $&n! man who 'ra!s or 'ro'hesies with somethin" on his head dis"races his head. #b t an! woman who 'ra!s or 'ro'hesies with her head n3eiled dis"races her headGit is one and the same thin" as ha3in" her head sha3ed. 68or if a woman will not 3eil herself. then she sho ld c t off her hair( b t if it is dis"racef l for a woman to ha3e her hair c t off or to be sha3ed. she sho ld wear a 3eil. %8or a man o "ht not to ha3e his head 3eiled. since he is the ima"e and reflection of God( b t woman is the reflection of man. /7ndeed. man was not made from woman. b t woman from man. )0either was man created for the sa1e of woman. b t woman for the sa1e of man. 1,8or this reason a woman o "ht to ha3e a s!mbol of a thorit! on her head. beca se of the an"els. 110e3ertheless. in the 2ord woman is not inde'endent of man or man inde'endent of woman. 128or : st as woman came from man. so man comes thro "h woman( b t all thin"s come from God. 135 d"e for !o rsel3es: is it 'ro'er for a woman to 'ra! to God with her head n3eiledF 1$4oes not nat re itself teach !o that if a man wears lon" hair. it is de"radin" to him. 1#b t if a woman has lon" hair. it is her "lor!F 8or her hair is "i3en to her for a co3erin". 16B t if an!one is dis'osed to be contentio sGwe ha3e no s ch c stom. nor do the ch rches of God. 1 ?orinthians 1#:33b-3$ (=omen be silent) %his is one of the most infamous biblical passages wielded against women's ordination. 4any scholars regard it as a later interpolation, as it does not appear to fit in context, and the (ew 2evised ,tandard @ersion places it in parentheses. &s in all the ch rches of the saints. 3$women sho ld be silent in the ch rches. 8or the! are not 'ermitted to s'ea1. b t sho ld be s bordinate. as the law also sa!s. 3#7f there is an!thin" the! desire to 1now. let them as1 their h sbands at home. 8or it is shamef l for a woman to s'ea1 in ch rch. 36Or did the word of God ori"inate with !o F Or are !o the onl! ones it has reachedF
AtB <aul (&seudon mous) C Other .ew Testament Te*ts
?olossians 3:12-2" (The ?hristian household) %his is one of many !household codes" from the (ew %estament, which recommend that #hristians imitate the hierarchical model of the broader society. ,ome interpreters attempt to soften the blow by pointing out that this author )probably not the real 3aul* is not completely one8sided, as he insists that husbands not abuse their authority.
1/ >i3es. be s b:ect to !o r h sbands. as is fittin" in the 2ord. 1)H sbands. lo3e !o r wi3es and ne3er treat them harshl!. 2, @hildren. obe! !o r 'arents in e3er!thin". for this is !o r acce'table d t! in the 2ord. 21 8athers. do not 'ro3o1e !o r children. or the! ma! lose heart. 22Bla3es. obe! !o r earthl! masters in e3er!thin". not onl! while bein" watched and in order to 'lease them. b t wholeheartedl!. fearin" the 2ord. 23>hate3er !o r tas1. ' t !o rsel3es into it. as done for the 2ord and not for !o r masters. 2$since !o 1now that from the 2ord !o will recei3e the inheritance as !o r reward( !o ser3e the 2ord @hrist. 2#8or the wron"doer will be 'aid bac1 for whate3er wron" has been done. and there is no 'artialit!. )&hesians ":21-33 (The ?hristian household a!ain) %his is a more detailed version of the passage above, believed to be written by a later imitator of 3aul. %he image of the church as the bride of #hrist will become very influential. 21 Be s b:ect to one another o t of re3erence for @hrist. 22 >i3es. be s b:ect to !o r h sbands as !o are to the 2ord. 238or the h sband is the head of the wife : st as @hrist is the head of the ch rch. the bod! of which he is the Ba3ior. 2$5 st as the ch rch is s b:ect to @hrist. so also wi3es o "ht to be. in e3er!thin". to their h sbands. 2# H sbands. lo3e !o r wi3es. : st as @hrist lo3ed the ch rch and "a3e himself ' for her. 26in order to ma1e her hol! b! cleansin" her with the washin" of water b! the word. 2%so as to 'resent the ch rch to himself in s'lendor. witho t a s'ot or wrin1le or an!thin" of the 1indG!es. so that she ma! be hol! and witho t blemish. 2/7n the same wa!. h sbands sho ld lo3e their wi3es as the! do their own bodies. He who lo3es his wife lo3es himself. 2)8or no one e3er hates his own bod!. b t he no rishes and tenderl! cares for it. : st as @hrist does for the ch rch. 3,beca se we are members of his bod!. 31D8or this reason a man will lea3e his father and mother and be :oined to his wife. and the two will become one flesh.< 32This is a "reat m!ster!. and 7 am a''l!in" it to @hrist and the ch rch. 33*ach of !o . howe3er. sho ld lo3e his wife as himself. and a wife sho ld res'ect her h sband. 1 Timoth 2:2-1" (=omen be silent and don;t dress li/e sluts) %his passage, from a letter supposedly written to 3aul's young companion %imothy, combines the concern for men's authority with anxiety about dress in one tidy package, and it innovates in connecting this issue to ;ve. / 7 desire. then. that in e3er! 'lace the men sho ld 'ra!. liftin" ' hol! hands witho t an"er or ar" ment( )also that the women sho ld dress themsel3es modestl! and decentl! in s itable clothin". not with their hair braided. or with "old. 'earls. or e+'ensi3e clothes. 1,b t with "ood wor1s. as is 'ro'er for women who 'rofess re3erence for God. 112et a woman learn in silence with f ll s bmission. 127 'ermit no woman to teach or to ha3e a thorit! o3er a man( she is to 1ee' silent. 138or &dam was formed first. then *3e( 1$and &dam was not decei3ed. b t the
