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Improved Nonlocal Means Based on Pre Classification and Invariant Block Matching

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COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 6464(Print)

ISSN 0976 6472(Online)

Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 178-184

IAEME: http://www.iaeme.com/IJECET.asp

Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2836 (Calculated by GISI)

www.jifactor.com

IJECET

IAEME

INVARIANT BLOCK MATCHING

Chethan K1,

1, 2, 3, 4

Bindu N S2,

Abhishek P3,

Jayanth C K4

ABSTRACT

One of the most popular image denoising methods based on self-similarity is called nonlocal

means (NLM). Though it can achieve remarkable performance, this method has a few shortcomings,

e.g., the computationally expensive calculation of the similarity measure, and the lack of reliable

candidates for some non repetitive patches. In this paper, we propose to improve NLM by integrating

Gaussian blur, clustering, and row image weighted averaging into the NLM framework.

Experimental results show that the proposed technique can perform denoising better than the original

NLM both quantitatively and visually, especially when the noise level is high.

Keywords: Gaussian Blur, Image Denoising, K-Means Clustering, Moment Invariants,

Nonlocal Means (NLM).

1. INTRODUCTION

Image denoising is often applied in display systems to improve the image quality, because

source images are usually corrupted by various additive noises. There are many denoising methods

in both spatial and frequency domains. Among spatial domain methods, prevailing techniques

include bilateral filter[1], trained filter [2], K-SVD [3], and nonlocal means (NLM)-based filters, etc.

State-of-the-art transform domain algorithms are Gaussian Scale Mixture Model based method [4],

Steins Unbiased Risk Estimate (SURE)-LET [5] and Block Matching and 3-D filtering (BM3D) [6].

As transform-based methods require complex Fourier or wavelet transforms, which are usually not

affordable by display devices due to hardware limitations, spatial techniques tend to be more

practical. Many natural or texture images contain repetitive patterns. One of the popular denoising

methods, NLM [7], exploits this image characteristic and produces promising results both objectively

and subjectively. The main idea is to replace each pixel with a weighted average of other pixels with

similar neighborhoods. The main difference between NLM and previous approaches is that the

weights in the NLM filter do not depend on the spatial distance between target patches and

candidates but depend on the difference of intensity values.

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014

17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

The original NLM algorithm is computationally intensive, especially its full search.

Accordingly, there has been a lot of work focusing on this issue. The most time-consuming part of

NLM is weight calculation, so a lot of methods are dominantly based on how to eliminate dissimilar

patches before weighted averaging. In [8], pre-selection of contributing neighborhoods based on

mean and gradient values was proposed. Similarly, local variance [9] and singular value

decomposition (SVD) [10] have been introduced to eliminate dissimilar pixels. In order to accelerate

the weight calculation, fast Fourier transform (FFT) has been proposed in [11], which is

approximately 50 times faster than the original NLM. The approach in [12] exploits the symmetry in

the weight function, and computes Euclidean distance by a recursive moving average filter

symmetrically, which also considerably improves the efficiency. Pang et al. [13] utilized several

critical pixels in the center instead of all pixels in the neighborhood. For the improvement of

quantitative and qualitative results, the tuning of the smoothing parameters has been proposed in [9].

In [14], a family of non-local image smoothing algorithms were designed which approximate

the application of diffusion partial differential equation (PDE)s on a specific Euclidean space of

image patches. It can preserve the structures in the original image domain. In order to increase the

number of reliable candidates of noisy target patches, the authors in [15] proposed RIBM for

nonlocal image denoising, which involves several steps such as estimating the rotation angle,

rotating the block via interpolation and then applying standard block matching. In our method, we

focus on improving the denoising performance of NLM by the means of finding reliable candidate

sets. Though previous methods [10], [15] have attempted to provide better candidates for weighted

averaging, our approach is unique in that it exploits moment invariants in pre-selection and row

image weighted averaging for performance improvement. The experimental results show that this

method outperforms the original NLM in terms of both quantitatively and visual quality.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Related work on NLM is summarized in

Section 2. The proposed improvements on NLM are described in Section 3. In Section 4,

experiments and results are presented. Section 5 provides the conclusion and future work.

