MOTI VATION What are managers doing to increase productivity?

First, productivity is a function of each of the employees' unique personalities. Second, employees' behaviors are influenced by the environments in which they find themselves. For example, an employee's behavior (and productivity) will be influenced by a dirty, hot, noisy, or dangerous worksite. Finally, an employee's behavior will be a function of that employee's innate drives or felt needs and the opportunities he or she has to satisfy those drives or needs in the workplace.

Employees' performance is, of course, partially determined by the opportunities given them to demonstrate their abilities. If employees are never given opportunities to utilize all of their skills, then the employer may never have the benefit of their total performance. Work performance is also contingent upon employee abili tie s. If employees lack the learned skills or innate talents to do a particular job, then performance will be less than optimal. A third dimension of performance is mo tiva tion .

What is Motivation? Motivation is a 6 phase process. This process can be explained by the example. Assume that an employee desire have a promotion. This desire of promotion represents ‘Need deficiency’. It is the starting point of the motivational process. Then the employee is expected to search the strategies to get promotion. It is called ‘Search & choice strategy’. Then his behavior towards the goals of the company that he can come into the eyes of mgmt. This is called ‘Goal directed behavior’. Then he evaluates his performance. It is called ‘Evaluation of performance’. After performance he/she is either get promotion by their hard work & sincerity or demotion by his/her performance. It is called ‘Rewards or punishment’. If the employee get promotion then he/she wants to repeat better performance and if he will not get promotion then he/she feels discourages & may be give up the idea of promotion. It is called ‘Reevaluation of needs’. 1. 2. 3.




Definition of Motivation : Motivation is process that starts with a psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or incentive.

Mot iva tion is a dyn ami c p roc es s; people may be motivated by different things (needs and drives) during different periods of their lives.

Content theories : Motivational theories dealing with the needs of employees
fall under the general rubric of Content Theories of Motivation. Content theories posit that workers' behaviors are a function of the workers' abilities to satisfy their felt needs at the workplace. A basic assumption of all need theories is that, when need deficiencies exist, individuals are motivated into action in order to satisfy them.

Maslow's Hierarc hy of Needs is based on the assumption that people are

motivated by a series of five universal needs. These needs are ranked, according to the order in which they influence human behavior, in hierarchical fashion.

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has a felt need. This felt need sets up both psychological and physical tensions that manifest themselves in overt behaviors directed at reducing those tensions (getting something to eat). Once the hunger is sated, the tension is reduced, and the need for food ceases to motivate. At this point (assuming the needs for sex, drink, and other physiological requirements are also satisfied) the next higher order need becomes the motivating need. Thus, safety needs -- the needs for shelter and security -- become the motivators of human behavior. Safety needs include a desire for security, stability, dependency, protection, freedom from fear and anxiety, and a need for structure, order, and law. In everyday life, we may see this as a need to be able to fall asleep at night,

Physiolog ical ne ed s are deemed to be the lowest- level needs. These needs include the need for food, oxygen, sex, and drink. o So long as physiological needs are unsatisfied, t hey exist as a driving o r mo tivating for ce in a person's life. A hungry person

secure in the knowledge that we will awake alive and unharmed. In the workplace this needs translates into a need for at least a minimal degree of employment security; the knowledge that we cannot be fired on a whim and that appropriate levels of effort and productivity will ensure continued employment.

Only those needs which are not satisfied act as motivators.

Social needs include the need for belongingness and love.

Generally, as gregarious creatures, human have a need to belong. In the workplace, this need may be satisfied by an ability to interact with one's coworkers and perhaps to be able to work collaboratively with these colleagues. After social needs have been satisfied, ego and esteem needs become the motivating needs. o Esteem needs include the desire for self-respect, self-esteem, and the esteem of others. When focused externally, these needs also include the desire for reputation, prestige, status, fame, glory, dominance, recognition, attention, importance, and appreciation.

