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V. MIJATOVIC, R. COULTER*, A. ZAYEGH, A. KALAM School of Communications and Informatics Victoria University PO Box 14428 MC, Melbourne, 8001

*Manager Technology Development, POWERCOR, Australia

Abstract

The analysis of voltage dips is an important technique in the determination of power quality. This paper deals with the use of spreadsheets to calculate voltage dips in a distribution network. It is shown that the graphs generated are essential tools in helping to understand the characteristics of voltage dips.

1. INTRODUCTION

Voltage dips are short-duration rms voltage caused by faults in the electricity supply system and the starting of large loads [1]. The interest in voltage dips is mainly due to the problems they cause on many types of equipment.

Characteristics typically analyzed when discussing voltage dips are its magnitude and duration. However, during voltage dips, there is a phase shift associated with the drop in voltage, which is not included in the normal characteristics. This characteristic is based on a balanced voltage dip, whereas most voltage dips are a result of unbalanced faults occurring on the system. Both these factors play an important role in the disturbance of equipment operation [4].

One of the most powerful tools for dealing with classical unbalanced systems is the theory of symmetrical components. This theory allows us to analyze the system response when dealing with both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. In this paper, the theory of symmetrical components will be applied to voltage dips due to single line to ground fault (SLGF) and line to line fault (LLF).

Using a simple radial high voltage distribution network at no load as the base model (Figure 1), phase voltage characteristics are derived for both faults. Using data provided with the base model and alternating the transformer from delta-delta (DD) to star-delta (YD), the phase voltage characteristics are then determined in terms of magnitude and angle. Co mparing the phase voltage to the pre-fault phase voltages will give the voltage dip in terms of magnitude and phase change.

Figure 1 Base model of a distribution network.

2. UNBALANCED FAULT CHARACTERISTIC

For simplified symmetrical component analysis it is assumed that the positive and negative sequence networks have the same impedance (Z 1 =Z 2 ) [2]. However for the purpose of determining phase voltages we shall initially label both the positive and negative impedances separately.

The analytical equations for the three phase voltages are derived via the voltage matrix.

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

V

V

V

R

Y

B

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

È 1

Í

1

Î

Í

1

Í

a

1

a

2

where a = 1120 and

a

1

a

2

˘ È V Í

Í

˙

˙

˙ ˚ Í Î V

V

R

R

0

1

R 2

a 2 = 1240

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

(1)

Therefore

V R = V R0 + V R1 + V R2

V Y

V B = V R0

= V R0

+

+

a 2 V R1 + aV R2 aV R1 + a 2 V R2

(2)

From the SLGF sequence network it can determined that

= -I F Z 0

V R0

V R1 = E R1

V R2 = -I F Z 2

- Z 1 I F

(3)

where I F = E R1 / (Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3Z F )

For the LLF the sequence network is

V R0 = 0

V R1 = I F (Z 2 + Z F )

V R2 = I F Z 2

(4)

where I F = E R1 / (Z 1 + Z 2 + Z F )

Thus the sequence voltages at the fault point ‘F’ and bus ‘R’, for given networks, can be determined using the above equations (2)(3) and (4). To determine the voltage at bus ‘LD’ the transformer connections are taken into account.

If the transformer is YD connected there is a phase shift of +30 in the positive sequence and a shift of –30 in the negative sequence [3]. There is no phase shift for the DD connected transformer. Also taken into account is the change in the zero sequence network due to transformer connections.

3. EXCEL SPREADSHEET FOR VOLTAGE DIP CALCULATIONS

Using the relevant equations obtained from the previous section it is possible to calculate the voltage dip expected at varying fault points (0 – 20km) at bus LD for both SLGF and LLF using either transformer.

Firstly it is known that pre-fault values of the phase voltages are equivalent to

V RN

V

YN

V

= 1 30

= 1270

BN = 1150

V RY = 160

V YB = 1 -60

V BR = 1180

Subtracting the fault voltage from its relevant pre-fault voltage determines the voltage dip magnitude and angle. To calculate the voltage dip at various fault points requires changing the line impedance, due to the fact

that

line

impedance.

as

the

line

length

increases

so

does

the

The advantage of using spreadsheets is that the data can be graphed in order to show the behaviour of the voltage dip. In the next section plots are generated which show the trend in voltage magnitude vs. phase change, change in voltage magnitude vs. distance and phase change vs. distance. The line voltages at particular fault points are displayed as sinewave graphs so that comparison between pre-fault, fault and post-fault conditions can physically be seen. The advantage of this is that it is possible to see voltage dip effects.