2. EXISTING METHOD

The idea of NLM is based on the fact that patches in an image always have self-similarity.

Given a noisy image V={v(i)|i} R2, the restored intensity of the pixel, N(v)(i) is a weighted average

of all intensity values within the neighbourhood I . Let us denote [7]

w (i , j ) v ( j )

NL(v)(I)= j I

(1)

Where v is the intensity function, v(j) is the intensity at pixel j, and w(i, j) is the weight

assigned to v(j) in the restoration of pixel i. The weight can be calculated by [7]

1 |v ( Ni ) v ( Nj )|2 / h 2

e

Z

(

i

)

W(i,j)=

(2)

Where Ni denotes a patch of fixed size and it is cantered at the pixel i. The similarity |V(Ni)v(Nj)|2 is measured as a decreasing function of weighted Euclidean distance. a>0 is the standard

w(i, j )

deviation of the Gaussian kernel, Z(i) is the normalization constant with Z(i)=

, and h acts

as a filtering parameter. This method is computationally expensive and time consuming. The quality

of the reconstructed image is poor when noise is high. In the proposed method the set of reliable

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014

17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

candidates that are similar to current patch is increased by clustering based on similarities and row

image weighted averaging.

3. PROPOSED METHOD

In the proposed algorithm we are trying to improve the denoising performance of NLM by

the means of finding more reliable candidate sets based on similarities. Improved NLM can be

divided into Pre-processing, Feature extraction, clustering, and row image weighted averaging.

3.1 Pre-processing

In pre-processing Gaussian function is convolved with the noisy image to obtain Gaussian

blurred image. This step removes high frequency noise and smoothens the noisy image. These are a

type of low pass filters which are applied before feature extraction. Gaussian filter provides the preprocessing for pre-classification. They are a class of linear smoothing filters with weights chosen

according to a Gaussian function. It is a very good filter to remove noise drawn from a normal

distribution. The 2D zeromean discrete Gaussian function used for a mask defined by (2m+1) x

(2m+1) with centre (0,0) and x,y ranging from (-m,-m) to (m,m) is denoted by

1

x2 + y2

2

2

G(x,y)= 2 e 2

(3)

Normalization is necessary if we need to obtain the brightness level of the image

m

G ( x, y)

Sum =

x=m y =m

G ( x, y )

Gk(x,y) = Sum

(4)

(5)

Gb = Gk * v

(6)

Where v is the intensity of the input noisy image and denotes the convolution operation. In

our implementation, a large is not necessary, because most details of the input noisy image should be

retained and Gaussian blur with a large might introduce artifacts. determines the width of the filter

and hence the amount of smoothing. After smoothing the image the filtered image is divided into

patches of appropriate size. These patches serve as an input to feature extraction block. It is

important to determine the size of the patches because if the size of the patch is large then the quality

of the reconstructed image will be poor leading to less PSNR value. If the size of patch is small then

there will be less reliable candidate for weighted averaging.

Feature extraction is a special form of dimensionality reduction, in which we transform the

input data in to set of features. Feature set will extract the relevant information from the input data in

order to perform desired task using this reduced representation instead of full size input. Feature

extraction is used in many algorithms such as face recognition, pattern recognition ect. In feature

180

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014

17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

extraction moment invariants is applied on raw image patches to obtain moment vectors. Higher

moment invariants were demonstrated to be more vulnerable in the case of additive white noise.

Therefore, in the proposed algorithm, Hus moment invariants are applied, which has the highest

order of 2, as feature descriptor for clustering. Given an image and an patch which is centered at

location, the moment invariants of this patch can be represented by a vector. Then, for the whole

image, such vectors which serve as the input vectors of the clustering HUs Moment invariants are

widely applied to image pattern recognition in a variety of applications due to its invariant features

on image translation, scaling and rotation. It derives six absolute orthogonal invariants and one skew

orthogonal invariant based upon algebraic invariants. Hus moments are rotational invariant which

means that even if the patches is rotated by some angle or mirrored then also the moment values will

be the same hence they are clustered under same group in later sections.

