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The importance of effective communication for managers for one specific reason :
Everything a manager does involve communicating. A manager can’t make decision
without information and that information come with the communication. And once
the decision made then communication take another place, without any
communication no one know about the decision.

Types of informal communication :

i} Single strand chain :


ii} Gossip chain :

iii} Cluster chain :

iv} Probability chain :

THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION : Communication can be thought of as a process
or flow. The communication process is made by 7 parts : 1. The communication
source. 2. Encoding. 3. Message 4. Channel. 5. Decoding. 6. Receiver 7.

Message Message
Sender Encoding Channel

Feedback Receiver Decoding
Message Message

The transferring and understanding of meaning is ‘ Communication process ‘.

1.The communication source or sender : It is the initiator of the communication

2.Encoding : The exchange of a message into some symbolic form is called
Encoding. It is affected by 4 conditions : Skills, Attitudes, Knowledge and The
social culture system.
3.Message : Message is the actual physical product from the source. It is a
purpose to be expressed.
Speak ----------------- Speech
Write ----------------- Writing
Gesture --------------- Movements of arms and expressions on
the face
4.Channel : It is the medium by which a message travels. It is selected by the
source that is it formal or informal? Formal channels are for organizations and
Informal channels are for personal or social.
5.Decoding : When a receiver translate the sender’s message, this process is
called Decoding.
6.Feedback : The final link in communication process is feedback. Feedback is
the check on how successful sender has been in transferring the message.


Some of the most meaningful communication are neither spoken nor written.
These are nonverbal communication. For e.g. A loud siren, Red light etc. Some
other nonverbal cues are Body language, Facial expression, Phrases etc.

A.) Filtering : The planned operation of information to make it appear more

favorable for receiver.
B.) Selective perception : Receiving communication is selected by the receiver
depends on his/her background, experience, needs, motivation etc.
C.) Information overload : When the amount of the information is very high so
that receiver can’t understand the message because of his/her capacity.
D.) Emotions : How happy or sad is receiver when the message is communicated
receiver take to mean by this message.
E.) Language : Words have different meaning to different people.
F.) Communication fear : Sender feels fear when there is a face to face
G.) Semantic barriers : The problem that comes in the encoding and decoding
process is called Semantic barriers. These are may be :
a) Words :
b) Pictures :
c) Actions :
d) Poor vocabulary :

H.) Physical barriers :

a) Noise :
b) Improper time :
c) Distance :

I.) Organizational barriers :

a) Organization policy :
Organizational rules and regulations :
b) Status relationship in the organization :
c) Structure of the organization :
d) Wrong choice of the channel :

J.) Personal barriers :

a) Attitude of superiors :
b) Fear of challenge to authority :
c) Ignoring the juniors :
d)Unwilling to communicate :
e) Lack of proper motivation :
f) Poor listening :
g) Egotism :
K.) Cultural barriers :

L.) Attitudes and opinion :

EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION : It is a system of good system with the

labor management relation. Solve the problem with this. It has some characteristics
i) Two-way channel :
ii) Clarity of message :
iii) Speed of transmission :
iv) Positive attitude :
v) Open mind :
vi) Effective listening :
vii) Mutual understanding :
viii) Effective feedback :


i) Two way communication.
ii) Strengthening communication network.
iii) Promoting participative approach.
iv) Appropriate language.
v) Credibility of communication.
vi) Good listening.
vii)Select the effective communication channel.