woman was decei3ed and became a trans"ressor. 1#Eet she will be sa3ed thro "h childbearin". 'ro3ided the! contin e in faith and lo3e and holiness. with modest!. 1 Timoth ":3-16 (How to mana!e the widows of the church) In early #hristian communities, widows appeared to be a large and especially problematic group, which later formed the basis for women's monastic groups. ere !3aul" provides !%imothy" with advice on how to manage them. 3 Honor widows who are reall! widows. $7f a widow has children or "randchildren. the! sho ld first learn their reli"io s d t! to their own famil! and ma1e some re'a!ment to their 'arents( for this is 'leasin" in God<s si"ht. #The real widow. left alone. has set her ho'e on God and contin es in s ''lications and 'ra!ers ni"ht and da!( 6b t the widow who li3es for 'leas re is dead e3en while she li3es. %Gi3e these commands as well. so that the! ma! be abo3e re'roach. / &nd whoe3er does not 'ro3ide for relati3es. and es'eciall! for famil! members. has denied the faith and is worse than an nbelie3er. ) 2et a widow be ' t on the list if she is not less than si+t! !ears old and has been married onl! once( 1,she m st be well attested for her "ood wor1s. as one who has bro "ht ' children. shown hos'italit!. washed the saints< feet. hel'ed the afflicted. and de3oted herself to doin" "ood in e3er! wa!. 11B t ref se to ' t !o n"er widows on the list( for when their sens al desires alienate them from @hrist. the! want to marr!. 12and so the! inc r condemnation for ha3in" 3iolated their first 'led"e. 13Besides that. the! learn to be idle. "addin" abo t from ho se to ho se( and the! are not merel! idle. b t also "ossi's and b s!bodies. sa!in" what the! sho ld not sa!. 1$Bo 7 wo ld ha3e !o n"er widows marr!. bear children. and mana"e their ho seholds. so as to "i3e the ad3ersar! no occasion to re3ile s. 1#8or some ha3e alread! t rned awa! to follow Batan. 167f an! belie3in" woman has relati3es who are reall! widows. let her assist them( let the ch rch not be b rdened. so that it can assist those who are real widows. Titus 2:3-" (How to handle women- bro/en down b a!e) %his comes from another letter in which !3aul" gives advice to a young pastor. 3 2i1ewise. tell the older women to be re3erent in beha3ior. not to be slanderers or sla3es to drin1( the! are to teach what is "ood. $so that the! ma! enco ra"e the !o n" women to lo3e their h sbands. to lo3e their children. #to be self-controlled. chaste. "ood mana"ers of the ho sehold. 1ind. bein" s bmissi3e to their h sbands. so that the word of God ma! not be discredited. Hebrews 11:31 (The one woman in a catalo!ue of heroes of faith) %he inclusion of 2ahab in the famous catalogue of heroes of faith in ebrews << is noteworthy, as she is the only woman and is also a woman of !loose morals." ere the unnamed author is perhaps echoing 0esus's consistent privileging of prostitutes in the Gospels.
B! faith 6ahab the 'rostit te did not 'erish with those who were disobedient. beca se she had recei3ed the s'ies in 'eace.
5e1elation 1$:1-6 (The =hore of Bab lon) %he +ook of 2evelation follows up on the ebrew prophets' use of female imagery and takes it up a notch. 1Then one of the se3en an"els who had the se3en bowls came and said to me. D@ome. 7 will show !o the : d"ment of the "reat whore who is seated on man! waters. 2with whom the 1in"s of the earth ha3e committed fornication. and with the wine of whose fornication the inhabitants of the earth ha3e become dr n1.< 3Bo he carried me awa! in the s'irit into a wilderness. and 7 saw a woman sittin" on a scarlet beast that was f ll of blas'hemo s names. and it had se3en heads and ten horns. $The woman was clothed in ' r'le and scarlet. and adorned with "old and :ewels and 'earls. holdin" in her hand a "olden c ' f ll of abominations and the im' rities of her fornication( #and on her forehead was written a name. a m!ster!: DBab!lon the "reat. mother of whores and of earth<s abominations.< 6&nd 7 saw that the woman was dr n1 with the blood of the saints and the blood of the witnesses to 5es s. >hen 7 saw her. 7 was "reatl! ama?ed.
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