3.3 Clustering

Clustering is a method of quantizing the vectors. In the proposed algorithm adaptive k-means

clustering is used for vector quantization. Clustering is performed to obtain cluster of similar patches

based on moment features. Here HUs moment features are served for adaptive K-means clustering.

In k-means clustering, the data is clustered randomly. To avoid this Davis-bouldin formula is used to

get the best number of cluster, it can be defined as,

1

DBI = M

(7)

i =1

The adaptive K-means clustering algorithm starts with the selection of K elements from the

input data set. In each cluster it decides the number of comparisons for each search. Adaptively

classify the acquired data by choosing appropriate centroid. Given a set of observations (x1, x2, ,

xn), where each observation is a d-dimensional real vector, k-means clustering aims to partition the n

observations into k sets (k n) S = {S1, S2, , Sk} so as to minimize the within-cluster sum of

squares (WCSS)

2

| x( j ) i |

argsmin i =1 x ( j )s ( i )

(8)

The clustered patches have similarities in terms of intensity shape and size. Patches in same

cluster has more similar neighbourhood. A row image is constructed for each cluster hence for n

clusters there will be n number of row images. Finally NLM is applied for each row image. The

NLM filtered images are reconstructed by replacing each corresponding patches in the denoised

image.

The differences between our approach and NLM are as follows.

1. Gaussian blur provides the pre-processing for pre-classification. The effect is illustrated in

Fig. 2. In the original NLM, there is no pre-processing step.

2. K-means clustering on moment invariants of the blurred noisy image serves as the preclassification for our filtering process. In the original NLM, all target patches have fixed

candidate sets, which is either the whole image or the neighbourhood centred at them. The

figure below shows the block diagram of proposed algorithm.

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014

17 19, July 2014, Mysor

Mysore, Karnataka, India

4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In our experiments, the image data set is defined as:1.ti

as:1.tif, 2.tif, 3.tif,

tif, 4.tif,5.tif.6.tif

4.tif,5.tif.6.tif.

For performance evaluation, we compare our proposed method with the original NLM and a recent

related method [15] based on this dataset. The evaluation metrics we adopt in our experiments are

mean square errorr (MSE) and peak signal-to-noise

signal noise ratio (PSNR) PSNR is employed to provide

quantitative evaluations of the denoising results. MSE and PSNR are defined as:

MSE=

1 m 1 n 1

[ I (i, j ) = K (i, j)]2

m * n i =0 j =0

(9)

Where I(I,j) is the original image, K(I,j) is the noisy image m,n is the size of the image.

PSNR value can be calculated using MSE value as

PSNR=10log10(

MAX I2

)

MSE

(10)

Where MAXI is the maximum range of intensity and MSE is the mean square error.

4.1 Parameters of Clustering

We implemented our clustering method based on moment invariants. For standard K-means

K

clustering, there are several parameters which need to be decided. The type of distance we use, the

number of clusters we assign, and the length of vectors we use in our NLM based framework. Here

we exploit the Euclidean distance for measuring the distance between two feature vectors as paper

[10] did. According to [16], we choose the patch size as 5X 5. To test how the performance of the

method varies with different valuess of K, we vary K in the range of 400 and 500. The changing

trends of PSNR are roughly the same: when K becomes larger, there are more clusters represent

different types of details. However, if K goes too high, some clusters will not have enough

candidates.. As a result, the PSNR go down after the climax. Therefore, if complexity is not a

concern, we can choose the optimal value of K depending on the size of the input noisy image. For

our testing set, all the images are 225X225, so we choose K=1800 (when K=2800

K=2800 it takes more than

twice of the time as takes.) to guarantee enough candidates for each patch according to the variation

of visual results when we change K .