The highest need in Maslow's hierarchy is that of self -actualization ; the need for self-realization, continuous self-development, and the process of becoming all that a person is capable of becoming. Whe n m an' s so cia l n ee ds ... ar e thus thw art ed , he beh av es in ways which ten d to de fe at or ga nizati on al o bj ectiv es . He be com es res ist an t, a nt ag oni stic , an d uncoop er ativ e

Clayton Al de rfer reworked Maslow's Need Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research. Alderfer's theory is called the ERG th eory -Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Maslow called physiological and safety needs. Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to Maslow's social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need. Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow's esteem need, and self-actualization

Alderfer's ERG theory differs from Maslow's Need Hierarchy insofar as ERG theory demonstrates that mo re th an one nee d ma y b e o pe ra tive at the sam e ti me . ERG theo ry doe s no t a ss um e a rigi d hie ra rchy where a lower need must be substantially satisfied before one can move on. Alderfer also deals with frustration-regression. That is, if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual then seeks to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need.

McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory
Motivation research has long considered human motives and needs. However, isolating people's motivational needs can be a difficult process because most people are not explicitly aware of what their motives are. Criticizing economics as being an overly simplistic and rationalistic discipline, David McClelland points out that it does not really account for how humans actually behave. For example, Elton Mayo and his work at the Hawthorne Western Electric plant in the 1920s and 30s recognized the non-economic motivations of workers. In the Hawthorne Studies... the importance of the peer group was recognized in determining employee motivation. In attempting to understand employee motivation, Abraham Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs. David McClelland furthered this idea in his learned needs theory. McClelland's experimental work identified sets of motivators present to varying degrees in different people. He proposed that these needs were socially acquired or learned. That is, the extent to which these motivators are present varies from person to person, and depends on the individual and his or her background. McClelland's experiment -- the The ma tic App erc ep tion Te st (TAT) -consisted of showing individuals a series of pictures and asking them to give

brief images of what was happening in the pictures. The responses were analyzed in terms of the presence or absence of certain themes. The themes McClelland and his associates were looking for revolved around the following motivators: achievement, affiliation and power. According to David McClelland, regardless of culture or gender, people are driven by three motives:
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Achievement, Affiliation, and Influence.

Since McClelland's first experiments, over 1,000 studies relevant to achievement motivation have been conducted. These studies strongly support the theory.

Achievement (nAch)
The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, and get feedback on level of success

Affiliation (nAff)
The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need reduce uncertainty.

Power (nP)
The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a need to win arguments, a need to influence and prevail. According to McClelland, the presence of these motives or drives in an individual indicates a predisposition to behave in certain ways. Therefore, from a manager's perspective, recognizing which need is dominant in any particular individual affects the way in which that person can be motivated.

Motivation-Hygiene Theory The motivation of employees is important to organizations since it is one of several factors that significantly affect the productivity of employees.
Raising the level of motivation increases profitability through greater creativity and commitment in employees.

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, also known as the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, was derived from a study designed to test the concept that people have two sets of needs:
1. Their needs as animals to avoid pain 2. Their needs as humans to grow psychologically

Herzberg's Study
Herzberg's study consisted of a series of interviews that sought to elicit responses to the questions: (1) Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. Why did you feel that way about the job? Did this feeling affect your job performance in any way? Did this feeling have an impact on your personal relationships or your well- being? (2) Recall a time on the job that resulted in negative feelings? Describe the sequence of events that resulted in these negative feelings.
... two h undred engineers and inter viewed a ccoun tants in Pit tsburgh w ere

To tes t the h ypo thesis, engineers and ac countan ts w ere interviewed to assess events th at led t o signif ican t cha nges in t heir job at titudes and to deter mine t he fac tors th at ca used t hose ch anges... RESEARCH RESULTS

It appeared, from the research, that the things making people happy on the job and those making them unhappy had two separate themes.

Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job sat isfa ctio n:
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achievement recognition work itself responsibility advancement

The last three factors were found to be most important for bringing about lasting changes of attitude. It should be noted, that recognition refers to recognition for achievement as opposed to recognition in the human relations sense.



The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be:
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company policy administrative policies supervision salary interpersonal relations working conditions

It appears that the central theme of the satisfiers (also called motivators) is one having to do with the relationship the employee has with his or her job; job content. The theme of the dissatisfiers appears to be related to the environment or context of the job. These dissatisfiers seem to have little effect on positive job attitudes (in some of the literature, these dissatisfiers were called hygiene or maintenance factors).