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Organism is any contiguous living system, such as a vertebrate, insect, plant or

2. Neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information
through electrical and chemical signals.
3. Sensory neurons are nerve cells that transmit sensory information (sight, sound,
feeling, etc.).
4. Motor neuron is a cell that directly or indirectly controls the contraction or relaxation
of muscles.
5. Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of
trillions of cells.
6. Cytology is that branch of life science, which deals with the study of cells in terms of
structure, function and chemistry.
7. Robert Hooke is sometimes seen as the father of cytology.
8. Johannes Evangelist Purkinje he coined the term 'protoplasm' for the fluid substance
of a cell.
9. Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important
contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.
10. Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory.
11. Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist. His many contributions
tobiology include the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in
the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the
organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.
12. Prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus,
mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles.
13. Eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures enclosed
within membranes.
14. Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus.
15. Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other
eukaryotic organisms.
16. Zacharias Janssen was a Dutch spectacle-maker from Middelburg associated with the
invention of the first optical telescope.
17. Anton van Leeuwenhoek he is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology.
18. Hans Janssen father of Zacharias Janssen a spectacle maker.
19. Eyepiece, or ocular lens, is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices
such as telescopes and microscopes.
20. Body tube is a tube that connects the eyepiece (or ocular) and the nosepiece.
21. Revolving Nosepiece This is the part that holds two or more objective lenses and can
be rotated to easily change power.
22. LPO (Low Power Objective) allows you to see more of the specimen and gives you a
brighter picture since the field of view is larger.
23. HPO (High Power Objective) focuses in on a smaller piece of the specimen cutting out
the surrounding material plus the light.
24. Stage is the flat platform where you place your slides. Stage clips hold the slides in
25. Diaphragm used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected
upward into the slide.
26. Mirror used to reflect light from an external light source up through the bottom of the
27. Coarse Focus adjustment this is the rough focus knob on the microscope. You use it to
move the objective lenses toward or away from the specimen.

28. Fine Focus Adjustment: This is the knob used to fine tune the focus on the

specimen. It is also used to focus on various parts of the specimen. Generally one uses
the coarse focus first to get close then moves to the fine focus knob for fine tuning.
29. Arm is the part of the microscope that connects the tube to the base. When carrying a
microscope, grab the arm with one hand and place your other hand under the base.
30. Stage Clips clips on the stage used to hold the slide in place.
31. Inclination Joint where the arm connects to the base, there may be a pin. It will tilt
your microscope back for more comfortable viewing.
32. Base the bottom support of the microscope
33. Seneca Roman philosopher described actual magnification by a globe of water.
34. Microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.
35. Compound microscope consists essentially of two or more double convex lenses fixed
in the two extremities of a hollow cylinder.
36. Micrographia is for those who use microscopes in their investigations of the world
around them.
37. Heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through
the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
38. Blood is the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of humans and other
vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body.
39. Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout
the human body.
40. Atria are one of the two blood collection chambers of the heart.
41. Ventricle, muscular chamber that pumps blood out of the heart and into the circulatory
42. Septum is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
43. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
44. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
45. Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels and are parts of its
46. Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it
is the hemoglobin which permits them to transport oxygen(and carbon dioxide).
47. White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections.
48. Platelets help the blood clotting process (or coagulation) by gathering at the site of an
injury, sticking to the lining of the injured blood vessel, and forming a platform on
which blood coagulation can occur.
49. Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries
deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated (oxygenrich) blood back to the heart.
50. Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated
blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the
51. Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart
muscle (myocardium).
52. Brain is an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates,
functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous
53. Nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of
neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
54. Spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that
extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem.

55. Ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in

conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water
and mineral soil), interacting as a system.
56. Environment the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives
or operates.
57. Producers are those organisms that use photosynthesis to capture energy from
sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to create carbohydrates.
58. Consumers are organisms of an ecological food chain that receive energy by consuming
other organisms.
59. Decomposers are organisms such as bacteria and fungi that break down the organic
matter in the dead bodies of plants and animals.
60. Cooperation is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for their
common/mutual benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.
61. Commensalism is a relation between individuals of two species in which one species
obtains food or other benefits from the other without either harming or benefiting the
62. Mutualism is association between organisms of two different species in which each is
63. Competition is utilization of the same resources by organisms of the same or of
different species living together in a community, when the resources are not sufficient
to fill the needs of all the organisms.
64. Parasitism is relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one
benefits at the expense of the other, sometimes without killing it.
65. Predation describes a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is
hunting) feeds on its prey, the organism that is attacked.
66. Respiratory system involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between an organism and the environment.
67. Nervous system is the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses
between parts of the body.
68. Digestive system is uniquely designed to turn the food you eat into nutrients, which
the body uses for energy, growth and cell repair.
69. Circulatory System is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire
70. Integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds
of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
71. Atom is the smallest unbreakable unit that defines the chemical elements and their
72. Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete
73. Organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more
74. Muscle cell is a cell that makes up muscle tissue and executes muscle contractions.
75. Organ (or viscus) is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common
76. Biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed the zone of life on
Earth, a closed system, and largely self-regulating.
77. Interspecific is a form of competition in which individuals of different species compete
for the same resource in an ecosystem (e.g. food or living space).
78. Intraspecific is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same
species compete for limited resources.

79. Herbivore is an animal that gets its energy from eating plants, and only plants.
80. Carnivore is an animal that gets food from killing and eating other animals.
81. Omnivore is a kind of animal that eats either other animals or plants.
82. Saprobes are the group of fungi that act as decomposers, feeding on dead and decaying

wood, leaves, litter, and other organic matter.

83. Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to
environmental changes.
84. Muscular system it permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates
blood throughout the body.
85. Skeletal system supports and protects the body while giving it shape and form.
86. Endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete
hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards a distant target
87. Cell membrane (plasma membrane) is a thin semi-permeable membrane that
surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell . Its function is to protect the integrity of the interior
of the cell by allowing certain substances into the cell, while keeping other substances
88. Cytoplasm is a clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus
of a membrane bound cell.
89. Nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an
90. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) an extensive intracellular membrane system whose
functions include synthesis and transport of lipids and, in regions where ribosomes are
attached, of proteins
91. Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex is responsible for transporting, modifying, and
packaging proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations.
92. Lysosomes are cellular organelles which contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break up
waste materials and cellular debris.
93. Microtubules are filamentous intracellular structure that is responsible for various
kinds of movements in all eukaryotic cells.
94. Mitochondria are unusual organelles. They act as the power plants of the cell, are
surrounded by two membranes, and have their own genome.
95. Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible
for assembling the proteins of the cell.
96. Nucleolus is a non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids
found within the nucleus.
97. Nucleopre is one of a series of small holes found in the nuclear membrane. The
nucleopre serves as a channel used for transporting nucleic acids and proteins into and
out of the cell nucleus.
98. Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living
99. Peroxisomes are small, membrane-enclosed organelles that contain enzymes involved
in a variety of metabolic reactions, including several aspects of energy metabolism.
100. Plasmodesmata are narrow channels that act as intercellular cytoplasmic bridges
to facilitate communication and transport of materials between plant cells.