182

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014

17 19, July 2014, Mysor

Mysore, Karnataka, India

Fig. 2: Experimental Results (A) Original Image, (B) Noisy Image, (C) Existing NLM,

(D) Proposed NLM, (E) Gaussian Blur

The difference in visual quality between the two methods can be inspected in the examples

shown in Fig. 2. We observe that the proposed method can not only preserve better details but also

remove severe noise. The method in [15] employs

employs RIBM but it is applied to neighborhoods, which

may cause lack of proper candidates when the variation of the textures is strong. Our algorithm

overcomes this by obtaining sufficient reliable candidates from Kmeans

K means clustering. We can see that

the original

iginal NLM is almost ineffective. When the noise level is high, the intensity based matching

between patches is vulnerable to noise. Our scheme has adopted Gaussian blur as pre-processing

pre

and

moment invariants are robust in noise inference as well. Our algorithms

algorithms preserves the main structures

much better compared to other approaches (the original NLM).

NLM). It demonstrates that using clustering

before weighted averaging can ensure most patches to get reliable candidates.

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed an improved NLM method. It applies moment invariants based

K-means

means clustering on the Gaussian blurred image, which provides better classification before

weighted averaging. Experimental results show that clustering on moment invariants is very effective

for pre-classification.

classification. The proposed algorithm can effectively reconstruct finer details and at the

same time introduce fewer artifacts than the other methods.

The K-means

means clustering used in our proposed method is a time-consuming

time consuming part. In future

work, we will investigate more efficient clustering methods to speed up the pre-classification

pre classification step.

6. REFERENCE

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, Bilateral filtering for gray and color images, in Proc. 6th Int.

Conf. Computer Vision, 1998, pp. 839846.

839

L. Shao, H. Zhang, and G. de Haan, An overview and performance evaluation of

classification-based

based least squares trained filters, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 17,

pp. 17721782, Oct. 2008.

M. Protter and M. Elad, Image sequence denoising via sparse and redu

redundant

representations, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 18, pp. 2735,

27 35, Nov. 2003.

G. Varghese and W. Zhou, Video denoising based on a spatiotemporal Gaussian scale

mixture model, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 10321040,

1032

Jul. 2010.

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[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

F. Luisier, T. Blu, and M. Unser, SURE-LET for orthonormal wavelet domain video

denoising, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 913919,

Jun. 2010.

K. Dabov, A. Foi, V. Katkovnik, and K. Egiazarian, Image denoising by sparse 3-D

transform-domain collaborative filtering, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 16,

pp. 20802095, Aug. 2007.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J. M. Morel, A review of image denoising algorithm, with a new

one, IEEE trans, vol. 4, pp. 490530, 2005.

M. Mahmoudi and G. Sapiro, Fast image and video denoising via nonlocal means of similar

neighborhoods, IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 839842, Dec. 2005.

P. Coupe, P. Yger, S. Prima, P. Hellier, C. Kervrann, and C. Barillot, An optimized

blockwise nonlocal means denoising filter for 3-D magnetic resonance images, IEEE Trans.

Med. Imag., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 425441, Apr. 2008.

T. Thaipanich, O. B. Tae, W. Ping-Hao, X. Daru, and C. C. J. Kuo, Improved image

denoising with adaptive nonlocal means (ANL-means) algorithm, IEEE Trans. Consum.

Electron., vol. 56,no. 4, pp. 26232630, Nov. 2010.

J. Wang, Y. Guo, Y. Ying, Y. Liu, and Q. Peng, Fast non-local algorithm for image

denoising, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Process, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2006,

pp. 14291432.

B. Goossens, H. Luong, A. Pizurica, and W. Philips, An improved non-local denoising

algorithm, in IEEE trans, Tuusalu, Finland, 2008, pp. 143156.

P. Chao, O. C. Au, D. Jingjing, Y.Wen, and Z. Feng, A fast NL-means method in image

denoising based on the similarity of spatially sampled pixels, in Proc. IEEE trans, on

Multimedia Signal Processing, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2009, pp. 14.

D. Tschumperle and L. Brun, Non-local image smoothing by applying anisotropic diffusion

PDEs in the space of patches, in Proc. IEEE Int.Conf. Image Process., Cairo, Egypt, 2009,

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