Using MATLAB tool Excel Link, the data in Excel can be used to represent, in MATLAB, the three pre-fault and fault voltages as vector diagrams for the fault points.

4. RESULTS

The following graphs are for both SLGF and LLF using either transformer, however due to these graphs being only examples we have only used the three line-ground voltages (V RN , V BN ,V YN ) as data. Please note that V RN is represented by a grey line, V BN by a light grey line and V YN by a black line.

4.1 Magnitude change vs. phase change

Figures 2 to 5 are useful in determining the phase change experienced in the line when the fault voltage increases or decreases, and vice versa. It is also possible to see the difference that the transformer connections will make on the voltage dip.

4.1.1 SLGF

Figure 2 – Magnitude change vs. phase change for DD connection

Figure 3 – Magnitude change vs. phase change for YD connection. Note: V YN located origin.

4.1.2 LLF

Figure 4 – Magnitude change vs. phase change for DD connection. Note: V RN located at 0-30

Figure 5 – Magnitude change vs. phase change for YD connection.

4.2 Magnitude vs. distance

The graphs shown in this section help determine the voltage dip magnitude at certain distances. Thus, given the distance, it is possible to estimate what the voltage dip magnitude will be.

4.2.1 SLGF

Figure 6 – Magnitude vs. distance for DD connection.

Figure 7 – Magnitude vs. distance for YD connection.

4.2.2

LLF

Figure 8 – Magnitude vs. distance for DD connection.

Figure 9 – Magnitude vs. distance for YD connection.

4.3 Phase vs. distance

Figure 10 - 13 show what phase change the system will experience over a certain distance

4.3.1 SLGF

Figure 10 – Phase vs. distance for DD connection.

Figure 11 –Phase vs. distance for YD connection.

4.3.2 LLF

Figure 12 – Phase vs. distance for DD connection.

Figure 13 – Phase vs. distance for YD connection.

4.4 Sinewave graphs

The data used for the following graphs are taken at a fault distance of 0km. These graphs give a better understanding of the line voltage values at pre-fault, fault and post-fault conditions. Please note that transient effects are not taken into account.

4.4.1 SLGF

Figure 14 – DD connection, at observation point.

Figure 15 – YD connection, at observation point

4.4.2 LLF

Figure 16 – DD connection, at observation point

Figure 17 – YD connection, at observation point

4.5 Vector diagrams

The vector diagrams visually clarify the change in magnitude and phase in comparison to its initial value. Please Note that the data used is once again for a fault distance of 0km.

4.5.1 SLGF

Figure 18 – DD connection, at observation point

Figure 19 – YD connection, at observation point

4.5.2 DLGF

Figure 20 – DD connection, at observation point

Figure 21 – YD connection, at observation point

5. CONCLUSION

As can be seen, by using a simple radial high voltage distribution network at no load as the base model, the phase voltage characteristics where derived for both faults using spreadsheets. Using the voltage dip data obtained from the spreadsheets it was graphically represented in order to give us a better understanding of its characteristics, especially noting its behaviour when the transformer connection was changed from DD to YD.

The advantage of using spreadsheets is that the graphs generated help us to physically see the comparison between pre-fault and fault conditions as well as the difference between fault location points. Thus it helps us in determining the effects of voltage dips on the system. Another advantage of using spreadsheets, especially for students, is its ease of use and it is also relatively affordable and obtainable compared to other simulation packages.

6. REFERENCES

 [1] L. Zhang, and M.H.J. Bollen, “Characteristic in Voltage Dips (sags) in Power Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol.2, pp 827-832, April 2000. [2] H. Saadat,1999, Power System Analysis, WCB/McGraw-Hill. [3] J.J. Grainger, W.D. Stevenson, 1994, Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill. [4] M.H.J. Bollen, P. Wang, and N. Jenkins, “Analysis and consequences of the phase angle associated with a voltage sag”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems Computation Conf., Dresden, Germany, Aug 1996.